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Sample records for digital dermatitis lesions

  1. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  2. Severe Foot Lesions in Dairy Goats Associated with Digital Dermatitis Treponemes.

    PubMed

    Crosby-Durrani, H E; Clegg, S R; Singer, E; Angell, J W; Evans, N J; Carter, S D; Blundell, R J; Duncan, J S

    2016-05-01

    Treponeme-associated foot disease has been described in cattle with digital dermatitis and sheep with contagious ovine digital dermatitis. In this study, severe foot lesions in dairy goats associated with digital dermatitis treponemes (i.e. Treponema medium, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pedis) were characterized macroscopically, radiographically and histologically. The main macroscopic foot lesion was of extensive solar ulceration with or without exophytic papilliform hyperkeratosis. Radiographically, the distal phalanx and distal sesamoid bones were severely damaged and remodelled. Histologically, the lesion was categorized as a chronic lymphoplasmacytic, suppurative and ulcerative pododermatitis. Immunohistochemistry identified the spirochaetal microorganisms located extracellularly in the superficial horn. Study limitations mean that the treponeme bacteria could not be considered the sole or causal agents in the cases described. PMID:27162082

  3. Treponemes Detected in Digital Dermatitis Lesions in Brazilian Dairy Cattle and Possible Host Reservoirs of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Ligia Valéria; Mauerwerk, Marlise Teresinha; dos Santos, Cibelli Lopes; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Birgel Júnior, Eduardo Harry; Madeira, Humberto Maciel França

    2015-01-01

    The main pathogenic treponemes causing bovine digital dermatitis were identified from 17 infected herds in southern Brazil for the first time in this study using PCR. We did not find a relationship between treponeme phylogroup composition and clinical classification. Treponema phagedenis was present in all lesions. Rumen fluid was implicated as a reservoir location for these pathogens. PMID:25788552

  4. Detection and isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from skin and tail lesions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Bell, Jennifer; Blowey, Roger W; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    Pig skin lesions are common significant welfare issues, and can cause large economic losses, due to culling of severely affected animals or carcass condemnation at slaughter. It was considered that the treponemal bacteria associated with digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in cattle, sheep and goats may have a role in these pig lesions. Specific diagnostic PCR assays for three cultivable DD Treponema phylogroups were used to survey relevant porcine lesion samples. Using these assays, DD treponemes were detected in 88% (22/25), 72% (8/11) and 82% (14/17) of tail, ear and flank lesions, respectively. Mouth swabs from animals kept in enclosures with high prevalence of skin lesions were positive for the DD treponemes, but not in enclosures with low lesion prevalence. Culture of treponemes from skin lesions resulted in pure isolates of all three DD-associated phylogroups. This study shows a strong association of DD treponemes with a range of pig skin lesions. PMID:26850539

  5. A simple surgical treatment for bovine digital dermatitis-associated white line lesions and sole ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J; Glonegger-Reichert, J; Dietrich, J; Sykora, S; Tichy, A; Brandt, S

    2015-05-01

    Non-healing white line disease (nhWLD) and sole ulcers (nhSU) are seen increasingly in herds endemically affected with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). In 35 cows with 42 nhWLD or nhSU lesions, the healing process was monitored for up to 28 or 38 days following extensive debridement of loose horn and infected corium under regional anaesthesia, and topical application of tetracycline spray with bandaging. By 28 days, 27/42 (64%) nhWLD and nhSU were completely covered by a new horn layer and this increased to 30/42 (71%) that had healed by 38 days. Lesion sizes on day 0 correlated with clinical healing within the study period. In view of this satisfying therapeutic result, the terms nhWLD and nhSU are proposed for BDD-associated white line disease (BDD-WLD) and BDD-associated sole ulcers (BDD-SU), respectively. PMID:25920757

  6. Clinical and radiographic features of contagious ovine digital dermatitis and a novel lesion grading system.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Blundell, R; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-05-23

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an infectious foot disease of sheep causing severe lameness. Diagnosis is currently made using broad anecdotal descriptions. The aim of this study was to systematically and formally describe the clinical presentation of the disease in terms of (1) a lesion grading system; (2) associated radiographic changes and (3) severity of associated lameness. A five-point lesion grading system was developed and applied to 908 sheep affected by CODD from six farms. Sheep with lesions typical of each grade were euthanased and their feet radiographed. Radiographic abnormalities including soft tissue and bony changes were evident in feet with lesions graded 2-5. In order to quantify the welfare impact of CODD, all the 908 sheep were locomotion scored. Five hundred and eighty-five (64.5% (95% CI 61.4% to 67.6%)) were lame. The locomotion score for affected sheep increased with worsening pathological changes. Once healing had begun the locomotion score decreased. In conclusion the five-point grading system may be used to clinically describe stages of CODD lesions. The radiographic changes revealed examples of deeper pathological changes and there was a strong association between the lesion grading system and locomotion score in affected sheep. PMID:25861825

  7. High-Level Association of Bovine Digital Dermatitis Treponema spp. with Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions and Presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, S. R.; Angell, J. W.; Newbrook, K.; Blowey, R. W.; Carter, S. D.; Bell, J.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Murray, R. D.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. “Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like,” “Treponema phagedenis-like,” and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD. PMID:25740778

  8. High-level association of bovine digital dermatitis Treponema spp. with contagious ovine digital dermatitis lesions and presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Clegg, S R; Angell, J W; Newbrook, K; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Bell, J; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Murray, R D; Evans, N J

    2015-05-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like," "Treponema phagedenis-like," and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD. PMID:25740778

  9. Histopathological Characterization of the Lesions of Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis and Immunolabelling of Treponema-like Organisms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Blundell, R

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep and the three Treponema phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis have been associated with clinical disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the histopathological changes associated with each previously established grade of clinical lesion, and (2) to investigate immunohistochemically the association of the Treponema-like organisms with the observed histopathological changes. Early lesions were characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the distal digital skin, with suppurative coronitis and intracorneal pustules. In more advanced stages of the disease there was complete separation of the dorsal wall of the hoof with a necrotizing and fibrinosuppurative exudate and dermatitis. The later lesions were mostly resolved, but with milder suppurative changes remaining within the cornified layer and periosteal reaction of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx. Large numbers of Treponema-like organisms were identified within early grade lesions (as well as later, more advanced grade lesions) and were specifically associated with the observed histopathological changes. The results of this study provide some evidence in support of the hypothesis that the three CODD-associated Treponema phylogroups are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26597022

  10. Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological Findings.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H; Alt, David P; Nally, Jarlath E

    2015-01-01

    Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from a bovine digital dermatitis lesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis (DD) is the leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle and represents a serious welfare and economic burden. Found primarily in high production dairy cattle worldwide, DD is characterized by the development of an often painful red, raw ulcerative or papillomato...

  12. Lesion Formation and Antibody Response Induced by Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis-Associated Spirochetes in a Murine Abscess Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a growing cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Farms with PDD afflicted cows experience economic loss due to treatment costs, decreased milk production, lower reproductive efficiency and premature culling. Whi...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takahisa; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Chuma, Takehisa; Misawa, Naoaki

    2010-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 23 Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Japan were investigated by a broth microdilution method using 15 antimicrobial agents. Although all MIC values showed a monomodal distribution, the MICs of the antimicrobial agents for 90% (MIC(90)) of the isolates tested varied among the agents examined. The MIC(90) values for penicillin G, ampicillin, and erythromycin were <0.06 microg/ml. In contrast, the MIC(90) values for kanamycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and colistin were >128 microg/ml. Oxytetracycline, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftiofur, and gentamicin showed intermediate values, i.e., 0.5~32 microg/ml. The present study suggested that no isolate had acquired resistance to the antimicrobial agents examined, although they may have natural resistance to some agents. Furthermore, the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data would provide helpful information for PDD treatment and the development of a selective medium for isolating the organism effectively. PMID:19996562

  14. Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Alt, David P.; Nally, Jarlath E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Digital dermatitis causes lameness in cattle. Numerous studies have identified multiple bacteria associated with these painful lesions. Several types of a spiral shaped bacteria, Treponema species, are thought to play a role in disease development. Little is known about the immune response to bacteria involved in digital dermatitis. Local inflammatory cells can contribute to the non-healing nature of the disease. Animal models of infection are required to develop effective vaccines and treatments. Abstract Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318

  15. A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Bernardoni, N; Rieman, J; Dusick, A; Hartshorn, R; Read, D H; Socha, M T; Cook, N B; Döpfer, D

    2014-10-01

    A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natural exposure phase of the study, 120 healthy Holstein steers 5 to 7 mo of age without signs of hoof disease were randomized into 2 groups of 60 animals. The control group was fed a standard trace mineral supplement and the treatment group was fed the HOTMI premix, both for a period of 60 d. On d 60, 15 steers free of macroscopic DD lesions were randomly selected from each group for the challenge phase and transported to an experimental facility, where they were acclimated and then challenged within a DD infection model. The same diet group allocation was maintained during the 60 d of the challenge phase. The primary outcome measured was the development of an active DD lesion greater than 20mm in diameter across its largest dimension. No lesions were identified during the natural exposure phase. During the challenge phase, 55% (11/20) and 30% (6/20) of feet were diagnosed with an active DD lesion in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed by histopathologic demonstration of invasive Treponema spp. within eroded and hyperplastic epidermis and ulcerated papillary dermis. All DD confirmed lesions had dark-field microscopic features compatible with DD and were positive for Treponema spp. by PCR. As a secondary outcome, the average DD lesion size observed in all feet was also evaluated. Overall mean (standard deviation) lesion size was 17.1 (2.36) mm and 11.1 (3.33) mm for the control and treatment groups, respectively, with this difference being driven by acute DD lesions >20mm. A trend existed for the HOTMI premix to reduce the total DD

  16. The etiology of digital dermatitis in ruminants: recent perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital dermatitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infectious disease originally described in dairy cattle but is increasingly recognized in beef cattle, sheep and more recently, elk. Clinical bovine lesions typically appear on the plantar surface of the hind foot from the interdigital space and h...

  17. Bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis-associated spirochetes vary in pathogenicity and antigenic cross-reactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a growing cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry resulting in economic loss due to treatment costs, decreased milk production, lower reproductive efficiency and premature culling. Previous work using lesion mater...

  18. Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis Spirochetes Suppress the Bovine Macrophage Innate Immune Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a polymicrobial infection in soft tissue adjacent to the hoof and is the leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. Treponema phagedenis-like (TPL) spirochetes are a constant feature of PDD lesions and are localized deep in infected tissue. Host-cell respon...

  19. Digital dermatitis treponemes associated with a severe foot disease in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Clegg, S R; Carter, S D; Horsfield, J E; Grove-White, D; Duncan, J S

    2015-03-14

    A UK dairy goat herd was assessed after reports of a severe lameness problem of unknown aetiology. A lameness prevalence estimate was produced and individual clinical examination of 15 randomly selected lame goats was performed. Fifteen animals had foot lesions closely resembling contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) in sheep. Eight of the goats examined presented with typical CODD lesions and seven showed what appeared to be a more severe CODD with under-running of the sole. Ten biopsy samples were obtained from the foot lesions and tested by PCR for the three previously isolated digital dermatitis (DD) Treponema phylogroups and culture of treponemes was attempted. Ninety per cent of the biopsy samples were positive for Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like spirochaetes and Treponema phagedenis-like DD spirochaetes and 80per cent were positive for Treponema pedis. Spirochaetes were successfully isolated from 50 per cent of lesion samples. Three isolates were identified as belonging to the T. phagedenis-like spirochaetes and two were identified as T. pedis. The frequent isolation of similar treponemes to those isolated from bovine digital dermatitis and CODD lesions and the identification of these DD-associated phylotypes in the vast majority of lesions support the hypothesis that this novel foot condition is associated with infection by DD treponemes, and given the similarities to CODD, it suggests a causal role. PMID:25428906

  20. The effect of digital dermatitis on hoof conformation.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B; Rieman, J; Dunbar, K A; Cooley, K E; Socha, M T; Döpfer, D

    2015-02-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most prevalent cause of lameness of infectious origin in cattle. However, little is known about the effects of DD on hoof conformation (HC) during the clinical disease. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate the changes in HC observed in feet affected with clinical DD lesions and (2) investigate the temporal relationship between DD and heel horn erosion (HHE). A longitudinal study was carried out including a cohort of 644 Holstein heifers. Digital dermatitis, HC, and presence of HHE in the rear feet of each heifer were assessed during a period of 6 mo. A total of 1,979 feet evaluations were included in the data set, of which 157 corresponded to feet presenting DD lesions >20mm [mean (SD) size of 27.2 (8.2) mm]. Age, days of pregnancy, hip height, and girth circumference were also recorded at cow level. Significant HC changes were observed in DD-affected feet. Results standardized to a period of 90d of follow-up showed an increase in heel height [mean (95% CI) 3.4 (2.5, 4.4) and 2.8 (2.0, 3.7) mm] and claw angle [0.8 (0.2, 1.4) and 1.4 (0.7, 2.0) degrees] of the medial and lateral claws, respectively. In addition, an increase in depth of the interdigital cleft [3.2 (2.7, 3.7) mm] and on debris accumulation [14% (7, 21) of feet] was also observed. Feet affected with clinical DD lesions also experienced a 46% point increase in the presence of severe HHE. In the short term, HC changes returned to normal levels when clinical cure of DD was achieved after topical treatment. In conclusion, significant HC changes occur in heifers affected by clinical DD before lameness symptoms are detected. The transformation of the heel area in feet affected by DD likely promotes the creation of a local environment that favors the persistence of the disease and the occurrence of severe HHE. To avoid further hoof damage, active surveillance and early intervention to reduce HC changes are recommended to improve DD control programs

  1. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  2. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  3. Bovine Immune Response to Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD)-Associated Spirochetes are Skewed in Isolate Reactivity and Subclass Elicitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a growing cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Previous work using lesion material from a dairy farm in Iowa resulted in the isolation of four different Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes (1A, 3...

  4. Gene Expression Profiling in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dolcino, M.; Cozzani, E.; Riva, S.; Parodi, A.; Tinazzi, E.; Lunardi, C.; Puccetti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (CD). In order to investigate the pathogenesis of skin lesions at molecular level, we analysed the gene expression profiles in skin biopsies from 6 CD patients with DH and 6 healthy controls using Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 arrays. 486 genes were differentially expressed in DH skin compared to normal skin: 225 were upregulated and 261 were downregulated. Consistently with the autoimmune origin of DH, functional classification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicates a B- and T-cell immune response (LAG3, TRAF5, DPP4, and NT5E). In addition, gene modulation provides evidence for a local inflammatory response (IL8, PTGFR, FSTL1, IFI16, BDKRD2, and NAMPT) with concomitant leukocyte recruitment (CCL5, ENPP2), endothelial cell activation, and neutrophil extravasation (SELL, SELE). DEGs also indicate overproduction of matrix proteases (MMP9, ADAM9, and ADAM19) and proteolytic enzymes (CTSG, ELA2, CPA3, TPSB2, and CMA1) that may contribute to epidermal splitting and blister formation. Finally, we observed modulation of genes involved in cell growth inhibition (CGREF1, PA2G4, and PPP2R1B), increased apoptosis (FAS, TNFSF10, and BASP1), and reduced adhesion at the dermal epidermal junction (PLEC1, ITGB4, and LAMA5). In conclusion, our results identify genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of DH skin lesions. PMID:22991566

  5. Gene expression profiling in dermatitis herpetiformis skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Dolcino, M; Cozzani, E; Riva, S; Parodi, A; Tinazzi, E; Lunardi, C; Puccetti, A

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (CD). In order to investigate the pathogenesis of skin lesions at molecular level, we analysed the gene expression profiles in skin biopsies from 6 CD patients with DH and 6 healthy controls using Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 arrays. 486 genes were differentially expressed in DH skin compared to normal skin: 225 were upregulated and 261 were downregulated. Consistently with the autoimmune origin of DH, functional classification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicates a B- and T-cell immune response (LAG3, TRAF5, DPP4, and NT5E). In addition, gene modulation provides evidence for a local inflammatory response (IL8, PTGFR, FSTL1, IFI16, BDKRD2, and NAMPT) with concomitant leukocyte recruitment (CCL5, ENPP2), endothelial cell activation, and neutrophil extravasation (SELL, SELE). DEGs also indicate overproduction of matrix proteases (MMP9, ADAM9, and ADAM19) and proteolytic enzymes (CTSG, ELA2, CPA3, TPSB2, and CMA1) that may contribute to epidermal splitting and blister formation. Finally, we observed modulation of genes involved in cell growth inhibition (CGREF1, PA2G4, and PPP2R1B), increased apoptosis (FAS, TNFSF10, and BASP1), and reduced adhesion at the dermal epidermal junction (PLEC1, ITGB4, and LAMA5). In conclusion, our results identify genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of DH skin lesions. PMID:22991566

  6. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Adam C.; Cooper, Vickie L.; Coatney, John W.; Shearer, Jan K.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  7. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves.

    PubMed

    Krull, Adam C; Cooper, Vickie L; Coatney, John W; Shearer, Jan K; Gorden, Patrick J; Plummer, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  8. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake: skin lesions and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Bargai, U; Adin, G; Frank, D; Perl, S; Bogin, E

    1999-12-01

    The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II). They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I) recovered, and the other 4 (group II) were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. PMID:10855843

  9. Detection and Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Bovine Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Bell, J; Blundell, R; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J

    2016-05-01

    Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD). A 100% association of DD treponemes with the pressure sores was demonstrated, but treponemes were shown not to be part of the normal skin microbiota. Immunohistochemistry showed an association of DD treponemes with lesions and particularly with the hair follicles in lesions, identifying the bacteria deep within wounds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute to lesion pathogenesis. The bacteria isolated from the pressure sore lesions were similar or identical on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to those found in DD foot lesions in cattle, suggesting the same bacteria can infect multiple lesions. Indeed, the results of this study suggest that these spirochaetal bacteria may be expanding in host range and in their ability to colonize different tissues and contribute to a range of disease manifestations in farm animals. PMID:27040650

  10. Self-induced skin lesions: a review of dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Shilpa; Rashid, Rashid M; Khachemoune, Amor

    2009-11-01

    Psychocutaneous conditions are difficult to diagnose and a challenge to treat. Clinical manifestations can be caused by diverse and creative methods from garlic to deodorant. This review discusses the literature on dermatitis artefacta (DA). Although the overall incidence of DA is not known, the importance is emphasized by a strong association with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociation disorders as well as a prevalence of 33% in patients diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia. Furthermore, DA is frustrating for physicians and family members, with a differential diagnosis that includes severely morbid medical conditions. Thus, recognizing and correctly diagnosing DA is critical to avert unnecessary tests, treatments, and frustrations, ultimately allowing for more efficient management and better healing. PMID:20099617

  11. Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Functional Genes and Microbiome Associated with Bovine Digital Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zinicola, Martin; Higgins, Hazel; Lima, Svetlana; Machado, Vinicius; Guard, Charles; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic methods amplifying 16S ribosomal RNA genes have been used to describe the microbial diversity of healthy skin and lesion stages of bovine digital dermatitis (DD) and to detect critical pathogens involved with disease pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the microbiome and for the first time, the composition of functional genes of healthy skin (HS), active (ADD) and inactive (IDD) lesion stages using a whole-genome shotgun approach. Metagenomic sequences were annotated using MG-RAST pipeline. Six phyla were identified as the most abundant. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla in the microbiome of HS, while Spirochetes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were highly abundant in ADD and IDD. T. denticola-like, T. vincentii-like and T. phagedenis-like constituted the most abundant species in ADD and IDD. Recruitment plots comparing sequences from HS, ADD and IDD samples to the genomes of specific Treponema spp., supported the presence of T. denticola and T. vincentii in ADD and IDD. Comparison of the functional composition of HS to ADD and IDD identified a significant difference in genes associated with motility/chemotaxis and iron acquisition/metabolism. We also provide evidence that the microbiome of ADD and IDD compared to that of HS had significantly higher abundance of genes associated with resistance to copper and zinc, which are commonly used in footbaths to prevent and control DD. In conclusion, the results from this study provide new insights into the HS, ADD and IDD microbiomes, improve our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and generate unprecedented knowledge regarding the functional genetic composition of the digital dermatitis microbiome. PMID:26193110

  12. A study of the dynamics of digital dermatitis in 742 lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Green, L E; Kaler, J

    2012-04-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin of the claw. The disease presents with a range of severities and can be associated with lameness. Information about the disease dynamics of DD is scarce. Parity and lactation stage have been identified as risk factors for DD and studies have also indicated that not all cows are equal regarding their risk of recurrent disease and prospects for cure from DD. The aim of this study was to investigate host heterogeneity to DD and to identify disease patterns of DD and factors associated with the development and resolution of lesions. In three commercial dairy herds, 742 lactating cows were observed for DD lesions weekly for 11 or 12 weeks. The effects of parity, lactation stage and duration of preceding episode on the hazard of transitions between healthy and lesion states were analysed using a multilevel multistate discrete-time model. One or more DD lesions were observed in 460 cows and lesions were observed in 2426 out of 10,585 observations. In total, 1755 uncensored episodes with DD lesions were observed. Early lactation was associated with a reduced risk of developing lesions compared with mid and late lactation. Lesions that developed in late lactation had a greater likelihood of resolution compared with lesions that developed during early lactation. There was a reduced risk of lesions developing in parity 3 compared with parity 1 cows, but an increased risk of lesions developing in parity 2 compared with parity 1 cows. In the present study, the mean duration of uncensored DD episodes was 1.7 weeks indicating that the duration of the majority of DD lesions might be shorter than the 42 days reported previously. The transitions between disease states suggest that DD is a dynamic disease, and that the early stage lesions are more transient than expected from previous studies. We conclude that studies with shorter observation intervals than one week are needed to fully understand and

  13. Deep Sequencing Analysis Reveals Temporal Microbiota Changes Associated with Development of Bovine Digital Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Adam C.; Shearer, Jan K.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Cooper, Vickie L.; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite 35 years of research, the definitive etiologic agent associated with the disease process is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism. This study details the deep sequencing-based metagenomic evaluation of 48 staged DD biopsy specimens collected during a 3-year longitudinal study of disease progression. Over 175 million sequences were evaluated by utilizing both shotgun and 16S metagenomic techniques. Based on the shotgun sequencing results, there was no evidence of a fungal or DNA viral etiology. The bacterial microbiota of biopsy specimens progresses through a systematic series of changes that correlate with the novel morphological lesion scoring system developed as part of this project. This scoring system was validated, as the microbiota of each stage was statistically significantly different from those of other stages (P < 0.001). The microbiota of control biopsy specimens were the most diverse and became less diverse as lesions developed. Although Treponema spp. predominated in the advanced lesions, they were in relatively low abundance in the newly described early lesions that are associated with the initiation of the disease process. The consortium of Treponema spp. identified at the onset of disease changes considerably as the lesions progress through the morphological stages identified. The results of this study support the hypothesis that DD is a polybacterial disease process and provide unique insights into the temporal changes in bacterial populations throughout lesion development. PMID:24866801

  14. Oral Mucosal Lesions: Oral Lichen Planus and Lichenoid Tissue Reaction/Interface Dermatitis-Part II.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Aggarwal, Ashok; Sehgal, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    In order to succinctly interpret the clinical undertones of oral lichen planus and lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis, the well-recognized oral mucosal lesions, it is mandatory to comprehend oral cavity biology in the right perspective, the clinical connotations of which have been highlighted in perspective to facilitate diagnosis. In addition, a focus is formed on systemic association. Additionally, the imperative of salient histopathology in the diagnosis is emphasized for instant reference. PMID:26861523

  15. The occurrence of treponemes in contagious ovine digital dermatitis and the characterisation of associated Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Moore, L J; Woodward, M J; Grogono-Thomas, R

    2005-12-20

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a recently recorded, apparently new infection of the ovine hoof, which differs clinically from footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and which fails to respond well to accepted treatment practices for footrot. Despite the welfare implications of such an infection, very little research has been performed on CODD to date and the aetiology remains confused. Suggestions have been made that there is a potential role for treponemes in the pathogenesis of CODD but that D. nodosus is apparently not involved. Six farms were therefore targeted in this study to provide a more in-depth investigation into the bacterial flora of CODD lesions. Dark ground microscopy, culture and PCR techniques were used, concentrating on the presence of D. nodosus and spirochaetes, particularly those of the genus Treponema. The results demonstrated that isolates of D. nodosus were indeed present in a high percentage (74%) of CODD lesions compared with 31% of apparently healthy feet. The isolates were shown to be of similar virulence type to those reported previously in cases of footrot, and the range of serogroups was also found to be similar to footrot, with serogroup H being prevalent. Treponemes were present in 70% of CODD lesions and 38% of apparently healthy feet, supporting a possible association between CODD and treponemes. However, any further progress on the aetiology of CODD and the potential for novel, effective treatment will depend on an improved ability to culture these organisms routinely in the laboratory thereby enabling their complete characterisation. PMID:16280206

  16. Bovine digital dermatitis: Current concepts from laboratory to farm.

    PubMed

    Evans, N J; Murray, R D; Carter, S D

    2016-05-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe infectious disease causing lameness in dairy cattle worldwide and is an important ruminant welfare problem that has considerable economic issues. Bovine DD is endemic in many regions worldwide and it is important to understand this major disease so that effective control strategies can be identified. There is substantial evidence that specific treponeme phylotypes play an important causative role in bovine DD. This review considers current research, including DD Treponema spp. investigations, associated DD pathobiology, and current and potential treatment and control options. Epidemiological data, alongside new microbiological data, help delineate important transmission routes and reservoirs of infection that allow effective interventions to be identified. Better on-farm housing hygiene, pasture access, routine footbathing and claw trimming with disinfected equipment need to be implemented to significantly reduce the incidence of DD. There is a paucity of peer reviewed research into both commonly used and novel treatments. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies of DD treponemes and effective treatment of human treponematoses clearly indicate that antibiotics frequently selected for DD treatments are not the most efficacious. Whilst there are understandable concerns over milk withdrawal times in dairy cattle, more needs to be done to identify, license and implement more appropriate antibiotic treatments, since continued overuse of less efficacious antibiotics, applied incorrectly, will lead to increased disease recurrence and transmission. More research is needed into methods of preventing DD that circumvent the use of antibiotics, including vaccination and transmission blocking studies, to reduce or hopefully eradicate DD in the future. PMID:27061657

  17. Risk factors for increased rates of sole ulcers, white line disease, and digital dermatitis in dairy cattle from twenty-seven farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Barker, Z E; Amory, J R; Wright, J L; Mason, S A; Blowey, R W; Green, L E

    2009-05-01

    Claw lesion treatment records were recorded by farmers on 27 dairy farms (3,074 cows, 36,432 records) in England and Wales between February 2003 and February 2004. These were combined with farm environment and management data collected using a combination of direct observations, interviews with farmers, and milk recording data. Multilevel models were constructed for the 3 most frequently reported lesions related to lameness, namely, sole ulcers, white line disease, and digital dermatitis. Risks associated with an increased incidence of sole ulcers were parity 4 or greater, the use of roads or concrete cow tracks between the parlor and grazing, the use of lime on free stalls, and housing in free stalls with sparse bedding for 4 mo or more. The risks for white line disease were increasing parity and increasing herd size, cows at pasture by day and housed at night, and solid grooved concrete floors in yards or alleys. Solid grooved flooring was also associated with an increased risk of digital dermatitis, and cows 6 or more months after calving had a decreased risk of a first case of digital dermatitis. These results improve our understanding of the specific risks for 3 important lesions associated with bovine lameness and could be used as interventions in future clinical studies targeted at the reduction of specific lesions. PMID:19389954

  18. Immune response against Treponema spp. and ELISA detection of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Anklam, K S; Cook, N B; Rieman, J; Dunbar, K A; Cooley, K E; Socha, M T; Döpfer, D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the immune response against Treponema spp. infection in dairy heifers affected with digital dermatitis (DD). In addition, the accuracy of an indirect ELISA detecting anti-Treponema IgG antibodies in identifying clinical DD status has been assessed. A cohort of 688 pregnant Holstein heifers was evaluated at least 3 times before calving during a period of 6 mo. Complete clinical assessment of DD presence on the back feet of each heifer and blood extraction were performed in a stand-up chute. Digital dermatitis cases were characterized by the M-stage classification system and size and level of skin proliferation. An ELISA was performed on blood serum samples obtained from a subcohort of 130 heifers. For description purposes, the animals were classified by the number of clinical cases experienced during the study period as type I (no clinical cases were observed), type II (only 1 acute clinical case diagnosed), and type III (at least 2 acute clinical cases diagnosed). Multivariable repeated-measures models were used to evaluate the immune response against Treponema spp. infection. A binormal Bayesian model for the ELISA data without cut-point values was used to assess the accuracy of the ELISA as a diagnostic tool. Animals that never experienced a DD event throughout the study kept a constant low level of antibody titer. A 56% increase in mean ELISA titer was observed in heifers upon a first clinical DD case diagnosis. After topical treatment of an acute DD case with oxytetracycline, the antibody titer decreased progressively in type II heifers, achieving mean levels of those observed in healthy cows after a mean of 223 d. Surprisingly, antibody titer was not increased in the presence of M1 (DD lesion <20mm in diameter surrounded by healthy skin) and M4.1 (DD lesion <20mm in diameter embedded in a circumscribed dyskeratotic or proliferative skin alteration) DD stages. Type III cows showed a slight increase in

  19. Bovine ischaemic teat necrosis: a further potential role for digital dermatitis treponemes.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Carter, S D; Stewart, J P; Amin, D M; Blowey, R W; Evans, N J

    2016-01-16

    A recent outbreak of ischaemic teat necrosis (ITN) on mainland UK has resulted in large economic losses for dairy farmers. Typical cases start as an area of dry, thickened and encrusted skin on the medial aspect of the base of the teat, where the teat joins the udder, often with a fetid odour. The erosion spreads down the teat, often causing intense irritation, which in turn leads to more severely affected animals removing the entire teat. Due to the severity of ITN and the substantial economic costs to the industry, analyses were undertaken to ascertain if an infectious agent might be involved in the pathology. The study has considered a role for digital dermatitis (DD) treponemes in the aetiopathogenesis of ITN because, as well as being the prime bacteria associated with infectious lameness, they have been associated with a number of emerging skin diseases of cattle, including udder lesions. A high association between presence of DD-associated treponemes and incidence of ITN (19/22), compared with absence in the control population is reported. Furthermore, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of treponeme isolates supports the hypothesis that the identified treponemes are similar or identical to those isolated from classical foot DD lesions in cattle (and sheep). Further studies are required to allow effective targeted prevention measures and/or treatments to be developed. PMID:26743503

  20. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  1. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  2. Coriander Alleviates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Contact Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5–1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  3. Platycodi Radix suppresses development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Han, Eun Hee; Park, Bong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hwang, Yong Pil; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-05-01

    Platycodi Radix has been used to treat chronic diseases, such as bronchitis, asthma, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of an aqueous extract, Changkil (CK), from the root of Platycodi Radix on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions. Administration of CK onto DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice ameliorated lesion intensity scores, levels of IgE, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), TNF-α, and IL-4 in serum and ears. In contrast, CK increased level of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Histopathological examination showed reduced thickness of the epidermis/dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells in the ears. CK also suppressed TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced mRNA expression and production of TARC in HaCaT cells. CK exerts beneficial effects on AD symptoms, suggesting that CK is an effective potential therapeutic agent for AD. PMID:22407167

  4. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  5. Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent. PMID:25248662

  6. Effect of taxifolin glycoside on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Young; Choi, Sun Eun; Jeong, Mi Sook; Park, Kwan Hee; Moon, Nam Ju; Joo, Seong Soo; Lee, Chung Soo; Choi, Young Wook; Li, Kapsok; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Min Won; Seo, Seong Jun

    2010-07-01

    Increased levels of eosinphils, IgE, IL-4, 5, and 13 and pro-inflammatory factors (COX-2, iNOS) are observed in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Taxifolin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (TAX) from the roots of Rhododendron mucronulatum (RM) was examined to determine whether its immunomodulatory effect was applicable for treating atopic dermatitis.A total of 7 groups of NC/Nga mice with AD were treated by topical application or intraperitoneal injection of TAX for 4 weeks. Follow-up evaluations were done to assess the changes in clinical observations, eosinophil counts, and levels of IgE, cytokines, COX-2 and iNOS.In the clinical observation during the experimental period, TAX treatment significantly reduced the severity of AD-like lesions induced in NC/Nga mice. Eosinophil and IgE levels decreased after treatment of the animals with TAX. TAX may thus be associated with improvement of eosinophil-related allergic diseases. The expression of cytokines (IL-4, 5 and 13) was significantly inhibited in the TAX-treated group, suggesting that TAX might play an immunoregulatory role associated with AD. In RT-PCR, iNOS and COX-2 expression levels were reduced in the TAX-treated group. In western blotting, the expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 were also reduced in the TAX-treated group.These findings suggest that TAX is effective for the treatment of AD by preventing the production of inflammatory cytokines and by reducing skin inflammation. PMID:20041431

  7. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Tamakuwala, Bimal; Shah, Parag; Dave, Kamlesh; Mehta, Ritambhara

    2005-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, also known as factitious dermatitis, is a condition in which cutaneous lesions are self-inflicted and are the result or manifestation of some psychological conflicts. This report presents the case of a 20-year-old man, whose initial presentation resembled a dermatological disorder. Psychological and personality factors as well as issues in the management are discussed. PMID:20711314

  8. Dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Tamakuwala, Bimal; Shah, Parag; Dave, Kamlesh; Mehta, Ritambhara

    2005-10-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, also known as factitious dermatitis, is a condition in which cutaneous lesions are self-inflicted and are the result or manifestation of some psychological conflicts. This report presents the case of a 20-year-old man, whose initial presentation resembled a dermatological disorder. Psychological and personality factors as well as issues in the management are discussed. PMID:20711314

  9. Paederus Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. This article describes this dermatitis, which occurred in three healthcare personnel aboard a medical mission boat on the Amazon River. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of paederus dermatitis is reviewed as well its treatment and prevention. PMID:22125660

  10. Seborrheic dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the ... symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis include: Skin lesions with scales Plaques over large area Greasy, oily areas of ...

  11. The gastrointestinal tract as a potential infection reservoir of digital dermatitis-associated treponemes in beef cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2015-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  12. Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Maeve A.; O’Connell, Niamh E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cow lameness is a major problem for the industry, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease causing painful lesions, generally on the heels of the rear feet, and is an important cause of lameness. There appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to this disease. Particular physical, physiological and behavioural factors might influence individual susceptibility, but further work is required to clarify the influence of these factors and to determine how this information could be used to develop breeding and management strategies to reduce DD prevalence. Abstract Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes. PMID:26479371

  13. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  14. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  15. Pathogenesis of skin lesions in mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm).

    PubMed Central

    Gijbels, M. J.; Zurcher, C.; Kraal, G.; Elliott, G. R.; HogenEsch, H.; Schijff, G.; Savelkoul, H. F.; Bruijnzeel, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice (cpdm/cpdm), showing alopecia, epithelial hyperproliferation, infiltration by eosinophils and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. To further elucidate its pathogenesis, organs of 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old cpdm/cpdm mice were examined. At 4 weeks, the epidermal thickness was increased, whereas already at 3 weeks, the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was increased in the basal keratinocytes. However, already at the age of 1 week, skin, lungs, and lymph nodes were infiltrated by eosinophils although no macroscopic lesions were present. Compared with control animals, 6-week-old cpdm/cpdm mice had decreased serum IgE levels and increased numbers of mast cells. From the age of 1 week these mast cells became increasingly IgE positive. In contrast, the mast cells of the control animals remained IgE negative. Mast cells of control and cpdm/cpdm mice were interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha positive. A likely explanation for the tissue infiltration of eosinophils could be the release of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from activated mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha may lead to the expression of E-selectin on endothelial cells, facilitating interleukin-4-mediated eosinophil transendothelial migration. Although various pathogenetic aspects of the cpdm/cpdm mouse need further elucidation, this model can be a tool to study eosinophil infiltration, leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and mast cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cpdm/cpdm mouse can be used to study chronic inflammatory skin disease because of the severe epidermal proliferation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8774148

  16. Investigating the genetic background of bovine digital dermatitis using improved definitions of clinical status.

    PubMed

    Schöpke, K; Gomez, A; Dunbar, K A; Swalve, H H; Döpfer, D

    2015-11-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is an increasing claw health problem in all cattle production systems worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an improved scoring of the clinical status for DD via M-scores accounting for the dynamics of the disease; that is, the transitions from one stage to another. The newly defined traits were then subjected to a genetic analysis to determine the genetic background for susceptibility to DD. Data consisted of 6,444 clinical observations from 729 Holstein heifers in a commercial dairy herd, collected applying the M-score system. The M-score system is a classification scheme for stages of DD that allows a macroscopic scoring based on clinical inspections of the bovine foot, thus it describes the stages of lesion development. The M-scores were used to define new DD trait definitions with different complexities. Linear mixed models and logistic models were used to identify fixed environmental effects and to estimate variance components. In total, 68% of all observations showed no DD status, whereas 11% were scored as infectious for and affected by DD, and 21% of all observations exhibited an affected but noninfectious status. For all traits, the probability of occurrence and clinical status were associated with age at observation and period of observation. Risk of becoming infected increased with age, and month of observation significantly affected all traits. Identification of the optimal month concerning DD herd status was consistent for all trait definitions; the last month of the trial was identified. In contrast, months exhibiting the highest least squares means of transformed scores differed depending on trait definition. In this respect, traits that can distinguish between healthy, infectious, and noninfectious stages of DD can account for the infectious potential of the herd and can serve as an alert tool. Estimates of heritabilities of traits studied ranged between 0.19 (±0.11) and 0.52 (±0

  17. Dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, M; Rai, Reena; Raj, Anju

    2012-05-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a psychocutaneous disorder where the skin lesions are self self-induced to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need. We report a case of DA where we video recorded the patient self-inducing the lesions. PMID:23130292

  18. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, M.; Rai, Reena; Raj, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a psychocutaneous disorder where the skin lesions are self self-induced to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need. We report a case of DA where we video recorded the patient self-inducing the lesions. PMID:23130292

  19. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  20. Bovine Immune Response to Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD)-associated Spirochetes is Skewed in Isolate Reactivity and Subclass Elicitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a growing cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Farms with PDD-afflicted cows experience economic loss due to treatment costs, decreased milk production, lower reproductive efficiency and premature culling. Cow...

  1. Genetic parameters for digital dermatitis and correlations with locomotion, production, fertility traits, and longevity in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Onyiro, O M; Andrews, L J; Brotherstone, S

    2008-10-01

    Heritability of digital dermatitis (DD) and correlations between DD and type traits related to legs and feet were estimated from a linear animal model. Data comprised 93,391 national type evaluation records of pedigreed first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows that calved from 2002 through 2006. At the time of classification, cows were housed in different housing systems (i.e., cubicles, straw yards, slatted or loafing yards) and on pasture. The type traits evaluated were locomotion score (LOCO), rear legs side view (RLS), foot angle (FA), bone quality and leg and feet composite (L&F). In addition, cows were examined for DD lesions at classification. The relationships among these type traits, lifespan (LS), production (milk and fat), fertility (calving interval and 56-d nonreturn) and DD were examined by estimating the approximate genetic correlations from sire estimated breeding values. The study also evaluated the association between DD and the housing systems as well as the general conditions of the farm flooring where classification took place. In general, cows on pasture were less susceptible to DD than cows in other housing systems, whereas the association between DD and the flooring conditions was counterintuitive. Heritability estimate for DD was 0.011 on the 0/1 scale, which is equivalent to 0.029 on the assumed underlying normally distributed scale. Bone quality, LOCO, and L&F had moderate to high negative genetic correlations with DD, indicating that flatter, more refined bones, higher LOCO, and better L&F were associated with less incidence of DD. The genetic correlations between DD, RLS, and FA were not significantly different from zero. Digital dermatitis had moderate but negative genetic correlations with LS and milk and fat, suggesting that breeding for resistance to DD will result in an increase in both longevity and production. Cows affected with DD had a slightly shorter calving interval than healthy cows, an association found to be mediated

  2. Identification of Malassezia species in the facial lesions of Chinese seborrhoeic dermatitis patients based on DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lian, C-h; Shen, L-l; Gao, Q-y; Jiang, M; Zhao, Z-j; Zhao, J-j

    2014-12-01

    The genus Malassezia is important in the aetiology of facial seborrhoeic dermatitis (FSD), which is the most common clinical type. The purpose of this study was to analyse the distribution of Malassezia species in the facial lesions of Chinese seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) patients and healthy individuals. Sixty-four isolates of Malassezia were isolated from FSD patients and 60 isolates from healthy individuals. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify the isolates. The most frequently identified Malassezia species associated with FSD was M. furfur (76.56%), followed by M. sympodialis (12.50%) and M. japonica (9.38%). The most frequently isolated species in healthy individuals were M. furfur (61.67%), followed by M. sympodialis (25.00%), M. japonica (6.67%), M. globosa (3.33%), and M. obtusa (3.33%). Overall, our study revealed that while M. furfur is the predominant Malassezia species in Chinese SD patients, there is no significant difference in the distribution of Malassezia species between Chinese SD patients and healthy individuals. PMID:25124656

  3. The effect of pimecrolimus on expression of genes associated with skin barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Alicja; Zebracka-Gala, Jadwiga; Rachowska, Regina; Bozek, Andrzej; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2012-03-01

    The mechanism of action of pimecrolimus (PIM) on atopic lesions is still under consideration. Thus far, we have evidence of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, and recent papers focus on its effect on epidermal barrier function. This study analysed changes in the expression of genes associated with skin barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions after 2 weeks of exposure to PIM 1% cream. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis of selected epidermal differentiation complex genes and three alternative pathway keratins was performed in skin biopsies from 11 individuals with AD before and after PIM exposure. The real-time quantitative PCR analysis was compared to non-lesional skin in the same patients. Involucrin, a small proline-rich region (SPRR) 2C gene, and alternative pathway keratin 16 showed significant over-expression in lesional skin followed by significant decrease after PIM therapy. The SPRR1A gene, S100A9, and keratin 6A were also increased; however, the decrease after PIM treatment was not significant. The changes in S100 A2, A7 and A8 followed a similar course with borderline significance. SPRR4 had a significant decrease in expression in lesional versus non-lesional skin, which persisted after PIM treatment. No significant changes were detected in mRNA expression levels of filaggrin and loricrin. Our results suggest that PIM can be effective in restoring the epidermal barrier in patients with AD at least in part by its impact on expression of genes, which are important for the normal barrier function of skin. PMID:22142393

  4. Chitin nanofibrils suppress skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Ryotaro; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Nagashima, Masaaki; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of chitin nanofibril (CNF) application via skin swabs on an experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) model. AD scores were lower, and hypertrophy and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis were suppressed after CNF treatment. Furthermore, inflammatory cell infiltration in both the epidermis and dermis was inhibited. CNFs also attenuated histological scores. The suppressive effects of CNFs were equal to those of corticosteroid application; however, chitin did not show these effects. CNF application might have anti-infllammatory effects via suppression of the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In an early-stage model of experimental AD, CNFs suppressed AD progression to the same extent as corticosteroids. They also suppressed skin inflammation and IgE serum levels. Our findings indicate that CNF application could aid in the prevention or treatment of AD skin lesions. PMID:27112880

  5. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  6. Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Staal, Joes; Suttorp-Schulten, Maria S A; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2005-05-01

    The robust detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs is a critical step in the development of automated screening systems for diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a novel red lesion detection method is presented based on a hybrid approach, combining prior works by Spencer et al. (1996) and Frame et al. (1998) with two important new contributions. The first contribution is a new red lesion candidate detection system based on pixel classification. Using this technique, vasculature and red lesions are separated from the background of the image. After removal of the connected vasculature the remaining objects are considered possible red lesions. Second, an extensive number of new features are added to those proposed by Spencer-Frame. The detected candidate objects are classified using all features and a k-nearest neighbor classifier. An extensive evaluation was performed on a test set composed of images representative of those normally found in a screening set. When determining whether an image contains red lesions the system achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 87%. The method is compared with several different automatic systems and is shown to outperform them all. Performance is close to that of a human expert examining the images for the presence of red lesions. PMID:15889546

  7. Resveratrol ameliorates 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions through effects on the epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Meral; Cilaker Micili, Serap; Isik, Sakine; Arikan Ayyildiz, Zeynep; Bagriyanik, Alper; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that exhibits anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on epithelium-derived cytokines and epithelial apoptosis in a murine model of atopic dermatitis-like lesions. Material and Methods. Atopic dermatitis-like lesions were induced in BALB/c mice by repeated application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene to shaved dorsal skin. Twenty-one BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: group I (control), group II (vehicle control), and group III (resveratrol). Systemic resveratrol (30 mg/kg/day) was administered repeatedly during the 6th week of the experiment. After the mice had been sacrificed, skin tissues were examined histologically for epithelial thickness. Epithelial apoptosis (caspase-3) and epithelium-derived cytokines [interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)] were evaluated immunohistochemically. Results. Epithelial thickness and the numbers of IL-25, IL-33, TSLP and caspase-3-positive cells were significantly higher in group II compared to group I mice. There was significant improvement in epithelial thickness in group III compared with group II mice (p < 0.05). The numbers of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP-positive cells in the epithelium were lower in group III than in group II mice (p < 0.05). The number of caspase-3-positive cells, as an indicator of apoptosis, in the epithelium was significantly lower in group III than in group II mice (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Treatment with resveratrol was effective at ameliorating histological changes and inflammation by acting on epithelium-derived cytokines and epithelial apoptosis. PMID:27069818

  8. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti; Debi, Basanti; Swain, Sarada P.

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year old lady presented to our department with multiple erosive lesions over extremities, which had a very bizarre pattern and was only over accessible parts of body. A thorough history was taken and a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. We present this interesting case for its rarity and future reference. PMID:23825858

  9. Dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti; Debi, Basanti; Swain, Sarada P

    2013-04-01

    A 27-year old lady presented to our department with multiple erosive lesions over extremities, which had a very bizarre pattern and was only over accessible parts of body. A thorough history was taken and a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. We present this interesting case for its rarity and future reference. PMID:23825858

  10. Oral administration of royal jelly inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Kohno, Keizo; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Koya-Miyata, Satomi; Okamoto, Iwao; Arai, Norie; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2003-09-01

    We have shown previously that in addition to IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by spleen cells from ovalbumin (OVA)/Alum-immunized mice is inhibited by the administration of royal jelly (RJ). Since it has been shown that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines play pathogenic roles in the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have examined whether RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by repeated application of picryl chloride (PiCl) under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. Oral administration of RJ to the PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions in these mice as exemplified by the significant decrease in the total skin severity scores and the decrease in hypertrophy, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of the epidermis and corium by inflammatory cells. IFN-gamma production by spleen cells from PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice in response to TNP-KLH was partially but significantly inhibited by the oral administration of RJ, while IFN-gamma production by Con A-stimulated spleen cells was not affected. Since inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)-derived NO has been suggested as an important immunoregulatory mediator in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, we have also examined the expression of iNOS in the dorsal skin lesions of PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice. Interestingly, the expression of iNOS was significantly increased in the skin lesions of RJ-administered mice compared with those of control PBS-administered mice. Thus, our results suggest that RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice, possibly by a combination of down-regulating TNP-specific IFN-gamma production and up-regulating iNOS expression. PMID:12890429

  11. Improvement of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by Platycodon grandiflorum fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Wan-Gi; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Park, Byoung-Woo; Ahn, Kyoo-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Jin; Bae, Hyunsu

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized as a multi-factorial inflammatory skin disease that has been increasing worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that FPG, which is Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), increases the level of interferon (IFN)-gamma in mouse splenocytes in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of FPG in an animal model of AD, with a particular emphasis on its effects on T helper (Th)1 and Th2 immune responses. To assess the potential use of FPG for the inhibition of AD, we established a model of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Immunoglobulin isotypes (Igs) and Th1/Th2 cytokines in the sera and spleens of AD-like mice were examined. In addition, histological examination was also performed. AD symptoms in skin lesions improved following oral administration of FPG. IgE secretion was significantly down-regulated, and this was accompanied by decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IgG1 and increased serum levels of IL-12p40 and IgG2a in FPG-treated animals. In splenocytes, the production of the Th1 cytokines IL-12p40 and IFN-gamma was up-regulated, while the levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and 5 were down-regulated by FPG treatment. These results suggest that FPG inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell responses. Our results indicate that FPG is safe and effective for the prevention of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:22863917

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, In Jun

    2016-01-01

    Valencene (VAL) isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD.

  13. Non-lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin is characterized by broad terminal differentiation defects and variable immune abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Fariñas, M; Tintle, S; Shemer, A; Chiricozzi, A; Nograles, KE; Cardinale, I; Duan, S; Bowcock, AM; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2011-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with a Th2 and “T22” immune polarity. Despite recent data showing a genetic predisposition to epidermal barrier defects in some patients, a fundamental debate still exists regarding the role of barrier abnormalities versus immune responses in initiating the disease. In order to explore whether there is an intrinsic predisposition to barrier abnormalities and/or background immune activation in AD patients an extensive study of non-lesional AD (ANL) skin is necessary. Objective To characterize ANL skin by determining whether epidermal differentiation and immune abnormalities that characterize lesional AD (AL) are also reflected in ANL skin. Methods We performed genomic and histologic profiling of both ANL and AL skin lesions (n=12 each), compared to normal human skin (n=10). Results We found that ANL is clearly distinct from normal skin with respect to terminal differentiation and some immune abnormalities, and it has a cutaneous expansion of T-cells. We also showed that ANL skin has a variable immune phenotype, which is largely determined by disease extent and severity. Whereas broad terminal differentiation abnormalities were largely similar between involved and uninvolved AD skin, perhaps accounting for the “background skin phenotype,” increased expression of immune-related genes was among the most obvious differences between AL and ANL skin, potentially reflecting the “clinical disease phenotype.” Conclusion Our study implies that systemic immune activation may play a role in alteration of the normal epidermal phenotype, as suggested by the high correlation in expression of immune genes in ANL skin with disease severity index. PMID:21388663

  14. Blockade of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by DA-9102, a natural medicine isolated from Actinidia arguta, in the Mg-deficiency induced dermatitis model of hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong June; Park, Bokyoung; Kim, Dong Hee; Pyo, Myoung-Yun; Choi, Sangzin; Son, Miwon; Jin, Mirim

    2008-08-01

    DA-9102 isolated from Actinidia arguta is a candidate of natural medicine currently under Phase II clinical trial for atopic dermatitis in Korea. In this study, spontaneous dermatitis was induced by magnesium deficiency in hairless rats and this system was applied to assess the suppressive effects of DA-9102 on atopic dermatitis-like skin disease. Oral administration of DA-9102 at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 16 days substantially suppressed the occurrence of spontaneous dermatitis. Eczematous skin lesions, water loss and scratching behavior were significantly decreased by DA-9102 in a dose-dependent manner. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the skin and pathologic remodeling of the epidermis and dermis were much less than the Mg-def. group. Results from flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that DA-9102 suppressed activation of leukocytes. The decrease in the number of CD45RA+ cells was accompanied by a lower level of IgE in DA-9102 treated rats, and the reduction in the number of CD11b+ cells by DA-9102 in both periphery and skin was significant. Further, DA-9102 not only suppressed the mRNA expression of T(H)2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-10 in the lymph node but it also decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) in the serum. Taken together, these results suggest that DA-9102 is an orally applicable potent immune modulator capable of controlling the occurrence of atopic dermatitis-like skin disease. PMID:18535171

  15. Atopic dermatitis-associated protein interaction network lead to new insights in chronic sulfur mustard skin lesion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Jafari, Mohieddin; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Davoodi, Seyed-Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Chronic sulfur mustard skin lesions (CSMSLs) are the most common complications of sulfur mustard exposure; however, its mechanism is not completely understood.According to clinical signs, there are similarities between CSMSL and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, proteomic results of AD were reviewed and the AD-associated protein-protein interaction network (PIN) was analyzed. According to centrality measurements, 16 proteins were designated as pivotal elements in AD mechanisms. Interestingly, most of these proteins had been reported in some sulfur mustard-related studies in late and acute phases separately. Based on the gene enrichment analysis, aging, cell response to stress, cancer, Toll- and NOD-like receptor and apoptosis signaling pathways have the greatest impact on the disease. By the analysis of directed protein interaction networks, it is concluded that TNF, IL-6, AKT1, NOS3 and CDKN1A are the most important proteins. It is possible that these proteins play role in the shared complications of AD and CSMSL including xerosis and itching. PMID:24117202

  16. A Herbal Formula, Atofreellage, Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in an NC/Nga Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Sung-Bae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effect of Atofreellage (AF), a herbal formula composed of 10 medicinal plants. AD was induced on the dorsal skin areas of NC/Nga mice (male, seven weeks old) by daily application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for five weeks. After three weeks of DNCB application, 200 μL of AF (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/mL) was applied to the skin lesions. Histological findings, blood cell populations, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory signaling in the skin tissue, and T-helper cell type 2 (Th₂)-related cytokines in splenocytes were analyzed. Histopathological findings showed AF treatment notably attenuated the thickness of dorsal skin, and eosinophil infiltration. AF treatment (especially 100 mg/mL) also demonstrably ameliorated the blood cell population abnormalities, as the notable elevation of serum concentrations of IgE, histamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were remarkably normalized by AF treatment. Western blot analysis evidenced the apparent normalization of inflammatory signals (ERK, p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and NF-κB) in the skin tissue. Additionally, AF treatment notably attenuated the activation of Th₂-dominant cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5) in Con A-treated splenocytes in an ex vivo assay. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical relevance of Atofreellage. PMID:26712731

  17. Amorphous silica nanoparticles size-dependently aggravate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions following an intradermal injection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the rising use of nanomaterials (NMs), there is concern that NMs induce undesirable biological effects because of their unique physicochemical properties. Recently, we reported that amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSPs), which are one of the most widely used NMs, can penetrate the skin barrier and induce various biological effects, including an immune-modulating effect. Thus, it should be clarified whether nSPs can be a risk factor for the aggravation of skin immune diseases. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between the size of SPs and adjuvant activity using a model for atopic dermatitis. Results We investigated the effects of nSPs on the AD induced by intradermaly injected-mite antigen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) in NC/Nga mice. Ear thickness measurements and histopathological analysis revealed that a combined injection of amorphous silica particles (SPs) and Dp induced aggravation of AD in an SP size-dependent manner compared to that of Dp alone. In particular, aggravation was observed remarkably in nSP-injected groups. Furthermore, these effects were correlated with the excessive induction of total IgE and a stronger systemic Th2 response. We demonstrated that these results are associated with the induction of IL-18 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the skin lesions. Conclusions A particle size reduction in silica particles enhanced IL-18 and TSLP production, which leads to systemic Th2 response and aggravation of AD-like skin lesions as induced by Dp antigen treatment. We believe that appropriate regulation of nanoparticle physicochemical properties, including sizes, is a critical determinant for the design of safer forms of NMs. PMID:22296706

  18. Clinical evidence for individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (hairy heel wart) and infectious bovine pododermatitis (foot rot).

    PubMed

    Apley, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Data supporting individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) and infectious pododermatitis (IP) in cattle are available for treatment with multiple drugs in the form of randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted in naturally occurring disease with negative controls and masked subjective evaluators. In the case of PDD, these trials support the use of topical tetracycline and oxytetracycline, lincomycin, a copper-containing preparation, and a nonantimicrobial cream. In individual therapy for IP, trial evidence is available to support systemic treatment with ceftiofur, florfenicol, tulathromycin, and oxytetracycline. However, it was not available for IP standards such as penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and tylosin. PMID:25705026

  19. Application of concentrated deep sea water inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene) in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW) was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW) to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Results DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced. Conclusions Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:22834904

  20. Downregulation of immunological mediators in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by hydrocortisone-loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zahid; Katas, Haliza; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Kumolosasi, Endang; Sahudin, Shariza

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, noncontiguous, and exudative disorder accompanied by perivascular infiltration of immune mediators, including T-helper (Type 1 helper/Type 2 helper) cells, mast cells, and immunoglobulin E. The current study explores the immunomodulatory and histological effects of nanoparticle (NP)-based transcutaneous delivery of hydrocortisone (HC). Methods In this study, HC, the least potent topical glucocorticoid, was administered transcutaneously as chitosan NPs. The pharmacological and immunological effects of the NP-based HC delivery on the alleviation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions were evaluated using the NC/Nga mouse model. Results In vivo Dino-Lite® microscopic assessment revealed that the NP-based formulation displayed a remarkable ability to reduce the severity of the pathological features of AD (dermatitis index, 3.0). The AD suppressive activity of the NP-based topical formulation was expected owing to the interruption of a series of immunopathological events, including the production of immunoglobulin E, release of histamine, and expression of prostaglandin-E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-α in the sera and skin of the tested animals. Analysis of the cytokine expression in AD-like skin lesions further revealed that the NP-based formulation inhibited the pathological expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-12p70, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and skin homogenates of NC/Nga mice. Further, our histological findings indicated that the NP-based formulation inhibited fibroblast infiltration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, further supporting the clinical importance of these formulations in maintaining the integrity of elastic connective tissues. Conclusion The current investigation suggests that NP-mediated transcutaneous delivery of HC could be considered an effective therapeutic approach to manage dermatitis. PMID:25395851

  1. Kallikrein 5 induces atopic dermatitis-like lesions through PAR2-mediated thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression in Netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Briot, Anaïs; Deraison, Céline; Lacroix, Matthieu; Bonnart, Chrystelle; Robin, Aurélie; Besson, Céline; Dubus, Pierre; Hovnanian, Alain

    2009-05-11

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe genetic skin disease with constant atopic manifestations that is caused by mutations in the serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) gene, which encodes the protease inhibitor lymphoepithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI). Lack of LEKTI causes stratum corneum detachment secondary to epidermal proteases hyperactivity. This skin barrier defect favors allergen absorption and is generally regarded as the underlying cause for atopy in NS. We show for the first time that the pro-Th2 cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), the thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and the macrophage-derived chemokine are overexpressed in LEKTI-deficient epidermis. This is part of an original biological cascade in which unregulated kallikrein (KLK) 5 directly activates proteinase-activated receptor 2 and induces nuclear factor kappaB-mediated overexpression of TSLP, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL8. This proinflammatory and proallergic pathway is independent of the primary epithelial failure and is activated under basal conditions in NS keratinocytes. This cell-autonomous process is already established in the epidermis of Spink5(-/-) embryos, and the resulting proinflammatory microenvironment leads to eosinophilic and mast cell infiltration in a skin graft model in nude mice. Collectively, these data establish that uncontrolled KLK5 activity in NS epidermis can trigger atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions, independently of the environment and the adaptive immune system. They illustrate the crucial role of protease signaling in skin inflammation and point to new therapeutic targets for NS as well as candidate genes for AD and atopy. PMID:19414552

  2. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep in the UK currently affecting approximately 50% of farms. Six farms were studied in North Wales to investigate (1) the prevalence dynamics of CODD, (2) the association between sheep with CODD and potential risk factors and (3) the impact of CODD on lameness in sheep. The farms were visited at approximately two-month intervals between June 2012 and October 2013 and 6515 sheep were examined. The mean sheep level prevalence of CODD varied between farms (2.5-11.9%). Within farms, prevalence may increase in the late summer/early autumn and after housing. Environmental risk factors included larger flocks, lowland pasture, lush pasture and poached pasture. Co-infection of a foot with footrot was strongly associated with CODD in that foot (OR: 7.7 95% CI: 3.9-15.5 P<0.001) but negatively associated with co-infection of a foot with interdigital dermatitis (OR: 0.04 95% CI: 0.02-0.1 P<0.001). Reinfection with CODD was observed in 78 individual sheep but there was no re-infection at foot level. Lameness on all farms reduced during the study and seasonal changes in lameness followed similar patterns to those for CODD. Infection with CODD leads to a greater increase in locomotion score compared to footrot or interdigital dermatitis and CODD lesion grade was strongly associated with being lame. Sheep with CODD in more than one foot were more likely to be lame (OR: 25.0 95% CI: 12.5-49.9 P<0.001) than those with just one foot affected (OR:10.0 95% CI: 8.6-11.6 P<0.001). The biggest risk factor for CODD is co-infection with footrot and therefore control of footrot should help reduce the risk of CODD on affected farms. Furthermore environmental risk factors for CODD are similar to those for footrot adding weight for control strategies that target both diseases in tandem. The routine repeated gathering of sheep for the purposes of treating all lame sheep might be an effective control strategy for

  3. First-lactation performance in cows affected by digital dermatitis during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B; Socha, M T; Döpfer, D

    2015-07-01

    The long-term effects of prepartum digital dermatitis (DD) on first-lactation performance were evaluated in a cohort of 719 pregnant heifers. All heifers were followed for a period of 6 mo until calving and classified on the basis of the number of DD events diagnosed during this period as type I, type II, or type III (no DD, one DD event, and multiple DD events, respectively). Health during the initial 60d in milk (DIM), reproductive and hoof health outcomes, and milk production were compared between the 3 heifer type groups. All logistic and linear models were adjusted for age, height, and girth circumference at enrollment, and the type of trace mineral supplementation during the prepartum period. Overall, cows experiencing DD during the rearing period showed worse production and health outcomes compared with healthy heifers during the first lactation. The percentages of assisted calvings, stillbirths, culled before 60 DIM, and diseased cows during the fresh period were numerically higher in type III cows compared with type I cows. However, none of these differences were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Significantly lower conception at first service [odds ratio (OR)=0.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.89] and increased number of days open (mean=24d, 95% CI: 5.2, 43) were observed in type III cows compared with type I cows. In relation to hoof health, a significantly increased risk of DD during the first lactation was found in type II and III cows (OR=5.16, 95% CI: 3.23, 8.29; and OR=12.5, 95% CI: 7.52, 21.1, respectively), as well as earlier occurrence of DD following calving (OR=59d, 95% CI=20, 96, and OR=74d, 95% CI: 37, 109). Compared with type I cows, statistically significant milk production losses during the initial 305 DIM of 199 and 335kg were estimated in type II and III cows, respectively. This difference was due to a greater rate of production decline (less persistence) after peak yield. No differences in monthly fat

  4. Performance of digital RGB reflectance color extraction for plaque lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Hadzli; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Jailani, Rozita; Sulaiman, Saadiah; Baba, Roshidah

    2005-01-01

    Several clinical psoriasis lesion groups are been studied for digital RGB color features extraction. Previous works have used samples size that included all the outliers lying beyond the standard deviation factors from the peak histograms. This paper described the statistical performances of the RGB model with and without removing these outliers. Plaque lesion is experimented with other types of psoriasis. The statistical tests are compared with respect to three samples size; the original 90 samples, the first size reduction by removing outliers from 2 standard deviation distances (2SD) and the second size reduction by removing outliers from 1 standard deviation distance (1SD). Quantification of data images through the normal/direct and differential of the conventional reflectance method is considered. Results performances are concluded by observing the error plots with 95% confidence interval and findings of the inference T-tests applied. The statistical tests outcomes have shown that B component for conventional differential method can be used to distinctively classify plaque from the other psoriasis groups in consistent with the error plots finding with an improvement in p-value greater than 0.5.

  5. [Anthrenus dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Horster, S; Prinz, J C; Holm, N; Wollenberg, A

    2002-05-01

    A 31-year-old male presented with widespread itchy papules, especially on the legs, which had appeared 4 weeks previously. He reported that his wife and both daughters had developed similar lesions during the last week. Numerous small beetle larvae had been detected in his apartment, which were identified as museum beetle Anthrenus museorum L. Prick test with a larva extract caused a positive prick-test reaction, followed by a papular delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. History, clinical and histological examination led to the diagnosis of papular Anthrenus-dermatitis. Eradication of the beetle larvae from the patient's apartment, followed by topical glucocorticoid therapy led to a permanent remission of the dermatitis in all household members. PMID:12063744

  6. Ameliorating effect of Yokukansan on the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions and scratching behavior in socially isolated NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Funakushi, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Jiang, Ju; Imamura, Sachiko; Kuhara, Takatoshi; Suto, Hajime; Ueki, Rie; Kase, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hideoki; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2011-11-01

    Yokukansan (YKS) has been used in Japan as a remedy for neurosis, insomnia, and children with night crying. In a previous study, we reported that YKS controls scratching behavior and inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions in NC/Nga mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of YKS on the development of AD-like lesions in socially isolated NC/Nga mice compared with the effects of fexofenadine and elucidated the mechanism of the ameliorating effect of YKS on the skin lesions. Ten-week-old male NC/Nga mice were divided into three groups (n = 5/group): the conventional control, the YKS-treated, and the fexofenadine-treated groups, and were kept isolated under conventional conditions for 6 weeks. Measurements were made of dermatitis scores and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), scratching and grooming behaviors. Immunohistochemistry and mRNA levels were also evaluated. We performed similar experiments under specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions that served as a SPF control. YKS and fexofenadine inhibited the aggravation of skin lesions and decreased TEWL, but only YKS decreased the numbers of scratching and pathologic grooming behaviors. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed that N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression was increased in the skin of conventional control mice and was decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) mRNA levels were decreased in the skin of conventional control mice and were increased in YKS-treated mice. The results indicate that YKS ameliorates AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice through a mechanism distinct from that of fexofenadine. Furthermore, the effects of YKS are suggested to be mediated via glutamate signaling in the skin lesions. PMID:21365206

  7. Luffa cylindrica suppresses development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hyekyung; Lim, Hye-Sun; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context The fruit pulp of Luffa cylindrica Roemer (Cucurbitaceae) (LC) has been used to induce hemostasis, resolve phlegm and clear fever in traditional Korean medicine. However, the efficacy of LC has not been examined in atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective A 70% ethanol extract of LC was evaluated to determine anti-inflammation and anti-AD effects in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods The inhibitory effects of LC on the production of PGE2 and histamine were respectively measured in lipopolysaccharide-treated (1 μg/mL) RAW264.7 macrophages and phorbol-12 myristate 13-acetate (50 nM) and A23187 (1 µM)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The production of AD-related chemokines (RANTES, TARC, and MDC) were evaluated in IFN-γ and TNF-α-stimulated (10 ng/mL, each) HaCaT keratinocytes. LC (10 mg/mouse/d) was topically applied to the dorsal skin and ears of Dermatophagoides farina (Pyroglyphidae)-sensitized Nc/Nga mice for 4 weeks. Results The IC50 values of LC on PGE2 and histamine production were 16.89 and 139.9 μg/mL, individually. The production of TARC and RANTES were inhibited 20% and 12% by LC (50 μg/mL) in HaCaT cells, respectively (p < 0.05). In sensitized-NC/Nga mice, the plasma levels of IgE and histamine were suppressed 36% and 41% by LC, respectively (p < 0.05). LC also reduced hemorrhage, hypertrophy, and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis and infiltration of mast cells in the dorsal skin and ear. Discussion and conclusion LC can inhibit AD-like skin lesions and reduce the generation of IgE via inhibition of the inflammatory responses. LC has potential as a therapeutic agent to treat allergic diseases, including AD. PMID:25327534

  8. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P < 0.0001) on each assessment day. Pruritus scores decreased from 7.58 to 2.59 cm following oclacitinib treatment. The day 7 mean oclacitinib Veterinarian Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P < 0.0001) than placebo scores. Diarrhoea and vomiting were reported with similar frequency in both groups. Conclusions and clinical importance In this study, oclacitinib provided rapid, effective and safe control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  9. Factors associated with the presence and prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A 2013 study of 1136 random English sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C A; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD

  10. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Martin W.; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K.

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of rRNA gene sequences from DD-associated treponemes in the dairy herd environment. Although the spread of DD appears to be facilitated by wet floors covered with slurry, no DD-associated treponemes have been isolated from this environment previously. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the spread of this disease among cows within a herd as well as between herds. To address the issue of DD infection reservoirs, we searched for evidence of DD-associated treponemes in fresh feces, in slurry, and in hoof lesions by deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with identification at the operational-taxonomic-unit level. Using treponeme-specific primers in this high-throughput approach, we identified small amounts of DNA (on average 0.6% of the total amount of sequence reads) from DD-associated treponemes in 43 of 64 samples from slurry and cow feces collected from six geographically dispersed dairy herds. Species belonging to the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like and Treponema phagedenis-like phylogenetic clusters were among the most prevalent treponemes in both the dairy herd environment and the DD lesions. By the high-throughput approach presented here, we have demonstrated that cow feces and environmental slurry are possible reservoirs of DD-associated treponemes. This method should enable further clarification of the etiopathogenesis of DD. PMID:24814794

  11. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  12. Perioral Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Perioral Dermatitis (Pediatric) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... red bumps around the mouth typical of perioral dermatitis. Overview Perioral dermatitis is an acne-like problem ...

  13. Stasis Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Stasis Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This image displays an early case of stasis dermatitis. Overview Dermatitis is a term used to describe ...

  14. The Impact of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis on German Dermatologist Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Pigmented Lesions with Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Richard R.; Hauschild, Axel; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis on German dermatologist biopsy decisions of atypical pigmented skin lesions. Design: Participants were shown high-resolution clinical images of 12 atypical pigmented skin lesions previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images and high-resolution dermoscopy images and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information. Setting/participants: Forty-one dermatologists at a skin cancer conference in Germany in September 2014. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, percent biopsying all melanomas, and overall biopsy rates. Results: Sensitivity for the detection of melanoma following clinical evaluation was 64 percent. After receipt of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information, sensitivity decreased nonsignificantly to 62 percent. Specificity with clinical evaluation was 57 percent and increased to 73 percent using multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Overall biopsy accuracy increased from 60 percent with clinical evaluation to 68 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. The percentage of low-grade dysplastic nevi chosen for biopsy decreased from 43 percent after clinical evaluation to 27 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Finally, the overall percentage of lesions biopsied decreased from 52 percent with clinical evaluation to 42 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis can be used reliably to detect melanoma as well as clinical evaluation. Dermatologists can confidently use multispectral digital skin lesion analysis to significantly improve specificity and reduce their overall number of biopsies while increasing overall diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26557216

  15. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; dos Santos, K.R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD. PMID:25992644

  16. Comparing whole slide digital images versus traditional glass slides in the detection of common microscopic features seen in dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nikki S.; Markow, Michael; Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Gaudi, Sudeep; Turner, Leslie; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Messina, Jane L.; Jukic, Drazen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quality and limitations of digital slides are not fully known. We aimed to estimate intrapathologist discrepancy in detecting specific microscopic features on glass slides and digital slides created by scanning at ×20. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid–Schiff glass slides were digitized using the Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss Inc., Germany). Six pathologists assessed 50–71 digital slides. We recorded objective magnification, total time, and detection of the following: Mast cells; eosinophils; plasma cells; pigmented macrophages; melanin in the epidermis; fungal bodies; neutrophils; civatte bodies; parakeratosis; and sebocytes. This process was repeated using the corresponding glass slides after 3 weeks. The diagnosis was not required. Results: The mean time to assess digital slides was 176.77 s and 137.61 s for glass slides (P < 0.001, 99% confidence interval [CI]). The mean objective magnification used to detect features using digital slides was 18.28 and 14.07 for glass slides (P < 0.001, 99.99% CI). Parakeratosis, civatte bodies, pigmented macrophages, melanin in the epidermis, mast cells, eosinophils, plasma cells, and neutrophils, were identified at lower objectives on glass slides (P = 0.023–0.001, 95% CI). Average intraobserver concordance ranged from κ = 0.30 to κ = 0.78. Features with poor to fair average concordance were: Melanin in the epidermis (κ = 0.15–0.58); plasma cells (κ = 0.15–0.49); and neutrophils (κ = 0.12–0.48). Features with moderate average intrapathologist concordance were: parakeratosis (κ = 0.21–0.61); civatte bodies (κ = 0.21–0.71); pigment-laden macrophages (κ = 0.34–0.66); mast cells (κ = 0.29–0.78); and eosinophils (κ = 0.31–0.79). The average intrapathologist concordance was good for sebocytes (κ = 0.51–1.00) and fungal bodies (κ = 0.47–0.76). Conclusions: Telepathology using digital slides scanned at ×20 is sufficient for detection of histopathologic features routinely

  17. Estimation of the environmental effect of natural volatile organic compounds from Chamaecyparis obtusa and their effect on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Mi-Jin; Lee, Sung-Suk; Choi, Don-Ha; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-07-01

    Aromatherapy has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic method for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema and other skin diseases. In the current study, the anti-atopic properties of the volatile organic compounds of Chamaecyparis obtusa (VOCCo) were examined to determine whether they are amenable for use as a pharmaceutical candidate. The alterations in histological features, serum IgE levels and mast cell infiltration following exposure to VOCCo were determined in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model. The results of these experiments demonstrated that VOCCo inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions by reducing the serum IgE level and mast cell infiltration into the dermal and subcutaneous layers. This was supported by screening of immune cytokine mRNAs, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 from the skin of DNCB-treated mice. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the skin lesions of mice was dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with VOCCo. Furthermore, treatment with VOCCo resulted in the recovery of histopathological features in AD-like skin lesions. These results suggest that VOCCo may have therapeutic and preventive effects for the development of AD. PMID:25760811

  18. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  19. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  20. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment. PMID:23140532

  1. Economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows in the USA.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) in dairy cows in the USA, and of specific risk factors for PDD, in 1996. The method applied was an economic-welfare analysis of producer and consumer surplus, with the GUM Workbench used to analyse uncertainties in the measurements. Reduced milk production associated with PDD was found to reduce consumer surplus by Dollars 750 million +/- Dollars 580 million, and to increase the economic surplus of producers by Dollars 560 million +/- Dollars 470 million, with a net economic loss of Dollars 190 million +/- Dollars 130 million. An examination of the economic effects of specific epidemiologic risk factors for PDD showed that having dairy cows that were not born on the operation had important economic consequences associated with the disease, as did the type of land to which dairy cows had access during the winter months and the type of flooring on which cows walked. Washing hoof-trimming equipment between cows was an important biosecurity measure that was associated with reduced PDD. The epidemiologic model used also implicated hoof trimmers who trimmed cattle hooves on other operations as having an important economic impact associated with this disease, although this finding may have been erroneous. PMID:16569275

  2. Dermatitis herpetiformis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001480.htm Dermatitis herpetiformis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dermatitis herpetiformis is an extremely itchy rash consisting of ...

  3. Atopic dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with atopic dermatitis often have asthma or seasonal allergies. There is often a family history of allergies such as asthma, hay fever, or eczema. People with atopic dermatitis often test ...

  4. Nipple Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem including: Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Thrush (oral yeast infection) An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) Local irritation ... Breast-feeding women with a previous history of yeast vaginitis or whose infants also use a bottle ...

  5. Characterization of Breast Lesions: Comparison of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Ah; Cho, Nariya; Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and conventional breast ultrasound (US) to characterize breast lesions as benign or malignant. Materials and Methods A total of 332 women, presenting for screening examinations or for breast biopsy between March and June 2012 were recruited to undergo digital mammography (DM), DBT, and breast US examination. Among them, 113 patients with 119 breast lesions depicted on DM were finally included. Three blinded radiologists performed an enriched reader study and reviewed the DBT and US images. Each reader analyzed the lesions in random order, assigned Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) descriptors, rated the images for the likelihood of malignancy (%) and made a BI-RADS final assessment. Diagnostic accuracy, as assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity of DBT and US were compared. Results Among the 119 breast lesions depicted on DM, 75 were malignant and the remaining 44 were benign. The average diagnostic performance for characterizing breast lesions as benign or malignant in terms of area under the curve was 0.899 for DBT and 0.914 for US (p = 0.394). Mean sensitivity (97.3% vs. 98.7%, p = 0.508) and specificity (44.7% vs. 39.4%, p = 0.360) were also not significantly different. Conclusion Digital breast tomosynthesis may provide similar reader lesion characterization performance to that of US for breast lesions depicted on DM. PMID:25741187

  6. Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/bovine bone powder biocomposites: A potential biomaterial for the treatment of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nátali O; da Silva, Gabriela T; Weber, Douglas M; Luchese, Cristiane; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Fajardo, André R

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects a large percent of the world́s population. This long-lasting skin disease has been treated by different approaches according to its causative agent and severity. Nonetheless, the use of advanced biomaterials to treat AD is poorly explored. The present study assessed the protective effectiveness of biocomposites films based on chitosan (Cs), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and bovine bone powder (BBP) on AD-like skin lesions. These original biocomposites were fully characterized and in vivo biological assays concerning the AD treatment were performed using a mouse model induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The dorsal skin and ear of Balb/c female mice were challenging cutaneously with DNCB. Our findings demonstrate BBP-based biocomposite attenuated and treated considerably the DNCB-induced skin lesions in an AD-like model. In this sense, this study suggests that this original biocomposite may be applied as an active biomaterial for AD treatment. PMID:27185122

  7. Oral, nasal, and cutaneous eosinophilic granulomas in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): a lesion distinct from superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Pessier, Allan P; Munson, Linda; Miller, R Eric

    2004-03-01

    Oral, nasal, and cutaneous lesions resembling eosinophilic granulomas (EGs) were observed in eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis). Oral lesions were observed in all affected animals and occurred most often behind the prehensile lip. The typical clinical history of affected animals included oral bleeding or epistaxis from multilobulated, fungating, proliferative masses with areas of ulceration. Histologically, lesions were characterized by prominent infiltrates of eosinophils and rare foci of collagen degeneration on a background of marked submucosal or dermal neovascularization. Mucosal or epidermal hyperplasia was also present sometimes in association with distinctive epithelial degenerative changes consistent with superficial necrolytic dermatopathy of black rhinoceroses. Lesions of EG and superficial necrolytic dermatopathy were interpreted as being concurrently manifested in these cases. EG lesions spontaneously resolved over periods of 30 days-7 mo and were recurrent in three animals. Lesions were responsive to treatment with corticosteroids or to local cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Two animals treated with systemic corticosteroids died of disseminated fungal infections, emphasizing that corticosteroids should be used cautiously in black rhinoceroses. PMID:15193066

  8. Differential expression of inflammation-related genes in IL-4 transgenic mice before and after the onset of atopic dermatitis skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Zhang, Huayi; Mohan, Girish C; Shen, Kui; Chan, Lawrence S

    2016-02-01

    IL-4 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. We have generated IL-4 transgenic (Tg) mice by over-expressing IL-4 in the epidermis. These mice spontaneously develop chronic pruritic inflammatory skin lesions, which meet the clinical and histological diagnostic criteria for human AD. Systemic survey of immune-related genes in this mouse model, however, has not been performed. In this study, we utilize PCR array technique to examine hundreds of inflammation-related genes in the IL-4 Tg mice before and after the onset of skin lesions as well as in their wild type (WT) littermates. Only those genes with at least 2-fold up-regulation or down-regulation and with a P-value of less than 0.05 in comparison to WT controls were identified and analyzed. In the skin lesions, many chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and other AD-related factors are dysregulated compared to the wild type mice. Particularly, CXCL5, IL-1β, IL-24, IL-6, oncostatin M, PTGS2, FPR1 and REG3γ are up-regulated several hundred-fold. In the pre-lesional group that shows no obvious skin abnormality on clinical observation, 30 dysregulated genes are nevertheless identified though the fold changes are much less than that of the lesional group, including CCL6, CCL8, CCL11, CCL17, CXCL13, CXCL14, CXCR3 and IL-12Rβ2. Finally using ELISA, we demonstrate that 4 most dramatically up-regulated factors in the skin are also elevated in the peripheral blood of the IL-4 Tg mice. Taken together, our data have identified hundreds of dysregulated factors in the IL-4 Tg mice before and after the onset of skin lesions. Future detailed examination of these factors will shed light on our understanding of the development and progression of AD and help to discover important biomarkers for clinical AD diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26585782

  9. How do radiographic techniques affect mass lesion detection performance in digital mammography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Dudley, Eric F.; Dance, David R.

    2004-05-01

    We investigated how the x-ray tube kV and mAs affected the detection of simulated lesions with diameters between 0.24 and 12 mm. Digital mammograms were acquired with and without mass lesions, permitting a difference image to be generated corresponding to the lesion alone. Isolated digital lesions were added at a reduced intensity to non-lesion images, and used in Four-Alternate Forced Choice (4-AFC) experiments to determine the lesion intensity that corresponded to an accuracy of 92% (I92%). Values of I92% were determined at x-ray tube output values ranging from 40 to 120 mAs, and x-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 32 kV. For mass lesions larger than ~0.8 mm, there was no significant change in detection peformance with changing mAs. Doubling of the x-ray tube output from 60 to 120 mAs resulted in an average change in I92% of only +3.8%, whereas the Rose model of lesion detection predicts a reduction in the experimental value of I92% of -29%. For the 0.24 mm lesion, however, reducing the x-ray beam mAs from 100 to 40 mAs reduced the average detection performance by ~60%. Contrast-detail curves for lesions with diameter >= 0.8 mm had a slope of ~+0.23, whereas the Rose model predicts a slope of -0.5. For lesions smaller than ~0.8 mm, contrast-detail slopes were all negative with the average gradient increasing with decreasing mAs value. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 24 to 32 kV at a constant display contrast resulted in a modest improvement in low contrast lesion detection performance of ~10%. Increasing the display window width from 2000 to 2500 reduced the average observer performance by ~6%. Our principal finding is that radiographic technique factors have little effect on detection performance for lesions larger than ~0.8 mm, but that the visibility of smaller lesions is affected by quantum mottle in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Rose model.

  10. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms. PMID:27065570

  11. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In Sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26840656

  12. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  13. Drug-loaded PLGA-mPEG microparticles as treatment for atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuibin; Nie, Lei; Zou, Peng; Suo, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of mizolastine-loaded microparticles as therapy for atopic dermatitis. Microparticles have been researched for decades as a controlled-release drug delivery system, but seldom been used as treatment for skin disease. In this research, we induced dermatitis in BALB/c mice model by repeated topical application of dinitrofluorobenzene and compared the mizolastine microparticles injection and daily mizolastine injection treatment. The results showed that the mizolastine microparticles treatments significantly inhibited ear thickness and dermatitis index in dermatitis model compared with the dermatitis mice without treatment, showing a similar curative effect compared with daily mizolastine injection treatment, and the improvement continued for several days. Inflammatory cells infiltration into the ears and the plasma level of immunoglobulin E were also suppressed by mizolastine microparticles according to the histopathology analysis. In conclusion, the results suggested that drug-loaded microparticles could be a proper candidate for the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:25539424

  14. Atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Stephan; Novak, Natalija

    2016-03-12

    Atopic dermatitis (also known as atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterised by intense itching and recurrent eczematous lesions. Although it most often starts in infancy and affects two of ten children, it is also highly prevalent in adults. It is the leading non-fatal health burden attributable to skin diseases, inflicts a substantial psychosocial burden on patients and their relatives, and increases the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and mental health disorders. Originally regarded as a childhood disorder mediated by an imbalance towards a T-helper-2 response and exaggerated IgE responses to allergens, it is now recognised as a lifelong disposition with variable clinical manifestations and expressivity, in which defects of the epidermal barrier are central. Present prevention and treatment focus on restoration of epidermal barrier function, which is best achieved through the use of emollients. Topical corticosteroids are still the first-line therapy for acute flares, but they are also used proactively along with topical calcineurin inhibitors to maintain remission. Non-specific immunosuppressive drugs are used in severe refractory cases, but targeted disease-modifying drugs are being developed. We need to improve understanding of the heterogeneity of the disease and its subtypes, the role of atopy and autoimmunity, the mechanisms behind disease-associated itch, and the comparative effectiveness and safety of therapies. PMID:26377142

  15. Segmentation of skin lesions from digital images using joint statistical texture distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2014-04-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Incidence rates of melanoma have been increasing, especially among non-Hispanic white males and females, but survival rates are high if detected early. Due to the costs for dermatologists to screen every patient, there is a need for an automated system to assess a patient's risk of melanoma using images of their skin lesions captured using a standard digital camera. One challenge in implementing such a system is locating the skin lesion in the digital image. A novel texture-based skin lesion segmentation algorithm is proposed. A set of representative texture distributions are learned from an illumination-corrected photograph and a texture distinctiveness metric is calculated for each distribution. Next, regions in the image are classified as normal skin or lesion based on the occurrence of representative texture distributions. The proposed segmentation framework is tested by comparing lesion segmentation results and melanoma classification results to results using other state-of-art algorithms. The proposed framework has higher segmentation accuracy compared to all other tested algorithms. PMID:24658246

  16. Periocular dermatitis artefacta in a child.

    PubMed

    Soong, Terrence Kwong-Weng; Soong, Victor; Samsudin, Amir; Soong, Felicia; Sharma, Vikas; O'Donnell, Niall

    2006-12-01

    Dermatitis artifacta is a factitious dermatological disorder with many forms of presentation in any part of the body. It is commonly documented in dermatological cases but rarely presented as an ophthalmic condition. The diagnosis of dermatitis artifacta is often concluded after rigorous and repeated investigation. Histological sampling of skin lesions is usually required in these cases to exclude masquerading skin lesions such as basal cell carcinoma, vasculitis, or herpetic skin lesions. PMID:17189158

  17. In-plane visibility of lesions using breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Timberg, P.; Baath, M.; Andersson, I.; Mattsson, S.; Tingberg, A.; Ruschin, M.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the visibility of simulated lesions in 2D digital mammography (DM) and breast tomosynthesis (BT) images of patients. Methods: Images of the same women were acquired on both a DM system (Mammomat Novation, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and a BT prototype system adapted from the same type of DM system. Using the geometrical properties of the two systems, simulated lesions were projected and added to each DM image as well as to each BT projection image prior to 3D reconstruction. The same beam quality and approximately the same total absorbed dose to the glandular tissue were used for each breast image acquisition on the two systems. A series of four-alternative forced choice human observer experiments was conducted for each of five simulated lesion diameters: 0.2, 1, 3, 8, and 25 mm. An additional experiment was conducted for the 0.2 mm lesion in BT only at twice the dose level (BT{sub 2x}). Threshold signal was defined as the lesion signal intensity required for a detectability index (d{sup '}) of 2.5. Four medical physicists participated in all experiments. One experiment, consisting of 60 cases, was conducted per test condition (i.e., lesion size and signal combination). Results: For the smallest lesions (0.2 mm), the threshold signal for DM was 21% lower than for BT at equivalent dose levels, and BT{sub 2x} was 26% lower than DM. For the lesions larger than 1 mm, the threshold signal increased linearly (in log space) with the lesion diameter for both DM and BT, with DM requiring around twice the signal as BT. The difference in the threshold signal between BT and DM at each lesion size was statistically significant, except for the 0.2 mm lesion between BT{sub 2x} and DM. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that low-signal lesions larger than 1.0 mm may be more visible in BT compared to DM, whereas 0.2 mm lesions may be better visualized with DM compared to BT, when compared at equal dose.

  18. Single-digit arithmetic processing—anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mihulowicz, Urszula; Willmes, Klaus; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Klein, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Different specific mechanisms have been suggested for solving single-digit arithmetic operations. However, the neural correlates underlying basic arithmetic (multiplication, addition, subtraction) are still under debate. In the present study, we systematically assessed single-digit arithmetic in a group of acute stroke patients (n = 45) with circumscribed left- or right-hemispheric brain lesions. Lesion sites significantly related to impaired performance were found only in the left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) group. Deficits in multiplication and addition were related to subcortical/white matter brain regions differing from those for subtraction tasks, corroborating the notion of distinct processing pathways for different arithmetic tasks. Additionally, our results further point to the importance of investigating fiber pathways in numerical cognition. PMID:24847238

  19. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Skin Lesions Using Conventional Digital Photography: A Reliability and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Adam; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yin-Chun; Wu, Tian-Yau; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) software that provides a second opinion has been widely used to assist physicians with various tasks. In dermatology, however, CADx has been mostly limited to melanoma or melanocytic skin cancer diagnosis. The frequency of non-melanocytic skin cancers and the accessibility of regular digital macrographs have raised interest in developing CADx for broader applications. Objectives To investigate the feasibility of using CADx to diagnose both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions based on conventional digital photographic images. Methods This study was approved by an institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. In total, 769 conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions were retrospectively reviewed and used to develop a CADx system. Conventional and new color-related image features were developed to classify the lesions as benign or malignant using support vector machines (SVMs). The performance of CADx was compared with that of dermatologists. Results The clinicians' overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.33%, 85.88%, and 85.31%, respectively. New color correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) features improved the classification ability of the baseline CADx (p = 0.001). The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) of the proposed CADx system was 0.949, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.63% and 87.65%, respectively, and a maximum accuracy of 90.64%. Conclusions We have developed an effective CADx system to classify both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions using conventional digital macrographs. The system's performance was similar to that of dermatologists at our institute. Through improved feature extraction and SVM analysis, we found that conventional digital macrographs were feasible for providing useful information for CADx applications. The new color

  20. Morbilliviral dermatitis in seals.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, T P; Mense, M G; Habecker, P L; Taubenberger, J K; Schoelkopf, R

    2001-11-01

    A juvenile female hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and a juvenile male harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) stranded separately on the New Jersey (USA) coast and were taken to a marine mammal rehabilitation center. Both were lethargic and emaciated, had dermatitis, and died. Histologic skin lesions in the seals were similar and consisted of epidermal and follicular epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, degeneration, and necrosis. The most distinctive finding was extensive syncytial zones bounded superficially by hyperkeratosis and deeply by hyperplastic basal cells. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in epithelial cells. Morbilliviral antigen was demonstrated in the skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. Phocine distemper virus was detected in the skin by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and a phocine distemper virus-specific probe using the Southern blot technique. This is the first report of morbilliviral dermatitis in marine mammals. PMID:11732810

  1. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  2. An algorithm for the characterization of digital images of pigmented lesions of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera-González, Laura Y.; Delgado-Atencio, José A.; Valdiviezo-Navarro, Juan C.; Cunill-Rodríguez, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer in human in all over the world with an increase number of victims yearly. One traditional form of diagnosis melanoma is by using the so called ABCDE rule which stands for Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution of the lesion. For melanoma lesions, the color as a descriptor exhibits heterogeneous values, ranging from light brown to dark brown (sometimes blue reddish or even white). Therefore, investigating on color features from digital melanoma images could provide insights for developing automated algorithms for melanoma discrimination from common nevus. In this research work, an algorithm is proposed and tested to characterize the color in a pigmented lesion. The developed algorithm measures the hue of different sites in the same pigmented area from a digital image using the HSI color space. The algorithm was applied to 40 digital images of unequivocal melanomas and 40 images of common nevus, which were taken from several data bases. Preliminary results indicate that visible color changes of melanoma sites are well accounted by the proposed algorithm. Other factors, such as quality of images and the influence of the shiny areas on the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are discussed.

  3. Use of volumetric features for temporal comparison of mass lesions in full field digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Jelena Grgic, Mislav; Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Temporal comparison of lesions might improve classification between benign and malignant lesions in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). The authors compare the use of volumetric features for lesion classification, which are computed from dense tissue thickness maps, to the use of mammographic lesion area. Use of dense tissue thickness maps for lesion characterization is advantageous, since it results in lesion features that are invariant to acquisition parameters. Methods: The dataset used in the analysis consisted of 60 temporal mammogram pairs comprising 120 mediolateral oblique or craniocaudal views with a total of 65 lesions, of which 41 were benign and 24 malignant. The authors analyzed the performance of four volumetric features, area, and four other commonly used features obtained from temporal mammogram pairs, current mammograms, and prior mammograms. The authors evaluated the individual performance of all features and of different feature sets. The authors used linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross validation to classify different feature sets. Results: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs achieved the best individual performance, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z} value). Volume change (A{sub z} = 0.88) achieved higher A{sub z} value than projected lesion area change (A{sub z} = 0.78) in the temporal comparison of lesions. Best performance was achieved with a set that consisted of a set of features extracted from the current exam combined with four volumetric features representing changes with respect to the prior mammogram (A{sub z} = 0.90). This was significantly better (p = 0.005) than the performance obtained using features from the current exam only (A{sub z} = 0.77). Conclusions: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs combined with features from the single exam significantly improve discrimination of benign and malignant lesions in FFDM mammograms

  4. [Dermatitis artefacta presenting as photodermatosis].

    PubMed

    Sommerlad, M; Beier, C; Kaufmann, R

    2007-02-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a form of a self-injury due to psychiatric disorders or internal conflicts. Delayed diagnosis often leads to unnecessary treatments. A 17-year old girl was referred with a putative photodermatosis presenting with erosions on an erythematous base on the face and forearms. The unusual rapid onset of new lesions following phototesting and in particular a reaction induced after a simulated light exposure substantiated the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta. Faced with the diagnosed the patient admitted she had induced the lesions and was referred for psychiatric care. PMID:16705461

  5. Termino-lateral nerve suture in lesions of the digital nerves: clinical experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Artiaco, S; Tos, P; Conforti, L G; Geuna, S; Battiston, B

    2010-02-01

    Documented experience of treatment of digital nerve lesions with the termino-lateral (end-to-side) nerve suture is limited. Our clinical experience of this technique is detailed here alongside a systematic review of the previous literature. We performed, from 2002 to 2008, seven termino-lateral sutures with epineural window opening for digital nerve lesions. Functional outcome was analysed using the two-point discrimination test and the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test. The results showed a sensory recovery of S3+ in six cases and S3 in one case. The mean distance found in the two-point discrimination test was 12.7 mm (range 8-18 mm). After a review of the literature, we were able to obtain homogeneous data from 17 additional patients operated by termino-lateral coaptation. The overall number of cases included in our review was 24. A sensory recovery was observed in 23 out of 24 patients. The functional results were S0 in one case, S3 in one case, S3+ in twenty cases and S4 in two cases. Excluding the one unfavourable case, the mean distance in the two-point discrimination test was 9.7 mm (range 3-18 mm). It can thus be concluded that the treatment of digital nerve lesions with termino-lateral suture showed encouraging results. Based on the results obtained in this current study we believe that in case of loss of substance, end-to-side nerve coaptation may be an alternative to biological and synthetic tubulisation when a digital nerve reconstruction by means of nerve autograft is declined by the patient. PMID:19687081

  6. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. This condition is known as steroid-induced rosacea. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp may include ... Information for Patients All About Rosacea Faces of Rosacea Treatment Photos Rosacea FAQ Management Options Medical Therapy When ...

  7. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... might want you to use a prescription steroid lotion once or twice daily. Seborrheic dermatitis of the skin creases in adolescents and adults. Steroid lotions may be used in adolescents and adults. Seborrheic ...

  8. Perioral dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may occur after using face creams containing steroids for another condition. Young women are most likely ... Periorificial dermatitis may be brought on by: Topical steroids, either when they are applied to the face ...

  9. Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when conscious control of scratching is lost. The appearance of the skin that is affected by atopic ... social and emotional stress associated with changes in appearance caused by atopic dermatitis. The child may face ...

  10. Nummular Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggers such as frequent bathing, irritating and drying soaps, and exposure to irritating fabrics such as wool. ... dermatitis. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

  11. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... red patches on the skin. The normal skin yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, lives in oil-rich skin regions ... due to the body's inflammatory response to the yeast found on the skin. Seborrheic dermatitis seems to ...

  12. In Vitro Evaluation of Proximal Carious Lesions Using Digital Radiographic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Soares Vieira, Mayana; Parente Ribeiro Nogueira, Caroline; dos Santos Silva, Marcos André; de Oliveira Bauer, José Roberto; Matos Maia Filho, Etevaldo

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas. PMID:25695099

  13. In vitro evaluation of proximal carious lesions using digital radiographic systems.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mayana Soares; Nogueira, Caroline Parente Ribeiro; Silva, Marcos André dos Santos; Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas. PMID:25695099

  14. Topical skin treatment with Fab fragments of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody suppresses allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Sae-Wong, Chutha; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Kangsanant, Sureeporn; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-05-15

    Fab fragments (Fabs), which lack effector functions due to the absence of the Fc portion, maintain the ability to bind to specific allergens. In the present study, we examined whether Fabs of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were able to regulate allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. BALB/c mice passively sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE mAb were repeatedly challenged with OVA applied to the skin after sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. Fabs prepared by the digestion of anti-OVA IgG1 mAb (O1-10) with papain were applied to the skin 30min before the OVA challenges followed by measurement of clinical symptoms including erythema/hemorrhage, edema, scarring/dryness, and excoriation/erosion of the skin. Treatment with O1-10 Fabs, but not intact O1-10, showed inhibition of clinical symptoms (P<0.01) induced by the repeated OVA challenges in the sensitized mice; O1-10 Fabs suppressed histological changes such as epidermal hyperplasia (P<0.01) and the accumulation of mast cells (P<0.01) and neutrophils (P<0.01). Furthermore, treatment with O1-10 Fabs inhibited the increase in levels of IL-13 (P<0.01) and IL-17A production (P<0.05) in the lymph nodes of the sensitized mice. Additionally, the increased level of OVA in serum following the repeated OVA challenges in the sensitized mice was reduced by the treatment (P<0.05). These results suggest that topical application of pathogenic allergen-specific IgG1 mAb Fabs to the skin of mice is effective in suppressing allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions, suggesting that allergen-specific mAb Fabs could be used as a tool to regulate allergen-induced atopic dermatitis. PMID:26970183

  15. [Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Jerez, J

    1975-01-01

    There is a wide variety of criteria in regard to the etiology of atopic dermatitis of neurodermitis. The allergic factor may play a very important role in its etiology. There is neither a general agreement on the importance of food allergy in this regard. Broadly considered, these patients may evoke intense positive reactions to intradermal tests to food and inhalative allergens, nevertheless it will be possible to establish that the lesions appear or disappear after the exposure of suppression of the antigens which evoked the positive reaction. On this basis, many dermatologists deny the allergic etiology in atopic dermatitis, even though in most instances no food skin tests are performed. In this study, 110 patients, both children and adults of both sexes, suffering from atopic dermatitis are investigated. The onset in most of the cases is before the age of six months, following the ages between 1-10 years; the groups between 6 months and one year, and 10-20 years followed a descending order per decade until 70 years. 60.9% of the cases showed food allergy to one or more food items. In 39% of the cases, no food allergy was found. The food-stuffs more commonly involved were: milk (37.7%), egg (26.3%) and fish (20.9%), followed by coca, wheat flour, seafood, fruits, vegetables and meat. A remission of the reaction followed the suppression of the allergen. Intestinal parasitosis is evaluated in relation to atopic dermatitis. 30.9% of the 110 cases were affected with intestinal parasitosis, being the most common the flagelates (lamblias), protozoa (amoeba) and nematodes (ascaris, tricocephalus and oxijrus). Finally, a concurrence is found between atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases in 81 cases (73.6%), being bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis the most frequent, and allergic rhinitis, urticaria and Quincke's edema less frequent. PMID:1180202

  16. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?*

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  17. SU-D-BRF-04: Digital Tomosynthesis for Improved Daily Setup in Treatment of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H; Jones, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Daily localization of liver lesions with cone-beam CT (CBCT) is difficult due to poor image quality caused by scatter, respiratory motion, and the lack of radiographic contrast between the liver parenchyma and the lesion(s). Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is investigated as a modality to improve liver visualization and lesion/parenchyma contrast for daily setup. Methods: An in-house tool was developed to generate DTS images using a point-by-point filtered back-projection method from on-board CBCT projection data. DTS image planes are generated in a user defined orientation to visualize the anatomy at various depths. Reference DTS images are obtained from forward projection of the planning CT dataset at each projection angle. The CBCT DTS image set can then be registered to the reference DTS image set as a means for localization. Contour data from the planning CT's associate RT Structure file and forward projected similarly to the planning CT data. DTS images are created for each contoured structure, which can then be overlaid onto the DTS images for organ volume visualization. Results: High resolution DTS images generated from CBCT projections show fine anatomical detail, including small blood vessels, within the patient. However, the reference DTS images generated from forward projection of the planning CT lacks this level of detail due to the low resolution of the CT voxels as compared to the pixel size in the projection images; typically 1mm-by-1mm-by-3mm (lat, vrt, lng) for the planning CT vs. 0.4mm-by-0.4mm for CBCT projections. Overlaying of the contours onto the DTS image allows for visualization of structures of interest. Conclusion: The ability to generate DTS images over a limited range of projection angles allows for reduction in the amount of respiratory motion within each acquisition. DTS may provide improved visualization of structures and lesions as compared to CBCT for highly mobile tumors.

  18. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  19. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  20. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Raza, Naeem; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2006-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis, a type of irritant contact dermatitis attributed to a Staphylinid beetle, is prevalent in most parts of the world. We studied 50 cases of Paederus dermatitis at the United Nations Hospital at Koidu Sierra Leone (West Africa), over a period of 6 months from Oct 2003 to Mar 2004. The objectives of the study were to determine clinical patterns of dermatitis and its response to topical steroids, with and without antibiotics. Patients with a definite history of contact with the insect were included in the study. Amongst these, 14 of the more severe cases were treated with oral prednisolone or intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. The remainder of the 36 patients were divided in two equal groups A and B. Patients in Group A were treated with topical diflucortolone valerate 0.001 percent and oral cetirizine hydrochloride; patients in group B were given oral ciprofloxacin in addition. In 50 patients studied, 43 (86%) were males and 7 (14%) were females. The neck was the most common site involved followed by face. Healing time ranged from 14 to 28 days and lesions in all the patients healed with residual dyschromia. Healing time was shorter in Group B patients in comparison with those in Group A. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone is a relatively severe form of this dermatitis. The better response to a combination of topical steroids and oral antibiotics may indicate concurrent bacterial infection. PMID:17459295

  1. Fusion of digital breast tomosynthesis images via wavelet synthesis for improved lesion conspicuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Harishwaran; Pomponiu, Victor; Zheng, Bin; Whiting, Bruce; Gur, David

    2014-03-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the most common screening procedure for detecting early breast cancer. However, due to complications such as overlapping breast tissue in projection images, the efficacy of FFDM reading is reduced. Recent studies have shown that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with FFDM, increases detection sensitivity considerably while decreasing false-positive, recall rates. There is a huge interest in creating diagnostically accurate 2-D interpretations from the DBT slices. Most of the 2-D syntheses rely on visualizing the maximum intensities (brightness) from each slice through different methods. We propose a wavelet based fusion method, where we focus on preserving holistic information from larger structures such as masses while adding high frequency information that is relevant and helpful for diagnosis. This method enables the spatial generation of a 2D image from a series of DBT images, each of which contains both smooth and coarse structures distributed in the wavelet domain. We believe that the wavelet-synthesized images, generated from their DBT image datasets, provide radiologists with improved lesion and micro-calcification conspicuity as compared with FFDM images. The potential impact of this fusion method is (1) Conception of a device-independent, data-driven modality that increases the conspicuity of lesions, thereby facilitating early detection and potentially reducing recall rates; (2) Reduction of the accompanying radiation dose to the patient.

  2. Shiitake dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Camila Nemoto de; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves E; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Nishimori, Fátima Satomi; Cassia, Flavia de Freire

    2015-01-01

    Shiitake Dermatitis is a skin eruption that resembles whiplash marks and occurs after consumption of raw shiitake mushrooms. It is caused by a toxic reaction to lentinan, a thermolabil polysaccharide which decomposes upon heating. We report the second case of this dermatitis in Brazil. A 25-year-old man presented with linearly arranged erythematous, pruritic papules on the trunk and limbs, after ingestion of a salad containing raw shiitake mushrooms. The eruption was self-limited, resolving within 10 days of onset. The recognition of this entity gains importance due to the increased consumption of shiitake mushrooms in occidental countries. PMID:25831007

  3. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. PMID:21882101

  4. Cheyletiella dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Powell, R F; Palmer, S M; Palmer, C H; Smith, E B

    1977-10-01

    A mild dermatitis probably due to Cheyletiella yasguri was observed in 2 persons whose pet dog was infested with this parasite. Cheyletiella mites differ morphologically from sarcoptic mites, which cause canine and human scabies. Treatment of man and dog with 1% gamma benzene hexachloride is usually successful in clearing this condition. PMID:72050

  5. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 1-3% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation involving T cells and complement. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical steroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furate). PMID:19454093

  6. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 10% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation by still poorly defined mechanisms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical corticosteroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furoate). PMID:21418692

  7. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control. PMID:20826990

  8. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  9. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vazales, Ryan; Constant, Dustin; Snyder, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa) is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC), marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC) and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended.

  10. Detection of colonic malignant lesions by digital imaging of UV laser-induced autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chwirot, B W; Michniewicz, Z; Kowalska, M; Nussbeutel, J

    1999-03-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate whether digital imaging of autofluorescence could be applied in the detection of colonic malignancies. Autofluorescence was excited with a 325 nm line from a He-Cd laser. Images were recorded in vitro in six spectral bands. The material for study was 50 resected specimens for which images of 64 areas were recorded. The main result is the observation that for a majority of malignant and premalignant lesions the intensity of autofluorescence was lower than for the corresponding normal mucosa in all of the spectral bands selected for imaging. The spectral bands centered around 440 nm and 475 nm seem to be most promising in terms of possible future clinical applications. PMID:10089825

  11. Correlative analysis of breast lesions on full-field digital mammography and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yading

    Multi-modality imaging techniques are increasingly being applied in clinical practice to improve the accuracy with which breast cancer can be diagnosed. However, interpreting images from different modalities is not trivial as different images of the same lesion may exhibit different physical lesion attributes, and currently the various image modality acquisitions are performed under different breast positioning protocols. The general objective of this research is to investigate computerized correlative feature analysis (CFA) methods for integrating information from full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) images by taking advantage of the information from different imaging modalities, and thus improving the diagnostic ability of computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) in breast cancer workup. The main hypothesis to be tested is that by incorporating correlative feature analysis in CADx, one can achieve an accurate and efficient discrimination between corresponding and non-corresponding lesion pairs, and subsequently improve performance in the estimation of computer-estimated probabilities of malignancy. The main contributions of this research work are summarized as follows. (1) A novel active-contour model based algorithm was developed for lesion segmentation on mammograms. This new algorithm yielded a statistically improved segmentation performance as compared to previously developed methods: a region-growing method and a radial gradient index (RGI) based method. (2) A computerized feature-based, supervised-learning driven CFA method was investigated to identify corresponding lesions in different mammographic views. The performance obtained by combining multiple features was found to be statistically better than the use of a distance feature alone, and robust across different mammographic view combinations. (3) A multi-modality CADx method that automatically selects and combines discriminative information from

  12. Neurotic excoriations and dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Koblenzer, Caroline S; Gupta, Rishu

    2013-06-01

    Neurotic Excoriations is a psychocutaneous disorder that is characterized by an uncontrollable urge to pick at normal skin or skin with mild irregularities. Dermatitis Artefacta is another psychocutaneous disorder that consists of self-induced skin lesions often involving a more elaborate method for damaging the skin, such as the use of a sharp instrument. Both neurotic excoriations and dermatitis artefacta cause significant disfigurement and anxiety for the patient. Since patients often present to dermatologists first, it is important for dermatologists to be aware of the nature of each condition and the available treatment options. This article provides an update on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment options for neurotic excoriations and dermatitis artefacta. PMID:24049967

  13. [Dermatitis artefacta in a young girl].

    PubMed

    Gil-Bistes, D; Kluger, N; Guillot, B; Bessis, D

    2010-11-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a self-inflicted skin disease during which the patient denies having produced and is not conscious of the psychological need he or she needs to satisfy through the lesions. Suggestive clinical features often include bizarre, linear, or geometric outlines of accessible parts of the body and an ambiguous history of the lesions. Dermatitis artefacta in children is often associated with familial dysfunction and/or problems at school. We report a case of acute linear purpuric lesions of the upper right limb in a 12-year-old girl. PMID:20880677

  14. Perioral dermatitis: an uncommon condition?

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Epstein, J D; Lane, P R

    1986-01-01

    To document the persistence of perioral dermatitis at dermatology clinics at University Hospital, Saskatoon, we reviewed the charts of all patients with the condition seen between January 1983 and March 1985. Patients with rosacea referred to the clinics during the same period were used as a comparison group. A total of 80 patients with perioral dermatitis and 117 patients with rosacea were seen during the study period; most were female. Those with perioral dermatitis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter mean duration of the eruption before presentation than those with rosacea (p less than 0.001). The distribution of the lesions was different in the two groups. Sixty-eight (85%) of the patients with perioral dermatitis and 45 (38%) of those with rosacea had used topical corticosteroids, a postulated risk factor for perioral dermatitis; the use of potent topical corticosteroids was frequent in both groups. Despite continuing medical education on the dangers of chronic use of these agents for eruptions on the face, physicians continue to prescribe them. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2938708

  15. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Thomas; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. It may be associated with pruritus, and it primarily affects sebum-rich areas, such as the scalp, face, upper chest, and back. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, some postulate that the condition results from colonization of the skin of affected individuals with species of the genus Malassezia (formerly, Pityrosporum). A variety of treatment modalities are available, including eradication of the fungus, reducing or treating the inflammatory process, and decreasing sebum production. PMID:20592880

  16. Assessment of enamel-dentin caries lesions detection using bitewing PSP digital images

    PubMed Central

    TORRES, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; SANTOS, Aline da Silva; NEVES, Frederico Sampaio; ARRIAGA, Marcel Lautenschlager; CAMPOS, Paulo Sérgio Flores; CRUSOÉ-REBELLO, Iêda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of enamel-dentin occlusal caries using photostimulable phosphor plates. Material and Methods The ability to detect enamel-dentin occlusal caries in 607 premolars and molars from 47 patients between 10 and 18 years old, referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations, using the criteria proposed in a previous study. A total of 156 bitewing digital images were obtained using Digora® (Soredex Medical Systems, Helsinki, Finland) phosphor plates. The plates were scanned and the images were captured and displayed on a computer screen. Image evaluation was done using Digora® for Windows 2.1 software, Soredex®. The radiologists were allowed to use enhancement tools to obtain better visibility during scoring of the teeth based on the radiographic criteria proposed in a previous study. Descriptive analysis and chi-squared proportion tests were done at 5% significance level. Results The results of clinical examination showed a higher prevalence of teeth with a straight dark line or demineralization of the occlusal fissure (score 1) and a lower prevalence of sealed teeth (score 5). In the bitewing digital images, 47 teeth presented visible radiolucency, circumscribed, in dentin under occlusal enamel (enamel-dentin caries lesions). Conclusions Correlating the clinical and radiographic findings, it was found that in the majority of teeth diagnosed by radiographic images as having enamel-dentin caries, no caries could be detected by clinical examination. PMID:21986650

  17. Mechanism underlying the effect of combined therapy using glucosamine and low-dose cyclosporine A on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Seok; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Lee, Ai-Young

    2013-02-01

    Combination therapy is often used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) to improve clinical efficacy or to spare the dose of each drug. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a calcineurin inhibitor that was developed for the treatment of AD. Glucosamine (Glu) is a potent immunosuppressant that inhibits Th2-mediated immunity. We previously reported that Glu has an ameliorative effect on the development of the pathology in NC/Nga mice. The aims of our study were to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of combination of Glu and low-dose CsA in dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and to determine the underlying therapeutic mechanisms. The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 7 were used for treatment with Glu (500mg/kg) alone, low-dose CsA (2, 5, and 10mg/kg) or in combination. The clinical scores were reduced significantly by the combination treatment with Glu and low-dose CsA. The suppression of dermatitis by combined therapy was accompanied by decrease in the plasma level of IgE and in the splenic level of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TARC and eotaxin. Histological analysis of the skin also revealed that combination treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate, including mast cells and eosinophils. Particularly, immunological evaluation reveals an increase of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in the combined treatment. The induction of TSLP, which leads to systemic Th2 response, was reduced in the skin on combination treatment. The protein expression of filaggrin and involucrin was recovered by combination treatment in the skin lesions, whereas the protein expression of keratin-10 and keratin-14 decreased in the combination treatment. Collectively, our findings suggest that combination treatment of Glu and low-dose CsA leads to the therapeutic effects in Df-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice through inhibition of IgE, inflammatory cellular infiltrate, and recovery of skin barrier function via a mechanism that may

  18. Topical Application of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Attenuates the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by Suppressing Serum IgE Levels, IFN-γ, and IL-4 in Nc/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Jung Bok; Kang, Suna

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum L. (CIL) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent in Asia and our preliminary study revealed that CIL reduced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated HaCaT cells, a human keratinocyte cell line. We investigated the atopic dermatitis (AD) effect of topically applied CIL in mice with AD-like symptoms. After topical application of 1,3-butylen glycol (control), CIL-Low (5%), CIL-High (30%), or 0.1% hydrocortisone (HC) on the AD-like skin lesions in DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice for 5 weeks, the ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG1, IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ were measured. The gene expressions of IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-γ in the dorsal skin were assayed. CIL treatment dosedependently reduced severity of clinical symptoms of dorsal skin, ear thickness, and the number of mast cells and eosinophils. CIL-High significantly decreased serum IgE, IgG1, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels and reduced mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 in dorsal skin lesion. The improvement by CIL-High was similar to HC, but without its adverse effects such as skin atrophy maceration, and secondary infection. In conclusion, CIL may be an effective alternative substance for the management of AD. PMID:22454686

  19. Contact Dermatitis (Including Latex Dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Contact dermatitis (including latex dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics) Authors ... defined as an inflammation of the skin [ 1 ]. Contact dermatitis refers to dermatitis that is caused by ...

  20. Serotonergic Markers in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Aram; El-Nour, Husameldin; Lonne-Rahm, Sol-Britt; Fransson, Oscar; Johansson, Charlotta; Johansson, Björn; Zubeidi, Marwe; Seeberg, Emma; Djurfeldt, Diana Radu; Azmitia, Efrain C; Nordlind, Klas

    2016-08-23

    Stress and anxiety may worsen atopic dermatitis (AD) through the serotonin system. Serotonergic expression was measured in 28 patients with AD in relation to extent of the disease (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis; SCORAD), pruritus intensity (visual analogue scale; VAS), anxiety traits (Swedish Universities Scales of Personality; SSP) and depression (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self assessment; MADRS-S). Biopsies were taken from lesional and non-lesional AD skin, and investigated for expression of serotonin, its receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2, and serotonin transporter protein (SERT), using immunohistochemistry. 5-HT1AR-immunoreactivity (ir) was higher in lesional skin in apical epidermis and in mast cell-like cells in dermis, and 5-HT2AR-ir in apical epidermis and on blood vessels. In contrast, a basement membrane 5-HT2AR-ir signal was higher in non-lesional skin. The distribution of SERT-ir in the basal epidermal layer was higher in lesional skin. Positive and negative correlations were found between serotonergic markers and SCORAD, inflammation, pruritus intensity, anxiety traits, and depression score, indicating that serotonergic mechanisms are involved in AD. PMID:26831833

  1. Improvement of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by IL-4 inhibition of P14 protein isolated from Lactobacillus casei in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Kim, Tai Hoon; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2015-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a complex etiology encompassing immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and is exacerbated by a variety of environmental factors, which contribute to its pathogenesis. However, the etiology of AD remains unknown. Recently, reports have documented the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. The LAB, Lactobacillus casei (LC), is frequently used in the treatment of AD. To identify the active component of LC, we screened fractions obtained from the ion exchange chromatography of LC extracts. Using this approach, we identified the candidate protein, P14. We examined whether the P14 protein has anti-atopic properties, using both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that the P14 protein selectively downregulated serum IgE and interleukin-4 cytokine levels, as well as the AD index and scratching score in AD-like NC/Nga mice. In addition, histological examination was also effective in mice. These results suggest that the P14 protein has potential therapeutic effects and that it may also serve as an effective immunomodulatory agent for treating patients with AD. PMID:25687448

  2. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  3. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  4. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  5. A Case of Dermatitis Neglecta

    PubMed Central

    Han, You Jin; Kim, So Young; Choi, Hae Young; Myung, Ki Bum

    2008-01-01

    Dermatitis neglecta (unwashed dermatosis) presents as pigmented hyperkeratotic plaques with adherent scales which clinically resembles psoriasis. This condition is the result of avoiding washing the affected areas, so the lesions are characteristically resolved with normal washing or with gentle wiping from an alcohol swab. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an asymptomatic hyperkeratotic scaly plaque on umbilicus. A skin biopsy was done under the clinical impression of psoriasis. During skin biopsy, gentle swabbing with H2O2 and saline gauze was done. The patient revisited our clinic 10 days after the skin biopsy and the hyperkeratotic lesion had cleared. Histologic examination showed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and anastomosing rete ridges. There has been no previous report of dermatitis neglecta with histologic confirmation, and so this case could be the first report to provide the histologic characteristics of dermatitis neglecta. Because this condition might be overlooked and underdiagnosed, recognizing its existence and cause are important to avoid unnecessary biopsies and potentially aggressive therapeutic measures. PMID:27303207

  6. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  7. A computer simulation study comparing lesion detection accuracy with digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Xing; Glick, Stephen J.; Liu, Bob; Vedula, Aruna A.; Thacker, Samta

    2006-04-15

    Although conventional mammography is currently the best modality to detect early breast cancer, it is limited in that the recorded image represents the superposition of a three-dimensional (3D) object onto a 2D plane. Recently, two promising approaches for 3D volumetric breast imaging have been proposed, breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT breast imaging (CTBI). To investigate possible improvements in lesion detection accuracy with either breast tomosynthesis or CT breast imaging as compared to digital mammography (DM), a computer simulation study was conducted using simulated lesions embedded into a structured 3D breast model. The computer simulation realistically modeled x-ray transport through a breast model, as well as the signal and noise propagation through a CsI based flat-panel imager. Polyenergetic x-ray spectra of Mo/Mo 28 kVp for digital mammography, Mo/Rh 28 kVp for BT, and W/Ce 50 kVp for CTBI were modeled. For the CTBI simulation, the intensity of the x-ray spectra for each projection view was determined so as to provide a total average glandular dose of 4 mGy, which is approximately equivalent to that given in conventional two-view screening mammography. The same total dose was modeled for both the DM and BT simulations. Irregular lesions were simulated by using a stochastic growth algorithm providing lesions with an effective diameter of 5 mm. Breast tissue was simulated by generating an ensemble of backgrounds with a power law spectrum, with the composition of 50% fibroglandular and 50% adipose tissue. To evaluate lesion detection accuracy, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed with five observers reading an ensemble of images for each case. The average area under the ROC curves (A{sub z}) was 0.76 for DM, 0.93 for BT, and 0.94 for CTBI. Results indicated that for the same dose, a 5 mm lesion embedded in a structured breast phantom was detected by the two volumetric breast imaging systems, BT and CTBI, with statistically

  8. Atopic March from Atopic Dermatitis to Asthma-Like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice Is Accelerated or Aggravated by Neutralization of Stratum Corneum but Partially Inhibited by Acidification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Jin; Lee, Noo Ri; Jung, Minyoung; Kim, Dong Hye; Choi, Eung Ho

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged and/or repeated damage to the skin barrier followed by atopic dermatitis (AD) is an initial step in atopic march that ultimately progresses to respiratory allergy. Maintaining normal stratum corneum (SC) acidity has been suggested as a therapeutic or preventive strategy for barrier impairment caused by skin inflammation. We determined whether a representative AD murine model, NC/Nga mice, develops airway inflammation after repeated epicutaneous application followed by inhalation of house dust mite (HDM), implying atopic march, and whether prolongation of non-proper SC acidity accelerates respiratory allergy. HDM was applied to the skin of NC/Nga mice, accompanied by the application of neutral cream (pH 7.4) or acidic cream (pH 2.8) for 6 weeks. Intranasal inhalation of HDM was administered daily during the last 3 days. Repeated epicutaneous applications followed by inhalation of HDM in NC/Nga mice induced an atopic march-like progression from AD lesions to respiratory allergy. Concurrent neutral cream treatment accelerated or aggravated the allergic inflammation in the skin and respiratory system, whereas an acidic cream partially alleviated these symptoms. Collectively, we developed an atopic march in NC/Nga mice by HDM application, and found that prevention of a neutral environment in the SC may be an interventional method to inhibit the march. PMID:26399697

  9. Atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune abnormalities. There are no specific diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient’s history and clinical manifestations. Successful management of the disorder requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, optimal skin care practices, anti-inflammatory treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), the use of first-generation antihistamines to help manage sleep disturbances, and the treatment of skin infections. Systemic corticosteroids may also be used, but are generally reserved for the acute treatment of severe flare-ups. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for AD, and evidence suggests that these agents may also be beneficial for the prophylaxis of disease flare-ups. Although the prognosis for patients with AD is generally favourable, those patients with severe, widespread disease and concomitant atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are likely to experience poorer outcomes. PMID:22166055

  10. Characterization and classification of psittacine atherosclerotic lesions by histopathology, digital image analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier G; Holder, Kali; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a degenerative and inflammatory vascular disease characterized in mammals and birds by the accumulation of inflammatory cells, lipids, calcium, and formation of large fibrofatty lesions within the intima of arteries resulting in the disorganization of the arterial wall and stenosis of the lumen. Despite the high incidence of atherosclerosis in parrots and the high number of case reports, there are few pathologic investigations and the ultrastructural study of the lesions has not been documented. Sixty-three major arteries were collected from 24 psittacine birds of 11 species during routine post-mortem examinations. Samples from the major arteries were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and 1.25% glutaraldehyde, and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional samples were fixed in 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. Additional histochemical stains for calcium, elastic fibres, and lipid were performed. Toluidine blue-stained 0.5 µm-thick resin sections were also obtained. Digital image analysis was performed to provide objective quantitative information on the different lesions. The histopathology and ultrastructure of psittacine atherosclerosis were found to be similar to other avian and mammalian species. Seven lesion types could be described, which were similar to the human classification system. Digital image analysis, TEM, and SEM helped to further describe the lesions and refine the classification system. TEM findings were similar to other avian and mammalian species with the notable presence of macrophage-derived and smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells and extracellular lipid. SEM revealed various stages of endothelial surface defects and, occasionally, adherent blood cells. PMID:21879992

  11. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377

  12. Seborrheic dermatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Kralj, Martina; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Lakoš Jukić, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. The prevalence of adult seborrheic dermatitis is estimated at 5%. Although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis has yet to be understood, Malassezia yeasts, hormones (androgens), sebum levels and immune response are known to play important roles in its development. Additional factors including drugs, winter temperatures and stress may exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis. A variety of treatment modalities are available, including antifungal agents, topical low-potency steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators). This review summarizes current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis and therapy of adult seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:22726283

  13. Transgenic rat model of childhood-onset dermatitis by overexpressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Ryosuke; Sato, Atsuko; Hamada, Shun; Yagi, Takeshi; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Murakami, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Childhood-onset dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children. Although various mouse models that mirror aspects of dermatitis have become available, there is still a need for an animal model that develops dermatitis in childhood and is more suitable for performing tissue transplantation experiments. There is emerging evidence that peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with dermatitis have significantly increased telomerase activity. Here, we developed telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-expressing transgenic (Tg) rats that spontaneously developed eczematous skin inflammation in childhood. Newborn TERT-Tg rats developed visible dermatitis in 56 % of cases, and the skin lesions microscopically showed spongiosis and acanthosis with infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis exhibited increased CD4 (2.5-fold) and CD8 (fivefold) T cell numbers compared with dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. Stronger TERT activity was observed in the peripheral lymphocytes of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats than those of dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that IL-4 was markedly elevated in the spleen of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats, and that interferon-gamma was increased in the dermatitis lesions. Moreover, skin grafting of TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis onto T cell-deficient nude rats demonstrated that the inflamed skin lesions could not be maintained. Taken together, the results suggest that TERT activation in T lymphocytes is one of the potential predisposing factors for dermatitis. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the TERT-Tg rats mirror aspects of human childhood-onset dermatitis and that these animals represent a potential animal model system for studying childhood-onset dermatitis. PMID:26885830

  14. A comparison of lesion detection accuracy using digital mammography and flat-panel CT breast imaging (Honorable Mention Poster Award)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xing; Vedula, Aruna A.; Thacker, Samta; Glick, Stephen J.

    2005-04-01

    Although conventional mammography is currently the best modality to detect early breast cancer, it is limited in that the recorded image represents the superposition of a 3D object onto a 2D plane. As an alternative, cone-beam CT breast imaging with a CsI based flat-panel imager (CTBI) has been proposed with the ability to provide 3D visualization of breast tissue. To investigate possible improvements in lesion detection accuracy using CTBI over digital mammography (DM), a computer simulation study was conducted using simulated lesions embedded into a structured 3D breast model. The computer simulation realistically modeled x-ray transport through a breast model, as well as the signal and noise propagation through the flat-panel imager. Polyenergetic x-ray spectra of W/Al 50 kVp for CTBI and Mo/Mo 28 kVp for DM were modeled. For the CTBI simulation, the intensity of the x-ray spectra for each projection view was determined so as to provide a total mean glandular dose (MGD) of 4 mGy, which is approximately equivalent to that given in a conventional two-view screening mammography study. Since only one DM view was investigated here, the intensity of the DM x-ray spectra was defined to give 2 mGy MGD. Irregular lesions were simulated by using a stochastic growth algorithm providing lesions with an effective diameter of 5 mm. Breast tissue was simulated by generating an ensemble of backgrounds with a power law spectrum. To evaluate lesion detection accuracy, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed with 4 observers reading an ensemble of images for each case. The average area under the ROC curves (Az) was 0.94 for CTBI, and 0.81 for DM. Results indicate that a 5 mm lesion embedded in a structured breast phantom can be detected by CT breast imaging with statistically significant higher confidence than with digital mammography.

  15. Munchausen syndrome as dermatitis simulata.

    PubMed

    Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819

  16. Munchausen Syndrome as Dermatitis Simulata

    PubMed Central

    Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819

  17. Pattern of Bacterial Colonization of Atopic Dermatitis in Saudi Children

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Jalal Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Issa; Robaee, Ahmad A. Al; Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Shobaili, Hani A. Al; Al-Khowailed, Mohammed Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disorder. Although it is not a life threatening condition, it may become infected with microorganisms, especially in children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine bacterial colonisation in children with atopic dermatitis. Methods: A total of 80 children were randomly included in this study. Two swabs were taken from each child, one from the eczematous skin lesion and the other from apparently healthy skin, as a control. Bacteria were isolated and identified on the basis of the colonial morphology, gram staining and the Vitek System. Results: The mean age of children in this study was 1.4 years, with no gender difference (p=0.98) (n=80). A total of 240 bacterial colonies were grown from atopic dermatitis lesions in contrast to 193 colonies from non–lesional skin. Gram–positive cocci were found in 78 (97.5%) lesions and in 77 (96.2%) non–lesional skin. Staphylococci species were significantly detected in the lesions than in the non–lesional skin. Ent. Faecalis, Ent. Faecium, Ent. gallinarium and C. minutissium were significantly isolated from lesions as compared to non–lesional skin, whereas C. xerosis was insignificantly found to be more in the lesions (p=0.21). Gram–negative bacteria were isolated from 7(8.8%) lesions, but none were isolated from non–lesional skin. Recovered species were Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter Iwoffii. Conclusion: Atopic dermatitis in children is complicated with streptococcal and gram–negative bacterial colonisations and the latter was correlated with the severity of the lesions. Enterococci and Corynebacterium species were significant residents. S. aureus remained the chief inhabitant. No causal relationship could be established between the skin microbiota and atopic dermatitis. PMID:24179911

  18. Identification of error making patterns in lesion detection on digital breast tomosynthesis using computer-extracted image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengyu; Zhang, Jing; Grimm, Lars J.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Walsh, Ruth; Johnson, Karen S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can improve lesion visibility by eliminating the issue of overlapping breast tissue present in mammography. However, this new modality likely requires new approaches to training. The issue of training in DBT is not well explored. We propose a computer-aided educational approach for DBT training. Our hypothesis is that the trainees' educational outcomes will improve if they are presented with cases individually selected to address their weaknesses. In this study, we focus on the question of how to select such cases. Specifically, we propose an algorithm that based on previously acquired reading data predicts which lesions will be missed by the trainee for future cases (i.e., we focus on false negative error). A logistic regression classifier was used to predict the likelihood of trainee error and computer-extracted features were used as the predictors. Reader data from 3 expert breast imagers was used to establish the ground truth and reader data from 5 radiology trainees was used to evaluate the algorithm performance with repeated holdout cross validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to measure the performance of the proposed individual trainee models. The preliminary experimental results for 5 trainees showed the individual trainee models were able to distinguish the lesions that would be detected from those that would be missed with the average area under the ROC curve of 0.639 (95% CI, 0.580-0.698). The proposed algorithm can be used to identify difficult cases for individual trainees.

  19. Caterpillar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, K; Freeman, S

    1997-11-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with recurrent urticarial eruptions presumed due to infestation of her garden with Euproctis edwardsi, Euproctis edwardsi, the mistletoe browntail moth is a variety of hairy caterpillar widely distributed in south-eastern Australia. They are often called 'woolly bears' by children. These caterpillars possess barbed hairs that fragment readily and are difficult to extract from the skin in one piece. Itching urticarial wheals and papular eruptions can follow contact with the caterpillars or their detached hairs. The hairlets may be identified by microscopy from skin scrapings and can be removed by tape stripping or with the aid of fine forceps. The skin lesions are treated symptomatically with calamine lotion, sodium bicarbonate solution and antihistamines. Infestation with Euproctis edwardsi can be minimized by removal of mistletoe from eucalyptus trees and by spraying affected areas with white oil or carbaryl 0.1%. PMID:9431713

  20. Dissociative identity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Aydemir, Ertugrul H; Oguz, Oya

    2006-06-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by rubbing of skin blisters and denial of self-infliction. Dissociation may be comorbid with self-injurious behavior. A background of emotional disturbances during formative years and in later life often results in feelings of isolation and insecurity, which can lead to dissociation as a primary defense mechanism used to overcome traumatic events. In this case report, we describe a female patient with dermatitis artefacta associated with dissociative identity disorder. The patient was a 14-year-old girl. Multiple large, deep ulcerations with unnatural shapes were seen on her left forearm. The ulcerations were thought to be self-inflicted. Psychiatric examination revealed that she had a different identity, and inflicted the lesions when this was assumed. This case leads us to suggest that patients with dermatitis artefacta might have comorbid dissociative experiences, which cannot be identified easily. PMID:16796649

  1. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands. PMID:25013264

  2. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands. PMID:25013264

  3. Detection of retinal lesions in diabetic retinopathy: comparative evaluation of 7-field digital color photography versus red-free photography.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Sharma, Reetika; Vashist, Nagender; Vohra, Rajpal; Garg, Satpal

    2015-10-01

    Red-free light allows better detection of vascular lesions as this wavelength is absorbed by hemoglobin; however, the current gold standard for the detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy remains 7-field color fundus photography. The goal of this study was to compare the ability of 7-field fundus photography using red-free light to detect retinopathy lesions with corresponding images captured using standard 7-field color photography. Non-stereoscopic standard 7-field 30° digital color fundus photography and 7-field 30° digital red-free fundus photography were performed in 200 eyes of 103 patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy ranging from mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The color images (n = 1,400) were studied with corresponding red-free images (n = 1,400) by one retina consultant (PV) and two senior residents training in retina. The various retinal lesions [microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, soft exudates, intra-retinal microvascular anomalies (IRMA), neovascularization of the retina elsewhere (NVE), and neovascularization of the disc (NVD)] detected by all three observers in each of the photographs were noted followed by determination of agreement scores using κ values (range 0-1). Kappa coefficient was categorized as poor (≤0), slight (0.01-0.20), fair (0.2 -0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), substantial (0.61-0.80), and almost perfect (0.81-1). The number of lesions detected by red-free images alone was higher for all observers and all abnormalities except hard exudates. Detection of IRMA was especially higher for all observers with red-free images. Between image pairs, there was substantial agreement for detection of hard exudates (average κ = 0.62, range 0.60-0.65) and moderate agreement for detection of hemorrhages (average κ = 0.52, range 0.45-0.58), soft exudates (average κ = 0.51, range 0.42-0.61), NVE (average κ = 0.47, range 0.39-0.53), and NVD

  4. Cashew nut dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, T; Fordice, D B

    1994-04-01

    The urushiol dermatitis caused by plants of the Anacardiaceae family is the most common cause of acute allergic contact dermatitis. We have reported a case of cashew nut urushiol dermatitis due to ingestion of homemade cashew nut butter contaminated by cashew nut shell oil. With the precautions taken today to avoid contamination of food products with cashew urushiols, it is rare to find a case of cashew nut dermatitis in the United States. We have found no other report of contact dermatitis due to cashew nut butter. Moreover, though hinted at in the literature, there has been no previous detailed report of perianal contact dermatitis due to cashew ingestion. The fact that our patient was ill enough to require treatment with 3 weeks of systemic steroid therapy highlights the potential public health hazard of consumption of improperly prepared cashew products. However, the risk of cashew nut dermatitis today remains small, and this should not discourage cashew lovers from enjoying their treats. A final lesson to be learned from this case is that perianal eruptions may be due to materials deliberately applied to the anogenital region or to ingested antigens that remain sufficiently intact within the feces to affect perianal skin. PMID:8153790

  5. Short communication: Genomic selection for hoof lesions in first-parity US Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, K; Tiezzi, F; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2015-05-01

    Hoof lesions contributing to lameness are crucial economic factors that hinder the profitability of dairy enterprises. Producer-recorded hoof lesions data of US Holsteins were categorized into infectious (abscess, digital and interdigital dermatitis, heel erosion, and foot rot) and noninfectious (korn, corkscrew, sole and toe ulcer, sole hemorrhage, white line separation, fissures, thin soles, and upper leg lesions) categories of hoof lesions. Pedigree- and genomic-based univariate analyses were conducted to estimate the variance components and heritability of infectious and noninfectious hoof lesions. A threshold sire model was used with fixed effects of year-seasons and random effects of herd and sire. For genomic-based analysis, a single-step procedure was conducted, incorporating H matrix to estimate genomic variance components and heritability for hoof lesions. The pedigree-based analysis produced heritability estimates of 0.11 (±0.05) for infectious hoof lesions and 0.08 (±0.05) for noninfectious hoof lesions. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates of 0.14 (±0.06) for infectious hoof lesions and 0.12 (±0.08) for noninfectious hoof lesions. Approximated genetic correlations between hoof lesion traits and hoof type traits along with productive life and net merit were all low and ranged between -0.25 and 0.14. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, by 0.24 and 0.18 for infectious and noninfectious hoof lesions, respectively, with incorporation of genomic data. PMID:25726100

  6. Contact dermatitis in hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; MacPherson, M; Choi, B C; Nixon, P

    1986-02-01

    18 cases of hand dermatitis in hairdressers seen over a 5-year period are reviewed. The diagnoses in these patients are discussed with reference to other studies of hand dermatitis in hairdressers. Contact allergy due to paraphenylenediamine and related hair dyes was the presenting complaint in younger hairdressers, while formaldehyde allergy occurred in those who were older. The prognosis in the former group of workers with respect to continued employment in the trade tended to be poorer than the latter. Follow-up revealed that hand dermatitis often resulted in the worker not continuing to work in the hairdressing trade. PMID:2940055

  7. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  8. Effects of dose reduction on the detectability of standardized radiolucent lesions in digital panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Dula, K; Sanderink, G; van der Stelt, P F; Mini, R; Buser, D

    1998-08-01

    Dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography was studied. Intentional underexposure was performed with the Orthophos DS while six different human mandibles were radiographed. Exposure settings were 69 kV/15 mA (standard), 64 kV/16 mA, and 60 kV/16 mA. Standardized spherical defects, each either 1 or 1.25 mm in diameter, were simulated in 288 of 432 images, and seven observers decided whether defects were present or not. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated. They showed no significant differences in the detectability of the 1-mm defect at 69, 64, or 60 kV. For the 1.25-mm defect, no difference was found between the 69 and 60 kV images, but a statistically significant different detectability was found for 64 kV images in comparison with both 69 and 60 kV images. A dose reduction of up to 43% was ascertained with a Pedo-RT-Humanoid phantom when panoramic radiography was performed at 60 kV/16 mA. The conclusion is that with the Orthophos DS, it seems possible to reduce the dose rate of x-rays without loss of diagnostic quality in the case of radiolucent changes. PMID:9720100

  9. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Asthma Food Allergy Immune System Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​ Javascript ... atopic dermatitis. Bacterial Infections Scanning electron micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Credit: NIAID A major health risk ...

  10. Dermatitis artefacta: case report.

    PubMed

    Novak, Teodora Gregurek; Duvancić, Tomislav; Vucić, Majda

    2013-06-01

    Automutilating behavior is becoming ever more frequent in patients seeking dermatologic care. Psychocutaneous disorders encompass a wide range of dermatologic conditions, all of which have in common the important role of psychological factors. Dermatitis artefacta syndrome is characterized by unconscious self-injury behavior, while dermatitis para-artefacta syndrome is labeled with manipulation of an existing specific dermatosis. Consciously stimulated injuries with the purpose of obtaining material gain is known as malingering. Here we present a 20-year-old female patient with a sudden pain and an oval, yellowish skin defect on her left lower leg, 3 x 3.5 cm in diameter, with an erythematous, clearly defined border, surrounded by erythematous, painful skin resembling pyoderma gangrenosum. The patient had a clinically typical skin presentation but with atypical therapeutic outcome. The diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. Liaison psychiatry can reaffirm the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta and provide necessary psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. PMID:24053087

  11. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  12. Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... extra ingredients. A good, cheap moisturizer is plain petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline). Use moisturizers that are ... a flare-up? SourceSome information taken from: National Institutes of Health. Handout on Health: Atopic Dermatitis. Accessed ...

  13. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  14. Stasis dermatitis and ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the skin that occurs when blood collects (pools) in the veins of the lower leg. ... people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower leg. Fluid ...

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  16. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  17. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  18. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar. PMID:11254419

  19. Optimization of spectral shape in digital mammography: dependence on anode material, breast thickness, and lesion type.

    PubMed

    Fahrig, R; Yaffe, M J

    1994-09-01

    It has been proposed that breast cancer detection can be improved through the use of digital mammography. It is hypothesized that the choice of proper shape of the x-ray spectrum incident upon the breast can yield an improved image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given dose. To test this hypothesis, an energy transport model incorporating measured breast tissue attenuation coefficients and published exposure-to-dose conversion values was developed to describe the image acquisition process. The choice of applied kilovoltage and filter for Mo and W target x-ray sources has been optimized with respect to SNR and absorbed dose for detectors based on a Gd2O2S scintillating screen under the conditions of perfect coupling of light between the screen and a solid state photodetector. For the W spectra, the optimum filter-kVp combinations could provide 41%, 13%, and 42% improvements in SNR for 2-cm, 6-cm and 8-cm breasts, respectively, over the conventional Mo filtration, for a practical imaging time of 1.0 s. W and Mo spectra produce similar SNR values for a given filter thickness except for the 4-cm breast. Given the limitations of current technology, however, the W spectra produce the optimum SNRs in a shorter imaging time for breast thicknesses greater than and less than 4 cm. The maximum SNR for imaging both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and calcifications is provided by the same filter-kVp combination, allowing optimization based on breast thickness and composition only. The model can now be used to compare and improve upon novel detector designs. PMID:7838059

  20. [Dermatitis artefacta 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Heras-Mendaza, F

    2009-10-01

    In 1909, the Spanish dermatologist Juan de Azúa published a study of the main features of skin lesions in dermatitis artefacta. In the article, he paid particular attention to the psychological state of these patients, their family situation, and what they were hoping to gain with pathomimicry. Azúa directly confronted the patients with the diagnosis, which he demonstrated by applying an occlusive dressing. Written in a literary style typical of the times, the article includes the subjective impressions of Azúa, through which he manages to transmit a much more realistic image of these patients than that portrayed with the sterile language we tend to use in current medical literature. PMID:19775543

  1. Dermatitis artefacta in a child.

    PubMed

    Finore, Enzo D; Andreoli, Elisabetta; Alfani, Stefania; Palermi, Giuliana; Pedicelli, Cristina; Paradisi, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    The high visibility of dermatologic diseases and their easy accessibility make the skin a primary and direct target for dysfunctional behaviors. Self-harm tendencies can frequently be expressed through dermatologic lesions, and dermatitis artefacta falls within this clinical frame. The occurrence of this cutaneous manifestation in children is very rare, with a peak of greater frequency in adolescence. We describe the characteristics of a multidisciplinary intervention-dermatologic and psychologic. Our pediatric patient displays a dermatologic picture that has no etiologic confirmation. The source of this disorder must therefore be found in socio-relational difficulties within the family and school environments, which lead the patient to self-harm behaviors that have a high communication value. PMID:17958781

  2. Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Mason, S; Pajor, E A; LeBlanc, S J; Orsel, K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot lesions and associated cow- and herd-level risk factors in dairy cows in Alberta, Canada. Foot lesion data were recorded electronically by 7 hoof trimmers on 28,607 cows in 156 dairy farms from June 2009 to November 2012. Foot lesion prevalence estimates differed between farms that had the whole herd trimmed at once (≥80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=69 farms and 8,020 cows) and farms on which part of the herd was trimmed (selection of cows was determined by farmer and <80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=87 and 20,587 cows). Estimates were consistently higher for the latter likely because farmers presumably prioritized lame cows in partial-herd trims. On farms with whole-herd trims, digital dermatitis was the most common lesion among all housing types, present in 15% of cows and 94% of herds. Sole ulcers and white line disease were detected in 6 and 4% of the cows and 92 and 93% of herds, respectively. Other infectious and claw horn lesions each affected 1 to 2% of cows and 62 to 78% of herds. Intraclass correlation coefficients for hoof trimmers ranged from 0.01 to 0.20 for all lesions, indicating some clustering of recorded lesions by trimmer. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including hoof trimmer as fixed and farm as random effects) for the 3 most frequently identified lesions. Prevalence of digital dermatitis decreased with increasing parity, but this effect interacted with days in milk (DIM); primiparous cows had higher odds of digital dermatitis in mid lactation (100-199 DIM) and late lactation (≥200 DIM) compared with cows at other stages of lactation. In contrast, prevalence of sole ulcers and white line disease increased with increasing parity; compared with cows in parity 1, those in parity 4 had 5 or 7 times higher odds of having these lesions, respectively. Cows in mid lactation and late lactation had higher

  3. Trichotillomania and dermatitis artefacta: a rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Varyani, Neeraj; Garg, Sunny; Gupta, Garima; Singh, Shivendra; Tripathi, Kamlakar

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old pregnant female patient presented with complains of bilateral lower limb swelling and fever for 1 month. On examination, blood pressure was 144/94 mmHg along with pitting pedal edema. She had bizarre skin lesions, aligned longitudinally and distributed over the approachable site of the body with tapering ends and in various stages of healing. Lower limbs examination also revealed similar lesions with signs of cellulitis. Her scalp had short and distorted hair suggesting pulling and plucking. These skin lesions and the denial of self-infliction by the patient made us reach the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta with trichotillomania. Psychotherapy was advocated along with conservative management of skin lesions. The patient improved and is under our follow up. PMID:22934222

  4. Trichotillomania and Dermatitis Artefacta: A Rare Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Varyani, Neeraj; Garg, Sunny; Gupta, Garima; Singh, Shivendra; Tripathi, Kamlakar

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old pregnant female patient presented with complains of bilateral lower limb swelling and fever for 1 month. On examination, blood pressure was 144/94 mmHg along with pitting pedal edema. She had bizarre skin lesions, aligned longitudinally and distributed over the approachable site of the body with tapering ends and in various stages of healing. Lower limbs examination also revealed similar lesions with signs of cellulitis. Her scalp had short and distorted hair suggesting pulling and plucking. These skin lesions and the denial of self-infliction by the patient made us reach the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta with trichotillomania. Psychotherapy was advocated along with conservative management of skin lesions. The patient improved and is under our follow up. PMID:22934222

  5. Dermatitis artefacta as a symptom of schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Kępska, Anna; Majtyka, Magdalena; Kowman, Maciej; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Kwiecińska, Ewa; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease that occurs as a result of a self-inflicted injury of the skin. The skin lesions are most often located on the areas within easy reach of the patient's dominant hand sparing the middle part of the back. Dermatitis artefacta may coexist with psychiatric disorders and imitate many dermatologic diseases. As most of the patients with self-inflicted dermatoses usually initially deny any psychiatric problems, what delays psychiatric intervention, they are typically first seen by dermatologists. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old man with a 3-year-long history of schizophrenia who has been treated at a dermatologist's office sequentially with acne, bacterial lesions, suspected tuberculosis. However, the treatment was ineffective. He was diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta after 7 years of disease duration. During this time he was treated with many medicines e.g. isotretinoin, which is contraindicated in psychosis as it worsens the course of disease. After establishing the correct diagnosis and antipsychotic treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in both skin condition and mental state. These are the reasons why we would like to recommend close cooperation between dermatologists and psychiatrists. PMID:25254016

  6. Dermatitis artefacta as a symptom of schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Majtyka, Magdalena; Kowman, Maciej; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Kwiecińska, Ewa; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease that occurs as a result of a self-inflicted injury of the skin. The skin lesions are most often located on the areas within easy reach of the patient's dominant hand sparing the middle part of the back. Dermatitis artefacta may coexist with psychiatric disorders and imitate many dermatologic diseases. As most of the patients with self-inflicted dermatoses usually initially deny any psychiatric problems, what delays psychiatric intervention, they are typically first seen by dermatologists. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old man with a 3-year-long history of schizophrenia who has been treated at a dermatologist's office sequentially with acne, bacterial lesions, suspected tuberculosis. However, the treatment was ineffective. He was diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta after 7 years of disease duration. During this time he was treated with many medicines e.g. isotretinoin, which is contraindicated in psychosis as it worsens the course of disease. After establishing the correct diagnosis and antipsychotic treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in both skin condition and mental state. These are the reasons why we would like to recommend close cooperation between dermatologists and psychiatrists. PMID:25254016

  7. A bilateral comparison study of pimecrolimus cream 1% and a topical medical device cream in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Emer, Jason J; Frankel, Amylynne; Sohn, Andrew; Lebwohl, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for atopic dermatitis, but long-term use is associated with adverse effects. We sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy of two steroid-sparing creams for atopic dermatitis. Twenty patients were enrolled in an investigator-blinded, bilateral comparison study. Patients applied pimecrolimus cream twice daily to a target lesion on one side of the body and also applied a topical medical device cream three times daily on a symmetrical target lesion on the opposite side of the body for four weeks. Clinical assessments including Physician Global Assessment (PGA), Target Lesion Symptom Score (TLSS), subject self-assessment and digital photography were performed at the baseline, 2 week, and 4 week visits. Seventy-five percent of patients (pimecrolimus, 15 of 20; topical medical device, 15 of 20) were rated "clear" (0) or "almost clear" (1) by PGA for both medications after four weeks. Percent improvement of the PGA from randomization for pimecrolimus cream and the topical medical device cream were 72.50 and 71.67 respectively (P=0.9283). PGA scores decreased significantly from baseline for both treatments (P=0.004). Overall, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for PGA scores throughout the study (P=0.8236). No cutaneous side effects were noted. Our study was limited by a small sample size and lack of double-blinding; however, both treatments were found to be safe and effective in treating atopic dermatitis over four weeks. Significant improvements were noted for all efficacy variables. In conclusion, a lipid-rich, non-steroidal, topical medical device cream was as effective in improving atopic dermatitis as pimecrolimus cream. PMID:21720655

  8. Bullous Dermatitis Artefacta in a 17 Year-old Girl Induced by a Native Herb

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Mina; Kamali, Mohammad; Bidaki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis artifacta is a factitious dermatological disorder with many forms of presentation of self inflicted skin lesions in any part of the body. Dermatitis artefacta is a rare and difficult condition for diagnosis and treatment mostly because of the patient's denial. The liaison among primary care physicians, psychiatrists and dermatologists can be important in the management of these patients. In this report we describe a 17-year-old girl with dermatitis artefacta which was presented as bullous lesions on her face induced with a native herb combining with fake headaches. PMID:24616800

  9. Bullous Dermatitis Artefacta in a 17 Year-old Girl Induced by a Native Herb.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Kamali, Mohammad; Bidaki, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Dermatitis artifacta is a factitious dermatological disorder with many forms of presentation of self inflicted skin lesions in any part of the body. Dermatitis artefacta is a rare and difficult condition for diagnosis and treatment mostly because of the patient's denial. The liaison among primary care physicians, psychiatrists and dermatologists can be important in the management of these patients. In this report we describe a 17-year-old girl with dermatitis artefacta which was presented as bullous lesions on her face induced with a native herb combining with fake headaches. PMID:24616800

  10. Contact dermatitis from Larrea (creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Leonforte, J F

    1986-02-01

    Six men suffering from acute dermatitis had positive patch tests to Larrea (creosote bush). The lesions preferentially involved sun-exposed sites, simulating a photodermatitis, but also were on the legs and scrotum. Our findings were more consistent with contact allergy than with a primary irritant or a phototoxic response. The patch tests were also positive to Zuccagnia punctata. In two cases the exposure to the creosote bush occurred as a result of casual occupations, in two because of household remedies (moist compresses and baths), and in the other two as a result of burning the bush and resorting to household remedies. Attention should be drawn to this contact dermatitis because the creosote bush grows abundantly all over the American continent. PMID:3950120

  11. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  12. Role of foods in irregular aggravation of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Uehara, Masami

    2003-02-01

    Although it is well known that patients with atopic dermatitis often show unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions, there are no previously published studies examining trigger factors for such unpredictable aggravation. We investigated whether foods play a role in the unpredictable, irregular worsening of atopic dermatitis. The patient group included 195 Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis who showed unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions. They were hospitalized and openly challenged with suspected foods. Photographs of representative skin lesion sites were taken at baseline and before and after the challenge. Challenge-positive foods were determined by evaluating the comparable before-after challenge photographs. One to three (average: 1.7) challenge-positive foods were confirmed in 86 (44%) of the 195 patient examined. Predominant offending foods were chocolate, cheese, coffee, yogurt and some Japanese foods such as glutinous rice cake, soy sauce and fermented soybeans. Specific IgE values to the offending foods were mostly negative. Patients were asked to exclude challenge-positive foods from their diets. They were then discharged and followed up for 3 months at our outpatient clinic. Exclusion of the offending foods for 3 months brought about a progressive improvement of the disease. These results suggest that foods play an important role in unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:12692374

  13. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects. PMID:25000236

  14. Association of treponeme species with atypical foot lesions in goats.

    PubMed

    Groenevelt, M; Anzuino, K; Langton, D A; Grogono-Thomas, R

    2015-06-13

    Five UK goat farms with high levels of lameness (prevalence 14-67 per cent) were investigated. On two farms (farms 1 and 2), the animals presented with typical footrot lesions. The remaining three farms (farms 3, 4 and 5) presented with infected lesions on the foot that did not resemble footrot. These lesions were observed to start from the white line or sole but the interdigital space was rarely affected. Swabs were processed by PCR to assess the presence of Dichelobacter nodosus and three specific treponeme groups (group 1: Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, group 2: Treponema phagedenis-like and group 3: Treponema denticola/Treponema putidum-like) that are reported to be associated with bovine digital dermatitis and contagious ovine digital dermatitis. On farms 1 and 2, 85.7 per cent of samples were found to be positive for D nodosus while only 9.5 per cent were positive for treponeme groups 1, 2 and 3. In contrast, 5.3 per cent of samples from farms 3, 4 and 5 were positive for D nodosus, while 34.2, 68.4 and 36.8 per cent of samples from these farms tested positive for treponeme groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. T medium/T vincentii-like, T phagedenis-like and T denticola/T putidum-like treponemes were detected on foot lesions of lame goats suggesting that they have a role in the aetiology of this lameness, which has not previously been described in dairy goats. PMID:25977404

  15. Diagnostic potential of fluorescence of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded malignant melanoma and pigmented skin lesions: quantitative study of fluorescence intensity using fluorescence microscope and digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Chwirot, B W; Sypniewska, N; Swiatlak, J

    2001-12-01

    The background for this study was reports in the literature of stronger fluorescence observed visually for melanomas compared with benign naevi in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Our objective was to carry out a quantitative study of the phenomenon and to investigate if such an approach could be used in the detection of melanomas. Microscopic digital imaging was used to measure quantitatively the fluorescence intensity in specimens from 50 malignant melanomas, four basal cell carcinomas and 58 benign lesions. The mean fluorescence intensity of the melanomas was considerably higher than of the other lesions. For melanomas, the intensity depended both on the distance from the skin surface and the distance from the centre of the lesion. A simple algorithm based on the intensity threshold correctly classified the melanomas with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 59%. Quantitative measurements of the fluorescence of the pigmented skin lesions fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin can be a useful auxiliary tool for differentiating melanoma from other pigmented lesions histopathologically. PMID:11725203

  16. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates. PMID:26367207

  17. Atopic dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berke, Rebecca; Singh, Arshdeep; Guralnick, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic pruritic skin condition affecting approximately 17.8 million persons in the United States. It can lead to significant morbidity. A simplified version of the U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria can help make the diagnosis. Asking about the presence and frequency of symptoms can allow physicians to grade the severity of the disease and response to treatment. Management consists of relieving symptoms and lengthening time between flare-ups. Regular, liberal use of emollients is recommended. The primary pharmacologic treatment is topical corticosteroids. Twice-daily or more frequent application has not been shown to be more effective than once-daily application. A maintenance regimen of topical corticosteroids may reduce relapse rates in patients who have recurrent moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitors that are recommended as second-line treatment for persons with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and who are at risk of atrophy from topical corticosteroids. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning about a possible link between these medications and skin malignancies and lymphoma, studies have not demonstrated a clear link. Topical and oral antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections, but are not effective in preventing atopic dermatitis flare-ups. The effectiveness of alternative therapies, such as Chinese herbal preparations, homeopathy, hypnotherapy/biofeedback, and massage therapy, has not been established. PMID:22962911

  18. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) ...

  19. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) ...

  20. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus. PMID:18512638

  1. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  2. [Blister dermatitis caused by Epicauta flagellaria (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Meloidae) species].

    PubMed

    Méndez, E; Sáenz, R E; Johnson, C M

    1989-09-01

    This paper is the first published report of vesicular dermatitis due to blister beetles of the family Meloidae in Panamá. A familial outbreak of bullous dermatitis caused by Epicauta flagellaria (Erichson) is described. All previous cases known in the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory were associated with E. isthmica Werner. Bullous lesions are produced when cantharidin, a vesicating toxin contained in the beetle's body, is released at the time the insect is crushed or rubbed upon the exposed skin. Rules for the treatment and prevention of this disease are indicated. PMID:2813877

  3. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  4. Microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Powers, Claire E; McShane, Diana B; Gilligan, Peter H; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with drastic impacts on pediatric health. The pathogenesis of this common disease is not well understood, and the complex role of the skin microbiome in the pathogenesis and progression of atopic dermatitis is being elucidated. Skin commensal organisms promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens. Alterations in the skin microbiome may lead to increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization and atopic dermatitis progression. Despite the evidence for their important role, probiotics have not been deemed efficacious for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, although studies suggest that probiotics may be effective at preventing the development of atopic dermatitis when given to young infants. This review will cover the most recent published work on the microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis. PMID:26388516

  5. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye. PMID:24678750

  6. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs. PMID:26502322

  7. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  9. Dermatitis artefacta: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pichardo, A; García Bravo, B

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rarely diagnosed disorder that is often a source of perplexity and anxiety for dermatologists because they know less about the cause of this self-inflicted condition than the patients themselves. It differs from other skin disorders in that diagnosis is made by exclusion rather than on the basis of histologic and biochemical findings and therefore involves a considerable investment of time and resources. Based on the findings of a study of 201 patients diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta between 1976 and 2006, we review the different clinical presentations of this skin disorder and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. The series analyzed comprised 152 women and 49 men (female to male ratio of 3.1:1) with a mean age of 31.2 years. The patients were mostly single and had a low educational level and few or no job qualifications or skills. PMID:23266056

  10. Understanding irritant napkin dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Atherton, David J

    2016-07-01

    Irritant napkin dermatitis (IND, often referred to as irritant diaper dermatitis) is an exceedingly common problem in the first 2 years of life. It is now established that a number of factors are considered important in the etiology of IND. The principal irritants are fecal enzymes, which damage infant skin and are further amplified by a number of factors, including skin maceration and friction, high pH, the presence of urine, and the duration of contact with feces. In recent years, the decreasing incidence and severity of IND reflects improvements in the design and performance of diapers, diaper skin care products, and overall awareness about maintaining infant skin health. PMID:27311779

  11. Atopic dermatitis and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Finch, Justin; Munhutu, M N; Whitaker-Worth, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic disease with no cure, currently affects almost one-fifth of the population of industrialized nations. Treatment can be challenging for physicians and patients alike. Children are commonly affected, making it even more difficult to find safe therapeutic options, especially in severe disease. Interest in diet and nutrition has increased during the last few years. Nutritional interventions are both intriguing and accessible for many patients. Given the recent expansion of the field of nutrition in the realm of medicine and in popular culture, it is important for the dermatologist to be knowledgeable about the risks and benefits of nutritional interventions. This contribution reviews the current literature on the role of nutrition in atopic dermatitis, from dietary restriction to dietary supplementation, from traditional interventions such as vitamins and minerals to the emerging fields of probiotics and essential fatty acids, and from the prenatal period through infancy and adulthood. PMID:21034985

  12. Rhus (Toxicodendron) dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanner, T L

    2000-06-01

    This article reviews the current fund of knowledge on poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac dermatitis. It is intended as a global summary to provide the primary care provider with the required information and sources for more esoteric academic pursuits. Toxicodendron characteristics, morphology, and biology are reviewed. The overall medical impact is delineated as well as the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. Historical perspectives are mentioned throughout, as are future trends in research. PMID:10815057

  13. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  14. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel. PMID:16426285

  15. Dermatitis artefacta in a vulnerable adult with a dissociative state.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Bewley, A; Taylor, R

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA), a factitious skin disorder, often occurs as a response to traumatic life events or as a factitious behaviour, which may result in secondary gain. It can be difficult to get patients to engage with health services, and they seldom admit to causing the lesions themselves. The possibility of DA lesions occurring in dissociative states is less well known. We present a case of DA diagnosed in a vulnerable adult, who we believe caused the lesions during periods of dissociation. We discuss the way in which the concept of dissociation can provide an acceptable way of discussing the behaviour with patients and initiating psychological therapy. PMID:23758341

  16. Recurrent dermatitis and dermal hypersensitivity following a jellyfish sting: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Loredana Asztalos, Manuela; Rubin, Adam I; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Groft MacFarlane, Caroline; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation often causes an immediate painful vesiculopapular eruption. Less commonly it can cause a type IV allergic hypersensitivity that manifests with delayed or recurrent cutaneous lesions at the primary site or distant from the primary site. These secondary reactivations may be related to high antijellyfish immunoglobulin levels, intracutaneously sequestered antigen, or cross-reacting venom. Immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus and topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy decrease this recurrent dermatitis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a recurrent jellyfish dermatitis lasting more than 1 year after the initial envenomation. The dermatitis finally resolved after treatment with tacrolimus and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy. PMID:24495001

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo. PMID:22181557

  18. Histopathological Differential Diagnosis of Psoriasis and Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Park, Young Joon; Kim, Sue Kyoung; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis can be difficult when both conditions are localized to the scalp without the involvement of other skin sites. Objective We aimed to evaluate the histopathological differences between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp and identify favorable criteria for their differential diagnosis. Methods We evaluated 15 cases of psoriasis and 20 cases of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp that had been clinicopathologically diagnosed. Skin biopsy sections stained with H&E were examined. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed, including Ki-67, keratin 10, caspase-5, and GLUT-1. Results On histopathological examination, mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, and clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges were significantly more frequently observed in psoriasis. Follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis were significantly more common in seborrheic dermatitis. Moreover, significantly higher mitotic figures were observed in psoriatic lesions than in seborrheic dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry did not show any difference between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion Histopathological features favoring psoriasis include mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges, and increased mitotic figures (≥6/high-powered field). Features indicating seborrheic dermatitis are follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis. Immunohistochemistry was not helpful in differentiating psoriasis from seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:27489423

  19. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  20. Dermatitis Artefacta Mimicking Borderline Personality Disorder: Sometimes, Skin Could Be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Mitra, Sayantanava

    2016-08-31

    Dermatitis artefacta lies in a gray zone, between the specialities of psychiatry and dermatology. The condition could mimic a number of other lesions and therefore is a source of much confusion in clinical practice. Here, we describe a case of dermatitis artefacta in an 11-years old girl, which resembled self-harming behavior in Borderline personality disorder. We then discuss how the two could be differentiated and why this becomes imperative while dealing with such cases. PMID:27489388

  1. Dermatitis Artefacta Mimicking Borderline Personality Disorder: Sometimes, Skin Could Be Misleading

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Mitra, Sayantanava

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta lies in a gray zone, between the specialities of psychiatry and dermatology. The condition could mimic a number of other lesions and therefore is a source of much confusion in clinical practice. Here, we describe a case of dermatitis artefacta in an 11-years old girl, which resembled self-harming behavior in Borderline personality disorder. We then discuss how the two could be differentiated and why this becomes imperative while dealing with such cases. PMID:27489388

  2. The effect of nematode administration on canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Specht, L; Helmer, M; Epe, C; Wolken, S; Denk, D; Majzoub, M; Sauter-Luis, C

    2011-09-27

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common disease and is considered as an animal model of the human disease. Immunomodulation by helminths is reported in several species. The aim of this study was to determine whether nematodes have an immunomodulatory effect on atopic dermatitis in dogs. In the pilot study, 12 atopic dogs were infected with either embryonated eggs of Trichuris vulpis (500 and 2500 eggs in 3 dogs each) or L3 larvae of Uncinaria stenocephala (100, 500 and 2500 eggs in 2 dogs each), respectively, for 3 months. Pruritus was evaluated with visual analogue scales and clinical lesions with the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). Skin biopsies were obtained for histopathology at the beginning and end of the study. In the subsequent placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised study, 21 dogs received either 2500 embryonated T. vulpis eggs or placebo and were evaluated similarly. In addition, allergen-specific serum IgE concentrations were determined. All dogs in the pilot study improved in their lesion scores, most in their pruritus scores. The cutaneous inflammatory infiltrate did not change significantly. In the subsequent randomised study, there was no significant difference between placebo and Trichuris administration in regard to pruritus or CADESI. IgE concentrations also did not change significantly. Infection with T. vulpis did not significantly change clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:21621922

  3. Using digital subtraction in computer simulated images as a tool to aid the visual detection of masked lesions in dense breasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Guimarães, Luciana T.; Sousa, Maria A. Z.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simulation model involving subtraction of digital mammography images obtained at different X-ray beam levels of energy to aid the detection of breast malignant lesions. Absorption coefficients behavior of 3 main structures of clinical interest - adipose tissue, fiber glandular tissue and the typical carcinoma - as a function of the beam energy from a Mo X-ray tube was the basis to develop a computer simulation of the possible acquired images. The simulation has considered a typical compressed breast with 4.5cm in thickness, and variations of the carcinoma and glandular tissues thicknesses - 0.4 up to 2.0cm and 4.1 to 2.5cm, respectively - were evaluated as a function of the photons mean energy - 14 up to 25 keV, in the typical mammography energy range. Results have shown that: (a) if the carcinoma thickness is over 0.4cm, its detection may be feasible even masked by fiber tissue with exposures in the range of 19 to 25 keV; (b) for masked carcinoma with thickness in the range of 0.4-2.0cm, the proposed procedure can enhance it in the image resulting from the digital subtraction between images obtained at 14 and at 22 keV. Therefore such results indicate that this simulation procedure can be a useful tool in aiding the identification of possible missed malignant lesions which could not be detected in the typical exam, mainly considering dense breasts.

  4. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands. PMID:6204812

  5. Livedoid Dermatitis Treated With Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, Lee; Zhu, Lilly; Mashayekhi, Mona; Fissell, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous injection of buprenorphine as a cause of livedoid dermatitis is a recently described phenomenon. This report reviews the brief literature of this finding, and presents a case of livedoid dermatitis of both heels following injection more than one day prior, and thesuccessful treatment with nifedipine monotherapy. PMID:26885536

  6. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics. PMID:8115841

  7. Metalworking fluid hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Saori; Shiomi, Yuko; Yokota, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    In a household appliance plant, several rinse-free lubricating fluids have been used instead of neat mineral oils since 1994: mixtures of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with 9 to 14 carbons per molecule. As such they denature keratin, irritate and defat the skin, and remove water from it. Work gloves have been worn over plastic gloves and separate, reusable, cotton inner gloves have been added to absorb sweat since skin problems were first recognized in 1994. All 74 males (mean +/- SD, 38.8 +/- 8.0 years) who work with the fluids were interviewed and given cutaneous examinations when indicated. While 4 cases of severe dermatitis and 31 cases of mild dermatitis were identified, 28 individuals gave a history of similar problems since the use of lubricating fluids. Their symptoms were typical of primary skin irritation. The hands were the commonly affected region (63 of 63 cases: 100%), followed by the thighs (15.9%) and trunk (11.1%). The work-related skin symptoms identified were less common in workers who immediately removed the liquid with soap and water, when it is spilled on the hands, than in those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (7/23 (30.4%) vs. 28/51 (54.9%), p=0.051 by chi-square test). Since skin contact with metalworking fluids (MWF) is often unavoidable, good personal hygiene is important in minimizing potential adverse health effects. Health education thus remains the most important preventive measure against irritant contact dermatitis among workers handling MWFs. PMID:12141380

  8. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  9. Antibiotic therapy in the management of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Belloni Fortina, A; Neri, L

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a syndrome characterized by a chronic eczematous dermatitis, with associated pruritus, characteristic age-specific morphology and distribution of lesions and recurrent nature. Secondary infections in patients with AD are very common and difficult to treat. S. aureus colonizes almost all eczematous lesions in atopic patients and releases several super-antigens and exotoxins (i.e., toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, enterotoxins A-D, etc.), which sustain inflammatory reactions and promote tachyphylaxis. The topical antibiotics most commonly prescribed for mild/moderate secondary infections are gentamicin, fusidic acid and mupirocine. This article reviews existing therapeutic options and provides guidance for the management of secondary skin infection among patients with AD. PMID:25786482

  10. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  11. Simple and easy reconstruction of nail matrix lesion using lateral finger flap after excision of digital mucous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Okochi, Masayuki; Saito, Masami; Ueda, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We treated nine patients with skin defect produced by digital mucous cyst (DMC) excision on the finger and toe using lateral finger flap (LFF). The postoperative scars were esthetically acceptable and no recurrence of mucous cysts was observed. Our LFF is a simple method to repair minor distal dorsal finger defects. PMID:27583263

  12. Simple and easy reconstruction of nail matrix lesion using lateral finger flap after excision of digital mucous cyst.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Masayuki; Saito, Masami; Ueda, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    We treated nine patients with skin defect produced by digital mucous cyst (DMC) excision on the finger and toe using lateral finger flap (LFF). The postoperative scars were esthetically acceptable and no recurrence of mucous cysts was observed. Our LFF is a simple method to repair minor distal dorsal finger defects. PMID:27583263

  13. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder

    PubMed Central

    George, Nneka M.; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine’s mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly

  14. Acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (Canis aureus).

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Nyska, A

    1998-06-01

    Acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (Canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in Hafez-Haim, Israel. Other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. Although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. No recurrence has been observed. PMID:9732044

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  16. Parthenium dermatitis presenting as photosensitive lichenoid eruption. A new clinical variant.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kaushal K; Sirka, C S; Ramam, M; Sharma, V K

    2002-05-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus is the commonest cause of airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD) in India. The disease usually manifests as itchy erythematous, papular, papulovesicular and plaque lesions on exposed areas of the body. Rarely, however, the disease may present as actinic reticuloid or photocontact dermatitis. We have observed a different clinical variant of this disease where certain patients with Parthenium dermatitis have presented with discrete, flat, violaceous papules and plaques on exposed areas of the body closely simulating photosensitive lichenoid eruption. We had 8 patients, 6 males and 2 females between 30 and 62 years of age, with itchy, violaceous, papules and plaques on the face, neck, ears, upper chest and dorsa of the hands for 6 months to 6.5 years. Four of these patients had a history of improvement of the lesions up to 30% in winter and aggravation of lesions on exposure to sunlight. There was no personal or family history of atopy. Cutaneous examination in all patients revealed multiple flat, violaceous, mildly erythematous papules and plaques on the forehead, sides and nape of neck, ears, 'V' area of the chest, and extensor aspects of the forearms and hands. Skin biopsies from these lesions showed features of chronic non-specific dermatitis. Patch testing with standardized plant antigens showed a positive patch test reaction to Parthenium hysterophorus in all patients, with a titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) varying from undiluted to 1 : 100. We conclude that Parthenium dermatitis may occasionally present with lesions very similar to the lesions of photosensitive lichenoid eruption in morphology and distribution. This clinical presentation of Parthenium dermatitis needs to be recognized to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:12084082

  17. Occupational contact dermatitis in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goossens, An; Hulst, Kim Vander

    2011-01-01

    Occupation-induced skin reactions are not infrequently observed in the pharmaceutical industry. Workers may come in contact with irritant substances and also with chemically reactive intermediates or drugs that may be potential sensitizers. The skin lesions can be located at the site of contact, usually the hands, although airborne reactions on exposed and even nonexposed areas (eg, by particles trapped under clothing) are not uncommon. Generalized reactions may occur due to inhalation or transcutaneous absorption. An accidental exposure to a highly allergenic compound may cause a chemical burn, followed by primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The pharmaceutical contact allergens belong to many different pharmacologic classes. If several cases of contact dermatitis occur in multiple individuals in the same company, then the working conditions are implicated and should be changed to prevent their recurrence. Measures to be taken include dust control, installation of closed filter equipment, and keeping the workers informed about the potential risks associated with the manipulation of the chemicals. PMID:22014988

  18. Dermatitis artifacta of tongue: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Surjeet; Choudhury, Snehalata

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artifacta is a psychiatric disorder in which the patient deliberately produces self-inflicted skin lesions to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need, often a desire to receive medical treatment. We present a case of a 20-year-old female with pain in abdomen, pain during urination, and multiple skin lesions, mostly in the reach of her dominant hand and in tongue. She gave a history of several episodes of similar illnesses with admission in various hospitals. She was improved with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, supportive and insight-oriented psychotherapy. PMID:27385859

  19. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... at Home You and your doctor should discuss the best treatment plan and medications for your atopic dermatitis. But taking ...

  20. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 5. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disordersIn: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases ...

  1. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  2. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is elevated in mice with atopic dermatitis. The factors involved in this regulation, however, aren’t well understood. Past work led by Dr. Arup Indra at Oregon State University showed that COUP-TF interacting protein 2 (Ctip2) ...

  3. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used. PMID:3160533

  4. Dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1983-01-01

    22 patients with dermatitis from propolis were studied. In all the 21 tests with propolis were positive, and in 19 they were also positive to balsam of Peru. The chromatogram of the balsam and propolis show marked similarity and 3 identical peaks could be recognised in both substances. Among the patients sensitive to balsam of Peru and propolis, 12 were tested with some common components; 3 were positive to cinnamyl cinnamate, 2 to vanillin and 1 to benzyl cinnamate. Chromatograms of the 3 propolis samples from the Warsaw region were very similar, but not identical. Some of the patients were tested with 35 essential oils and eugenol. Sensitivity to clove oil was common. PMID:6220861

  5. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  7. Beard dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine use in Arabic men.

    PubMed

    Hsu, T S; Davis, M D; el-Azhary, R; Corbett, J F; Gibson, L E

    2001-05-01

    The most common active ingredient in hair coloring is para-phenylenediamine (PPDA), which can produce contact dermatitis, particularly in persons who dye their scalp hair and in hairdressers. We have identified another group of patients also at risk, namely men from Arab countries, who commonly grow beards and dye them. We searched the computerized patient database at the Mayo Clinic for patients with beard dermatitis associated with dye use. Eight Arabic men presented to the Mayo Clinic between 1994 and 1999 with beard dermatitis and a positive patch test to PPDA. The lesions were described as pruritic, erythematous, papular eruptions that developed in the jaw area after each application of beard dye. The symptoms subsided after the patients discontinued use of the PPDA-containing dye and received treatment with topical corticosteroids. Allergic contact dermatitis in the beard area due to PPDA occurs in Arabic men as a result of their propensity to dye their beards. PMID:11312440

  8. [Place of immunosuppressors in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    de Prost, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Use of immunosuppressors in the treatment of atopic dermatitis is an important innovation that reinforces the therapeutic arsenal in this chronic disease. Two such drugs are used topically for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Tacrolimus exists in pommade form at a concentration of 0.1% for adults and 0.03% for children. Pimecrolimus, another calcineurine inhibitor with similar efficacy and tolerability, is not marketed in France. These products inhibit cytokine production by antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes. Their clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in many studies in the United States and Europe. They are particularly valuable for patients whose clinical course is marked by disease persistence and frequent flares, which would otherwise require almost continuous topical corticosteroid treatment. Topical calcineurine inhibitors may also have a significant benefit in patients with involvement of sensitive skin areas, such as around the eyes, face, neck and genital area, where systemic absorption and the risk of skin atrophy are particular concerns. The most frequent adverse effects are a local erythema-like reaction with burning and pruritus at the outset of treatment. No significant increase in bacterial or viral infections has been noted by comparison with control groups, and no systemic impact has been reported. However, these drugs should not be used in patients with a history of Kaposi-Juliusberg disease or in patients with herpes. Photoprotection measures must be respected. New trials with tacrolimus show that atopic lesions can be controlled by treating subclinical inflammation twice weekly between flares, thereby preventing flares and prolonging the flare-free interval. This new therapeutic approach is called proactive treatment. The efficacy of oral cyclosporine at 4-5 mg/kg/day in severe forms of atopic dermatitis is now well demonstrated. There is consistent evidence that oral cyclosporin is beneficial in patients whose disease is not adequately

  9. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  10. Dermatitis artefacta: unusual appearance in an older woman.

    PubMed

    Gregurek-Novak, T; Novak-Bilić, G; Vucić, M

    2005-03-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rare and difficult condition for diagnosis and treatment, with the highest incidence of onset in late adolescence to early adult life. Most patients are young women who have a personality disorder; borderline features are common and the patient's denial of psychological distress makes management and treatment difficult. Patients use a variety of means to cause the skin changes. Clinical presentation of the skin lesions does not conform to those of known dermatoses and are located on easily reached parts of the skin. We report an unusual case of a 72-year-old woman with symmetrical changes under the breasts and in the right inguinal region. The lesions were composed partly of haemorrhagic round lesions and partly of scars. A skin biopsy was taken and consultations with the psychiatrist, internist and the patient's family led to the diagnosis of self-induced dermatitis. The skin lesions were covered by occlusion techniques and the lesions improved very rapidly. The patient was discharged from the hospital under psychiatric and family care. PMID:15752297

  11. Role of vasculature in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Martin; Steinhoff, Antje; Homey, Bernhard; Luger, Thomas A; Schneider, Stefan W

    2006-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions are characterized by differences in the activation state of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and the release of inflammatory mediators by and toward the vasculature. The vascular system, including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, is ultimately involved in clinical symptoms of AD, such as erythema, edema, leukocyte recruitment, and white dermographism. Various mediators and bidirectional neurovascular interactions regulate the inflammatory response during AD. T cell-endothelial cell interactions are a crucial component to establish acute AD. Various immune cells, including monocytes and mast cells, communicate with the endothelium by releasing inflammatory mediators, thereby stimulating inflammatory mediator release from activated endothelial cells. The process of adhesion, tethering, and transmigration of infiltrating cells is a highly regulated and an active communication process between endothelial cells and leukocytes. Endothelial cells play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of AD and represent future targets for the treatment of AD. PMID:16815154

  12. Anti-staphylococcal treatment in dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Question A 10-year-old boy with atopic dermatitis (AD) came for consultation with an exacerbation. He suffered from pruritus and multiple erythematous skin lesions, identified as inflamed but not infected. Because skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is very common in AD and can worsen the skin condition, is it reasonable to add topical antibiotic treatment to the anti-inflammatory treatment in this case? Answer Skin colonization with S aureus is prevalent in children and adults with AD, and can aggravate skin inflammation. Although topical combination creams with steroids and antibiotics are widely used for AD flare-ups, their superiority over anti-inflammatory treatment alone is not well established. Antibiotic treatment, whether systemic or topical, should be reserved for cases in which explicit signs of infection are present. PMID:21673210

  13. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furue, Masutaka; Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from a wooden necklace.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1997-09-01

    A 36-year-old female kitchenworker twice developed eczematous lesions corresponding exactly to the area around her neck where she had worn a wooden necklace. Contact dermatitis lasted longer than 1 week. The necklace consisted of 42 brown wooden beads and 63 other wooden parts, 0.5 to 3 cm diameter. Most parts could be identified as Cocobolo wood, Brazilian and East Indian rosewood, and teak. Patch tests with the pure constituents gave +3-reactions to three dalbergions and obtusaquinone, which are known to be the sensitizers of Cocobolo and the above-mentioned rosewoods. Because of these test results, the identification of the species by eye examination could be corroborated. Further detailed questioning revealed that the patient had played a recorder, probably made from Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa), when a child, to which she unknowingly became allergic. PMID:9249295

  15. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  16. The pathogenetic role of rod-shaped bacteria containing intracellular granules in the vellus hairs of a patient with perioral dermatitis: A comparison with perioral corticosteroid-induced rosacea.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Azusa; Ishiguro, Naoko; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    The cause of perioral dermatitis is still unknown. We previously reported that rod-shaped bacteria (RB) containing intracellular granules were detected in cases of perioral dermatitis at a high incidence. The aim of this study was to study further the role of RB in perioral dermatitis. Altogether 10 patients with perioral dermatitis and eight patients with perioral corticosteroid-induced rosacea, who were referred to our department from 2009 to 2014, were examined for the presence of RB, using the tape-stripping toluidine blue method. RB were detected on the surfaces of the roots of vellus hairs from lesions in nine of the 10 patients with perioral dermatitis. In contrast, RB were not detected in any of the eight patients with perioral corticosteroid-induced rosacea. No RB were found in the perioral areas of other types of facial dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis and seboerrheic dermatitis or in 16 healthy controls. We treated four of the patients with perioral dermatitis with minocycline hydrochloride and five with cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride hydrate. Three of the patients with perioral dermatitis who were treated with minocycline hydrochloride were cured in 3 to 8 weeks, while the five patients treated with cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride hydrate were cured in 2 to 9 weeks. These results strongly suggest that RB (possible fusobacteria) play an important role in perioral dermatitis and that this is probably a distinct clinical entity from corticosteroid-induced rosacea. Cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride hydrate seems to be an effective treatment for perioral dermatitis associated with RB. PMID:25894304

  17. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:26981139

  18. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the traditional vaccine for people with atopic dermatitis/eczema, or for their close contacts? Yes. In the ... emergency. Why should someone who has atopic dermatitis/eczema and their family members not receive the vaccine? ...

  19. A case of bullous dermatitis artefacta possibly induced by a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Satsuki; Nakano, Hajime; Umegaki, Noriko; Moritsugu, Ryuta; Aizu, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Michihito; Hanada, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is one of a spectrum of factitious diseases etiologically responsible for skin lesions denied by patients. These factors often make it difficult to identify the causative agents of the condition. Herein, we report a case of bullous dermatitis artefacta in a 12-year-old girl, for which a deodorant spray was suspected as the probable cause. Pathological examination revealed subepidermal blistering with full-thickness necrosis of the epidermis, suggesting a thermo- or cryo-induced injury. Psychological testing demonstrated her immaturity and dependence. In searching for the causative agent, we suspected a deodorant spray as a blister-inducing agent. We succeeded in reproducing a similar blister lesion on the volunteer's healthy skin using the same spray. Psychiatric involvement significantly complicates the treatment of factitious diseases, including dermatitis artefacta. Cooperation among dermatologists, psychiatrists and the patient's family members is required for ensuring a favorable prognosis. PMID:16469083

  20. Histamine induces proliferation in keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Glatzer, Franziska; Gschwandtner, Maria; Ehling, Sarah; Rossbach, Kristine; Janik, Katrin; Klos, Andreas; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Kietzmann, Manfred; Werfel, Thomas; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidermal hyperproliferation resulting in acanthosis is an important clinical observation in atopic dermatitis and its underlying mechanisms are not completely understood by now. Objective Since elevated levels of histamine are present in lesional skin, we investigated the effect of histamine, especially with regard to H4R activation, on the proliferation of human and murine keratinocytes. Methods The expression of H4R on human and murine keratinocytes was detected by real-time PCR. Keratinocyte proliferation was evaluated by different in vitro cell proliferation assays, scratch assays and measurement of epidermal thickness of murine skin. Results We detected H4R mRNA on foreskin keratinocytes and on outer root sheath keratinocytes; H4R mRNA was more abundant in keratinocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis as compared to non-atopic donors. Stimulation of foreskin keratinocytes, atopic dermatitis outer root sheath keratinocytes and H4R transfected HaCaT cells with histamine and H4R agonist resulted in an increase of proliferation, which was blocked with the H4R-specific antagonist JNJ7777120. Abdominal epidermis of H4R-deficient mice was significantly thinner and the in vitro proliferation of keratinocytes derived from H4R-deficient mice was lower compared to control mice. Interestingly, we only detected H4R expression on murine keratinocytes after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycane. Conclusion The H4R is highly expressed on keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients and its stimulation induces keratinocyte proliferation. This might represent a mechanism that contributes to the epidermal hyperplasia observed in atopic dermatitis. PMID:23932072

  1. Prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Halbert, A R; Gebauer, K A; Wall, L M

    1992-10-01

    To elucidate further the natural history and prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis, 120 affected patients, diagnosed between 1980 and 1989, were reviewed. The incidence of chromate dermatitis in Western Australia appeared to remain unchanged over the decade. 65% of patients were construction workers with cement-induced chromate dermatitis. Workers at greatest risk of sensitization were those mixing bagged cement at the work site. The median age at onset of symptoms was 34 years, with 48% having been exposed to chromate for 5 years or less. Only 37% presented to the dermatologist within 12 months of developing symptoms. 76% of patients had ongoing dermatitis at the time of review. Although 48% of the study population had completely changed their occupation to avoid chromate exposure, symptoms persisted in 69%. A delayed diagnosis of chromate sensitivity was noted to be a predictor of chronicity. In view of the potential chronicity of chromate dermatitis and its associated social and occupational impairment, we recommend the addition of ferrous sulphate while mixing bagged cement at the work site. This simple technique targets the workers at greatest risk of becoming sensitized. PMID:1451485

  2. A study of dermatitis in trona miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Moshell, A.; Greaves, W.; Bang, K.M.; Holthouser, M.; Campbell, D.; Bernstein, R.

    1983-04-01

    Trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) is mined from an underground deposit in Wyoming and processed for use in the manufacture of glass, paper, and detergents, and in chemical applications. Trona dust is alkaline (pH 10.5) and may have an irritant effect on the respiratory airways, mucous membranes, and the skin. One hundred forty-two underground miners and 88 surface workers from one trona facility participated voluntarily in an epidemiologic and clinical study. Their mean age was 37.6 and their mean working period, 10.0 years. One half of the study participants complained of skin symptoms; dermatologic symptoms increased from twofold to fifteenfold after the subjects began trona mining. Trona dermatitis consists of pruritic, erythematous, raised, dry, and fissured lesions commonly affecting the hands, arms, and legs. A dose-response relationship was observed among underground workers. Patch testing with 10% aqueous trona and sodium carbonate was negative, suggesting that the dermatitis was primarily irritant in nature.

  3. Role of primary and secondary prevention in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Iwonna; Gutfreund, Katarzyna; Bienias, Wojciech; Matych, Marta; Szewczyk, Anna; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious epidemiological problem in industrialized countries. The incidence of AD has increased considerably over the last 30 years. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease accompanied by strong itching. It is characterized by typical features depending on age. The parents of children suffering from AD must be prepared to change their lifestyle. They should avoid factors which can promote skin lesions and apply appropriate, regular skin care. The article describes primary prevention of AD as well as prophylactic measures to avoid skin eczema. It presents the role of infections, vaccinations, breastfeeding and the influence of domestic animals, house renovation and moulds on development of AD. The article also describes the significance of the epidermal barrier, skin colonization by microbial agents, pruritus, stress, food and inhalant allergy among people who suffer from AD. PMID:26755903

  4. Bullous dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Sokumbi, Olayemi; Comfere, Nneka I; McEvoy, Marian T; Peters, Margot S

    2013-02-01

    Bullous artefactual dermatoses are rare and may be induced by various techniques, including chemicals, heat, or electrical current. Proving a factitial etiology and identifying the mechanism of injury may be difficult. We describe the clinical features and histopathology of 2 patients with bullous disease induced by electrical current or heat. Physical examination in both patients demonstrated geometrically shaped tense bullae. Skin biopsies revealed epidermal necrosis overlying a pauci-inflammatory subepidermal cleft, with homogenization of underlying superficial dermal collagen. In 1 of the 2 patients, there was prominent vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei and also of cytoplasmic processes. Direct immunofluorescence study of skin plus testing of serum by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BP180 and BP230 antibodies revealed no evidence for immunobullous disease in either patient. Vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei, often attributed to a polarization effect of electrical current, is characteristic of electrical burn but also may be induced by thermal injury. These 2 patients highlight the importance of histopathology in confirming a diagnosis of bullous dermatitis artefacta. PMID:22771895

  5. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease. PMID:26943310

  6. Review: dermatitis herpetiformis*

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Fernanda Berti Rocha; Hissa-Elian, Adaucto; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Gonçalves, Virgínica Scaff

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) or Duhring-Brocq disease is a chronic bullous disease characterized by intense itching and burning sensation in the erythematous papules and urticarial plaques, grouped vesicles with centrifuge growth, and tense blisters. There is an association with the genotypes HLA DR3, HLA DQw2, found in 80-90% of cases. It is an IgA-mediated cutaneous disease, with immunoglobulin A deposits appearing in a granular pattern at the top of the dermal papilla in the sublamina densa area of the basement membrane, which is present both in affected skin and healthy skin. The same protein IgA1 with J chain is found in the small intestinal mucosa in patients with adult celiac disease, suggesting a strong association with DH. Specific antibodies such as antiendomysium, antireticulina, antigliadin and, recently identified, the epidermal and tissue transglutaminase subtypes, as well as increased zonulin production, are common to both conditions, along with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and DH. Autoimmune diseases present higher levels of prevalence, such as thyroid (5-11%), pernicious anemia (1-3%), type 1 diabetes (1-2%) and collagen tissue disease. The chosen treatment is dapsone and a gluten-free diet. PMID:24068131

  7. Dermatitis from cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G; DeMelfi, T; McCarthy, M A; Witte, E J; Castagnoli, N; Epstein, W L; Aber, R C

    1984-04-01

    Between April 4 and May 10, 1982, fifty-four individuals developed a poison ivy-like dermatitis 1 to 8 days after eating imported cashew nuts. The patients had a very pruritic, erythematous, maculopapular eruption that was accentuated in the flexural areas of the body. Three had blistering of the mouth and four had rectal itching. Nineteen volunteers (eleven ill and eight well) were patch-tested with 2.5 micrograms of poison ivy urushiol and an acetone extract of cashew nut shells. Patch testing did not predict illness since positive tests to both materials occurred in those who had been ill as well as in those who had been well. Absence of cashew nut shells from two thirds of the bags probably accounted for the lack of correlation between patch testing and illness. All nine who reacted to the cashew extract also reacted to poison ivy urushiol. The three who were not sensitive to poison ivy had no reaction to cashew extract. Mass spectrometry of the cashew shell extract suggested the presence of cardol , one of the allergens in cashew shell oil. PMID:6715612

  8. Fermented rice bran prevents atopic dermatitis in DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Saba, Evelyn; Lee, Chun Hee; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Kija; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-07-01

    The fermentation of natural plants has a favorable effect on the functional and biological activities of living systems. These include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet aggregation activities. This is attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents, which show more potent biological activity. In our study, rice bran along with oriental medicinal plants (Angelicae gigantis, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps, and Camellia sinensis) was fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pichia deserticola (FRBE). We evaluated the effects of oral administration of FRBE on atopic dermatitis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. FRBE significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis and reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin E and the differential white blood cell count. In addition, it reduced skin thickness compared to that of atopic dermatitis-affected skin. FRBE treatment also reduced mast cell incorporation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The total cell number in dorsal skin tissue and the axillary lymph node increased following DNCB application, and this was normalized by FRBE treatment. Moreover, it decreased the levels of CD8(+) helper T cells and Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrated that FRBE significantly inhibited mRNA expression of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-5 and interleukin-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 in AD skin lesions. These results suggest that FRBE could be a valuable herbal remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:27323667

  9. Fermented rice bran prevents atopic dermatitis in DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Lee, Chun Hee; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Kija; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fermentation of natural plants has a favorable effect on the functional and biological activities of living systems. These include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet aggregation activities. This is attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents, which show more potent biological activity. In our study, rice bran along with oriental medicinal plants (Angelicae gigantis, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps, and Camellia sinensis) was fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pichia deserticola (FRBE). We evaluated the effects of oral administration of FRBE on atopic dermatitis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. FRBE significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis and reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin E and the differential white blood cell count. In addition, it reduced skin thickness compared to that of atopic dermatitis-affected skin. FRBE treatment also reduced mast cell incorporation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The total cell number in dorsal skin tissue and the axillary lymph node increased following DNCB application, and this was normalized by FRBE treatment. Moreover, it decreased the levels of CD8+ helper T cells and Gr-1+/CD11b+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrated that FRBE significantly inhibited mRNA expression of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-5 and interleukin-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 in AD skin lesions. These results suggest that FRBE could be a valuable herbal remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:27323667

  10. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  11. DERMATITIS ARTEFACTA APPEARING DURING INPATIENT PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAMME FOR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER - A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C.T. Sudhir; Unni, K.E. Sadanandan

    1997-01-01

    Appearance of dermatitis artefacta in an adolescent female patient while she underwent treatment for dissociative disorder is described. The possibility of shift of presenting symptom of episodic unresponsiveness to spurious skin lesion during psychotherapy programme was considered to be the method of its causation. PMID:21584051

  12. Dermatitis artefacta in a 12-year-old girl mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Angus, Janet; Affleck, Andrew G; Croft, Jane C Ravens; Leach, Iain H; Slater, David N; Millard, Leslie G

    2007-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta or factitious disease may be unrecognized in children. We present a 12-year-old girl who had an unusual facial lesion on the chin, which was self-inflicted but histologically mimicked cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Our report emphasizes both the potential diagnostic pitfalls and the importance of clinicopathologic correlation. PMID:17542895

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects of Deokgu Thermomineral Water Balneotherapy on Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sae Mi; Lee, Kyung Ho; Han, Hyung Jin; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Yun, Seong Taek; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Hong Jig

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the therapeutic mechanism of balneotherapy for atopic dermatitis has not been clarified, many atopic patients who visit thermomineral springs have shown clinical improvements. Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of thermomineral water balneotherapy on the atopic dermatitis murine model. Methods The oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of balneotherapy with Deokgu thermomineral water compared with distilled water. Histologic evaluation and confocal microscopic imaging were performed to analyze the lesional expression of cluster-of-differentiation (CD)4 and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3). Lesional mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) 33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and Foxp3 was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Compared with the distilled water bath group, confocal microscopic evaluation of CD4 and Foxp3 merged images showed increased expression of regulatory T cells in the thermomineral balneotherapy group. The lesional mRNA level of IL-33 showed a reduced trend in the thermomineral balneotherapy group, whereas the level of mRNA of Foxp3 was increased. TSLP showed a decreased trend in both distilled water and thermomineral water bath groups. There was a trend of reduced expression in lesional IL-33 mRNA but increased cell count of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in thermomineral balneotherapy compared with distilled water bath. Conclusion Therefore, thermomineral balneotherapy can be an effective and safe adjuvant therapeutic option for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27081266

  14. Photoletter to the editor: Bullous dermatitis artefacta induced with a hot spoon.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Mala; Thami, Gurvinder Pal

    2014-09-30

    A 22-year-old female presented to the dermatology department with a 8-month history of blistering lesions over the left forearm and face. Most of the bullae and erosions were perfectly round and of nearly the same size. In absence of any obvious etiological, precipitating or aggravating factor, a provisional diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta (self-inflicted dermatological lesions) was made. A detailed anamnesis revealed that stress caused by her ex-boyfriend's threats and apprehension of consequences prompted her to create the lesions using a hot spoon. The patients of dermatitis artefacta usually present to dermatologists as their pathology manifests as unexplained and variable cutaneous lesions which may go undiagnosed for a long time. It is important for the dermatologist to have a high index of suspicion to recognise the underlying psychopathology. PMID:25324911

  15. Outbreak of contact dermatitis related to Acticide EP paste in a paint manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Jee, S H; Chao, K Y; Sun, C C; Wang, J D

    1996-08-01

    An outbreak of severe itching, erythematous and edematous dermatitis over the extremities and upper back developed in 8 of 17 workers in the raw-materials department of a paint manufacturing factory. The outbreak occurred during a 2-month period when Acticide EP paste (Thor Chemical, Cheshire, UK) was used in place of Metatin as a microbiocide (Acima Chemical, Buchs, Switzerland). To evaluate the frequency and the etiologic agent of this outbreak, a plant walk-through, examination and review of photographs of skin lesions followed by statistical analysis for association between the development of dermatitis and exposure to Acticide paste were performed. Three guinea pigs were subjected to patch tests comparing the dermatotoxicity of Acticide EP and Metatin. The results showed that 8 out of 17 workers (47%) suffered from contact dermatitis during the 2-month period. Stratification by occupational exposure further confirmed the association between the development of dermatitis and exposure to the Acticide paste. The dermatotoxicity test on guinea pigs revealed the marked corrosive effect of the paste and the absence of dermatotoxicity of Metatin. After the removal of the paste from the raw material, there were no new cases of contact dermatitis at the 6 month follow-up. We conclude that Acticide EP paste was the responsible offending agent. Because isothiazolinone derivatives are well-known antigens and 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is the active ingredient in Acticide EP paste, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is the likely cause of the dermatitis. PMID:8870434

  16. Barrier-Restoring Therapies in Atopic Dermatitis: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Valdman-Grinshpoun, Y.; Ben-Amitai, D.; Zvulunov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial, chronic relapsing, inflammatory disease, characterized by xerosis, eczematous lesions, and pruritus. The latter usually leads to an “itch-scratch” cycle that may compromise the epidermal barrier. Skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis may result from mutations in the gene encoding for filaggrin, which plays an important role in the formation of cornified cytosol. Barrier abnormalities render the skin more permeable to irritants, allergens, and microorganisms. Treatment of atopic dermatitis must be directed to control the itching, suppress the inflammation, and restore the skin barrier. Emollients, both creams and ointments, improve the barrier function of stratum corneum by providing it with water and lipids. Studies on atopic dermatitis and barrier repair treatment show that adequate lipid replacement therapy reduces the inflammation and restores epidermal function. Efforts directed to develop immunomodulators that interfere with cytokine-induced skin barrier dysfunction, provide a promising strategy for treatment of atopic dermatitis. Moreover, an impressive proliferation of more than 80 clinical studies focusing on topical treatments in atopic dermatitis led to growing expectations for better therapies. PMID:22956938

  17. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  18. [Tefillin-related contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Hashkes, Philip J; Sagi, Efraim

    2011-09-01

    We describe a 14 year-old male with a background of atopic dermatitis who developed a contact dermatitis reaction on the left arm to the leather straps of tefillin (phylacteries), a religious article worn by observant Jewish men from the age 13 years during most morning prayer services. Patch testing revealed contact allergy to potassium dichromate, a chemical involved in leather tanning. Placing the leather straps over clothing and later switching to potassium dichromate-free leather straps resolved the condition. It is important to recognize this uncommon phenomena in a population in which a large proportion regularly use this religious article. PMID:22026052

  19. Psychoneuroimmunology of Psychological Stress and Atopic Dermatitis: Pathophysiologic and Therapeutic Updates

    PubMed Central

    SUÁREZ, Andrea L.; FERAMISCO, Jamison D.; KOO, John; STEINHOFF, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by impaired epidermal barrier function, inflammatory infiltration, extensive pruritus and a clinical course defined by symptomatic flares and remissions. The mechanisms of disease exacerbation are still poorly understood. Clinical occurrence of atopic dermatitis is often associated with psychological stress. In response to stress, upregulation of neuropeptide mediators in the brain, endocrine organs, and peripheral nervous system directly affect immune and resident cells in the skin. Lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis demonstrates increased mast cells and mast cell-nerve fiber contacts. In the setting of stress, sensory nerves release neuromediators that regulate inflammatory and immune responses, as well as barrier function. Progress towards elucidating these neuroimmune connections will refine our understanding of how emotional stress influences atopic dermatitis. Moreover, psychopharmacologic agents that modulate neuronal receptors or the amplification circuits of inflammation are attractive options for the treatment of not only atopic dermatitis, but also other stress-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:22101513

  20. Leukoderma in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Sachiko; Kasuya, Akira; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Tatsuno, Kazuki; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Hayato; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2015-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is occasionally associated with vitiligo, however, the incidence and conditions of vitiligo or leukoderma, and the characteristics of concurrent AD, remain unclear. We conducted a prospective observational study to investigate the leukoderma-related clinical manifestations and bioparameters of AD. Because vitiligo in AD lesions is occasionally associated with inflammation, we used leukoderma in this study. Enrolled were all AD patients who had been followed up in our AD outpatient clinic and visited within the previous 4 months. During this period, we carefully inspected whether the patients had leukoderma. Eight of 52 patients had leukoderma (15.4%) and were designated as the leukoderma group, and the remaining 44 patients comprised the non-leukoderma group. While the ages were statistically not different between the two groups, female preponderance was significantly observed in the leukoderma group. The leukoderma patients tended to have higher values of SCORAD, CCL17/thymus and activation regulated chemokine and lactate dehydrogenase than the non-leukoderma patients. The leukoderma group was also characterized by a lower frequency of allergic rhinitis and a higher frequency of prurigo lesions. Thus, despite the possession of high AD severity, the leukoderma patients may possibly retain a relatively T-helper 1-skewing state in relation to the development of leukoderma and less association with rhinitis. PMID:25545320

  1. Erlotinib-induced Rosacea-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Paštar, Zrinjka; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Pavliša, Gordana; Kovačević, Suzana

    2016-04-01

    Skin and skin adnexa toxicities are the most common side effects associated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and occur in most patients receiving this therapy. The majority of these cutaneous side effects are transient, reversible, and dose dependent. Although these symptoms are in general not severe, they significantly affect quality of life and can have a serious effect on treatment compliance as well as the treatment regimen. The most common early symptoms present as papulopustules on an erythematous base, usually localized in seborrheic areas. This clinical presentation is commonly described as "acneiform", although these adverse reactions have clinical presentations, such as rosacea-like and seborrheic-like dermatitis. In this context, we report a case of a 77-year-old man with a medical history of planocellular lung cancer with ipsilateral pulmonary metastasis and mediastinum infiltration who received erlotinib as a third-line therapy, presenting with centrofacial rosaceiform rash as a side effect associated with the use of EGFR-TKIs. The patient had a negative previous history of rosacea. Therefore, symptoms probably occurred as an adverse reaction due to the oncological therapy. Current terminology of early cutaneous adverse reactions caused by EGFR-TKIs refers to "acneiform" or "papulopustular" lesions, excluding less common side effects such as rosacea-like dermatitis so these symptoms might be overlooked and misdiagnosed. Thus, we would like to emphasize the importance of developing a more accurate classification of terms in order to provide early detection of all possible cutaneous side effects, including less common ones, providing specific and timely treatment, and allowing continuation of drug therapy. PMID:27149133

  2. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  3. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients. PMID:27506086

  4. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: protecting the older person.

    PubMed

    Beldon, Pauline

    As the older population in the UK continues to grow, so too will the number of people presenting with dermatological problems. Older people's skin is subject to dehydration internally and environmental factors externally. If, in addition, the individual suffers continence problems, he or she is at risk of painful incontinence-associated dermatitis, or even formation of a moisture lesion. The use of an effective barrier cream that gives protection while not interfering with continence pad efficacy can be an invaluable means of comfort to the older person. PMID:22585017

  5. Newly Described Clinical and Immunopathological Feature of Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Bonciolini, Veronica; Bonciani, Diletta; Verdelli, Alice; D'Errico, Antonietta; Antiga, Emiliano; Fabbri, Paolo; Caproni, Marzia

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with typical histopathological and immunopathological findings clinically characterized by intensely pruritic polymorphic lesions with a chronic-relapsing course. In addition to classic clinical manifestations of DH, atypical variants are more and more frequently reported and histological and immunological are added to them, whereas the impact on quality of life of patients with DH is increasingly important to a certain diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to describe all the possible clinical, histological, and immunological variants of DH in order to facilitate the diagnosis of a rare disease and, therefore, little known. PMID:22701503

  6. [Nummular dermatitis: report of two cases in children].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Blanco, Jacinto; García-González, Verónica; González-García, Javier; Suárez-Castañón, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Nummular eczema or dermatitis is an uncommon paediatric pathology. It is presented as red-purplish small papules and vesicles that join to form exudative circular patches and then to eczematous or lichenified patches with discoid shape. The lesions appear predominantly on the extensor surface of extremities, although they can appear in trunk, hands or feet. This pathology has a clinical diagnosis; only few cases require complementary test. The topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of the treatment, and the causal treatment whether an infectious trigger is found. The patients have chronic or recurrent evolution. We report two cases in children with the aim of spreading knowledge among pediatricians. PMID:27399024

  7. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  8. Relationship between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, general risk factors and claw lesions in individual dairy cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laminitis and energy-related postpartum diseases share several risk factors, indicating a common etiology. Thus, a herd’s incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, such as displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, might reflect the likelihood of cows to suffer from laminitis-related claw lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, general risk factors, and claw lesions in individual cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming. Methods The dataset consisted of 6773 trimmings, performed between 2004 and 2006 by professional trimmers, from 3607 Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein cows in 26 herds. The herds were classified as having a high, inconsistent-high or low incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, based on the number of recorded cases of veterinary-diagnosed displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis in the Swedish national animal disease recording system during 2002 to 2006, and observations and interviews in connections with herd visits. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases and laminitis-related lesions including sole ulcer and sole hemorrhage; and hygiene-related lesions including interdigital dermatitis, digital dermatitis, heel-horn erosion, verrucose dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia; and absence of any claw lesion. Systematic effects, including first-order interactions, with P < 0.05 were included in the models. Herd classification was forced into the models, and a random effect of herd was included. Results In comparison to herds with a high incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, low-incidence herds showed a lower odds ratio (OR; 0.2) for laminitis-related lesions in cows trimmed during the summer months. Low-incidence herds also showed numerically lower OR estimates for laminitis

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  10. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Dooms-Goossens, A.E.; Debusschere, K.M.; Gevers, D.M.; Dupre, K.M.; Degreef, H.J.; Loncke, J.P.; Snauwaert, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously. 84 references.

  11. The potential role of allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Fulvio

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increasing prevalence, morbidity, and cost in developed Western countries. Frequently associated with respiratory allergy during adulthood, atopic dermatitis often represents the first phenotypic appearance of atopy in early childhood when the allergic 'march' starts and progressively moves toward food allergy, asthma, and rhinitis. At present, a consistent body of evidence supports the view that atopic dermatitis may represent the skin compartmentalization of a systemic allergic inflammation. Lymphocytes infiltrating early lesional skin express a T helper (Th) 2 pattern of cytokine secretion (increased levels of interleukin [IL]-4 and/or IL-13 and decreased levels of interferon-gamma) as well as the typical Th2-type chemokine receptor CCR4, specific to the thymus and activation-regulated chemokines. Keratinocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin, a novel cytokine that supports the early lymphocyte development in mouse models, and activates dendritic cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in humans. Increased levels of circulating hemopoietic precursor cells have been reported in atopic dermatitis, as in allergic asthma and rhinitis. Furthermore, the recognition of CD34+ hemopoietic precursor cells, and evidence for cellular differentiation/maturational events occurring within atopic dermatitis skin lesion infiltrates, are consistent with the recent reinterpretation of the Th2/Th1 paradigm, where Th2 cells appear to belong to the early stages and Th1 to the ultimate stages of a linear, rather than divergent, pattern of lymphoid differentiation. This more detailed understanding of the immunologic derangements contributing to the atopic dermatitis pathogenesis has led to growing interest in allergen-specific immunotherapy for the disease. Due to the complexity intrinsic to atopic dermatitis and the lack of consensus-based guidelines for

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. PMID:27185422

  13. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

  14. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ebschner, U; Hartschuh, W; Petzoldt, D

    2000-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is a rare dermatologic disorder seen in patients suffering from diseases in which circulating immune complexes occur. The typical cutaneous signs are linear cords usually located on the lateral aspect of the trunk. The characteristic, although not specific, histology reveals a dense diffuse infiltrate composed mostly of histiocytes, accompanied by neutrophils and eosinophils, and degenerated collagen surrounded by palisades of histiocytes. We discuss this disorder and its differential diagnosis. PMID:10743580

  15. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases. PMID:26608274

  16. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Antiga, Emiliano; Caproni, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with a chronic relapsing course, pruritic polymorphic lesions, and typical histopathological and immunopathological findings. According to several evidences, DH is considered the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease, and the most recent guidelines of celiac disease have stated that, in celiac patients with a proven DH, a duodenal biopsy is unnecessary for the diagnosis. In this review, the most recent data about the diagnosis and the management of DH have been reported and discussed. In particular, in patients with clinical and/or histopathological findings suggestive for DH, the finding of granular IgA deposits along the dermal–epidermal junction or at the papillary tips by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) assay, together with positive results for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody testing, allows the diagnosis. Thereafter, a gluten-free diet should be started in association with drugs, such as dapsone, that are able to control the skin manifestations during the first phases of the diet. In conclusion, although DH is a rare autoimmune disease with specific immunopathological alterations at the skin level, its importance goes beyond the skin itself and may have a big impact on the general health status and the quality of life of the patients. PMID:25999753

  17. Pruni cortex ameliorates skin inflammation possibly through HMGB1-NFκB pathway in house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis NC/Nga transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Fukumoto, Kyoko; Ueno, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Pruni cortex, the bark of Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidzumi, has been used in the Japanese systems of medicine for many years for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitussive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of pruni cortex on atopic dermatitis NC/Nga mouse model. Atopic dermatitis-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin. After induction of atopic dermatitis, pruni cortex aqueous extract (1 g/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and cellular protein expression by Western blotting for nuclear and cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear factor κB, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in the skin of atopic dermatitis mice. The clinical observation confirmed that the dermatitis score was significantly lower when treated with pruni cortex than in the atopic dermatitis group. Similarly pruni cortex inhibited hypertrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells as identified by histopathology. In addition, pruni cortex significantly inhibited the protein expression of cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear p-nuclear factor kappa B, apoptosis and inflammatory markers. These results indicate that pruni cortex may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of atopic dermatitis by attenuating high mobility group box 1 and inflammation possibly through the nuclear factor κB pathway. PMID:26060348

  18. Skin pH Is the Master Switch of Kallikrein 5-Mediated Skin Barrier Destruction in a Murine Atopic Dermatitis Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyosun; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Karasawa, Kaoru; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Oida, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Saori; Ahn, Ginnae; Amagai, Yosuke; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Arkwright, Peter D; Takamori, Kenji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Elevated skin surface pH has been reported in patients with atopic dermatitis. In this study, we explored the role of skin pH in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis using the NC/Tnd murine atopic dermatitis model. Alkalinization of the skin of asymptomatic NC/Tnd mice housed in specific pathogen-free conditions induced kallikrein 5 and activated protease-activated receptor 2, resulting in thymic stromal lymphopoietin secretion and a cutaneous T-helper 2 allergic response. This was associated with increased transepidermal water loss and development of eczematous lesions in these specific pathogen-free NC/Tnd mice, which normally do not suffer from atopic dermatitis. Injection of recombinant thymic stromal lymphopoietin also induced scratching behavior in the specific pathogen-free NC/Tnd mice. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin production and dermatitis induced by alkalinization of the skin could be blocked by the protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist ENMD-1068. In contrast, weak acidification of eczematous skin in conventionally housed NC/Tnd mice reduced kallikrein 5 activity and ameliorated the dermatitis. Onset of the dermatitis was associated with increased epidermal filaggrin expression and impaired activity of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1, a known regulator of skin pH. We conclude that alterations in skin pH directly modulate kallikrein 5 activity leading to skin barrier dysfunction, itch, and dermatitis via the protease-activated receptor 2-thymic stromal lymphopoietin pathway. PMID:26763432

  19. Causes and strategies for moisture lesions.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Janice

    Moisture lesions or incontinence-associated dermatitis are painful and distressing consequences of prolonged exposure to urine and faeces. They may adversely affect patients' physical and psychological wellbeing, so minimising damage is a vital part of the nurse's role. This article outlines their causes and strategies to prevent and treat them, as well as the causes of urinary and faecal incontinence and containment options. PMID:22439508

  20. Exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis during immunosuppression with cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Prignano, F; Bonciolini, V; Bonciani, D; Lotti, T

    2010-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the commonest occupational diseases in industrialized countries, where it comprises 20-70% of all occupational diseases. Recent studies found out the top ten allergens, but there are some differences in their frequency in relation to gender and age of patients: Myroxylon pereirae and Carba mix resulted the most prevalent allergens in men, while in women the most common sensitizers were nickel sulfate, PPD, fragrance mix and cobalt chloride. ACD is an inflammatory skin disease caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens, in which the lesions are due to T CD8+ cells in a type IV, delayed or cell-mediated, immune reaction. The typical skin lesions of ACD in general outburst in contact areas with the specific allergens and they are erythematosus-squamous lesions with other little differences in relation to localization, for example edema, vesicular-exuding lesions or onychodystrophy. Different treatment options exist and are applied according to the severity of the lesions. Topical treatments consist of bland emollients, corticosteroids ointments, topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus ointments, coal tar and derivatives and irradiation with ultraviolet lights or X-rays; while azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine A, oral retinoids or oral corticosteroids represent systemic options of therapy. Nevertheless, the control of chronic ACD is often difficult, overall in patients with chronic ACD. PMID:20823796

  1. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

  2. Advances in understanding and managing atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Michael; Sidbury, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic skin disease characterized by an improperly functioning skin barrier and immune dysregulation. We review proposed atopic dermatitis pathomechanisms, emphasizing how these impact current perspectives on natural history, role of allergic sensitization, and future therapeutic targets. PMID:26918129

  3. Effects of vitamin D and yeast extract supplementation on turkey mortality and clostridial dermatitis incidence in a dexamethasone immunosuppresssion model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridial dermatitis is a production disease of commercial turkeys that is chararacterized by sudden mortality in market-aged male birds and lesions that include fluid and air bubbles under the skin of the thigh, breast, and tail area. We have developed a model for CD using dexamethasone (Dex) inj...

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Walgrave, Susan E; Warshaw, Erin M; Glesne, Lynn A

    2005-12-01

    Propolis is commonly used in cosmetic and medicinal preparations because of its antiseptic, antiinflammatory, and anesthetic properties. Its therapeutic qualities have been well documented. However, 1.2 to 6.6% of patients who are patch-tested for dermatitis are sensitive to propolis. The main allergens are 3-methyl-2-butenyl caffeate and phenylethyl caffeate. Benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate are less frequent sensitizers. Propolis is found in a number of "natural" products, including lip balms, cosmetics, lotions and ointments, shampoos, conditioners, and toothpastes. Dermatologists should consider patch testing with propolis in users of such remedies. PMID:16536336

  5. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongxiu; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder affecting many people especially young children. It is a disease caused by the combination of genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier defect. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress may play an important role in many skin diseases and skin aging, possibly including AD. In this review, we give an update on scientific progress linking oxidative stress to AD and discuss future treatment strategies for better disease control and improved quality of life for AD patients. PMID:27006746

  6. Identification of Biomarkers for Footpad Dermatitis Development and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Escobar, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a type of skin inflammation that causes necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in commercial poultry, with significant animal welfare, and economic implications. To identify biomarkers for FPD development and wound healing, a battery cage trial was conducted in which a paper sheet was put on the bottom of cages to hold feces to induce FPD of broilers. Day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and assigned to 3 treatments with 8 cages per treatment and 11 birds per cage. Cages without paper sheets were used as a negative control (NEG). Cages with paper sheets during the entire growth period (d 0-30) were used as a positive control (POS) to continually induce FPD. Cages with paper sheets during d 0-13 and without paper sheets during d 14-30 were used to examine the dynamic of FPD development and lesion wound healing (LWH). Footpad lesions were scored to grade (G) 1-5 with no lesion in G1 and most severe lesion in G5. Covering with paper sheets in POS and LWH induced 99% incidence of G3 footpads on d 13. Removing paper sheets from LWH healed footpad lesions by d 30. One representative bird, with lesions most close to pen average lesion score, was chosen to collect footpad skin samples for biomarker analysis. Total collagen protein and mRNA levels of tenascin X (TNX), type I α1 collagen (COL1A1), type III α1 collagen (COL3A1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), and integrin α1 (ITGA1) mRNA levels were decreased (P < 0.05), while mRNA levels of tenascin C (TNC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-1β, and the ratio of MMP2 to all TIMP were increased (P < 0.03) in G3 footpads in POS and LWH compared to G1 footpads in NEG on d 14. These parameters continued to worsen with development of more severe lesions in POS. After paper sheets were removed (i.e., LWH), levels of these parameters gradually or rapidly

  7. Identification of Biomarkers for Footpad Dermatitis Development and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Escobar, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a type of skin inflammation that causes necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in commercial poultry, with significant animal welfare, and economic implications. To identify biomarkers for FPD development and wound healing, a battery cage trial was conducted in which a paper sheet was put on the bottom of cages to hold feces to induce FPD of broilers. Day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal diet and assigned to 3 treatments with 8 cages per treatment and 11 birds per cage. Cages without paper sheets were used as a negative control (NEG). Cages with paper sheets during the entire growth period (d 0–30) were used as a positive control (POS) to continually induce FPD. Cages with paper sheets during d 0–13 and without paper sheets during d 14–30 were used to examine the dynamic of FPD development and lesion wound healing (LWH). Footpad lesions were scored to grade (G) 1–5 with no lesion in G1 and most severe lesion in G5. Covering with paper sheets in POS and LWH induced 99% incidence of G3 footpads on d 13. Removing paper sheets from LWH healed footpad lesions by d 30. One representative bird, with lesions most close to pen average lesion score, was chosen to collect footpad skin samples for biomarker analysis. Total collagen protein and mRNA levels of tenascin X (TNX), type I α1 collagen (COL1A1), type III α1 collagen (COL3A1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), and integrin α1 (ITGA1) mRNA levels were decreased (P < 0.05), while mRNA levels of tenascin C (TNC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-1β, and the ratio of MMP2 to all TIMP were increased (P < 0.03) in G3 footpads in POS and LWH compared to G1 footpads in NEG on d 14. These parameters continued to worsen with development of more severe lesions in POS. After paper sheets were removed (i.e., LWH), levels of these parameters gradually

  8. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CAUSES OF SKIN LESIONS IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) IN THE EASTERN USA, 1975-2013.

    PubMed

    Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Allison, Andrew B; Brown, Justin D

    2016-07-01

    Skin lesions of Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) are a common cause of concern to wildlife biologists and the general public and are a frequent reason for submission to diagnostic laboratories. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the causes, occurrence, and epidemiologic patterns of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys in the eastern US. Skin lesions were diagnosed in 30% (n=199) of the 660 Wild Turkey samples submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study diagnostic service from 1975 to 2013. Avian pox was the most frequent cause of skin lesions (66%, n=131), followed by bacterial dermatitis (22%, n=44), ectoparasitism-related dermatitis (3%, n=6), fungal dermatitis (2.5%, n=5), and neoplasia (2.0%, n=4). Although the gross appearance of skin lesions is often insufficient to determine the etiology, the anatomic distribution of lesions and temporal occurrence of certain diseases may offer insights into likely causes. Cases with lesions involving or restricted to the head and neck were much more likely to be caused by avian pox than other etiologies. Similarly, lesions restricted to the feet were more likely to be of bacterial origin. Skin lesions observed in the fall and winter were more likely to be caused by avian pox, whereas bacterial dermatitis was more frequently observed in the spring and summer. This retrospective study provides a summary of the causes of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys and serves as a useful reference to diagnosticians and biologists when evaluating Wild Turkeys with skin lesions. PMID:27195689

  9. Interstitial granulomatous lesions as part of the spectrum of presenting cutaneous signs in pediatric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun J; Hivnor, Chad M; Yan, Albert C; Forbes, Brian; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Albert, Dan; Pawel, Bruce; Honig, Paul; Pessler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Skin findings in childhood sarcoidosis vary greatly, but only a few occurrences have been published in which the histopathology has been characterized well. We describe a child with sarcoidosis in whom the cutaneous findings were atypical, resembling granuloma annulare. Histologic examination of these cutaneous lesions, however, revealed areas of sarcoid-like epithelioid cell granulomas, a palisading granulomatous process with features of granuloma annulare, as well as palisading neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. This underscores the variability of skin findings in childhood sarcoidosis--even within the same patient--and suggests that sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children initially diagnosed with granulomatous skin lesions, such as granuloma annulare, palisading neutrophilic, and granulomatous dermatitis or interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, who demonstrate associated signs of systemic disease. PMID:17958801

  10. [Dermatitis caused by the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in Switzerland. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Y; Buchheim, E

    1983-05-28

    The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, has been detected in Switzerland for the first time in 3 patients suffering from a small papulous dermatitis. The lesions, distributed over the whole body, were especially intense on the arms and legs. The sting of O. bacoti was always very painful and the itching lasted for several weeks. The parasites were found on the skin of the patients, on one rat caught near the workroom, and in dust samples collected from the infested site. PMID:6879132

  11. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial. PMID:26051065

  12. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient. PMID:18413115

  13. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  14. Dermatitis artefacta in a patient affected by impulse control disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Concetta; Bernardini, Nicoletta; Mambrin, Alessandra; Skroza, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease characterized by self-inflicted skin lesions in fully aware patients. Mechanical and chemical devices are most commonly used to produce such injuries. Several psychological disorders like depression, obsessive compulsive disorders, hysteria, etc. are associated with this kind of disease. Most of the patients are young females aged between 15 and 30, but the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta may even be made in pediatric patients or elderly people. Because of its rarity and the polymorphism of lesions, dermatitis artefacta is often a challenge for the clinicians. More difficulties might be due to the lack of cooperation in these patients, who usually refuse the dialogue with doctors and deny their primary role in damaging their skin. We present a case of an elderly woman who showed a peculiar pattern of deep excoriating lesions disseminated on the upper part of her body, with an evident state of depression. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedure, that is often long lasting and difficult in such cases, was made by teamwork of dermatologists, psychiatrists and psychologists, leading to steady control of impulses and full remission of cutaneous symptoms. PMID:21489363

  15. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

  16. Leukocyte migration inhibition in nickel dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mirza, A M; Perera, M G; Maccia, C A; Dziubynskyj, O G; Bernstein, I L

    1975-01-01

    Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor assay was employed as an in vitro diagnostic aid in nickel dermatitis, the second most common contact dermatitis in North America. 15 patch test-positive and 5 patch test-negative patients, all giving a past history suggestive of nickel dermatitis, were investigated. Significant inhibition of leukocyte migration in both groups of patients was obtained only with nickel sulfate-albumin conjugate and not with unconjugated nickel sulfate. Specificity of this system was tested by utilizing an unrelated metallic albumin complex, and no inhibition was found. When patch testing is equivocal or contraindicated, this in vitro technique may be a practical alternative. PMID:1102460

  17. Systemic contact dermatitis--kids and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis. PMID:22299798

  18. [Occupational dermatitis in health care personnel].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick

    2002-09-01

    Occupational dermatosis are frequent among healthcare workers. Irritant hand dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. It is enhanced by the exposure to irritants: water, detergents, disinfectants and a history of atopic dermatitis. Natural rubber latex contained in rubber gloves can induce contact urticaria or generalized immediate allergic reactions. Contact eczema can be induced by rubber accelerators such as thiurams, disinfectants (glutaraldehyde, dodecyldimethylammonium). Nurses can become sensitized to handled drugs (antibiotics, propacetamol...). These occupational allergies have to be diagnosed, because sensitized nurses can develop severe generalized cutaneous adverse drug reactions if they are systemically exposed to the same drug than those that has previously induced an occupational contact allergy. PMID:12385152

  19. Bovine Stephanofilarial Dermatitis in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Dies, Ken H.; Pritchard, Jane

    1985-01-01

    The nematode, Stephanofilaria stilesi was recovered from two mature beef cattle in Alberta. The appearance of the skin and the histological lesions are described. The life cycle of the parasite and the development of lesions are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422593

  20. Effect of Topical Application of the Cream Containing Magnesium 2% on Treatment of Diaper Dermatitis and Diaper Rash in Children A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjatollah; Kheiri, Maryam; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Shirani, Majid; Ahrani, Saeedeh; Karami, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diaper dermatitis is referred to the inflammation in outer layers of the skin in the perineal area, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. The lesions are maculopapular and usually itchy, which could cause bacterial or candida infection, and predispose the infants to penis or vaginal and urinary infection and lead to discomfort, irritability, and restlessness. The drugs which have been so far administered for this disease (topical steroids) cause special complications for the sensitive skin in this area. Magnesium (Mg) is known for its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the cream containing Mg 2% on treatment of diaper dermatitis and diaper rash in children. Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 64 children aged less than two years old with diaper dermatitis referring Paediatric Ward of Hajar Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. Group one was treated with the combined cream Mg 2% and Calendula and group two with Calendula cream alone. The duration of recovery was compared between the two groups. Results The duration of recovery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p-value<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the lesions size and diapers’ number between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the finding of this study, Mg is effective on treatment of diaper dermatitis and could be used for treating diaper dermatitis and other types of dermatitis. PMID:26894161

  1. The Role of Textiles in Dermatitis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Mobolaji-Lawal, Motunrayo; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Dermatitis has important implications for individuals who are affected. It can significantly impair function and quality of life. Dermatitis is multi-factorial and often includes elements of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant contact dermatitis in a co-existent manner. Textiles are in contact with the human skin for extended periods of time and as a result, they are an important part of the cutaneous environment. Thus, it is not surprising that textiles play a major role in both the etiology and the treatment of various types of dermatitis. This review discusses the role of textiles in dermatitis with an emphasis on interesting and recent advances, trends, perspectives, gaps, and conflicts in the field. In addition, we mention other disease processes to be aware of as they can often mimic textile pattern dermatitis. Lastly, we provide a diagnostic approach for patients presenting with textile pattern dermatitis. PMID:26130475

  2. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis. PMID:23543297

  3. Biological Treatments in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Montes-Torres, Andrea; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Pérez-Plaza, Alejandra; Solano-López, Guillermo; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases that affect both children and adults with a prevalence of 30% and 10%, respectively. Even though most of patients respond satisfactory to topical anti-inflammatory drugs, about 10% require one or more systemic treatments to achieve good control of their illness. The progressive and increasingly detailed knowledge in the immunopathogenesis of AD has allowed research on new therapeutic targets with very promising results in the field of biological therapy. In this article, we will review the different biological treatments with a focus on novel drugs. Their mechanism of action, current status and results from clinical trials and observational studies will be specified. PMID:26239349

  4. Atopic Dermatitis: Update for Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine; Maguiness, Sheilagh

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disorder present in up to 20% of children. Recent advances implicate skin barrier dysfunction as central to disease pathogenesis. Genetic defects in the filaggrin gene, the product of which is important for maintaining the epidermal barrier, are a strong predisposing factor in the development of AD. In addition to reducing identifiable triggers, treatment should focus on the four clinical characteristics of eczema: emollients for dry skin, topical anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and itch, and strategies to reduce infection/colonization, which can include diluted bleach baths. New studies demonstrate that early emollient application from birth may prevent development of AD. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e280-e286.]. PMID:27517355

  5. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Darsow, Ulf; Wollenberg, Andreas; Simon, Dagmar; Taïeb, Alain; Werfel, Thomas; Oranje, Arnold; Gelmetti, Carlo; Svensson, Ake; Deleuran, Mette; Calza, Anne-Marie; Giusti, Francesca; Lübbe, Jann; Seidenari, Stefania; Ring, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. "Eczema school" educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  6. Biological Treatments in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Torres, Andrea; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Pérez-Plaza, Alejandra; Solano-López, Guillermo; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases that affect both children and adults with a prevalence of 30% and 10%, respectively. Even though most of patients respond satisfactory to topical anti-inflammatory drugs, about 10% require one or more systemic treatments to achieve good control of their illness. The progressive and increasingly detailed knowledge in the immunopathogenesis of AD has allowed research on new therapeutic targets with very promising results in the field of biological therapy. In this article, we will review the different biological treatments with a focus on novel drugs. Their mechanism of action, current status and results from clinical trials and observational studies will be specified. PMID:26239349

  7. Lupus-erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marmon, Shoshana; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Franks, Andrew G

    2012-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a prior diagnosis of lupus erythematous presented with a five-year history of small, erythematous, flesh-colored papules and nodules that coalesced into symmetrically-distributed plaques on her upper back. A biopsy specimen showed an interstitial, granulomatous mixed-cell dermatitis with eosinophils. These clinicopathologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of lupus erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. PMID:23286821

  8. Effectiveness of a home-made meat based formula (the Rezza-Cardi diet) as a diagnostic tool in children with food-induced atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martino, F; Bruno, G; Aprigliano, D; Agolini, D; Guido, F; Giardini, O; Businco, L

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a home-made meat based formula (the Rezza-Cardi diet), as a diagnostic tool for children with atopic dermatitis and suspected multiple food hypersensitivity. Severity scores for atopic dermatitis, body weight and serum lipid profile were evaluated at baseline and four weeks following the feeding with the home-made meat based formula in 16 children with atopic dermatitis and suspected multiple food hypersensitivity. The severity score of the skin lesions improved considerably in all the children; no significant difference was observed in the serum lipid levels before and after one month following the feeding with the home-made meat based formula. All children gained weight according to the Italian Standards. The results of this study indicate that the home-made meat based formula is a useful elimination diet in children with atopic dermatitis and suspected multiple food hypersensitivity. PMID:9920217

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Quality of Life of Seborrheic Dermatitis Patients in a Tropical Country

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Manapajon; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Jiamton, Sukhum

    2015-01-01

    Background: Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. Few studies have been conducted to assess the clinical characteristics of the disease and quality of life of the patients, especially in tropical countries. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical characteristics and quality of life of patients with seborrheic dermatitis in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at a university-based hospital and tertiary referral center in Bangkok, Thailand. The validated Thai version of the dermatology life quality index (DLQI) was used to evaluate patients’ quality of life. Results: A total of 166 participants were included. One hundred and forty-seven patients (88.6%) experienced multiple episodes of the eruption. The mean of outbreaks was 7.8 times per years, ranging from once every 4 years to weekly eruption. The most common factor reported to aggravate seborrheic dermatitis was seasonality (34.9%), especially hot climate. The mean (SD) of the total DLQI score was 8.1 (6.0) with a range of 0 to 27. There was no statistically significant difference between the two DLQI categories regarding duration of disease, extent of involvement, symptoms or course of the disease. Conclusion: Although mild and asymptomatic, seborrheic dermatitis can have a great impact on the quality of life. Youth, female gender, and scalp lesions were significantly associated with higher DLQI scores. PMID:26538714

  10. Systemic sensitization with the protein allergen ovalbumin augments local sensitization in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jane; Manicone, Anne M; McGuire, John K; Wang, Ying; Parks, William C

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models of atopic dermatitis based on epicutaneous sensitization have shed light on the role of epicutaneous allergen entry in the development of respiratory and gastrointestinal allergy. However, the contribution of non-cutaneous modes of sensitization to skin diseases has not been evaluated. We assessed if systemic ovalbumin administration, in conjunction with local sensitization, could prime for a robust inflammatory response. Furthermore, we attempted to elucidate important aspects of disease pathogenesis previously unaddressed in mouse models. Mice that underwent intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization prior to epicutaneous challenge demonstrated an acute (Th2-polarized) atopic dermatitis-like phenotype upon local challenge. The inflammatory response was strikingly more robust than in mice that underwent epicutaneous sensitization alone. The lesional infiltrate contained a dendritic cell population that corresponded phenotypically with inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells of significance in human disease. Finally, in accordance with observations in human atopic dermatitis, there was an increase in cluster of differentiation (CD) 103 (αE subunit)-expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes. However, the absence of CD103 on approximately 50% of infiltrating cells argues against a primary role for the αEβ7 integrin in tissue homing. In conclusion, we present a mouse model of atopic dermatitis that reveals novel insights into the pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:24672255

  11. Optimizing Treatment Approaches in Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson’s disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  12. Improving the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Ee Ting; Tidman, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis usually starts at puberty with a peak incidence at 40 years of age and is more common in males. Patients develop symmetrical, well demarcated, dull or yellowish red patches and plaques with overlying adherent, yellowish greasy scales. Seborrhoeic dermatitis has a distinctive distribution in areas rich in sebaceous glands - the scalp, eyebrows, glabella, nasolabial and nasofacial folds, cheeks, peri-auricular skin, pre-sternal and interscapular areas. It may occur in flexures, especially the axillae, groin, anogenital skin, infra-mammary skin and the umbilicus. Some patients may develop blepharitis with erythematous eyelids and destruction of eyelash follicles. Patients with HIV infection, neurological diseases, including parkinsonism and cranial nerve palsies, have a higher incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. Patients presenting with sudden onset severe seborrhoeic dermatitis should be screened for risk factors for HIV. Patients should be referred in the following situations: diagnostic uncertainty - consider other differential diagnoses; failure to respond to first-line treatment after four weeks - consider secondary changes e.g. bacterial infection, flexural intertrigo, lichenification, otitis externa; and severe/widespread disease. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis have a good prognosis, particularly infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, which usually remits within a few weeks or months and does not recur. PMID:24689165

  13. Clinical challenges of preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, Dimitri; Woodward, Sue; Rajpaul, Kumal; Vanderwee, Katrien

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common skin disorder in patients with faecal and/or urinary incontinence. The past decade has seen a huge growth in publications focusing on the complexity and inconsistency of the clinical observation of IAD and the differentiation between IAD and pressure ulcers. IAD and superficial pressure ulcers cause confusion in clinical practice when trying to determine the true nature and underlying pathology of the lesion. It is a daily challenge for health professionals in hospitals, nursing homes and community care to maintain a healthy skin in patients with incontinence. The aim of this article is to provide a brief update on recent developments regarding the differentiation between pressure ulcers and IAD and the prevention of IAD. Recommendations for clinical practice and research are provided. PMID:21841685

  14. Nicolau livedoid dermatitis following intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P; Pereira, N; Brites, M M; Gonçalo, M; Figueiredo, A

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old male presenting with a rapidly enlarging painful violaceous plaque in the left buttock and posterior thigh, following a gluteal intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. Associated urinary incontinence and lower left limb paresis were consistent with sciatic and lower sacral nerve damage, as confirmed by electromyography. Additional underlying muscular damage was observed in ultrasound and computer tomodensitometry scans and supported by high serum levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Aggressive treatment was performed with fluid expansion, intravenous steroid bolus, vasodilators and anticoagulation, resulting in slow improvement of cutaneous and muscular lesions. However, no significant effect was observed on neurologic dysfunction after 6 months of regular neuromuscular rehabilitation. Nicolau Livedoid Dermatitis is a rare and potentially fatal condition showing variable levels of tissue impairment and unpredictable course and prognosis. Specific treatment is not consensual and the efficacy of any particular treatment remains to be established. PMID:21199637

  15. Generalized seborrhoeic dermatitis. Clinical and therapeutic data of 25 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Messaritakis, J; Kattamis, C; Karabula, C; Matsaniotis, N

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five infants with generalized seborrhoeic dermatitis have been studied with reference to the provision of optimum treatment. Leucocyte counts and chest x-ray examination are recommended in every case. Irrespective of clinical findings, antibiotics should be given to patients with overt bacterial infection and those with leucocytosis, shift to the left, and toxic granulation. One group of infants was treated with vitamin B complex plus biotin given slowly intravenously over 24 hours; a second group was given only biotin intravenously over 2-3 hours; and a third group only biotin over 1-2 minutes. A fourth group was treated with both biotin and antibiotics for confirmed or suspected superimposed bacterial infection. The results were excellent in all groups. Skin lesions improved within 4-8 days and cleared completely within 15-30 days. Intravenous administration of biotin is recommended as less painful and less dangerous than multiple intramuscular injections. PMID:129036

  16. Disseminated coxsackievirus A6 affecting children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M D; Sears, A; Cookson, H; Lew, T; Laftah, Z; Orrin, L; Zuckerman, M; Creamer, D; Higgins, E

    2015-07-01

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an emerging pathogen that has in recent years been associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease. This manifests as a generalized papular or vesicular eruption, which may be associated with fever and systemic disturbance. We report a series of six children presenting to a single centre in the UK with disseminated CV-A6 infection on a background of atopic dermatitis (AD). Our patients exhibited a widespread papular or vesicular eruption in association with exacerbation of AD. Several of our cases mimicked eczema herpeticum, but the extent was more generalized, and individual lesions were discrete rather than clustered and were less circumscribed in character. This series highlights that CV-A6 infection may be encountered in the UK, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute exacerbation of AD, particularly in children. PMID:25677678

  17. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  18. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  19. A case of textile dermatitis due to disperse blue on the surgical wound.

    PubMed

    Caliskaner, Z; Kartal, Ozgur; Baysan, A; Yesillik, S; Demirel, F; Gulec, M; Sener, O

    2012-01-01

    Disperse blue (DB) 106 and DB 124 are the most frequent fabric dye allergens inducing textile dermatitis, but contact allergy to them may easily undiagnosed because the clinical picture usually needs high index of suspicion. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was referred for a recurred lesion over the incision scar of right total hip replacement surgery, which did not respond to treatment with povidone-iodine, mupirocin, and rifampicin. Patch testing, conducted with a European standard series and therapeutics that were used in the treatment of the lesion, revealed a positive reaction to dispersion mix blue 106/124. The patient was questioned in detail and reported that she has been wearing dark-colored synthetic panties for long years. The correlation was done between the positive antigen in the patch test and the clinical findings. The patient was treated with a corticosteroid cream for 2 weeks. She did not wear any dark-colored synthetic panties afterward and no flare-up was seen in the follow-up period. In this report, we emphasize the importance of detailed questioning of patients and that contact dermatitis should be considered potential cause of dermatitis at skin sites where the barrier function is compromised. PMID:22027509

  20. Re-emergence of papulonodular napkin dermatitis with use of reusable diapers: report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Annabel; Lorette, Gérard; Barbarot, Sébastien; Potier, Alexandra; Bessis, Didier; Hasselmann, Caroline; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    The use of reusable diapers, often made of cotton and bamboo material, is becoming more widespread in France--with the "eco" fashion, as they are considered more natural, ecologic and economic. We report 5 cases of papulonodular lesions in convex skin areas associated with the use of these diapers in infants. One case was typical Sevestre and Jacquet erosive dermatitis. The 4 others presented skin-coloured umbilicated papules or nodules with slight or no erythema and could be considered early-stage Sevestre and Jacquet erosive dermatitis, granuloma gluteale (1 case) or pseudo-verrucous papules. These 3 diagnoses probably belong to the same disease spectrum, proposed as "irritant napkin papulonodules". Napkin lesions occurred subsequent to 1) in all cases, use of reusable diapers, which are probably less absorbent than disposable diapers; 2) in 2 cases, insufficient food, which was responsible for lack of weight gain and delayed healing; and 3) in 1 case, diarrhea, which worsened the moisture. We alert physicians to possible papulonodular napkin dermatitis in infants wearing reusable diapers. PMID:23557992

  1. The Clinical Features and Pathophysiology of Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung; Maeng, Lee So; Oh, Se Jeong; Lee, An Hi; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Han, Chi Wha

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy (RT) including tomotherapy has been widely used to treat primary tumors, as well as to alleviate the symptoms of metastatic cancers. Objective The primary purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with acute radiation dermatitis in cancer patients that received tomotherapy, and compare the results to patients treated by conventional radiation therapy. Methods The study population consisted of 11 patients that were referred to the dermatology department because of radiation dermatitis after receiving tomotherapy; all patients were evaluated for clinical severity. The patients were assessed and identified using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version (CTC) 3.0. We performed biopsies of the skin lesions that were examined for apoptosis using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies to CD8, CD4 and TGF-β. As a positive control, patients with radiation dermatitis treated with conventional radiation therapy were also studied. Results The results of the clinical features of the skin of tomotherapy patients were the following: grade 1 (36%), grade 2 (55%) and other changes (9%). Among the population that had skin lesions due to acute radiation dermatitis, the mean number of positive cells per high power field (HPF) was the following: there were 30.50±7.50 TUNEL-positive cells, 34.60±12.50 CD8+ T cells, 5.19±3.17 CD4+ T cells and 9.95±1.33 TGF-β positive cells measured per HPF. The mean number of positive cells per HPF for the patients that received conventional radiation therapy was: TUNLEL-positive cells in 7.5±1.64, CD8-, CD4- and TGF-β-positive cells in 12.50±3.73, 3.16±1.47, 6.50±1.97. Conclusion We found that the number of TUNEL-positive cells and CD8+ T cells were higher in the lesions of

  2. Triclocarban: evaluation of contact dermatitis potential in man.

    PubMed

    Maibach, H; Bandmann, H J; Calnan, C D; Cronin, E; Fregert, S; Hjorth, N; Magnusson, B; Malten, K E; Meneghini, C L; Pirilä, V; Wilkinson, D S; Johannsen, F R

    1978-10-01

    Triclocarban was subjected to a profiling of its dermatitis producing potential including irritancy (21-day cumulative irritancy potential and application to 213 normal controls), phototoxicity (method of Marzulli), predictive contact sensitization (modified Draize method), predictive phototesting and battery screening in 2200 dermatitis patients, in an effort to define its relative dermatitis potential. The allergic contact dermatitis potential of triclocarban following bar soap use appears minimal. PMID:743875

  3. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. Material/Methods A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Results Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Conclusions Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy. PMID:26947591

  4. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. RESULTS Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy. PMID:26947591

  5. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1). PMID:26831423

  6. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  7. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tollesson, A; Frithz, A; Stenlund, K

    1997-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is important in the pathogenesis of a number of dermatologic diseases including seborrheic dermatitis in adults. It has also recently been suggested that M. furfur might be the etiologic agent in infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). We studied the presence of M. furfur in 21 children with the clinical diagnosis of infantile seborrheic dermatitis. Laboratory analyses showed aberrant patterns of essential fatty acids (EFA) in serum characterized by elevated levels of 18:1w9 and 20:2w6. Samples for M. furfur were taken from the foreheads and chests of children with infantile seborrheic dermatitis at the time of diagnosis, directly after treatment to complete healing, and after 1 year with no signs of infantile seborrheic dermatitis. All the patients were treated topically with borage oil containing 25% gammalinolenic acid (GLA). No reduced growth of M. furfur was seen on contact plates prepared with borage oil. The growth of M. furfur seems not to be related to the clinical symptoms in ISD. PMID:9436835

  8. Retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, M; Suzuma, K; Inaba, I; Ogura, Y; Yoneda, K; Okamoto, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis, one of the most common forms of dermatitis in Japan, has markedly increased in Japan in the past 10 years. To clarify pathogenic mechanisms of retinal detachment in such cases, we retrospectively studied clinical characteristics of retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. METHODS: We examined the records of 80 patients (89 eyes) who had retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. The patients were classified into three groups according to lens status: group A, eyes with clear lenses (40 eyes); group B, eyes with cataract (38 eyes), and group C, aphakic or pseudophakic eyes (11 eyes). RESULTS: No significant differences were noted in the ratio of males to females, age distribution, refractive error, or characteristic of retinal detachment among the three groups. The types of retinal breaks, however, were different in eyes with and without lens changes. While atrophic holes were dominant in group A, retinal dialysis was mainly seen in groups B and C. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that anterior vitreoretinal traction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of retinal breaks in eyes with atopic cataract and that the same pathological process may affect the formation of cataract and tractional retinal breaks in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:8664234

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause. PMID:24602035

  10. Dermatitis Neglecta -- A Dirty Dermatosis: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhijit; Seth, Joly; Sharma, Amita; Biswas, Desharghya

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis neglecta is a condition that results from inadequate frictional cleansing leading to accumulation of corneocytes, sebum and sweat ultimately resulting in hyper-pigmented patch or verrucous plaque. Recognizing this condition avoids unnecessary, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Here we report three cases of dermatitis neglecta in whom the dermatitis developed as a result of intentional neglect of personal hygiene. PMID:25814710

  11. Dental allergic contact dermatitis: an interesting case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    When patients have persistent oral complaints, it is important to consider allergic contact dermatitis to dental components. We present 3 cases seen at the Ottawa Hospital Patch Test Clinic between 2007 and 2009 with persistent oral lesions. Mercury, methacrylate, and beryllium were found to be the responsible allergens after patch testing. Of note, our case is the fourth reported dental contact dermatitis case to beryllium. Subsequently, a literature review and an examination of reported cases and management strategies were done. There is debate over the necessity of changing dental work after a positive patch-test result. We conclude that it is necessary to do your best to uncover all of the materials used in dental work. Often, material safety sheets do not include all allergens present in products. We advocate that if a positive reaction is found and deemed relevant, then appropriate replacement of the offending agent should be recommended. PMID:23010830

  12. Fiddler's Neck Accompanied by Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Nickel in a Viola Player

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Yong Seok

    2010-01-01

    "Fiddler's neck" is an irritant contact dermatitis that frequently affects violin and viola players. The etiology of the skin changes associated with this condition are probably attributable to a combination of factors--including increased pressure, friction, poor hygiene, and excessive perspiration. Clinically, the lesions generally consist of a localized area of lichenification on the left side of the neck just below the angle of the jaw. Herein, we report a case of fiddler's neck in a viola player, attended by allergic contact dermatitis to the nickel in the metal fixtures of a viola. We hope that our case report draws the attention of dermatologists toward this, and many other skin problems that affect musicians. PMID:20548892

  13. Adult atopic dermatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Patruno, Cataldo; Gisondi, Paolo; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory skin disease which predominantly affects children usually clearing up during or after childhood. However, AD may persist with a chronic recurrent course until adulthood, being recalcitrant to any treatment strategy. Moreover, in some patients AD is not present during childhood but starts later in life (i.e. after 16 years of age) being defined late-onset AD. Even if AD incidence is increasing worldwide with cases in which clinical manifestations first appeared or persisted during adolescence and adulthood raising, especially in industrialized countries, studies on adult AD are still scant. Since this subgroup of AD patients often has a nonflexural rash distribution, and atypical morphologic variants and validated diagnostic criteria are lacking, there is no clear consensus on the diagnostic work-up that should be performed when evaluating adult patients with AD. In this review the many aspects of work-up in adult patients with AD, such as diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, quality of life and pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25658440

  14. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  15. Specific Immunotherapy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsoo; Park, Chang Ook

    2015-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) using house dust mite (HDM) extracts has been performed mainly with patients of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the meanwhile, there has been a long debate on the efficacy of SIT in atopic dermatitis (AD) with only a few double-blind placebo-controlled trials. However, several randomized controlled trials of SIT in AD revealed significant improvement of clinical symptoms and also, positive result was shown by a following meta-analysis study of these trials. In order to predict and evaluate the treatment outcome, finding a biomarker that can predict treatment responses and treatment end-points is critical but it is very challenging at the same time due to the complexity of causes and mechanisms of AD. Other considerations including standardization of the easiest and safest treatment protocol and optimizing the treatment preparations should be studied as well. This review summarizes the basics of SIT in AD including the brief mechanisms, treatment methods and schedules, and also highlights the clinical efficacy of SIT in AD along with mild, controllable adverse reactions. Immunologic effects and studies of various biomarkers are also introduced and finally, future considerations with upcoming studies on SIT were discussed. PMID:25749758

  16. [Atopic dermatitis of the adult].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Aubert, H; Bernier, C; Néel, A; Barbarot, S

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) of the adult is a common skin disease. Its prevalence has greatly increased during the past decades. AD is commonly associated with other atopic disorders. Its impact on quality of life is often underestimated. Various immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in AD: innate epidermal barrier dysfunction due to filaggrin gene mutations, innate and adaptative abnormalities of the immune system (an initial Th2 phase precedes a chronic Th1 phase), intestinal and cutaneous microbiomes dysbiosis, and environmental factors. Diagnosis of AD is clinical and there is no predictive biomarker of future severity. The main differential diagnoses are: scabies, psoriasis, cutaneous adverse reaction, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, primary immunodeficiency, and Netherton's syndrome. Therapeutic management is challenging and should integrate a therapeutic education program. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment, including a preliminary assessment of possible topical corticosteroids phobia. Systemic treatments are recommended in severe, chronic and resistant AD, after careful evaluation in a reference centre. Dupilumab, an IL4/IL13 inhibitor, might be the first effective targeted therapy in AD, whereas therapies that specifically target the mechanisms of pruritus represent an exciting perspective. PMID:26617291

  17. A Study about the Cause and Clinicopathologic Findings of Injection-Induced Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young-Jun; Sim, Woo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Cases of dermatitis induced by the injection of certain drugs have been reported. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the cause and clinicopathologic findings of injection-induced dermatitis, and to reveal whether the reaction has any relation to the patient's age, injection site, drug concentration, and time interval from the injection to the occurrence of the skin lesion. Methods In this study, we enrolled 10 patients who developed erythematous skin lesions after the injection of causative drugs. The lesions were compared to each other according to the injection site, time interval from the injection to the occurrence of the skin lesion, and clinical characteristics. We performed intradermal and patch tests in each patient with different concentrations of causative drugs. Results The most common causative drugs were diclofenac and vitamin K1. The eczematous type was the most frequent clinical type. The intradermal test showed more positive results than the patch test. The patch tests with diclofenac (as is, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) and vitamin K1 (10%) were all negative in 10 patients. Furthermore, intradermal tests with diclofenac (as is) and vitamin K1 (0.1%, 1%, and 10%) were performed in 8 patients. Six patients had a positive reaction, consisting of erythema, induration, and vesiculation, after 1 and 2 days. Conclusion Our results showed that the most common causative agents were diclofenac and vitamin K1. Moreover, it seems that that intradermal test is more useful than the patch test in the diagnosis of injection-induced dermatitis. PMID:26719642

  18. Deficiency of epidermal protein-bound omega-hydroxyceramides in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Macheleidt, Oliver; Kaiser, Hans Wilhelm; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2002-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease of unknown etiology with an impaired permeability barrier function. To learn more about the molecular pathology in lesional skin, we analyzed levels of free extractable as well as protein-bound barrier lipids in the epidermis of atopic dermatitis subjects. The amount of protein-bound omega-hydroxyceramides in healthy epidermis comprised 46-53 wt% of total protein-bound lipids, whereas this percentage was decreased to 23-28 wt% in nonlesional areas and even down to 10-25 wt% in affected atopic skin areas of the subjects. Furthermore, the partial amount of free extractable very long chain fatty acids with more than 24 carbon atoms was reduced in affected regions down to 25 wt% and in nonlesional regions of the atopic dermatitis subjects down to 40 wt% compared to healthy controls. This "hydrocarbon chain length deficiency" regarding the barrier lipids in atopic skin was supported by metabolic labeling studies with [14C]-serine in cultured epidermis. The biosynthesis of free glucosylceramides and free ceramides was remarkably decreased in affected skin areas of the atopic subjects compared to healthy control subjects. Especially affected were the de novo syntheses of ceramide 4 (i.e., ceramide EOH, consisting of a very long chain N-acyl omega-hydroxy fatty acid esterified with linoleic acid and 6-hydroxysphingosine as sphingoid base) and ceramide 3 (ceramide NP, consisting of a nonhydroxy N-acyl fatty acid and phytosphingosine). In conclusion, this study revealed that the lesional epidermis in atopic dermatitis has considerable deficiencies within main barrier lipid components, which may contribute to the severely damaged permeability barrier. PMID:12164940

  19. Dermatitis in hairdressers (II). Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    van der Walle, H B

    1994-05-01

    Hand dermatitis in hairdressers is caused by a variety of factors. Important are the sensitizing and irritant capacities of some hair-cosmetic ingredients, unsafe packaging which causes contamination of the hands, work tables and instruments with hazardous chemicals, absence of protection with adequate gloves and ignorance of safe handling of these chemicals. A strategy is proposed, based on improvement of the safety of ingredients and packaging, use of vinyl gloves and introduction of safe hairdressing procedures. Introduction of this strategy in hairdressing salons with 16 cases of moderate to severe contact dermatitis reduced the number of cases of active dermatitis to 3 in 4 months. The value of pre-employment screening is discussed and the necessity of cooperation of centers of occupational dermatology is emphasized. PMID:8088138

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from oxygen cannulas.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A J

    1980-10-01

    A patient experienced allergic contact dermatitis on two occasions two months apart as a result of wearing the same brand of polyvinyl chloride oxygen cannula. In one instance the cannula was removed and not replaced, as continuing oxygen was unnecessary; on the other occasion the original cannula was replaced by a cannula of another brand. In both cases the dermatitis disappeared after removal of the original cannula. The reaction was probably to a resin remaining in the polyvinyl chloride after the curing process in the manufacture of the plastic from which the cannula was made. Allergic reactions to plastics have been documented in other medical products but have not previously been reported in respiratory therapy plastic appliances. Because of variability in residual resins in different brands and batches of plastics, and because of varying individual sensitivity, therapists and others should be alert to the possibility of allergic contact dermatitis from respiratory therapy devices. PMID:10315103

  1. Occupational dermatitis in a prefabrication construction factory.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Gan, S L; Ngui, S J

    1986-10-01

    In a field study of occupational dermatoses in a prefabrication construction factory, 272 workers were interviewed, examined and patch tested to chromate, cobalt, nickel, rubber mixes, epoxy resin, melamine formaldehyde and conplasts. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis was 14% (38/272); 57% (22/38) were irritant dermatitis from cement; 39.5% (15/38) were allergic contact dermatitis from cement (2 with concomitant rubber glove allergy); and 2.5% (1/38) were allergic to rubber chemicals in gloves. The overall prevalence of chromate sensitivity was 8.5% (23/272), with the highest rate from the concreting bays of the factory. The rate was unrelated to the duration of workers' engagement in construction work. 34.8% (8/23) had asymptomatic chromate allergy. The prevalence of cobalt reactions was 17.4% (4/23) and all were associated with chromate allergy. PMID:2948758

  2. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported. PMID:23543400

  3. Recent Trends in Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-07-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) remains prevalent among workers and impacts quality of life and workability. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis as well as potential hazardous agents in the workplaces causing OCD. The review covers new developments in the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of occupational contact dermatitis. This article also provides updated information on the prevalence of work-related skin symptoms and on new contact allergens among working population. It is emphasized that in the context of prevention of OCD, special attention should be focused on the identified high-risk occupational groups, especially healthcare workers and hairdressers starting with the apprentices. Current approaches include working out the standards and guidelines to improve the education, knowledge, diagnosis, and management of OCD based on a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists and an employer. PMID:26143395

  4. Comprehensive pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial microbiota of the skin of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiomi; Cho, Otomi; Saito, Chie; Saito, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Sugita, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory dermatologic condition in which erythema and itching develop on areas of the body with sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and chest. The inflammation is evoked directly by oleic acid, which is hydrolyzed from sebum by lipases secreted by skin microorganisms. Although the skin fungal genus, Malassezia, is thought to be the causative agent of SD, analysis of the bacterial microbiota of skin samples of patients with SD is necessary to clarify any association with Malassezia because the skin microbiota comprises diverse bacterial and fungal genera. In the present study, bacterial microbiotas were analyzed at non-lesional and lesional sites of 24 patients with SD by pyrosequencing and qPCR. Principal coordinate analysis revealed clear separation between the microbiota of non-lesional and lesional sites. Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were abundant at both sites. Propionibacterium was abundant at non-lesional sites, whereas Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus predominated at lesional sites; however, the extent of Propionibacterium colonization did not differ significantly between lesional and non-lesional sites according to qPCR. Given that these abundant bacteria hydrolyze sebum, they may also contribute to SD development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial microbiotas of the skin of SD patients. PMID:27301664

  5. PERIORAL DERMATITIS: STILL A THERAPEUTIC CHALLENGE.

    PubMed

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Kummer, Ana; Mosler, Elvira Lazić; Čeović, Romana; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    Perioral dermatitis is a common and often chronic dermatosis. In its classic form, it primarily affects women aged 15 to 45 years, but there are also variants including lupus-like and granulomatous perioral dermatitis, where granulomatous form is more common in childhood and affects mostly prepubescent boys. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there is a frequent finding of prolonged use of topical products, especially corticosteroids, in the treatment of rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis, preceding the clinical manifestation of perioral dermatitis. Other causes important for the occurrence of the disease include various skin irritants, as well as other physical and hormonal factors, which all share the epidermal barrier dysfunction as an underlying main pathogenic factor. Clinical presentation of papulovesicular eruption in the perioral region with a typical narrow spared zone around the edge of the lips is characteristic. Therapeutic approach should be individually addressed, depending on the severity of clinical presentation and patient's age, with special attention to patient's education and continuous psychological support. In mild forms of perioral dermatitis, 'zero therapy' is the treatment of choice. In the initial treatment period, patients with steroid-induced perioral dermatitis should be closely followed up because the rebound phenomenon usually develops after cessation of previous topical treatment. In moderate disease, treatment includes topical metronidazole, erythromycin, and pimecrolimus, whereas in more severe cases the best validated choice is oral tetracycline in a subantimicrobial dose until complete remission is achieved. Systemic isotretinoin should be considered as a therapeutic option for patients refractory to all standard therapies. PMID:26415314

  6. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martel, Britta C; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas; Norsgaard, Hanne; Lovato, Paola; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian; Skov, Søren; Skak, Kresten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared to skin from healthy controls and from lesional psoriasis skin. The primary aim was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in skin barrier formation and inflammation, and to compare our results with those reported for patients with moderate and severe AD. In contrast to severe AD, expression of the majority of genes associated with skin barrier formation was unchanged or upregulated in patients with mild AD compared to normal healthy skin. Among these, no significant differences in the expression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin at both mRNA and protein level were found in lesional skin from patients with mild AD, despite the presence of heterozygous FLG mutations in the majority of patients with mild extrinsic AD. Several inflammation-associated genes such as S100A9, MMP12, CXCL10 and CCL18 were highly expressed in lesional skin from patients with mild psoriasis and were also increased in patients with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD. PMID:26841714

  7. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  8. The effects of treatment on itch in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Kevin B.; Neuhaus, Kristin J.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus causes significant impairment in the quality of life of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Treatments for itch in atopic dermatitis range from simple avoidance of pruritus triggers to more complicated systemic therapy. Several treatments aim to target specific mediators of itch in atopic dermatitis, while others improve pruritus by reducing inflammation. Currently, the most effective treatments for atopic dermatitis-associated itch are primarily topical or systemic anti-inflammatory agents. Better management of pruritus in atopic dermatitis is an important goal, and necessitates the development of novel targeted treatments as well as efficient use of current therapies. PMID:23551368

  9. Mycosis fungoides presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Shannon; Walsh, Noreen; D'Intino, Yolanda; Langley, Richard G B

    2006-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides, a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, typically presents as indolent, progressive, and persistent erythematous patches or plaques with mild scaling and over time can evolve into tumor stage with tumor nodules. Other presentations include eczematous, psoriasiform, poikilodermatous, and hypopigmented patches. We report Mycosis fungoides in a 14-year-old boy presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis and review the relevant literature. This is a rare presentation of a condition that is uncommon in the pediatric population. In our patient, histologic features were typical of Mycosis fungoides presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis. The clinical features, pathology, molecular biology, and the relationship between these two entities are discussed. PMID:16918631

  10. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  11. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    PubMed

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak. PMID:7994440

  12. Innovative topical formulations for treatment of dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Senyigit, Taner; Ozcan, Ipek; Ozer, Ozgen

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of dermatitis with conventional dosage forms (ointment, cream, lotion etc.) has many concerns due to side effects especially in long-term therapy. Recent studies focused on strategies to optimize the potency of formulation while minimizing side effects. Several attempts have been made to increase the safety of treatment, including special vehicles (nanoparticle, liposome, patch etc.), combined therapy and new synthesized agents. This review provides major innovations and advances of new approaches for dermatitis treatment based on the published articles and patent applications. PMID:22827752

  13. Infections and skin diseases mimicking diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that often prompts parents to seek medical attention. Irritant diaper dermatitis is by far the most common cause, but numerous potentially serious diseases can present with changes of the skin in the diaper area. The differential diagnosis can include psoriasis, metabolic disorders, rare immune diseases and infection. Clinical examination can be helpful in distinguishing the underlying cause. General screening laboratory tests, as well as select testing when a specific condition is suspected, can be used to challenge or confirm the putative diagnosis. PMID:27311780

  14. Resin Dermatitis in a Car Factory

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis in a car assembly factory is described; it affected 50 workers who handled rubber weatherstrips coated with an adhesive. The adhesive was found to contain para-tertiary butyl phenol (P.T.B.P.) formaldehyde resin. Of those patch tested 70% gave positive reactions to the adhesive and 65% to the resin. Improved methods of handling and personal protection succeeded in arresting the occurrence of dermatitis. Barrier creams gave no protection in these circumstances. The episode illustrates the different preventive control methods which have to be tried when dealing with a simple skin hazard which cannot be abolished. Images PMID:5904100

  15. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

  16. Tryptanthrin ameliorates atopic dermatitis through down-regulation of TSLP.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-01-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease that greatly worsens quality of life. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a decisive role in the development of AD. The purpose of this study is to examine whether tryptanthrin (TR) would suppress AD through the regulation of TSLP. We analyzed the effect of TR on the level of TSLP from phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions of NC/Nga mice, and in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated splenocytes. TR significantly suppressed the level of intracellular calcium and the production and mRNA expression of TSLP through the blockade of receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/nuclear factor-κB pathway in the activated HMC-1 cells. TR also significantly suppressed the levels of histidine decarboxylase and IL-1β. Furthermore, TR ameliorated clinical symptoms in the AD model. TR significantly reduced the levels of TSLP, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and caspase-1 in AD skin lesions. Also, TR significantly reduced the serum levels of histamine and IL-4 in the AD model. Finally, TR significantly inhibited the production of IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α from the stimulated splenocytes. Taken together, TR exhibits the potential to be a therapeutic agent for AD through down-regulation of TSLP. PMID:24295961

  17. Erythrodermic atopic dermatitis with late onset–case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lancrajan, C; Bumbacea, R

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually associated with a personal or family history of atopic diseases such as AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma that most commonly arise in childhood and present with elevated IgE serum in up to 85% of patients. The severity of AD is based on the extent of affected areas, itch intensity and appearance of skin lesions. Here, we present the case of a 21–year–old female patient with generalized erythematous eczematous skin lesions, flexural lichenifications accompanied by intense pruritus, painful fissures and erosions resulting from scratching. She also presented erythematous plaques with thin scales on the scalp. The patient had no personal or familial history of AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma and the onset of cutaneous symptoms presented severe exacerbation in the last 2 months of the last 3 years. The main laboratory findings were–high serum eosinofilia (2,400/µL) and very high total IgE serum (11449UI/L). The flare remission was induced with systemic treatment (corticotherapy, oral H1 antihistamines, and antibiotherapy) and topical therapy (UVB 311nm, topical glucocorticoids and hydration). It is very important to recognize AD as a cause of erythroderma, especially in a patient with a late onset of the disease, in order to treat it promptly and to prevent ulterior recurrences, by educating the patient to have an adequate life style and to treat the recurrences at the very first symptoms. PMID:20302202

  18. Topical steroid therapy in atopic dermatitis in theory and practice

    PubMed Central

    Jeziorkowska, Renata; Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Topical glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) are commonly used in treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Aim To assess the patients’ compliance with the recommended instructions of the therapy. Material and methods The study involved 141 adult AD patients. The clinical course of AD and its treatment with GCSs during the last year were analysed. Results In the periods of exacerbation the lesions involved 10–50% of the skin surface area. Outpatient treatment in specialised dermatological and/or allergology clinics was given to 93% of the study subjects. Sixty-five out of 141 patients regularly attended medical control examinations. Glucocorticosteroids, mostly very potent ones (70.2%), were applied to all the subjects. 66.7% of patients obtained no information about their medications’ anti-inflammatory potential. The substances were applied more frequently than twice daily by 36.4% of the patients. Seventy-two of 141 subjects applied GCSs both temporarily and in the long-term treatment, for 8.3 weeks on average. In the long-term treatment, in which very potent GCSs predominated (70.7%), no one used intermittent therapy. One hundred and thirty patients introduced their own modifications to the instructions concerning GCSs use, among which 37.7% changed the site of application, 58.5% prolonged the duration of application and 49.5% shortened it or occasionally temporarily withdrew the prescribed drug. None of the patients knew the fingertip unit method of dose assessment. Apart from steroid therapy, 56.7% of the patients carried out regular care treatment. Conclusions The AD patients need to be thoroughly educated by the medical staff in the topical GCSs therapy in atopic dermatitis. PMID:26161055

  19. MASD part 3: peristomal moisture- associated dermatitis and periwound moisture-associated dermatitis: a consensus.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Janice C; Ratliff, Catherine R; Goldberg, Margaret; Baharestani, Mona M; Bliss, Donna Z; Gray, Mikel; Kennedy-Evans, Karen L; Logan, Susan; Black, Joyce M

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) occurs when excessive moisture in urine, stool, and wound exudate leads to inflammation of the skin, with or without erosion or secondary cutaneous infection. This article, produced by a panel of clinical experts who met to discuss moisture as an etiologic factor in skin damage, focuses on peristomal moisture-associated dermatitis and periwound moisture-associated dermatitis. The principles outlined here address assessment, prevention, and treatment of MASD affecting the peristomal or periwound skin. PMID:21873913

  20. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HERPESVIRAL DERMATITIS IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) IN NAMIBIA.

    PubMed

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) housed at the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia developed cutaneous lesions consisting of alopecia, erythema, ulceration, and crusting on the left fore and hind limbs. Histopathology of skin biopsies in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus-1 dermatitis; microbial culture indicated secondary bacterial infection. Therapy included targeted systemic antimicrobial and antiviral treatment, topical medications, and repeated cryotherapy. Lesions exhibited varying degrees of clinical improvement but, overall, progressed in extent, size, and severity during the subsequent 2.5 yr of intense treatment. The cheetah was ultimately euthanized due to a guarded prognosis and concerns about poor quality of life. Potential factors initiating or contributing (or both) to the severity and nonhealing nature of the cutaneous lesions include chronic unidentified stress, altered immune system function, and other environmental influences. PMID:26352979

  1. Hamartomatous tongue lesions in children.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Portia A; Ernst, Linda M; Elden, Lisa M; Kazahaya, Ken; Alawi, Faizan; Russo, Pierre A

    2007-08-01

    The incidence and spectrum of tongue lesions in children, in particular tongue hamartomas, is relatively unknown. We report a retrospective review of all tongue lesions seen at a major tertiary care children's hospital over an 18-year period with an emphasis on describing tongue hamartomas. A total of 135 tongue lesions were identified. Vascular/lymphatic lesions (36/135) were the most common followed by mucus extravasation phenomenon (22/135). Interestingly, hamartomatous lesions (18/135) were the third most common lesion category identified. Lingual hamartomas were predominantly submucosal in location and were classified histologically by tissue composition as follows: neurovascular (2/18), smooth muscle predominant (5/18), fat predominant (1/18), and smooth muscle and fat containing (10/18). All 5 smooth muscle predominant hamartomas also contained vasculature, and 1 case additionally contained salivary gland tissue. The single fat predominant hamartoma additionally contained vessels and salivary gland. The final 10 hamartomas contained varying amounts of both smooth muscle and fat, and also admixed combinations of vessels, nerves, and salivary glands. Two of these 10 cases additionally contained foci of choristomatous elements, including cutaneous adnexal structures and cartilage. Most patients with hamartomatous lesions were young, 2 years or less. Eight cases were congenital in origin. Females outnumbered males by 2:1. The majority of lesions (16/18) were dorsal in location, and 4 patients had a syndromic association, all oral-facial-digital syndrome. PMID:17667541

  2. Clinical comparison of human and canine atopic dermatitis using human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009): proposal of provisional diagnostic criteria for canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuri; Nagata, Masahiko; Murayama, Nobuo; Nanko, Hiroko; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease encountered in both humans and dogs. Canine AD can be used in the analysis of naturally occurring AD; however, details of clinical comparison have been lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare those clinical features using the human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009). Fifty-one dogs with canine AD were evaluated by the human criteria. Prior to this study, canine AD was basically diagnosed by the fulfillment of two authentic canine AD criteria and a positive reaction against Dermatophagoides farinae in serum immunoglobulin E levels and/or in intradermal tests. Among the human AD criteria items, behavior corresponding to pruritus was observed in all 51 dogs. Skin lesions corresponding to eczematous dermatitis were seen in 50 dogs, and symmetrical distribution of skin lesions was noted in all 51 dogs. A chronic or chronically relapsing course was observed in 50 dogs. Based on these results, the concordance rate for the criteria was 96% (49/51). Differential diagnoses of AD were also investigated in the same manner. The concordance rate for the criteria was 0% (0/69) in scabies, 2% (1/50) in pyoderma, 0% (0/50) in demodicosis, 0% (0/9) in cutaneous lymphoma, 0% (0/2) in ichthyosis, 25% (2/7) in flea allergy, 48% (24/50) in seborrheic dermatitis and 75% (3/4) in food allergy. Canine AD is thus indicated as a valuable counterpart to human AD in clinical aspects. In addition, the human AD criteria could be applicable, with some modification, as provisional diagnostic criteria for canine AD. PMID:21434981

  3. Incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Langemo, Diane; Hanson, Darlene; Hunter, Susan; Thompson, Patricia; Oh, In Eui

    2011-03-01

    Incontinence is a prevalent problem and can lead to many complications. Both urinary and fecal incontinence can result in tissue breakdown, now commonly referred to as incontinence-associated dermatitis. This article addresses the types of incontinence, its etiology and pathophysiology, assessment, prevention and treatment, and the latest research. PMID:21326024

  4. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  5. Footwear dermatitis: pathogenesis--part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Rasool, Farhan; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok; Verma, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Footwear dermatitis is an important aspect of contemporary dermatology. The causative factors are constantly changing just as the footwear industry is continually changing. These range from the leather itself to rubber accelerators and from dyes to even metal trim. PMID:23163071

  6. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by etofenamate].

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, A; Zick, C; Hausen, B M

    1988-06-15

    We report on 3 cases of contact dermatitis following topical application of etofenamat. Each patient developed positive reactions in patch tests with etofenamat in concentrations of both 10% and 1%. After testing, one patient showed secondary inflammatory reactions at the original site of application. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization seems to be relatively rare. PMID:2970161

  7. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community. PMID:2151361

  8. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  9. Pustular Dermatitis Caused by Dermatophilus congolensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.; Juzych, Lydia A.; Rudrik, James T.; Habib, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of pustular dermatitis in a 15-year-old girl who had just returned from horseback riding camp. Based on gram staining, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and whole-cell fatty acid analysis, the causative agent was identified as Dermatophilus congolensis. The literature contains few reports of human infection with this organism. PMID:17376877

  10. Management of Itch in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Judith; Buddenkotte, Joerg; Berger, Timothy G.; Steinhoff, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, pruritic, inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic, localized, or even generalized pruritus is the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis, and its management remains a challenge for physicians. The threshold for itch and alloknesis is markedly reduced in these patients, and infections can promote exacerbation and thereby increase the itch. Modern management consists of anti-inflammatory, occasionally antiseptic, as well as antipruritic therapies to address the epidermal barrier as well as immunomodulation or infection. Mild forms of atopic dermatitis may be controlled with topical therapies, but moderate-to-severe forms often require a combination of systemic treatments consisting of antipruritic and immunosuppressive drugs, phototherapy, and topical compounds. In addition, patient education and a therapeutic regimen to help the patient cope with the itch and eczema are important adjuvant strategies for optimized long-term management. This review highlights various topical, systemic, and complementary and alternative therapies, as well as provide a therapeutic ladder for optimized long-term control of itch in atopic dermatitis. PMID:21767767

  11. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Atopic Dermatitis Patients Based on History of Eczema Herpeticum Infection and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Broccardo, Carolyn J; Mahaffey, Spencer; Schwarz, John; Wruck, Lisa; David, Gloria; Schlievert, Patrick M; Reisdorph, Nichole A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin disorder in the general population worldwide and the majority of patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Eczema herpeticum is a disseminated herpes simplex virus infection that occurs in a small subset of patients. Objectives The goal was to conduct proteomic profiling of atopic dermatitis patients based on Staphylococcus aureus colonization status and history of eczema herpeticum. We hoped to identify new biomarkers for improved diagnosis and prediction of eczema herpeticum and Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility, and to generate new hypotheses regarding disease pathogenesis. Methods Skin taping was performed on nonlesional skin of non-atopic controls and on lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Subjects were classified according to history of eczema herpeticum and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Proteins were analyzed using mass spectrometry; diagnostic groups were compared for statistically significant differences in protein expression. Results Proteins related to the skin barrier (filaggrin-2, corneodesmosin, desmoglein-1, desmocollin-1, and transglutaminase-3) and generation of natural moisturizing factor (arginase-1, caspase-14, gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase) were expressed at significantly lower levels in lesional versus nonlesional sites of atopic dermatitis patients with and without history of eczema herpeticum; epidermal fatty acid binding protein was expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion This non-invasive, semi-quantitative profiling method has revealed novel proteins likely involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The lower expression of skin barrier proteins and enzymes involved in the generation of the natural moisturizing factor could further exacerbate barrier defects and perpetuate water loss from the skin. The greater expression of epidermal fatty acid

  12. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  13. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    PubMed

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  14. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  15. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions. PMID:20865268

  16. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  17. Reduced secretion of IgA to skin surface of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Imayama, S; Shimozono, Y; Hoashi, M; Yasumoto, S; Ohta, S; Yoneyama, K; Hori, Y

    1994-08-01

    To investigate whether the secretory form of immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was reduced on the skin surface in atopic dermatitis, the amount of sIgA present in sweat was measured in 40 patients with atopic dermatitis and in 50 healthy volunteers by attaching a cellulose membrane disk (10 x 10 mm) to the inner aspect of the upper arm skin for 24 hours. The secretory form of IgA, which was absorbed to the membrane and accumulated during the period of application, was revealed as dots by an enzyme immunoassay in which antibodies for IgA and for the secretory component were used. The density and number of dots (per mm2/day), which corresponded to the openings of eccrine excretory ducts, were determined with a densitometer. The mean amount of sIgA secreted by those patients was 3.86 +/- 0.71 pg/mm2/day (range, 0 to 21.17 pg/mm2/day), whereas that of the control subjects was significantly higher (p < 0.001), 16.79 +/- 2.80 pg/mm2/day (range, 0.79 to 133.77 pg/mm2/day). This may be related to the high incidence of bacterial and viral skin infections seen in patients with atopic dermatitis, and in addition, to the development of eczematous lesions through a defect in ridding the skin of allergens and/or microorganisms. PMID:8064071

  18. Dermatitis artefacta--a long way from the first clinical symptoms to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy; Kozicka, Dorota; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Nowicki, Roman; Roszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2011-03-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease that occurs as a result of a self-inflicted injury to the skin. The problem quite often is undiagnosed for a long time until the clinical look of bizarre skin lesions combined with non-specific histology and normal blood tests lead to the final identification. This report presents the case of a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed after 10 years of duration of disease. We discuss the reasons for such behavior and the possibilities of dermatological and general interventions. PMID:21448101

  19. Netherton syndrome: report of identical twins presenting with severe atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Gurkan; Guler, Nermin; Ones, Ulker; Tamay, Zeynep; Guzel, Pinar

    2006-09-01

    We report the cases of 4-year-old identical twin sisters who presented with severe atopic dermatitis with intractable skin manifestations and multiple food allergies. Netherton syndrome (NS) (OMIM 256500) was suspected due to very high serum IgE levels, growth retardation, severe food allergies and typical hair finding (trichorrhexis invaginata). A definite diagnosis was made by genetic analysis. Our cases are unique in being the first identical twins with NS diagnosed by a novel mutation in the SPINK5 gene. NS should be considered in differential diagnosis in children who have generalized erythema with intractable eczematous lesions and elevated levels of IgE. PMID:16670861

  20. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  1. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  2. Spontaneous scratching behaviour in DS-Nh mice as a possible model for pruritus in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, T; Hikita, I; Asakawa, M; Hirasawa, T; Deguchi, M; Matsutani, T; Oku, H; Horikawa, T; Arimura, A

    2006-01-01

    Itching is one of the major clinical symptoms in atopic dermatitis (AD) and complicates the management of this pathological condition. An animal model of AD-like pruritus would contribute to a better understanding of AD and could lead to the development of safe and effective antipruritic agents. DS non-hair (DS-Nh) mice raised under conventional conditions spontaneously develop pruritus, which is associated with a dermatitis similar to human AD. There is a significant positive correlation between disease severity and the period of scratching behaviour in DS-Nh mice. In the present study, we found that levels of histamine and nerve growth factor (NGF) in serum and/or skin tissue were higher in DS-Nh mice with AD-like dermatitis than in age-matched mice without dermatitis. The histopathological data indicated that nerve fibres extend into and mast cells infiltrate the surrounding area of the skin lesion. NGF production by XB-2 cells, which was derived from mouse keratinocytes, was enhanced by histamine via the H1 receptor. We also found that prolonged treatment with an H1-antagonist was effective against pruritus through depression of the production of NGF, which is thought to be generated by keratinocytes. We conclude that DS-Nh mice can serve as a suitable model for gaining a better understanding of pruritus in AD, and that prolonged treatment with an H1-antagonist may be beneficial in patients with AD-associated pruritus. PMID:16827890

  3. Immune-mediated Skin Inflammation is Similar in Severe Atopic Dermatitis Patients With or Without Filaggrin Mutation.

    PubMed

    Dajnoki, Zsolt; Béke, Gabriella; Mócsai, Gábor; Kapitány, Anikó; Gáspár, Krisztián; Hajdu, Krisztina; Emri, Gabriella; Nagy, Bence; Kovács, Ilona; Beke, Lívia; Dezső, Balázs; Szegedi, Andrea

    2016-06-15

    Inflammatory cytokines can impair the skin barrier, but the question as to whether barrier alterations affect keratinocyte immune responses remains unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether immune-mediated skin inflammation differs between severe atopic dermatitis patients with or without filaggrin mutation. The levels of filaggrin, inflammatory T helper 2 polarizing cytokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin 33 (IL-33)) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27 (CCL27), histological severity markers, T and dendritic cell counts in biopsies from lesional skin of severe atopic dermatitis patients with and without filaggrin mutation and healthy skin were quantified by immunohistochemistry. The results were confirmed by quantitative PCR analyses. No significant differences were found between the 2 patient groups. Expression of atopic dermatitis-specific cytokines showed significant correlation with histological severity. These findings suggest that the immune-mediated skin inflammation (represented by keratinocyte-derived factors, T cell and dendritic cell counts) is similar in the 2 patient groups with severe atopic dermatitis, and that immune activation is connected to the severity of the disease rather than to the origin of barrier alterations. PMID:26536977

  4. Topical application of rapamycin ointment ameliorates Dermatophagoides farina body extract-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Tanaka, Mari; Wataya-Kaneda, Mari; Yang, Lingli; Nakamura, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Shoji; Attia, Mostafa; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by relapsing eczema and intense prurigo, requires effective and safe pharmacological therapy. Recently, rapamycin, an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, has been reported to play a critical role in immune responses and has emerged as an effective immunosuppressive drug. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of mTOR signalling could suppress dermatitis in mice. Rapamycin was topically applied to inflamed skin in a murine AD model that was developed by repeated topical application of Dermatophagoides farina body (Dfb) extract antigen twice weekly for 7 weeks in NC/Nga mice. The efficacy of topical rapamycin treatment was evaluated immunologically and serologically. Topical application of rapamycin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis, alleviated the increase of serum IgE levels and resulted in a significant reduction in clinical skin condition score and marked improvement of histological findings. In addition, increased mTOR phosphorylation in the lesional skin was observed in our murine AD model. Topical application of rapamycin ointment inhibited Dfb antigen-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice, promising a new therapy for atopic dermatitis. PMID:24903639

  5. A “Pedi” Cures All: Toenail Trimming and the Treatment of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sean C.; Garner, Joseph P.; Felt, Stephen A.; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Chu, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative Dermatitis (UD) is the most common cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice used in research, with prevalence rates reported between 4 and 21%. UD is characterized by a deep, ulcerative lesion that appears most commonly over the dorsal neck and is attendant with an intense pruritus. The underlying cause of UD is currently unknown, and as a consequence, there are no directed therapies that resolve lesions reliably. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests a behavioral component to the onset, maintenance, and progression of UD lesions. Scratching behavior in response to the intense pruritus associated with UD lesions may be an effective target for interventional therapies. We hypothesized that interfering with scratching behavior by trimming the toenails of mice with UD, would resolve UD lesions. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the efficacy of toenail trims with a single application of Vetericyn at the time of treatment versus our previous standard of care, topical Tresaderm applied daily. We found that toenail trims were significantly more effective at resolving lesions (n = 39 toenail trims, n = 100 Tresaderm, p<0.0001) with 93.3% of animals healing by 14 days (median time to lesion resolution). Furthermore, dorsal neck lesions did not recur by 42 days after a single toenail trim (n = 54); however, flank lesions did not resolve and the outcome of the two lesion distributions following treatment were significantly different (p<0.0001). Finally, we implemented toenail trims at an institutional level and found similar efficacies (approximately 90%) for toenail trims regardless of one-time topical supplement used (triple antibiotic ointment, Tresaderm, and Vetericyn, n = 55, 58, 18, p = 0.63). This is the first report of a highly effective treatment for one of the most serious welfare issues in laboratory mice. PMID:26735497

  6. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. PMID:21269309

  7. Therapeutic effect of tyndallized Lactobacillus rhamnosus IDCC 3201 on atopic dermatitis mediated by down-regulation of immunoglobulin E in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yoon, Jong-Min; Kim, Young-Hoo; Jeong, Dong-Gu; Park, Soobong; Kang, Dae-Jung

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IDCC 3201 tyndallizate (RHT3201) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice were investigated. After induction of dermatitis in NC/Nga mice with house-dust mite extract, each group was fed RHT3201 with 1 × 10(8) , 1 × 10(9) , or 1 × 10(10) cells orally once a day for 8 weeks. Dermatitis scores and frequency of scratching were improved by oral feeding with RHT3201. In contrast to the control group, RHT3201-fed mice showed significantly down-regulated mast cell numbers and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations had significantly less IL4 in their axillary lymph node cells. The therapeutic effect of RHT3201 was found to be dose-dependent. These findings indicate that RHT3201 has potential for treating AD. PMID:27240551

  8. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  9. Hand dermatitis--differential diagnoses, diagnostics, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hand dermatitis is multifactorial, and includes factors such as genetic predisposition and exposure. A high incidence rate is associated with female gender, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. The most important risk factors for the persistence of hand dermatitis include its extent, contact allergic or atopic etiology, childhood dermatitis, and early onset (before the age of 20). The cost of illness of hand dermatitis corresponds to this seen in moderate to severe psoriasis. The diagnostic workup of hand dermatitis and its differential diagnoses requires a detailed assessment of occupational and recreational exposure. In case of possible work-related triggers, early notification of the accident insurer should be sought (via the dermatologist's report). Exposure to a contact allergen is a contributing factor in one-half of all cases of hand dermatitis. It is therefore imperative that all patients with hand dermatitis persisting for more than three months undergo patch testing. Successful and sustainable treatment of hand dermatitis starts with the proper identification and elimination of individual triggers, including the substitution of identified contact allergens and irritants, as well as optimizing preventive measures. Graded therapy taking the clinical severity into account is essential. Validated instruments may be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26713631

  10. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  11. [Contact dermatitis due to dimethyl fumarate].

    PubMed

    Silvestre, J F; Mercader, P; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2010-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate is a fumaric acid ester. It been used for some years to treat psoriasis and also as a preservative in desiccant sachets in the transport of furniture and footwear. Its irritant properties and sensitizing potential in contact with the skin were recently highlighted when it was implicated as the causative agent in 2 epidemics of severe acute eczema: sofa dermatitis in northern Europe and shoe dermatitis in Spain. The present article aims to guide dermatologists in the diagnosis and management of patients allergic to dimethyl fumarate. We review the clinical manifestations, results of patch tests, possible cross-reactions, and sources of exposure to dimethyl fumarate responsible for these skin reactions. PMID:20398596

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  13. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum. PMID:11324397

  14. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components. PMID:11405157

  16. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  17. Measurement of the impact of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life: a cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire study using the Japanese version of Skindex-16.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Yuko; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Ueda, Shu; Arikawa, Junko; Kawashima, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    The impact of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life was measured using the Japanese version of Skindex-16 in a cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire study. One hundred sixty-two adult patients completed Skindex-16 and were followed-up with a standard medical therapy. Three to six months after the initial testing, 135 (83.3%) of the patients again completed Skindex-16 and also answered a general question about whether their skin condition had improved, remained the same, or become worse. The scores of Skindex-16 of 162 patients with atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than those of patients with isolated lesions, particularly in the Symptoms and Emotions scales. Patients with severe atopic dermatitis showed significantly higher scores in the three scales (Symptoms, Emotions, and Functioning), and there was a significant positive correlation between the severity and the 3-scale scores. After the follow-up period, 78 of 135 patients (57.8%) reported that their skin condition had improved. Forty-six patients (34.1%) reported that their skin condition had remained the same, and 11 (8.1%) became worse. Among the patients who said their dermatitis had improved, the scores of Skindex-16 significantly decreased. On the other hand, patients who reported their dermatitis worse showed an increase in the scores. These findings suggest that Skindex-16 responsively measures the disease severity and clinical change in the estimation of the effects of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life. This practical and sensitive, skin-disease specific, quality-of-life instrument is valuable for assessing patients' outcomes, especially their response to therapy, and is useful to understanding and improving the quality of life of patients suffering with atopic dermatitis. PMID:15801261

  18. [Allergic dermatitis caused by pyrogenic silica (aerosol)].

    PubMed

    Liashenko, I N; Lutsiuk, N B; Otkalenko, A K; Odnorogov, Iu V

    1989-01-01

    A case of allergic dermatitis developing after a contact exposure of the skin to aerosil is described. The authors suppose that violated intactness of the skin integument is largely responsible for the allergic reaction. The C-reactive protein, Hoigne's, and leucocyte migration inhibition tests have been all markedly positive. It is recommended that types of aerosil other than powder-forming be utilized and that means protecting the skin and the upper respiratory tract be used. PMID:2543155

  19. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice. PMID:686747

  20. Palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sangueza, Omar P; Caudell, Misty D; Mengesha, Yebabe M; Davis, Loretta S; Barnes, Cheryl J; Griffin, Julia E; Fleischer, Alan B; Jorizzo, Joseph L

    2002-08-01

    Palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD) is an entity that has not been clearly defined either clinically or histopathologically. It is seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases. In the past, many cases of PNGD have been described under several different names including palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis, linear subcutaneous bands, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with cutaneous cords and arthritis, rheumatoid papules, and Churg-Strauss granuloma. We report 7 additional cases of PNGD. Clinically, 6 patients presented with erythematous to violaceous plaques, papules, and nodules on multiple body sites; one presented with subcutaneous linear bands on the shoulder. Five had rheumatoid arthritis; one had adult-onset Still's disease; and one showed clinical signs of rheumatoid arthritis, although serologically the rheumatoid factor was negative. On histologic examination, a spectrum of changes was observed ranging from urticaria-like infiltrates to leukocytoclastic vasculitis and granuloma annulare with neutrophils. We report these cases to expand the histologic spectrum of this entity and to further delineate the different forms of clinical presentation. PMID:12140472

  1. New Developments in Biomarkers for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Judith L.; van Seggelen, Wouter; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Hijnen, DirkJan

    2015-01-01

    The application of biomarkers in medicine is evolving. Biomarkers do not only give us a better understanding of pathogenesis, but also increase treatment efficacy and safety, further enabling more precise clinical care. This paper focuses on the current use of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis, new developments and future perspectives. Biomarkers can be used for many different purposes, including the objective determination of disease severity, confirmation of clinical diagnosis, and to predict response to treatment. In atopic dermatitis, many biomarkers have been investigated as a marker for disease severity. Currently serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is the superior biomarker for assessing disease severity. However, we have recently shown that the use of a panel of serum biomarkers is more suitable for assessing disease severity than an individual biomarker. In this overview, we will discuss alternative sources for biomarkers, such as saliva and capillary blood, which can increase the user friendliness of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD). Both methods offer simple, non-invasive and cost effective alternatives to venous blood. This provides great translational and clinical potential. Biomarkers will play an increasingly important role in AD research and personalized medicine. The use of biomarkers will enhance the efficacy of AD treatment by facilitating the individualization of therapy targeting the patients’ specific biological signature and also by providing tools for predicting and monitoring of therapeutic response. PMID:26239250

  2. [Three cases of dry cleaning dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Kageyama, R

    1989-08-01

    Acute irritant dermatitis caused by contact with dry cleaned clothes (slacks, jacket, and skirt) was observed in three young females. Irritant sensations were noticed within an hour after wearing the clothes in all cases, but two patients thought that stocking were the cause. All patients continued wearing the clothes for various reasons. When they took off the clothes 3 to 9 hours later, erythema, edema, and bullae were noted on the posterior aspect of the thighs, the inner side of the right upper arm or the belt portion of the waist. Dry cleaning solvents used were not perchloroethylene, but were so-called new petrolatum solvents in all three cases. They were composed of paraffins in one case and paraffins plus naphtens in the other two cases. All solvents contained practically no aromatic substances. No spontaneous flare up was noted in any case. Therefore, dry cleaning solvents remaining in the clothes were thought to be the causative agent of this acute irritant contact dermatitis. This seems to be the first published report of dry cleaning dermatitis in Japan. PMID:2601111

  3. [Quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis: using the Japanese version of the SF-36 health status questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Fukuroku, Keiko; Nagano, Takuzou; Ogino, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder with an age onset mainly from infancy to adolescence. Patients with this disorder usually have a long history of repeated relief and relapse. The aim of the present studies is to quantify the relationship between the QOL score of patients and symptomatic characteristics (including severity measured by SF-36). From November 2000 to February 2001, the study recruited 281 patients with atopic dermatitis who had been treated at the Nagano dermatology and allergology clinic. The results of this study demonstrated that the symptoms severity and pruritus grade had strong influences on QOL score, and the location of pruritic lesion on the neck had the strongest influence on their self-perceived health status. The patients group with moderate atopic dermatitis who showed pruritus lesion in face, neck, and or knee, and female had consistently lower scores than male on all of the subscales. In conclusion, it is critically important to control of pruritus, and to develop an appropriate management. PMID:12522320

  4. Silk fabrics in the management of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giampaolo; Neri, Iria; Ricci, Lorenza; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2012-03-01

    Many factors may worsen atopic dermatitis (AD) including sweating, skin infections, food, inhalant allergens, climatic conditions, stress, and chemical or physical irritants. Especially in children, clothing can be an effective barrier against flare-inducing factors and persistent scratching, allowing more rapid improvement of the eczematous lesions. On the contrary, some fabrics used for clothing may exacerbate skin conditions due to their rough fibers, such as wool and nylon. Conventional silk has smooth fibers that are generally woven for textiles in the manufacturing of clothes, but this material is not particularly useful in the management of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort. Herein, we evaluate the data concerning a special silk fabric (MICROAIR DermaSilk®) shown to be suitable for patients with AD. The unique properties of this knitted silk allow the skin to breathe and lack irritative potential. Moreover, this fabric is treated with a water-resistant antimicrobial finish known as AEGIS AEM 5772/5. This novel knitted silk fabric appears to be useful in managing children with AD due to its non-irritating and antibacterial features. Additionally, a synthetic silk-like fabric (DermaTherapy®) has received US FDA clearance as a Class I medical device and is commercially available as bedding; their use by AD patients has shown interesting results. PMID:22446819

  5. Occupational contact dermatitis from propacetamol.

    PubMed

    Szczurko, C; Dompmartin, A; Michel, M; Castel, B; Leroy, D

    1996-11-01

    We report 4 cases of contact sensitization to propacetamol. They presented with lesions on the hands, forearms, crease of the elbows, and neck. They were all sensitized to multiple allergens and 2 of them were atopic. Patch tests to Pro-Dafalgan and propacetamol were positive; sodium citrate and paracetamol were negative. Our cases were similar to those published for the first time by Barbaud in 1995. The only allergen was propacetamol; patch tests with diethyglycine and paracetamol were negative. Propacetamol chlorhydrate is composed of a complex paracetamol-diethylglycine, which probably acts like a hapten capable of inducing cutaneous allergy. It is an occupational allergy affecting nurses who work in surgery departments or post-anesthesia recovery rooms, where high doses of analgesics are widely used. The patients were not allergic to oral paracetamol. Despite the usual precautions, the mixture of propacetamol chlorhydrate and solvent leaks onto the nurses' hands, suggesting that health care workers handling propacetamol chlorhydrate should wear gloves. PMID:9007376

  6. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Setting: Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Participants: Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Measurement: Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Results: Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis. PMID

  7. Pathogenic Actions of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in Pulmonary Emphysema and Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Hagiyama, Man; Fujita, Mitsugu; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion mediated by adhesion molecules is of central importance in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Therefore, altered expression of adhesion molecules leads to the development of various tissue disorders involving cell activation, degeneration, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear what initiates the altered expression of adhesion molecules and how the subsequent pathological cascades proceed. In this regard, cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is one of the candidates that is involved in the development of pathological lesions; it is an intercellular adhesion molecule that is expressed in various types of cells such as pulmonary cells, neurons, and mast cells. Recent studies have revealed that alterations in the transcriptional or post-transcriptional expressions of CADM1 correlate with the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases and allergic diseases. In this review, we specifically focus on how CADM1 is involved in the development of pathological lesions in pulmonary emphysema and atopic dermatitis. PMID:26636084

  8. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context. PMID:21358017

  9. The effect of antibacterial soap with 1.5% triclocarban on Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Breneman, D L; Hanifin, J M; Berge, C A; Keswick, B H; Neumann, P B

    2000-10-01

    This double-blind study determined whether daily bathing with an antibacterial soap would reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin and result in clinical improvement of atopic dermatitis. For 9 weeks, 50 patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis bathed daily with either an antimicrobial soap containing 1.5% triclocarban or the placebo soap. They also used a nonmedicated moisturizer and 0.025% triamcinolone acetonide cream as needed, but the availability of the corticosteroid cream was discontinued after 6 weeks. The antimicrobial soap regimen caused significantly greater improvement in the severity and extent of skin lesions than the placebo soap regimen, which correlated with reductions both in S aureus in patients with positive cultures at baseline and in total aerobic organisms. Outcome measures included reductions in S aureus, total aerobic organisms, and dermatologic assessments. Overall, daily bathing with an antibacterial soap was well tolerated, provided clinical improvement, and reduced levels of skin microorganisms. PMID:11109156

  10. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    PubMed

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. PMID:26143420

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  12. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  13. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  14. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis between the age of 15 to 49 years were 0.21%, 6%, and 19.6%, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of homicide-suicidal ideation in mothers or fathers of patients (aged 0-14 years) with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis were 0.11%,…

  15. Phototoxic dermatitis due to Chenopodium album in a child.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Serap G; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Akbayram, Sinan; Ceylan, Abdullah; Calka, Omer; Karaman, Kamuran

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report a 2-year-old girl with severe phototoxic dermatitis caused by ingestion of Chenopodium album. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of phototoxic dermatitis due to Chenopodium album in childhood. PMID:21854411

  16. Prevention, Treatment and Parent Education for Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common cutaneous condition characterized by an acute inflammatory eruption of the skin in the diaper area of an infant. Although this condition is relatively common, it can cause considerable pain and stress for infants and can be troublesome for their caregivers. In the United States, the frequency of diaper dermatitis is substantial and accounts for a high number of visits to health care providers. The three most common types of diaper dermatitis are chafing dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and diaper candidiasis. This article reviews common causes, differential diagnosis, current prevention and treatment recommendations, nursing implications and practical tips for families to utilize while caring for their infants at home. PMID:26264797

  17. What do trainee hairdressers know about hand dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Ling, T C; Coulson, I H

    2002-10-01

    Hand dermatitis is an important cause of morbidity in hairdressers. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 121 trainee hairdressers from 2 hairdressing colleges in Burnley (UK). The questionnaire concerned the number and types of hairdressing procedures performed, previous and current medical history, awareness of risks to the skin from hairdressing, and knowledge of hand dermatitis prevention. 17% of the trainees suffered currently from hand dermatitis. This is likely to be due to the large amount of wet work done by apprentice hairdressers, particularly those who worked in salons. 2/3 of trainees were not aware that atopic eczema predisposed to hand dermatitis. Formal pre-school and pre-employment counselling was limited. Knowledge on hand care among trainees was not often translated into practice, with gloves being worn by only 9% when shampooing and 58% when perming. Prevention of hand dermatitis by education and pre-employment counselling is of fundamental importance. PMID:12492522

  18. An update on airborne contact dermatitis: 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raquel; Goossens, An

    2007-12-01

    Reports on airborne dermatoses are mainly published in the context of occupational settings. Hence, in recent years, dermatologists and also occupational physicians have become increasingly aware of the airborne source of contact dermatitis, resulting mainly from exposure to irritants or allergens. However, their occurrence is still underestimated, because reports often omit the term 'airborne' in relation to dust or volatile allergens. For the present update, we screened the journals 'Contact Dermatitis' (July 2000 to December 2006); 'Dermatitis', formerly named 'American Journal of Contact Dermatitis'; 'La Lettre du Gerda' (January 2000 to December 2006); and also included relevant articles from other journals published during the same period. This resulted in an updated list of airborne dermatitis causes. PMID:17988283

  19. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  20. Smoking and Hand Dermatitis in the United States Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand dermatitis is a common chronic relapsing skin disease resulting from a variety of causes, including endogenous predisposition and environmental exposures to irritants and allergens. Lifestyle factors such as smoking have been implicated in hand dermatitis. Objective To evaluate the association between tobacco exposure and hand dermatitis using the 2003~2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Methods Data were retrieved and analyzed from 1,301 participants, aged 20~59 years, from the 2003~2004 NHANES questionnaire study who completed health examination and blood tests. Diagnosis of hand dermatitis was based on standardized photographs of the dorsal and palmar views of the hands read by two dermatologists. Results There were 38 diagnosed cases of active hand dermatitis out of the 1,301 study participants (2.9%). Heavy smokers (>15 g tobacco daily) were 5.11 times more likely to have active hand dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39~18.88; p=0.014). Those with serum cotinine >3 ng/ml were also more likely to have active hand dermatitis, compared with those with serum cotinine ≤3 ng/ml (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.26~4.95; p=0.007). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, atopic diathesis, occupational groups, and physical activity, the association between tobacco exposure and active hand dermatitis remained significant. Conclusion Smoking has a significant association with the presence of active hand dermatitis. It is important to consider smoking cessation as part of management of hand dermatitis. PMID:27081262

  1. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

  2. Is Frictional Lichenoid Dermatitis a Minor Variant of Atopic Dermatitis or a Photodermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Goel, Khushbu; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Goel, Alka; Khanna, Deepshikha; Grover, Chander; Khurana, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Context: Frictional lichenoid dermatitis. Background: Frictional lichenoid dermatitis (FLE) is an entity that is probably under diagnosed and has been variably associated with either friction and/or atopy with a distinctive seasonal variation. Aims and Objectives: To study correlation of FLE with UV index and to assess its association with atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional analysis of children with FLE was done, over a period of 6 years in two tertiary hospitals. A detailed history and examination was done to assess the features of atopic dermatitis. The number of cases seen per month was compared with the mean monthly UV index. Two-tailed significance tests using Pearson's coefficient of correlation and T-test were used to interpret the data. (P < 0.05). Results: One hundred seventy-four patients were studied using the UKC criterion 17.2% of the patients had AD while xerosis (40.3%) was the predominant cutaneous finding. The number of patients seen in summer was more than in winter (P < 0.05) but there was no statistical difference between the cases in winter and spring. There was a significant correlation of the number of cases per month with UV index (P = 0.019). Almost 42% of patients gave a history of recurrence. Conclusions: FLE is probably not associated with atopic dermatitis and is likely to be related to the ambient UV index though a larger cohort with meticulous follow up may be needed to draw a final conclusion. Statistical Analysis Used: The Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used for comparing the cases per month with the UV index. The tests of hypothesis used included the paired T-tests. F-test of variance, Welch test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. PMID:25657400

  3. Children with Atopic Dermatitis Should Always be Patch-tested if They Have Hand or Foot Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Olhardt, Sanna; Rådehed, Jeanette; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease among children in industrialised countries. Many factors influence this disease in a negative way and contact allergy is one such factor. The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of contact allergy among children with the diagnosis atopic dermatitis. Contact allergy was found in 22/82 children (26.8%), the most common from Amerchol L101 (11.0%), potassium dichromate (7.3%), and nickel sulfate (4.9%). A statistically significant difference in contact allergy frequency was demonstrated for those with hand and/or foot eczema compared to those without. Children with atopic dermatitis who suffer from hand and/or foot dermatitis should always be patch-tested to evaluate whether they have a relevant contact allergy and thus allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:25367826

  4. [Decubitus or incontinence-associated dermatitis?].

    PubMed

    Houwing, Ronald H; Koopman, Eddy S M

    2014-01-01

    A lack of understanding about the distinction between incontinence-associated dermatitis and pressure sores leads to inadequate treatment and therefore a higher incidence of pressure sores. Pressure relief may not be adequately carried out due to concentration exclusively on treatment of incontinence. In this article we will discuss the multifactorial approach, based on 2 patient cases. In order to prevent pressure sores, the cause of incontinence has to be investigated and treated if possible. Appropriate pressure relief must be carried out, in addition to adequate skin care. PMID:25159696

  5. MiRNA in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Samochocki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are relatively new molecules that have been widely studied in recent years as to determine their exact function in the human body. It is suggested that microRNAs control approx. 30% of all genes, making them one of the largest groups that control the expression of proteins. Various functions of miRNAs have already been described. In skin diseases, there are more and more studies describing an altered expression of microRNAs in the skin or serum. Relatively little is known about the function of these molecules in atopic dermatitis, which prompted us to gather current reports on this subject. PMID:27512348

  6. Atopic dermatitis: epidemiology and pathogenesis update.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Ellis, Charles N; Mancini, Anthony J; Paller, Amy S; Simpson, Eric L

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased markedly in the United States over the past 5 decades, with current reports varying from 10% to 20% prevalence in US children, and new diagnoses are estimated at almost 11% per year. Recent research in AD pathophysiology and pathogenesis has demonstrated that AD is associated with epidermal barrier dysfunction and that mutations in the filaggrin gene are implicated in barrier defects. These discoveries hold promise for future breakthroughs in the diagnosis and management of AD. PMID:23021783

  7. Atopic Dermatitis; Etio-Pathogenesis, An Overview.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Khurana, Ananta; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Saxena, Deepti; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a well-recognized clinical entity, several facets of which continue to be mystified. Accordingly, its etio-pathogenesis is largely elusive. It appears to be an outcome of interplay of several undertones, namely: genetics, maternal factor and inheritance, pregnancy/intrauterine, environmental factors, immune dysregulation, immuno-globulins, role of diet, and infection. Besides, recent innovative breakthroughs consisting of nutritional supplementation, the highlights of which were considered worthwhile to take stock of to define its current status. An endeavor to enlighten the audience has been made for their benefit. PMID:26288398

  8. Atopic Dermatitis; Etio-Pathogenesis, An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Khurana, Ananta; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Saxena, Deepti; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a well-recognized clinical entity, several facets of which continue to be mystified. Accordingly, its etio-pathogenesis is largely elusive. It appears to be an outcome of interplay of several undertones, namely: genetics, maternal factor and inheritance, pregnancy/intrauterine, environmental factors, immune dysregulation, immuno-globulins, role of diet, and infection. Besides, recent innovative breakthroughs consisting of nutritional supplementation, the highlights of which were considered worthwhile to take stock of to define its current status. An endeavor to enlighten the audience has been made for their benefit. PMID:26288398

  9. Cutaneous lesions in new born.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Kaur, Surjeet; Nagpal, Madhu; Dewan, S P

    2002-01-01

    Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94.8%) newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%), Mongolian spot in 301(60.2%), superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%), icterus in 128(25.6%), milia in 119(23.8%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107(21.4%), occipital alopecia in 94(18.8%), lanugo in 72(14.4%), peripheral cyanosis in 47(9.4%), breast hypertrophy in 29(5.8%) and miniature puberty in 28(5.6%) newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21%), followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20.6%) and acne neonatorum in 27(5.4%) newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13.8%), congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%), accessory tragi in 3(0.6%), spina bifida in 2(0.4%), hydrocephalus in 1(0.2%) and poliosis in 1(0.2%) newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10%) newborns. One (0.2%) case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen. PMID:17656992

  10. Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Byung-Joo; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC) is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice. PMID:25780667

  11. Malassezia dermatitis in dogs in Brazil: diagnosis, evaluation of clinical signs and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mauro L S; Ferreiro, Laerte; Ferreira, Rafael R; Corbellini, Luis G; Deville, Manjula; Berthelemy, Madeleine; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Skin carriage and quantification of Malassezia yeasts were evaluated in 180 healthy dogs (group 1) and 117 dogs with clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, lichenification/seborrhoea, excoriations and alopecia) that could be related to Malassezia dermatitis (group 2) in Brazil. The lesions in the group 2 dogs were evaluated using CADESI-03 scores. Samples were collected from five different anatomical areas. Direct examination was performed using the tape strip technique, and results were expressed as the mean number of yeasts per ×1000 microscopic field per dog. For mycological culture, a single piece of sterilized carpet was applied to the same areas sampled for cytology, and transferred onto Dixon's modified medium. Yeast populations were expressed as mean colony forming units (CFU)/plate. Malassezia isolates were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA gene. The probability of culturing Malassezia from dogs with skin lesions was significantly higher (P<0.001) than from healthy dogs. There was a linear trend between CADESI-03 score and mean CFU/plate. Group 2 dogs with positive cultures had higher CADESI-03 scores than those with negative cultures (P<0.05). Almost all isolates were identified as Malassezia pachydermatis. Only one isolate (group 2) was identified as Malassezia furfur. These data suggest that dogs with skin disorders harbouring Malassezia yeasts in quantities higher than 120 mean CFU/plate should be considered as having Malassezia dermatitis. The presence of Malassezia appears to exacerbate clinical lesions in dogs. PMID:20609207

  12. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  13. Zoledronic Acid–Induced Interface Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Succaria, Farah; Collier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a bisphosphonate given intravenously, most commonly for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increase in usage of ZA because it was FDA-approved has resulted in increasing reports of side effects. For the most part, these are systemic. Cutaneous side effects associated with ZA are infrequent and limited to 2 reports of dermatomyositis to date. In both, patients presented with clinical and laboratory stigmata of dermatomyositis soon after initiation of therapy. In this report, we describe a 62-year-old woman who presented with diffuse, erythematous scaly plaques over the right thigh after 12 hours of infusion of ZA. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy from the right thigh revealed patchy scale crust containing neutrophils and inspissated serum, interface change with scattered individually necrotic keratinocytes, and a mild, superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with scattered eosinophils and pigment incontinence—findings consistent with an interface dermatitis. Given that the patient had no other systemic manifestations or laboratory abnormalities, to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of interface dermatitis secondary to ZA with the caveat that longer follow-up is required to definitively exclude the development of drug-induced connective tissue disease. PMID:26588338

  14. Zoledronic Acid-Induced Interface Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Succaria, Farah; Collier, Mary; Mahalingam, Meera

    2015-12-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a bisphosphonate given intravenously, most commonly for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increase in usage of ZA because it was FDA-approved has resulted in increasing reports of side effects. For the most part, these are systemic. Cutaneous side effects associated with ZA are infrequent and limited to 2 reports of dermatomyositis to date. In both, patients presented with clinical and laboratory stigmata of dermatomyositis soon after initiation of therapy. In this report, we describe a 62-year-old woman who presented with diffuse, erythematous scaly plaques over the right thigh after 12 hours of infusion of ZA. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy from the right thigh revealed patchy scale crust containing neutrophils and inspissated serum, interface change with scattered individually necrotic keratinocytes, and a mild, superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with scattered eosinophils and pigment incontinence-findings consistent with an interface dermatitis. Given that the patient had no other systemic manifestations or laboratory abnormalities, to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of interface dermatitis secondary to ZA with the caveat that longer follow-up is required to definitively exclude the development of drug-induced connective tissue disease. PMID:26588338

  15. Superficial Mycoses Associated with Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Rojas, Rubí; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Chávez-López, Dinora; Mena, Carlos; Calderón, Luz; María, Ponce-Olivera Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains. Dermatophytes can infect the diaper area, with the most common agent being Epidermophyton floccosum. The clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis are different from those of candidiasis, and it can be diagnosed and treated simply. Malassezia yeasts can aggravate conditions affecting the diaper area, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and inverse psoriasis. Additional treatment is recommended in this case, because they usually involve complement activation and increased specific IgE levels. Erythrasma is a pseudomycosis that is indistinguishable from candidiasis and may also occur in large skin folds. It is treated with topical antibacterial products and some antimycotics. PMID:27193417

  16. Chromium induced contact dermatitis and indices for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S; Shouman, A E; El, S H; Moussa, E M

    1999-01-01

    Chromium exposure plays an important role in development of contact dermatitis. The prevalence of contact dermatitis among tannery workers and cement-exposed workers is high. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of contact dermatitis among some Egyptian workers exposed to chromium and to investigate the role of patch test and IgE immunoassay in diagnosis of contact dermatitis. Eighty-three male workers who were exposed to chromium were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria to be the target population of this study. Forty male workers away from exposure to chromium were taken to be the controls. All the exposed and non exposed workers were investigated through an interview questionnaire, clinical examination, patch test and determination of blood and urine chromium levels, absolute eosinophilic count and total IgE level. The results showed that there was no significant difference between exposed workers with clinically diagnosed contact dermatitis and the clinically free exposed workers regarding age and work duration. 7.7% of exposed workers with positive patch test suffered from contact dermatitis while 31.6% of exposed workers with negative patch test suffered from contact dermatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between clinically diagnosed contact dermatitis workers and clinically free workers regarding blood and urine chromium levels. IgE level and absolute eosinophilic count were statistically higher among exposed workers with contact dermatitis than among clinically free exposed workers. According to the results of this study, it is concluded that the diagnosis of skin hypersensitivity to chromium should depend upon the history of chromium exposure, clinical examination and a battery of investigations including IgE level, eosinophilic count and patch test. PMID:17219860

  17. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel H; Hardy, Gil; Alany, Raid G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation with omega-6 essential fatty acids (omega-6 EFAs) is of potential interest in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. EFAs play a vital role in skin structure and physiology. EFA deficiency replicates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis have been reported to have imbalances in EFA levels. Although direct proof is lacking, it has been hypothesized that patients with atopic dermatitis have impaired activity of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, affecting metabolism of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). However, to date, studies of EFA supplementation in atopic dermatitis, most commonly using evening primrose oil, have produced conflicting results. Borage oil is of interest because it contains two to three times more GLA than evening primrose oil. This review identified 12 clinical trials of oral or topical borage oil for treatment of atopic dermatitis and one preventive trial. All studies were controlled and most were randomized and double-blind, but many were small and had other methodological limitations. The results of studies of borage oil for the treatment of atopic dermatitis were highly variable, with the effect reported to be significant in five studies, insignificant in five studies, and mixed in two studies. Borage oil given to at-risk neonates did not prevent development of atopic dermatitis. However, the majority of studies showed at least a small degree of efficacy or were not able to exclude the possibility that the oil produces a small benefit. Overall, the data suggest that nutritional supplementation with borage oil is unlikely to have a major clinical effect but may be useful in some individual patients with less severe atopic dermatitis who are seeking an alternative treatment. Which patients are likely to respond cannot yet be identified. Borage oil is well tolerated in the short term but no long-term tolerability data are available. PMID:20579590

  18. Diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Viravan, Suchitra

    2004-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease in Thai children. There is no clinical or laboratory gold standard for the diagnosis. It is generally based on the guideline proposed by Hanifin and Rajka. Many studies have shown that some criteria are probably not all that significant in making the diagnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and diagnostic significance of clinical features of AD in Thai children. The authors studied 108 patients with AD and 103 controls including patients with other skin diseases. The AD group consisted of 60 girls and 48 boys. The mean age was 60.3+/-36.1 months. All previously proposed features were evaluated and the difference infrequency was tested with the chi-square test. History of pruritus, rash on typical distribution, chronically relapsing course, duration more than 6 months, personal or family history of atopy, age of onset before 2 years, recurrent conjunctivitis, itch when sweating, intolerance to rough textile, food and milk intolerance, history of dry skin, seasonal variation, visible dermatitis, dermatitis of a typical distribution, xerosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, foot dermatitis, Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold, orbital darkening, periorbital dermatitis, pityriasis alba, peri-auricular dermatitis, anterior neck fold, truncal dermatitis, perifollicular accentuation, white dermographism and diffuse scaling of scalp were all significantly more frequent in AD (p < 0.05). A minimum set of diagnostic criteria for AD was derived by using multiple stepwise logistic regression technique. It consisted of history of itchy rash, history of flexural dermatitis, chronicity more than 6 months, and visible xerosis, periorbital dermatitis and perifollicular accentuation. PMID:15822547

  19. SAPHO osteomyelitis and sarcoid dermatitis in a patient with DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jyonouchi, Harumi; Lien, Kenneth W; Aguila, Helen; Spinnato, Gaetano G; Sabharwal, Sanjeev; Pletcher, Beth A

    2006-06-01

    We report the development and spontaneous resolution of annular erythematous skin lesions consistent with sarcoid dermatitis in a child with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) carrying the 22q11.2 microdeletion. The skin lesion developed after she was treated with isoniazid (INH) following exposure to active tuberculosis (TB). After resolution of the skin lesions, this child developed sterile hyperplastic osteomyelitis consistent with SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) osteomyelitis in her right mandible triggered by an odontogenic infection. This child had congenital heart disease, dysmorphic facies, recurrent sinopulmonary infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease, scoliosis, reactive periostitis, and developmental delay. She had a low CD4 and CD8 T cell count with a normal 4/8 ratio, but normal cell proliferation and T cell cytokine production in response to mitogens. When she was presented with sterile osteomyelitis of right mandible, she revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)/angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels, but negative CRP. Autoimmune and sarcoidosis workup was negative. Inflammatory parameters gradually normalized following resolution of odontogenic infection and with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The broad clinical spectrum of DGS is further expanded with the development of autoimmune and inflammatory complications later in life. This case suggests that patients with the DGS can present with unusual sterile inflammatory lesions triggered by environmental factors, further broadening the clinical spectrum of this syndrome. PMID:16491384

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Psoriasis Patients: Typical, Delayed, and Non-Interacting

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T.; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J.; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B.; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms. PMID:25058585

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bleasel, Narelle; Tate, Bruce; Rademaker, Marius

    2002-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment. PMID:12121401

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  3. Historical Perspectives on Atopic Dermatitis: Eczema Through the Ages.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Tanya; Strom, Mark A; Lio, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    Throughout history, individuals have had a myriad of dermatologic conditions characterized as chronic pruritic dermatoses. The term atopic dermatitis was not coined until the early 20th century. Many diseases typical of this condition were reported using a variety of eponyms and descriptive terms. Even as the incidence of atopic dermatitis rises, it remains poorly understood in the modern era, and viewing the disease from a historical perspective provides useful insight into its nature. This article highlights the evolution of concepts related to the pathogenesis of and recommended treatments for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27086570

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  5. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part I. Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in dermatology. It compromises the majority of all occupational skin diseases in most countries. It develops as a result of the environmental or work-related exposure to irritants. Cutaneous reaction depends on the intrinsic properties of the irritant, individual skin susceptibility and environmental conditions. A great morphological variety of irritant contact dermatitis and difficulties in diagnosis may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. The prognosis is variable. Preventive measures, including education, individual skin protection and proper skin care may contribute to the reduced incidence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:19227886

  6. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  7. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  8. Stigmatization and self-perception in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases. Prevalence of AD is highest in childhood. Because of chronicity and often visible lesions, AD may lead to stigmatization and problems with self-perception. However, problems of self-perception and stigmatization in AD children are poorly studied. Literature data on general tendencies of children's development, clinical course, and epidemiologic tendencies of AD in different age groups make it possible to highlight three main periods in the formation of self-perception and stigmatization. The first period is from early infancy till 3 years of age. The child's problems in this period depend on parental exhaustion, emotional distress, and security of the mother-child attachment. The child's AD may form a kind of vicious circle in which severe AD causes parental distress and exhaustion that in turn lead to exacerbation of AD and psychological problems in children. The second period is from 3 till 10 years of age. During this period, development of AD children may be influenced by teasing, bullying, and avoiding by their peers. However, the majority of children in this age group are very optimistic. The third period is from 10 years till adulthood. Problems related to low self-esteem are characteristic during this period. It is important to identify children with AD and their parents who need psychological help and provide them with needs-based consultation and care. Appropriate treatment, medical consultations, and educational programs may help to reduce emotional problems in AD children and their parents. PMID:27499642

  9. Stigmatization and self-perception in children with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chernyshov, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases. Prevalence of AD is highest in childhood. Because of chronicity and often visible lesions, AD may lead to stigmatization and problems with self-perception. However, problems of self-perception and stigmatization in AD children are poorly studied. Literature data on general tendencies of children’s development, clinical course, and epidemiologic tendencies of AD in different age groups make it possible to highlight three main periods in the formation of self-perception and stigmatization. The first period is from early infancy till 3 years of age. The child’s problems in this period depend on parental exhaustion, emotional distress, and security of the mother–child attachment. The child’s AD may form a kind of vicious circle in which severe AD causes parental distress and exhaustion that in turn lead to exacerbation of AD and psychological problems in children. The second period is from 3 till 10 years of age. During this period, development of AD children may be influenced by teasing, bullying, and avoiding by their peers. However, the majority of children in this age group are very optimistic. The third period is from 10 years till adulthood. Problems related to low self-esteem are characteristic during this period. It is important to identify children with AD and their parents who need psychological help and provide them with needs-based consultation and care. Appropriate treatment, medical consultations, and educational programs may help to reduce emotional problems in AD children and their parents. PMID:27499642

  10. Genome-Wide Relatedness of Treponema pedis, from Gingiva and Necrotic Skin Lesions of Pigs, with the Human Oral Pathogen Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Svartström, Olov; Mushtaq, Memoona; Pringle, Märit; Segerman, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Treponema pedis and T. denticola are two genetically related species with different origins of isolation. Treponema denticola is part of the human oral microbiota and is associated with periodontitis while T. pedis has been isolated from skin lesions in animals, e.g., digital dermatitis in cattle and necrotic ulcers in pigs. Although multiple Treponema phylotypes may exist in ulcerative lesions in pigs, T. pedis appears to be a predominant spirochete in these lesions. Treponema pedis can also be present in pig gingiva. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of T. pedis strain T A4, isolated from a porcine necrotic ear lesion, and compared its genome with that of T. denticola. Most genes in T. pedis were homologous to those in T. denticola and the two species were similar in general genomic features such as size, G+C content, and number of genes. In addition, many homologues of specific virulence-related genes in T. denticola were found in T. pedis. Comparing a selected pair of strains will usually not give a complete picture of the relatedness between two species. We therefore complemented the analysis with draft genomes from six T. pedis isolates, originating from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in pigs, and from twelve T. denticola strains. Each strain carried a considerable amount of accessory genetic material, of which a large part was strain specific. There was also extensive sequence variability in putative virulence-related genes between strains belonging to the same species. Signs of lateral gene-transfer events from bacteria known to colonize oral environments were found. This suggests that the oral cavity is an important habitat for T. pedis. In summary, we found extensive genomic similarities between T. pedis and T. denticola but also large variability within each species. PMID:23977007

  11. Differential Features between Chronic Skin Inflammatory Diseases Revealed in Skin-Humanized Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Marta; Guerrero-Aspizua, Sara; Illera, Nuria; Galvez, Victoria; Navarro, Manuel; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Jorcano, Jose Luis; Larcher, Fernando; del Rio, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are chronic and relapsing inflammatory diseases of the skin affecting a large number of patients worldwide. Psoriasis is characterized by a T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 immunological response, whereas acute atopic dermatitis lesions exhibit T helper type 2-dominant inflammation. Current single gene and signaling pathways-based models of inflammatory skin diseases are incomplete. Previous work allowed us to model psoriasis in skin-humanized mice through proper combinations of inflammatory cell components and disruption of barrier function. Herein, we describe and characterize an animal model for atopic dermatitis using similar bioengineered-based approaches, by intradermal injection of human T helper type 2 lymphocytes in regenerated human skin after partial removal of stratum corneum. In this work, we have extensively compared this model with the previous and an improved version of the psoriasis model, in which T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 lymphocytes replace exogenous cytokines. Comparative expression analyses revealed marked differences in specific epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers and immune-related molecules, including antimicrobial peptides. Likewise, the composition of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate presented important differences. The availability of accurate and reliable animal models for these diseases will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and provide valuable tools for drug development and testing. PMID:26763433

  12. Gain-switched 311-nm Ti:Sapphire laser might be a potential treatment modality for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Oh, Chang Taek; Kwon, Tae-Rin; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Choi, Eun Ja; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kim, Hye Sung; Chu, Hong; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-09-01

    Phototherapy with 311-nm narrowband-UVB (NBUVB) is an effective adjuvant treatment modality for atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of the newly developed gain-switched 311-nm Ti:Sapphire laser device using a NC/Nga mouse AD model. A total number of 50 mice were used in this study. Atopic dermatitis (AD) was induced in mice by exposure to Dermatophagoides farina. These, NC/Nga mice were then treated with conventional 311-nm NBUVB or the newly developed gain-switched 311-nm Ti:Sapphire laser. The clinical features, dermatitis severity scores, and scratching behavior were assessed. In addition, serologic analyses including inflammatory cytokines and histological analyses were performed. Gain-switched 311-nm Ti:Sapphire laser improved the AD-like skin lesions, severity, and symptoms of AD in the NC/Nga mouse model. This new laser also modulated the immune response found in the AD model, including hyper-IgE, upregulated Th2 cytokines, and the Th2-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction. Gain-switched 311-nm Ti:Sapphire laser shows therapeutic promise via an immune-modulation mechanism in an AD mouse model. These data suggest that gain-switched 311-nm Ti:Sapphire laser may be useful as a targeted phototherapy modality for AD. PMID:27394442

  13. Dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Acari: Macronyssidae): a case report in humans.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Silva, Guilherme Liberato da; Silva, Carlos Eugênio

    2015-01-01

    We herein report human dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese). The cases occurred in an apartment in a residential district of Porto Alegre City, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where three members of the same family presented with pruritic lesions on the arms and legs. On inspecting the bathroom, several mites measuring approximately 1.0mm in length were observed coming from a nest of Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin). This is the first report of O. bursa in the urban area of Porto Alegre City, from a nest of F. rufus that bites humans. PMID:26676510

  14. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala. PMID:27044156

  15. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commerical broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease with increasing economic importance. This experiment was undertaken to describe symptoms, patholgocial changes and diagnosis of GD and to study their immunopathology and cytokine expression alterations. In addition to description of symptoms, pathol...

  16. Scrotal Dermatitis - Can we Consider it as a Separate Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ajay; Kar, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Scrotal dermatitis is a very common condition that has been easily overlooked by most dermatologists and treating physicians. The condition is easily mistaken for the common skin disorders affecting the area, like fungal infections. Scrotal dermatitis is not considered a separate disease entity and is usually considered a condition similar to the contact dermatitis occurring elsewhere. This article attempts to classify the condition as a separate disease entity and explains the various etiological factors and the pathogenesis of the condition. The various stages of the condition are also explained in detail. Newer treatment modalities like the use of narrow band UVB for the management of scrotal dermatitis is also highlighted in this article. PMID:24044054

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  18. Possible Antipruritic Mechanism of Cyclosporine A in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyi Chan; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Matsuda, Hironori; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kina, Katsunari; Ogawa, Mayuko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-06-15

    Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive agent that suppresses pruritus and is currently used in the treatment of patients with severe atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the antipruritic mechanism of cyclosporine A using a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced epidermal nerve density, number of scratching bouts, dermatitis scores, and transepidermal water loss, as well as decreasing the numbers of inflammatory cells in the dermis and decreasing epidermal thickness. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A dose-dependently inhibited increased itch-related receptor gene expression, such as interleukin-31 receptor A and neurokinin-1 receptor, in the dorsal root ganglion of atopic dermatitis model mice. Thus, the antipruritic efficacy of cyclosporine A may involve reduced epidermal nerve density and expression levels of itch-related receptor genes in the dorsal root ganglion, as well as improvement in acanthosis and reduction in cutaneous inflammatory cell number. PMID:26671728

  19. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

  20. The Changing Paradigm of Atopic Dermatitis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Sheila F; Simpson, Eric L; Irvine, Alan D; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is complex, and future treatment options will likely be incorporated in a multimodal approach to management. The new, directed therapies that have been developed will likely be used in conjunction with concomitant continuous or intermittent use of standard therapies; the goal is to optimize therapeutic outcomes while minimizing adverse impacts on safety and cost. Current data regarding disease course and expression throughout life suggest that treatment strategies also will need to be adjusted as a patient grows. Research also indicates that interventions begun in infancy-such as the use of emollients-may mitigate or prevent AD signs and symptoms in children at high risk for the disease. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp5):S97-S99. PMID:27526330