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Sample records for digital filters

  1. Survey of digital filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, H. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

  2. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  3. Digital hum filtering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, R.W.; Anderson, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    Data may be overprinted by a steady-state cyclical noise (hum). Steady-state indicates that the noise is invariant with time; its attributes, frequency, amplitude, and phase, do not change with time. Hum recorded on seismic data usually is powerline noise and associated higher harmonics; leakage from full-waveform rectified cathodic protection devices that contain the odd higher harmonics of powerline frequencies; or vibrational noise from mechanical devices. The fundamental frequency of powerline hum may be removed during data acquisition with the use of notch filters. Unfortunately, notch filters do not discriminate signal and noise, attenuating both. They also distort adjacent frequencies by phase shifting. Finally, they attenuate only the fundamental mode of the powerline noise; higher harmonics and frequencies other than that of powerlines are not removed. Digital notch filters, applied during processing, have many of the same problems as analog filters applied in the field. The method described here removes hum of a particular frequency. Hum attributes are measured by discrete Fourier analysis, and the hum is canceled from the data by subtraction. Errors are slight and the result of the presence of (random) noise in the window or asynchrony of the hum and data sampling. Error is minimized by increasing window size or by resampling to a finer interval. Errors affect the degree of hum attenuation, not the signal. The residual is steady-state hum of the same frequency. ?? 1994.

  4. Digital filter synthesis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, R. A.; Munoz, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Digital filter synthesis computer program expresses any continuous function of a complex variable in approximate form as a computational algorithm or difference equation. Once the difference equation has been developed, digital filtering can be performed by the program on any input data list.

  5. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, G. S.

    1980-09-01

    An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.

  6. Nanophotonic filters for digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Kirsty

    There has been an increasing demand for low cost, portable CMOS image sensors because of increased integration, and new applications in the automotive, mobile communication and medical industries, amongst others. Colour reproduction remains imperfect in conventional digital image sensors, due to the limitations of the dye-based filters. Further improvement is required if the full potential of digital imaging is to be realised. In alternative systems, where accurate colour reproduction is a priority, existing equipment is too bulky for anything but specialist use. In this work both these issues are addressed by exploiting nanophotonic techniques to create enhanced trichromatic filters, and multispectral filters, all of which can be fabricated on-chip, i.e. integrated into a conventional digital image sensor, to create compact, low cost, mass produceable imaging systems with accurate colour reproduction. The trichromatic filters are based on plasmonic structures. They exploit the excitation of surface plasmon resonances in arrays of subwavelength holes in metal films to filter light. The currently-known analytical expressions are inadequate for optimising all relevant parameters of a plasmonic structure. In order to obtain arbitrary filter characteristics, an automated design procedure was developed that integrated a genetic algorithm and 3D finite-difference time-domain tool. The optimisation procedure's efficacy is demonstrated by designing a set of plasmonic filters that replicate the CIE (1931) colour matching functions, which themselves mimic the human eye's daytime colour response.

  7. FORTRAN IV Digital Filter Design Programs. Digital Systems Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, E.; And Others

    The goals of the Digital Systems Education Project (DISE) include the development and distribution of educational/instructional materials in the digital systems area. Toward that end, this document contains three reports: (1) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for Low-Pass Butterworth and Chebychev Digital Filters; (2) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for…

  8. Digital filter design for radar image formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, John W.; Nelson, Jeffrey E.; Banh, N. D.; Moncada, John J.; Bayma, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    Novel weighted-least-squares approaches to the design of digital filters for SAR applications are presented. The filters belong to three different categories according to their combinations of minimax passband, least-squares stopband, minimax stopband, and maximally-flat passband. For real-time applications, it is important to design the sets of digital filter coefficient tables in an offline environment; the appropriate precomputed filter is then selected for each SAR signal-processing function, as a function of both mode and mapping geometry during real-time processing.

  9. On the design of recursive digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, K.; Narasimha, M. J.; Peterson, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A change of variables is described which transforms the problem of designing a recursive digital filter to that of approximation by a ratio of polynomials on a finite interval. Some analytic techniques for the design of low-pass filters are presented, illustrating the use of the transformation. Also considered are methods for the design of phase equalizers.

  10. Digital filters for coherent optical receivers.

    PubMed

    Savory, Seb J

    2008-01-21

    Digital filters underpin the performance of coherent optical receivers which exploit digital signal processing (DSP) to mitigate transmission impairments. We outline the principles of such receivers and review our experimental investigations into compensation of polarization mode dispersion. We then consider the details of the digital filtering employed and present an analytical solution to the design of a chromatic dispersion compensating filter. Using the analytical solution an upper bound on the number of taps required to compensate chromatic dispersion is obtained, with simulation revealing an improved bound of 2.2 taps per 1000ps/nm for 10.7GBaud data. Finally the principles of digital polarization tracking are outlined and through simulation, it is demonstrated that 100krad/s polarization rotations could be tracked using DSP with a clock frequency of less than 500MHz. PMID:18542155

  11. Integrated-Circuit Active Digital Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1986-01-01

    Pipeline architecture with parallel multipliers and adders speeds calculation of weighted sums. Picture-element values and partial sums flow through delay-adder modules. After each cycle or time unit of calculation, each value in filter moves one position right. Digital integrated-circuit chips with pipeline architecture rapidly move 35 X 35 two-dimensional convolutions. Need for such circuits in image enhancement, data filtering, correlation, pattern extraction, and synthetic-aperture-radar image processing: all require repeated calculations of weighted sums of values from images or two-dimensional arrays of data.

  12. A realization of the RAM digital filter. [Random Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1976-01-01

    The digital filtering algorithm of W. D. Little, which employs a large RAM to obtain high speed, is implemented in a simple hardware configuration. The nonrecursive version of this filter is compared to the counting digital filter and found to be competitive for low-order filters up to order 7 (8 coefficients).

  13. Digital filter design approach for SQUID gradiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, A.C.; Ribeiro, P.C.

    1988-04-15

    A review of the traditional method for designing gradiometers is made. A nonrecursive digital filter model for the gradiometer is presented, giving a new set of parameters for the gradiometer identification. Some designs are analyzed using the proposed set. As an example, a true differentiator is designed to be used as the SQUID input coil. It is shown that the differentiator has the same noise rejection as the conventional gradiometer but provides more signal sensitivity.

  14. Digital filtering of plume emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transformation and digital filtering techniques were used to separate the superpositioned spectral phenomena observed in the exhaust plumes of liquid propellant rocket engines. Space shuttle main engine (SSME) spectral data were used to show that extraction of spectral lines in the spatial frequency domain does not introduce error, and extraction of the background continuum introduces only minimal error. Error introduced during band extraction could not be quantified due to poor spectrometer resolution. Based on the atomic and molecular species found in the SSME plume, it was determined that spectrometer resolution must be 0.03 nm for SSME plume spectral monitoring.

  15. Spectral analysis and filtering techniques in digital spatial data processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pan, Jeng-Jong

    1989-01-01

    A filter toolbox has been developed at the EROS Data Center, US Geological Survey, for retrieving or removing specified frequency information from two-dimensional digital spatial data. This filter toolbox provides capabilities to compute the power spectrum of a given data and to design various filters in the frequency domain. Three types of filters are available in the toolbox: point filter, line filter, and area filter. Both the point and line filters employ Gaussian-type notch filters, and the area filter includes the capabilities to perform high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, and wedge filtering techniques. These filters are applied for analyzing satellite multispectral scanner data, airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, gravity data, and the digital elevation models (DEM) data. -from Author

  16. Statistical Error Analysis for Digital Recursive Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kevin Chi-Rung

    The study of arithmetic roundoff error has attracted many researchers to investigate how the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is affected by algorithmic parameters, especially since the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated circuits) technologies have become more promising for digital signal processing. Typically, digital signal processing involving, either with or without matrix inversion, will have tradeoffs on speed and processor cost. Hence, the problems of an area-time efficient matrix computation and roundoff error behavior analysis will play an important role in this dissertation. A newly developed non-Cholesky square-root matrix will be discussed which precludes the arithmetic roundoff error over some interesting operations, such as complex -valued matrix inversion with its SNR analysis and error propagation effects. A non-CORDIC parallelism approach for complex-valued matrix will be presented to upgrade speed at the cost of moderate increase of processor. The lattice filter will also be looked into, in such a way, that one can understand the SNR behavior under the conditions of different inputs in the joint process system. Pipelining technique will be demonstrated to manifest the possibility of high-speed non-matrix-inversion lattice filter. Floating point arithmetic modelings used in this study have been focused on effective methodologies that have been proved to be reliable and feasible. With the models in hand, we study the roundoff error behavior based on some statistical assumptions. Results are demonstrated by carrying out simulation to show the feasibility of SNR analysis. We will observe that non-Cholesky square-root matrix has advantage of saving a time of O(n^3) as well as a reduced realization cost. It will be apparent that for a Kalman filter the register size is increasing significantly, if pole of the system matrix is moving closer to the edge of the unit circle. By comparing roundoff error effect due to floating-point and fixed-point arithmetics, we

  17. Digital Integrate-And-Dump Filter With Offset Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Hurd, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    Detection of weak signals improved slightly. Digital integrate-and-dump filter proposed for detection of weak rectangular-pulse signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Theory of filter takes account of degradation of performance caused by offset sampling.

  18. Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

    1994-01-01

    A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

  19. Tunable photonic filters: a digital signal processing design approach.

    PubMed

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2009-05-20

    Digital signal processing techniques are used for synthesizing tunable optical filters with variable bandwidth and centered reference frequency including the tunability of the low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop optical filters. Potential applications of such filters are discussed, and the design techniques and properties of recursive digital filters are outlined. The basic filter structures, namely, the first-order all-pole optical filter (FOAPOF) and the first-order all-zero optical filter (FOAZOF), are described, and finally the design process of tunable optical filters and the designs of the second-order Butterworth low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop tunable optical filters are presented. Indeed, we identify that the all-zero and all-pole networks are equivalent with well known principles of optics of interference and resonance, respectively. It is thus very straightforward to implement tunable optical filters, which is a unique feature. PMID:19458728

  20. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications.

    PubMed

    Karthick, S; Valarmathy, S; Prabhu, E

    2015-01-01

    Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures. PMID:25922854

  1. Canonical Signed Digit Study. Part 2; FIR Digital Filter Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heechul

    1996-01-01

    Finite Impulse Response digital filter using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients has been studied and its computer simulation results are presented here. Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is employed to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers. To further improve coefficients optimization process, an extra non-zero bit is added for any filter coefficients exceeding 1/2. This technique improves frequency response of filter without increasing filter complexity almost at all. The simulation results show outstanding performance in bit-error-rate (BER) curve for all CSD implemented digital filters included in this presentation material.

  2. Design and application of finite impulse response digital filters.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Sampathkumaran, K S

    1982-01-01

    The finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is a spatial domain filter with a frequency domain representation. The theory of the FIR filter is presented and techniques are described for designing FIR filters with known frequency response characteristics. Rational design principles are emphasized based on characterization of the imaging system using the modulation transfer function and physical properties of the imaged objects. Bandpass, Wiener, and low-pass filters were designed and applied to 201Tl myocardial images. The bandpass filter eliminates low-frequency image components that represent background activity and high-frequency components due to noise. The Wiener, or minimum mean square error filter 'sharpens' the image while also reducing noise. The Wiener filter illustrates the power of the FIR technique to design filters with any desired frequency response. The low-pass filter, while of relative limited use, is presented to compare it with a popular elementary 'smoothing' filter. PMID:7060600

  3. Analysis of digital matched filtering schemes for digital receiver applications using simulation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevargiz, J. M.; Holmes, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The next generation of digital receivers for NASA's Deep Space Network is composed of in-phase and quadrature-phase channels. The authors have modeled and simulated a quadrature-phase baseband channel that includes a low-pass filter and a digital matched filter. The simulation is used to study the performance of the three schemes of digital matched filtering that use digital weighted integrate-and-dump filters. Using three methods for calculating the near-optimum matched filter weight coefficients, the simulation results are analyzed for the NRZ and Manchester data formats. The performances of the digital matched filters are studied in the presence of a timing error between the demodulated symbols and the integrate-and-dump filters.

  4. Statistical properties of filtered pseudo-random digital sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A tutorial presentation of pseudo-random digital sequences, their generation and properties is given. The results of a study of filtered pseudo-random sequences, and their statistical properties are reported. The generator, to be used in a telemetry communications system test unit, must generate its pseudo-random signals by filtering a long digital sequence. Desired signal properties include: (1) approximately Gaussian amplitude probability density function; and (2) signal spectral envelope approximately that of the filter being used in the generator. Filtered maximum-length sequences have been used for this, and similar applications in the past. The results were good for low-pass filtered sequences when the ratio of digital clock frequency to filter cutoff frequency was between fifteen and twenty. However, for higher values of this ratio, a definite skewing of the amplitude density function was observed.

  5. Root-Raised Cosine Filter Implementation That Uses Canonical Signed Digits for High-Speed Digital Filter Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heechul

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Communications Division has been investigating high-speed digital filters that can operate at a higher speed than those in current use for a digital modulator and demodulator (modem). Using the Canonical Signed Digits (CSD) number representation for filter coefficients is a very effective way to increase the filter's speed while reducing complexity in the digital filter hardware design. This approach is a good alternative to using an expensive parallel-processing design technique or custom, application-specific integrated circuits. Such integrated circuits may not be suitable for applications that require filter speeds faster than what application-specific integrated circuits digital signal processors can offer for a dedicated channel. When a communication channel is a dedicated, multiplication process--a costly, time-consuming process--it can be greatly simplified by a replacement of the filter coefficients with CSD numbers. A computer code written with the MATLAB software package runs the program and generates CSD-represented filter coefficients that are based on minimizing minimum mean square errors. Also, the Alta Group of Cadence's Signal Processing Workstation is used to simulate and analyze the CSD filter responses. The impulse response of the root-raised cosine filter that is used as a base model is defined. From this filter, a set of coefficients is sampled and stored in a file. For the all coefficients, the optimal CSD number for each coefficient is searched on the basis of the minimum-mean-square-errors criterion. Because the distribution of CSD numbers is not uniform, quantization errors tend to be bigger for coefficients greater than 1/2. To offset errors that occur in a region of coefficients between 1/2 to 1 and to better represent fractions with CSD numbers, an extra nonzero digit is allowed for any coefficients exceeding 1/2. This will greatly improve frequency response as well as intersymbol interference at the

  6. A study of digital holographic filter generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, M.; Ingels, F.

    1976-01-01

    Problems associated with digital computer generation of holograms are discussed along with a criteria for producing optimum digital holograms. This criteria revolves around amplitude resolution and spatial frequency limitations induced by the computer and plotter process.

  7. Digital Filters for Two-Dimensional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    Computational efficient filters speed processing of two-dimensional experimental data. Two-dimensional smoothing filter used to attenuate highfrequency noise in two-dimensional numerical data arrays. Filter provides smoothed data values equal to values obtained by fitting surface with secondand third-order terms to 5 by 5 subset of data points centered on points and replacing data at each point by value of surface fitted at point. Especially suited for efficient analysis of two-dimensional experimental data on images.

  8. FIR digital filter-based ZCDPLL for carrier recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Qassim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the performance of the newly proposed two-tap FIR digital filter-based first-order zero-crossing digital phase-locked loop (ZCDPLL) in the absence or presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The introduction of the two-tap FIR digital filter widens the lock range of a ZCDPLL and improves the loop's operation in the presence of AWGN. The FIR digital filter tap coefficients affect the loop convergence behaviour and appropriate selection of those gains should be taken into consideration. The new proposed loop has wider locking range and faster acquisition time and reduces the phase error variations in the presence of noise.

  9. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan; Bilenca, Alberto; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Speckle noise is a ubiquitous artifact that limits the interpretation of optical coherence tomography images. Here we apply various speckle-reduction digital filters to optical coherence tomography images and compare their performance. Our results indicate that shift-invariant, nonorthogonal wavelet-transform-based filters together with enhanced Lee and adaptive Wiener filters can significantly reduce speckle and increase the signal-to-noise ratio, while preserving strong edges. The speckle reduction capabilities of these filters are also compared with speckle reduction from incoherent angular compounding. Our results suggest that by using these digital filters, the number of individual angles required to attain a certain level of speckle reduction can be decreased. PMID:17728812

  10. Digital tunable color filter and beam scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A new technology invented at JPL of color filtering and beam scanning device based on electro-optical switching of internal-reflection states have been proposed for use in DWDM, display and measurement applications.

  11. Digital Filter ASIC for NASA Deep Space Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, James E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is about the implementation of an 80 MHz, 16-bit, multi-stage digital filter to decimate by 1600, providing a 50 kHz output with bandpass ripple of less than +/-0.1 dB. The chip uses two decimation by five units and six decimations by two executed by a single decimation by two units. The six decimations by two consist of six halfband filters, five having 30-taps and one having 51-taps. Use of a 16x16 register file for the digital delay lines enables implementation in the Vitesse 350K gate array.

  12. Digital Filter Separates Signal From Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Variance of signal-estimation error minimized. Mathematical technique extracts best estimates of signal component from periodic digital samples of signal plus noise. Technique combines Kalman- and smoothingfilter algorithms to minimize mean-square estimation error based on past, present, and predicted samples of signal plus noise. Technique useful in image analysis and other applications involving processing of noisy signals.

  13. Optimal multiobjective design of digital filters using spiral optimization technique.

    PubMed

    Ouadi, Abderrahmane; Bentarzi, Hamid; Recioui, Abdelmadjid

    2013-01-01

    The multiobjective design of digital filters using spiral optimization technique is considered in this paper. This new optimization tool is a metaheuristic technique inspired by the dynamics of spirals. It is characterized by its robustness, immunity to local optima trapping, relative fast convergence and ease of implementation. The objectives of filter design include matching some desired frequency response while having minimum linear phase; hence, reducing the time response. The results demonstrate that the proposed problem solving approach blended with the use of the spiral optimization technique produced filters which fulfill the desired characteristics and are of practical use. PMID:24083108

  14. A digital matched filter for reverse time chaos.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Phillip; Beal, Aubrey N; Dean, Robert N; Hamilton, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    The use of reverse time chaos allows the realization of hardware chaotic systems that can operate at speeds equivalent to existing state of the art while requiring significantly less complex circuitry. Matched filter decoding is possible for the reverse time system since it exhibits a closed form solution formed partially by a linear basis pulse. Coefficients have been calculated and are used to realize the matched filter digitally as a finite impulse response filter. Numerical simulations confirm that this correctly implements a matched filter that can be used for detection of the chaotic signal. In addition, the direct form of the filter has been implemented in hardware description language and demonstrates performance in agreement with numerical results. PMID:27475068

  15. Improved digital filters for evaluating Fourier and Hankel transform integrals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1975-01-01

    New algorithms are described for evaluating Fourier (cosine, sine) and Hankel (J0,J1) transform integrals by means of digital filters. The filters have been designed with extended lengths so that a variable convolution operation can be applied to a large class of integral transforms having the same system transfer function. A f' lagged-convolution method is also presented to significantly decrease the computation time when computing a series of like-transforms over a parameter set spaced the same as the filters. Accuracy of the new filters is comparable to Gaussian integration, provided moderate parameter ranges and well-behaved kernel functions are used. A collection of Fortran IV subprograms is included for both real and complex functions for each filter type. The algorithms have been successfully used in geophysical applications containing a wide variety of integral transforms

  16. A digital matched filter for reverse time chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. Phillip; Beal, Aubrey N.; Dean, Robert N.; Hamilton, Michael C.

    2016-07-01

    The use of reverse time chaos allows the realization of hardware chaotic systems that can operate at speeds equivalent to existing state of the art while requiring significantly less complex circuitry. Matched filter decoding is possible for the reverse time system since it exhibits a closed form solution formed partially by a linear basis pulse. Coefficients have been calculated and are used to realize the matched filter digitally as a finite impulse response filter. Numerical simulations confirm that this correctly implements a matched filter that can be used for detection of the chaotic signal. In addition, the direct form of the filter has been implemented in hardware description language and demonstrates performance in agreement with numerical results.

  17. Digital filter suppresses effects of nonstatistical noise bursts on multichannel scaler digital averaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. S.; Salter, F. O.

    1968-01-01

    Digital filter suppresses the effects of nonstatistical noise bursts on data averaged over multichannel scaler. Interposed between the sampled channels and the digital averaging system, it uses binary logic circuitry to compare the number of counts per channel with the average number of counts per channel.

  18. Least squares approximation of two-dimensional FIR digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliney, S.; Sgallari, F.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of two-dimensional FIR digital filters is presented. The method is based on a least-squares approximation of the ideal frequency response; an orthogonality property of certain functions, related to the frequency sampling design, improves the computational efficiency.

  19. Finite word length effects on digital filter implementation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, J. D.; Clark, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of two known techniques to analyze finite word length effects on digital filters. These techniques are extended to several additional programming forms and the results verified experimentally. A correlation of the analytical weighting functions for the two methods is made through the Mason Gain Formula.

  20. Digital filtering for data compression in telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.M.

    1994-08-01

    There are many obstacles to using data compression in a telemetry system. Non-linear quantization is often too lossy, and the data is too highly structured to make variable-length entropy codes practical. This paper describes a lossless telemetry data compression system that was built using digital FIR filters. The method of compression takes advantage of the fact that the optimal Nyquist sampling rate is rarely achievable due to two factors: (1) Sensor/transducers are not bandlimited to the frequencies of interest, and (2) Accurate, high-order analog filters are not available to perform effective band limiting and prevent aliasing. Real-time digital filtering can enhance the performance of a typical sampling system so that it approaches Nyquist sampling rates, effectively compressing the amount of data and reducing transmission bandwidth. The system that was built reduced the sampling rate of 14 high-frequency vibration channels by a factor of two, and reduced the bandwidth of the-data link from 1.8 Mbps to 1.28 Mbps. The entire circuit uses seven function-specific, digital-filter DSP`s operating in parallel (two 128-tap FIR filters can be implemented on each Motorola DSP56200), one EPROM and a Programmable Logic Device as the controller.

  1. Real time adaptive filtering for digital X-ray applications.

    PubMed

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Mangin, Michel; Schuberth, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade, many methods for adaptively filtering a data stream have been proposed. Those methods have applications in two dimensional imaging as well as in three dimensional image reconstruction. Although the primary objective of this filtering technique is to reduce the noise while avoiding to blur the edges, diagnostic, automated segmentation and surgery show a growing interest in enhancing the features contained in the image flow. Most of the methods proposed so far emerged from thorough studies of the physics of the considered modality and therefore show only a marginal capability to be extended across modalities. Moreover, adaptive filtering belongs to the family of processing intensive algorithms. Existing technology has often driven to simplifications and modality specific optimization to sustain the expected performances. In the specific case of real time digital X-ray as used surgery, the system has to sustain a throughput of 30 frames per second. In this study, we take a generalized approach for adaptive filtering based on multiple oriented filters. Mapping the filtering part to the embedded real time image processing while a user/application defined adaptive recombination of the filter outputs allow to change the smoothing and edge enhancement properties of the filter without changing the oriented filter parameters. We have implemented the filtering on a Cell Broadband Engine processor and the adaptive recombination on an off-the-shelf PC, connected via Gigabit Ethernet. This implementation is capable of filtering images of 5122 pixels at a throughput in excess of 40 frames per second while allowing to change the parameters in real time. PMID:17354937

  2. Gigabit Digital Filter Bank: Digital Backend Subsystem in the VERA Data-Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Kkurayama, Tomoharu; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Kazuyuki

    2005-02-01

    The VERA terminal is a new data-acquisition system developed for the VERA project, which is a project to construct a new Japanese VLBI array dedicated to make a 3-D map of our Milky Way Galaxy in terms of high-precision astrometry. New technology, a gigabit digital filter, was introduced in the development. The importance and advantages of a digital filter for radio astronomy have been studied as follows: (1) the digital filter can realize a variety of observation modes and maintain compatibility with different data-acquisition systems (Kiuchi et al. 1997 and Iguchi et al. 2000a), (2) the folding noise occurring in the sampling process can be reduced by combination with a higher-order sampling technique (Iguchi, Kawaguchi 2002), (3) and an ideal sharp cut-off bandedge and a flat amplitude/phase responses are approached by using a large number of taps available to use LSI of a large number of logic cells (Iguchi et al. 2000a). We developed the custom Finite Impulse Response filter chips and manufactured the Gigabit Digital Filter Banks (GDFBs) as a digital backend subsystem in the VERA terminal. In this paper, the design and development of the GDFB are presented in detail, and the performances and demonstrations of the developed GDFB are shown.

  3. Optimal Recursive Digital Filters for Active Bending Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.

    2013-01-01

    In the design of flight control systems for large flexible boosters, it is common practice to utilize active feedback control of the first lateral structural bending mode so as to suppress transients and reduce gust loading. Typically, active stabilization or phase stabilization is achieved by carefully shaping the loop transfer function in the frequency domain via the use of compensating filters combined with the frequency response characteristics of the nozzle/actuator system. In this paper we present a new approach for parameterizing and determining optimal low-order recursive linear digital filters so as to satisfy phase shaping constraints for bending and sloshing dynamics while simultaneously maximizing attenuation in other frequency bands of interest, e.g. near higher frequency parasitic structural modes. By parameterizing the filter directly in the z-plane with certain restrictions, the search space of candidate filter designs that satisfy the constraints is restricted to stable, minimum phase recursive low-pass filters with well-conditioned coefficients. Combined with optimal output feedback blending from multiple rate gyros, the present approach enables rapid and robust parametrization of autopilot bending filters to attain flight control performance objectives. Numerical results are presented that illustrate the application of the present technique to the development of rate gyro filters for an exploration-class multi-engined space launch vehicle.

  4. Optimized digital filtering techniques for radiation detection with HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salathe, Marco; Kihm, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art digital filtering techniques that are part of GEANA, an automatic data analysis software used for the GERDA experiment. The discussed filters include a novel, nonlinear correction method for ballistic deficits, which is combined with one of three shaping filters: a pseudo-Gaussian, a modified trapezoidal, or a modified cusp filter. The performance of the filters is demonstrated with a 762 g Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector, produced by Canberra, that measures γ-ray lines from radioactive sources in an energy range between 59.5 and 2614.5 keV. At 1332.5 keV, together with the ballistic deficit correction method, all filters produce a comparable energy resolution of ~1.61 keV FWHM. This value is superior to those measured by the manufacturer and those found in publications with detectors of a similar design and mass. At 59.5 keV, the modified cusp filter without a ballistic deficit correction produced the best result, with an energy resolution of 0.46 keV. It is observed that the loss in resolution by using a constant shaping time over the entire energy range is small when using the ballistic deficit correction method.

  5. On detection of median filtering in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Matthias; Fridrich, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    In digital image forensics, it is generally accepted that intentional manipulations of the image content are most critical and hence numerous forensic methods focus on the detection of such 'malicious' post-processing. However, it is also beneficial to know as much as possible about the general processing history of an image, including content-preserving operations, since they can affect the reliability of forensic methods in various ways. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective technique to detect median filtering in digital images-a widely used denoising and smoothing operator. As a great variety of forensic methods relies on some kind of a linearity assumption, a detection of non-linear median filtering is of particular interest. The effectiveness of our method is backed with experimental evidence on a large image database.

  6. Particle-filter-based phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Rahul G; Ram Sukumar, P; Subrahmanyam, G R K S; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Mishra, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a particle-filter-based technique for the analysis of a reconstructed interference field. The particle filter and its variants are well proven as tracking filters in non-Gaussian and nonlinear situations. We propose to apply the particle filter for direct estimation of phase and its derivatives from digital holographic interferometric fringes via a signal-tracking approach on a Taylor series expanded state model and a polar-to-Cartesian-conversion-based measurement model. Computation of sample weights through non-Gaussian likelihood forms the major contribution of the proposed particle-filter-based approach compared to the existing unscented-Kalman-filter-based approach. It is observed that the proposed approach is highly robust to noise and outperforms the state-of-the-art especially at very low signal-to-noise ratios (i.e., especially in the range of -5 to 20 dB). The proposed approach, to the best of our knowledge, is the only method available for phase estimation from severely noisy fringe patterns even when the underlying phase pattern is rapidly varying and has a larger dynamic range. Simulation results and experimental data demonstrate the fact that the proposed approach is a better choice for direct phase estimation. PMID:26974901

  7. Improvement of Digital Filter for the FNAL Booster Transverse Dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkin, Timofey; Eddy, N.; Lebedev, V.

    2013-09-26

    Fermilab Booster has two transverse dampers which independently suppress beam instabilities in the horizontal and vertical planes. A suppression of the common mode signal is achieved by digital notch filter which is based on subtracting beam positions for two consecutive turns. Such system operates well if the orbit position changes sufficiently slow. Unfortunately it is not the case for FNAL Booster where the entire accelerating cycle consists of about 20000 turns, and successful transition crossing requires the orbit drifts up to about 10 μm/turn, resulting in excessive power, power amplifier saturation and loss of stability. To suppress this effect we suggest an improvement of the digital filter which can take into account fast orbit changes by using bunch positions of a few previous turns. To take into account the orbit change up toN-th order polynomial in time the system requires (N + 3) turns of “prehistory”. In the case of sufficiently small gain the damping rate and the optimal digital filter coefficients are obtained analytically. Numerical simulations verify analytical theory for the small gain and predict a system performance with gain increase.

  8. Generalized filtered back-projection for digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Klaus; Grass, Michael; Hitziger, Sebastian; Iske, Armin; Nielsen, Tim

    2012-03-01

    Filtered backprojection (FBP) has been commonly used as an efficient and robust reconstruction technique in tomographic X-ray imaging during the last decades. For standard geometries like circle or helix it is known how to efficiently filter the data. However, for geometries with only few projection views or with a limited angular range, the application of FBP algorithms generally provides poor results. In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) these limitations give rise to image artifacts due to the limited angular range and the coarse angular sampling. In this work, a generalized FBP algorithm is presented, which uses the filtered projection data of all acquired views for backprojection along one direction. The proposed method yields a computationally efficient generalized FBP algorithm for DBT, which provides similar image quality as iterative reconstruction techniques while preserving the ability for region of interest reconstructions. To demonstrate the excellent performance of this method, examples are given with a simulated breast phantom and the hardware BR3D phantom.

  9. Properties of digital 1/3-octave filters implemented according to ANSI S1.11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geras, Antonina; Starecki, Tomasz

    The paper presents results of investigation into properties of digital filters implemented in compliance with ANSI S1.11 Standard: Octave-Band and Fractional-Octave Band Analog and Digital Filters. The discussed solutions are digital one-third-octave IIR filters with Direct Form I topology. Performed simulations showed that the filters exhibit strong problems with stability, especially in the case of low center frequency filters. Another problem clearly visible in all investigated structures was poor attenuation at the frequencies above the passband. Although the filters were implemented according to the ANSI standard, none of them met all of the requirements of the standard.

  10. Adaptive noise cancellation based on beehive pattern evolutionary digital filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaojun; Shao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary digital filtering (EDF) exhibits the advantage of avoiding the local optimum problem by using cloning and mating searching rules in an adaptive noise cancellation system. However, convergence performance is restricted by the large population of individuals and the low level of information communication among them. The special beehive structure enables the individuals on neighbour beehive nodes to communicate with each other and thus enhance the information spread and random search ability of the algorithm. By introducing the beehive pattern evolutionary rules into the original EDF, this paper proposes an improved beehive pattern evolutionary digital filter (BP-EDF) to overcome the defects of the original EDF. In the proposed algorithm, a new evolutionary rule which combines competing cloning, complete cloning and assistance mating methods is constructed to enable the individuals distributed on the beehive to communicate with their neighbours. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence speed to the global optimum compared with the original methods. Experimental results also verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in extracting feature signals that are contaminated by significant amounts of noise during the fault diagnosis task.

  11. Low power adder based digital filter for QRS detector.

    PubMed

    Murali, L; Chitra, D; Manigandan, T

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Biomedical applications use dedicated processors for the implementation of complex signal processing. Among them, sensor network is also a type, which has the constraint of low power consumption. Since the processing elements are the most copiously used operations in the signal processors, the power consumption of this has the major impact on the system level application. In this paper, we introduce low power concept of transistor stacking to reduce leakage power; and new architectures based on stacking to implement the full adder and its significance at the digital filter level for QRS detector are implemented. The proposed concept has lesser leakage power at the adder as well as filter level with trade-off in other quality metrics of the design. This enabled the design to be dealt with as the low-power corner and can be made adaptable to any level of hierarchical abstractions as per the requirement of the application. The proposed architectures are designed, modeled at RTL level using the Verilog-HDL, and synthesized in Synopsys Design Compiler by mapping the design to 65 nm technology library standard cells. PMID:24895649

  12. Digital high-pass filter deconvolution by means of an infinite impulse response filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Födisch, P.; Wohsmann, J.; Lange, B.; Schönherr, J.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-09-01

    In the application of semiconductor detectors, the charge-sensitive amplifier is widely used in front-end electronics. The output signal is shaped by a typical exponential decay. Depending on the feedback network, this type of front-end electronics suffers from the ballistic deficit problem, or an increased rate of pulse pile-ups. Moreover, spectroscopy applications require a correction of the pulse-height, while a shortened pulse-width is desirable for high-throughput applications. For both objectives, digital deconvolution of the exponential decay is convenient. With a general method and the signals of our custom charge-sensitive amplifier for cadmium zinc telluride detectors, we show how the transfer function of an amplifier is adapted to an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter. This paper investigates different design methods for an IIR filter in the discrete-time domain and verifies the obtained filter coefficients with respect to the equivalent continuous-time frequency response. Finally, the exponential decay is shaped to a step-like output signal that is exploited by a forward-looking pulse processing.

  13. Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

  14. Digital DC-Reconstruction of AC-Coupled Electrophysiological Signals with a Single Inverting Filter

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ramun; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Hans-Jakob; Generali, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital electrocardiographs, high-pass filters have been necessary for successful analog-to-digital conversion with a reasonable amplitude resolution. On the other hand, such high-pass filters may distort the diagnostically significant ST-segment of the ECG, which can result in a misleading diagnosis. We present an inverting filter that successfully undoes the effects of a 0.05 Hz single pole high-pass filter. The inverting filter has been tested on more than 1600 clinical ECGs with one-minute durations and produces a negligible mean RMS-error of 3.1*10−8 LSB. Alternative, less strong inverting filters have also been tested, as have different applications of the filters with respect to rounding of the signals after filtering. A design scheme for the alternative inverting filters has been suggested, based on the maximum strength of the filter. With the use of the suggested filters, it is possible to recover the original DC-coupled ECGs from AC-coupled ECGs, at least when a 0.05 Hz first order digital single pole high-pass filter is used for the AC-coupling. PMID:26938769

  15. A 3-D nonlinear recursive digital filter for video image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P. H.; Qian, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a recursive 3-D nonlinear digital filter, which is capable of performing noise suppression without degrading important image information such as edges in space or time. It also has the property of unnoticeable bandwidth reduction immediately after a scene change, which makes the filter an attractive preprocessor to many interframe compression algorithms. The filter consists of a nonlinear 2-D spatial subfilter and a 1-D temporal filter. In order to achieve the required computational speed and increase the flexibility of the filter, all of the linear shift-variant filter modules are of the IIR type.

  16. Fast digital noise filter capable of locating spectral peaks and shoulders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, T. R.; Knight, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data frequently have a poor signal-to-noise ratio which one would like to enhance before analysis. With the data in digital form, this may be accomplished by means of a digital filter. A fast digital filter based upon the principle of least squares and using the techniques of convoluting integers is described. In addition to smoothing, this filter also is capable of accurately and simultaneously locating spectral peaks and shoulders. This technique has been adapted into a computer subroutine, and results of several test cases are shown, including mass spectral data and data from a proportional counter for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory.

  17. System design for a million channel digital spectrum analyzer /MCSA/. [of bandpass filtering in SETI receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A.; Narasimha, M.; Narayan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The system design of a wideband (8 MHz) million-channel digital spectrum analyzer for use with a SETI receiver is presented. The analyzer makes use of a digital bandpass filter bank for transforming the wideband input signal into a specified number (120) of uniform narrowband output channels by the use of a Fourier transform digital processor combined with a prototype digital weighting network (finite impulse response filter). The output is then processed separately by 120 microprocessor-based discrete Fourier transform computers, each producing 8190 output channels of approximately 8 Hz bandwidth by the use of an 8190-point prime factor algorithm.

  18. A digital matched filter technique for the tracking and data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Design information and test results for a breadboard implementation of a digital matched filter for PN sequences are reported. The device is intended to expedite acquisition in PN spread-spectrum communication systems.

  19. Efficient design of two-dimensional recursive digital filters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Mitra, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines the research progress during the period August 1978 to July 1979. This work can be divided into seven basic project areas. Project 1 deals with a comparative study of 2-D recursive and nonrecursive digital filters. The second project addresses a new design technique for 2-D half-plane recursive filters, and Projects 3 thru 5 deal with implementation issues. The sixth project presents our recent study of the applicability of array processors to 2-D digital signal processing. The final project involves our investigation into techniques for incorporating symmetry constraints on 2-D recursive filters in order to yield more efficient implementations.

  20. On the design of wave digital filters with low sensitivity properties.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renner, K.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    The wave digital filter patterned after doubly terminated maximum available power (MAP) networks by means of the Richard's transformation has been shown to have low-coefficient-sensitivity properties. This paper examines the exact nature of the relationship between the wave-digital-filter structure and the MAP networks and how the sensitivity property arises, which permits implementation of the digital structure with a lower coefficient word length than that possible with the conventional structures. The proper design procedure is specified and the nature of the unique complementary outputs is discussed. Finally, an example is considered which illustrates the design, the conversion techniques, and the low sensitivity properties.

  1. Clock recovering characteristics of adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in digital coherent optical receivers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2011-03-14

    We analyze the clock-recovery process based on adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering in digital coherent optical receivers. When the clock frequency is synchronized between the transmitter and the receiver, only five taps in half-symbol-spaced FIR filters can adjust the sampling phase of analog-to-digital conversion optimally, enabling bit-error rate performance independent of the initial sampling phase. Even if the clock frequency is not synchronized between them, the clock-frequency misalignment can be adjusted within an appropriate block interval; thus, we can achieve an asynchronous clock mode of operation of digital coherent receivers with block processing of the symbol sequence. PMID:21445201

  2. Removing tidal-period variations from time-series data using low-pass digital filters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.; Heston, Cynthia

    1982-01-01

    Several low-pass, digital filters are examined for their ability to remove tidal Period Variations from a time-series of water surface elevation for San Francisco Bay. The most efficient filter is the one which is applied to the Fourier coefficients of the transformed data, and the filtered data recovered through an inverse transform. The ability of the filters to remove the tidal components increased in the following order: 1) cosine-Lanczos filter, 2) cosine-Lanczos squared filter; 3) Godin filter; and 4) a transform fitter. The Godin fitter is not sufficiently sharp to prevent severe attenuation of 2–3 day variations in surface elevation resulting from weather events.

  3. Optimization of FIR Digital Filters Using a Real Parameter Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Implementations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dexiang

    This dissertation presents a novel method of designing finite word length Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters using a Real Parameter Parallel Genetic Algorithm (RPPGA). This algorithm is derived from basic Genetic Algorithms which are inspired by natural genetics principles. Both experimental results and theoretical studies in this work reveal that the RPPGA is a suitable method for determining the optimal or near optimal discrete coefficients of finite word length FIR digital filters. Performance of RPPGA is evaluated by comparing specifications of filters designed by other methods with filters designed by RPPGA. The parallel and spatial structures of the algorithm result in faster and more robust optimization than basic genetic algorithms. A filter designed by RPPGA is implemented in hardware to attenuate high frequency noise in a data acquisition system for collecting seismic signals. These studies may lead to more applications of the Real Parameter Parallel Genetic Algorithms in Electrical Engineering.

  4. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters

    PubMed Central

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  5. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    PubMed

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  6. Optimal design of 2D digital filters based on neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-hua; He, Yi-gang; Zheng, Zhe-zhao; Zhang, Xu-hong

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) digital filters are widely useful in image processing and other 2-D digital signal processing fields,but designing 2-D filters is much more difficult than designing one-dimensional (1-D) ones.In this paper, a new design approach for designing linear-phase 2-D digital filters is described,which is based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA).By using the symmetry of the given 2-D magnitude specification,a compact express for the magnitude response of a linear-phase 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) filter is derived.Consequently,the optimal problem of designing linear-phase 2-D FIR digital filters is turned to approximate the desired 2-D magnitude response by using the compact express.To solve the problem,a new NNA is presented based on minimizing the mean-squared error,and the convergence theorem is presented and proved to ensure the designed 2-D filter stable.Three design examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the NNA-based design approach.

  7. Monitoring of heart and respiratory rates by photoplethysmography using a digital filtering technique.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Tamura, T; Miike, H

    1996-07-01

    An apparatus for simultaneously monitoring heart and respiratory rates was developed using photoplethysmography (PPG) and digital filters, and compared with conventional methods. The PPG signal, which includes both heart and respiratory components, was measured at the earlobe with an original transmission mode photoplethysmographic device. A digital filtering technique was used to distinguish heart and respiratory signals from the PPG signal. The cut-off frequency of the respiratory signal filter was selected automatically depending on the heart rate. Using digital filtering techniques, heart and respiratory signals were separated at rest and during exercise. The digital signal processor was employed to realize an adaptive and real-time filtering. The heart rate was calculated by the zero-crossing method and the respiratory rate from the peak interval of the filtered signal. To evaluate the newly developed monitor, an ECG for heart rate and a transthoracic impedance plethysmogram for respiratory rate were monitored simultaneously. To obtain higher heart and respiratory rates, exercise was performed on an electrical bicycle ergometer. Heart and respiratory rates calculated by the new method compare to those obtained from ECG and the transthoracic impedance plethysmogram. The maximum error of heart and respiratory rates was 10 beats/min and 7 breaths/min, respectively. PMID:8818134

  8. Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Sanggyun

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Grid artifacts are caused when using the antiscatter grid in obtaining digital x-ray images. In this paper, research on grid artifact reduction techniques is conducted especially for the direct detectors, which are based on amorphous selenium. Methods: In order to analyze and reduce the grid artifacts, the authors consider a multiplicative grid image model and propose a homomorphic filtering technique. For minimal damage due to filters, which are used to suppress the grid artifacts, rotated grids with respect to the sampling direction are employed, and min-max optimization problems for searching optimal grid frequencies and angles for given sampling frequencies are established. The authors then propose algorithms for the grid artifact reduction based on the band-stop filters as well as low-pass filters. Results: The proposed algorithms are experimentally tested for digital x-ray images, which are obtained from direct detectors with the rotated grids, and are compared with other algorithms. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can successfully reduce the grid artifacts for direct detectors. Conclusions: By employing the homomorphic filtering technique, the authors can considerably suppress the strong grid artifacts with relatively narrow-bandwidth filters compared to the normal filtering case. Using rotated grids also significantly reduces the ringing artifact. Furthermore, for specific grid frequencies and angles, the authors can use simple homomorphic low-pass filters in the spatial domain, and thus alleviate the grid artifacts with very low implementation complexity.

  9. Stent enhancement in digital x-ray fluoroscopy using an adaptive feature enhancement filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Zachary, Josey

    2016-03-01

    Fluoroscopic images belong to the classes of low contrast and high noise. Simply lowering radiation dose will render the images unreadable. Feature enhancement filters can reduce patient dose by acquiring images at low dose settings and then digitally restoring them to the original quality. In this study, a stent contrast enhancement filter is developed to selectively improve the contrast of stent contour without dramatically boosting the image noise including quantum noise and clinical background noise. Gabor directional filter banks are implemented to detect the edges and orientations of the stent. A high orientation resolution of 9° is used. To optimize the use of the information obtained from Gabor filters, a computerized Monte Carlo simulation followed by ROC study is used to find the best nonlinear operator. The next stage of filtering process is to extract symmetrical parts in the stent. The global and local symmetry measures are used. The information gathered from previous two filter stages are used to generate a stent contour map. The contour map is then scaled and added back to the original image to get a contrast enhanced stent image. We also apply a spatio-temporal channelized Hotelling observer model and other numerical measures to characterize the response of the filters and contour map to optimize the selections of parameters for image quality. The results are compared to those filtered by an adaptive unsharp masking filter previously developed. It is shown that stent enhancement filter can effectively improve the stent detection and differentiation in the interventional fluoroscopy.

  10. Optimized FIR filters for digital pulse compression of biphase codes with low sidelobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanal, M.; Kuloor, R.; Sagayaraj, M. J.

    In miniaturized radars where power, real estate, speed and low cost are tight constraints and Doppler tolerance is not a major concern biphase codes are popular and FIR filter is used for digital pulse compression (DPC) implementation to achieve required range resolution. Disadvantage of low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) of biphase codes can be overcome by linear programming for either single stage mismatched filter or two stage approach i.e. matched filter followed by sidelobe suppression filter (SSF) filter. Linear programming (LP) calls for longer filter lengths to obtain desirable PSR. Longer the filter length greater will be the number of multipliers, hence more will be the requirement of logic resources used in the FPGAs and many time becomes design challenge for system on chip (SoC) requirement. This requirement of multipliers can be brought down by clustering the tap weights of the filter by kmeans clustering algorithm at the cost of few dB deterioration in PSR. The cluster centroid as tap weight reduces logic used in FPGA for FIR filters to a great extent by reducing number of weight multipliers. Since k-means clustering is an iterative algorithm, centroid for weights cluster is different in different iterations and causes different clusters. This causes difference in clustering of weights and sometimes even it may happen that lesser number of multiplier and lesser length of filter provide better PSR.

  11. On the Performance of the Martin Digital Filter for High- and Low-pass Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A nonrecursive numerical filter is described in which the weighting sequence is optimized by minimizing the excursion from the ideal rectangular filter in a least squares sense over the entire domain of normalized frequency. Additional corrections to the weights in order to reduce overshoot oscillations (Gibbs phenomenon) and to insure unity gain at zero frequency for the low pass filter are incorporated. The filter is characterized by a zero phase shift for all frequencies (due to a symmetric weighting sequence), a finite memory and stability, and it may readily be transformed to a high pass filter. Equations for the filter weights and the frequency response function are presented, and applications to high and low pass filtering are examined. A discussion of optimization of high pass filter parameters for a rather stringent response requirement is given in an application to the removal of aircraft low frequency oscillations superimposed on remotely sensed ocean surface profiles. Several frequency response functions are displayed, both in normalized frequency space and in period space. A comparison of the performance of the Martin filter with some other commonly used low pass digital filters is provided in an application to oceanographic data.

  12. Behavioral study and design of a digital interpolator filter for wireless reconfigurable transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferragina, V.; Frassone, A.; Ghittori, N.; Malcovati, P.; Vigna, A.

    2005-06-01

    The behavioral analysis and the design in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology of a digital interpolator filter for wireless applications are presented. The proposed block is designed to be embedded in the baseband part of a reconfigurable transmitter (WLAN 802.11a, UMTS) to operate as a sampling frequency boost between the digital signal processor (DSP) and the digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In recent trends the DAC of such transmitters usually operates at high conversion frequencies (to allow a relaxed implementation of the following analog reconstruction filter), while the DSP output flows at low frequencies (typically Nyquist rate). Thus a block able to increase the digital data rate, like the one proposed, is needed before the DAC. For example, in the WLAN case, an interpolation factor of 4 has been used, allowing the digital data frequency to raise from 20 MHz to 80 MHz. Using a time-domain model of the TX chain, a behavioral analysis has been performed to determine the impact of the filter performance on the quality of the signal at the antenna. This study has led to the evaluation of the z-domain filter transfer function, together with the specifications concerning a finite precision implementation. A VHDL description has allowed an automatic synthesis of the circuit in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology (with a supply voltage of 1.2 V). Post-synthesis simulations have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed study.

  13. Digital Deconvolution Filter Derived from Linear Discriminant Analysis and Application for Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A digital filter derived from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is developed for recovering impulse responses in photon counting from a high speed photodetector (rise time of ∼1 ns) and applied to remove ringing distortions from impedance mismatch in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. Training of the digital filter was achieved by defining temporally coincident and noncoincident transients and identifying the projection within filter-space that best separated the two classes. Once trained, data analysis by digital filtering can be performed quickly. Assessment of the reliability of the approach was performed through comparisons of simulated voltage transients, in which the ground truth results were known a priori. The LDA filter was also found to recover deconvolved impulses for single photon counting from highly distorted ringing waveforms from an impedance mismatched photomultiplier tube. The LDA filter was successful in removing these ringing distortions from two-photon excited fluorescence micrographs and through data simulations was found to extend the dynamic range of photon counting by approximately 3 orders of magnitude through minimization of detector paralysis. PMID:24559143

  14. Digital IIR Filters Design Using Differential Evolution Algorithm with a Controllable Probabilistic Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wu; Fang, Jian-an; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing; Du, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE) is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controllable probabilistic (CPDE) population size. It considers the convergence speed and the computational cost simultaneously by nonperiodic partial increasing or declining individuals according to fitness diversities. In addition, we discuss as well some important aspects for IIR filter design, such as the cost function value, the influence of (noise) perturbations, the convergence rate and successful percentage, the parameter measurement, etc. As to the simulation result, it shows that the presented algorithm is viable and comparable. Compared with six existing State-of-the-Art algorithms-based digital IIR filter design methods obtained by numerical experiments, CPDE is relatively more promising and competitive. PMID:22808191

  15. Digital deconvolution filter derived from linear discriminant analysis and application for multiphoton fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shane Z; Schmitt, Paul D; Muir, Ryan D; DeWalt, Emma L; Simpson, Garth J

    2014-04-01

    A digital filter derived from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is developed for recovering impulse responses in photon counting from a high speed photodetector (rise time of ~1 ns) and applied to remove ringing distortions from impedance mismatch in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. Training of the digital filter was achieved by defining temporally coincident and noncoincident transients and identifying the projection within filter-space that best separated the two classes. Once trained, data analysis by digital filtering can be performed quickly. Assessment of the reliability of the approach was performed through comparisons of simulated voltage transients, in which the ground truth results were known a priori. The LDA filter was also found to recover deconvolved impulses for single photon counting from highly distorted ringing waveforms from an impedance mismatched photomultiplier tube. The LDA filter was successful in removing these ringing distortions from two-photon excited fluorescence micrographs and through data simulations was found to extend the dynamic range of photon counting by approximately 3 orders of magnitude through minimization of detector paralysis. PMID:24559143

  16. Airy-Kaup-Kupershmidt filters applied to digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos Yepes, Laura Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The Kaup-Kupershmidt operator is applied to the two-dimensional solution of the Airy-diffusion equation and the resulting filter is applied via convolution to image processing. The full procedure is implemented using Maple code with the package ImageTools. Some experiments were performed using a wide category of images including biomedical images generated by magnetic resonance, computarized axial tomography, positron emission tomography, infrared and photon diffusion. The Airy-Kaup-Kupershmidt filter can be used as a powerful edge detector and as powerful enhancement tool in image processing. It is expected that the Airy-Kaup-Kupershmidt could be incorporated in standard programs for image processing such as ImageJ.

  17. Fast count-dependent digital filtering of nuclear medicine images: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Doherty, P.W.; Schwinger, R.B.; Jacobs, D.A.; Kidder, R.E.; Miller, T.R.

    1983-11-01

    The formulation of an ''optimal'' filter for improving the quality of digitally recorded nuclear medicine images is reported in this paper. The method forms a Metz filter for each image based upon the total number of counts in the image, which in turn determines the average noise level. The parameters of the filter were optimized for a set of simulated images using the minimization of the mean-square error as the criterion. The speed of the image formation results from the use of an array processor. In a study of localization receiver operating characteristics (LROC) using the Alderson liver phantom, a significant improvement in tumor localization was found in images filtered with this technique, compared with the original digital images and those filtered by the nine-point binomial smoothing algorithm. The technique has been found useful for the filtering of static and dynamic studies as well as the two-dimensional pre-reconstruction filtering of images from single photon emission computerized tomography.

  18. New cardiac MRI gating method using event-synchronous adaptive digital filter.

    PubMed

    Park, Hodong; Park, Youngcheol; Cho, Sungpil; Jang, Bongryoel; Lee, Kyoungjoung

    2009-11-01

    When imaging the heart using MRI, an artefact-free electrocardiograph (ECG) signal is not only important for monitoring the patient's heart activity but also essential for cardiac gating to reduce noise in MR images induced by moving organs. The fundamental problem in conventional ECG is the distortion induced by electromagnetic interference. Here, we propose an adaptive algorithm for the suppression of MR gradient artefacts (MRGAs) in ECG leads of a cardiac MRI gating system. We have modeled MRGAs by assuming a source of strong pulses used for dephasing the MR signal. The modeled MRGAs are rectangular pulse-like signals. We used an event-synchronous adaptive digital filter whose reference signal is synchronous to the gradient peaks of MRI. The event detection processor for the event-synchronous adaptive digital filter was implemented using the phase space method-a sort of topology mapping method-and least-squares acceleration filter. For evaluating the efficiency of the proposed method, the filter was tested using simulation and actual data. The proposed method requires a simple experimental setup that does not require extra hardware connections to obtain the reference signals of adaptive digital filter. The proposed algorithm was more effective than the multichannel approach. PMID:19644754

  19. 3D shape measurement with binary phase-shifted technique and digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana; Legarda-Saenz, Ricardo; García-Torales, G.; Balderas-Mata, Sandra; Flores, Jorge L.

    2014-09-01

    Shape measurements by sinusoidal phase-shifting methods require high-quality sinusoidal fringes. Furthermore, most of the video projectors are nonlinear, making it difficult to generate high quality phase without nonlinearity calibration and correction. To overcome the limitations of the conventional digital fringe projection techniques, we proposed a method that involves the projection of digital binary patterns generated by the pulse-width modulation (PWM). We will demonstrate that applying digital filtering, in particular, low pass filters, one can obtain a high-quality sinusoidal pattern. Which in combination with phase-shifting methods, allows a reliable 3-D profiling surface reconstruction at large timerates. Validation experiments using a commercial video projector are presented.

  20. Low-Cutoff, High-Pass Digital Filtering of Neural Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi,Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; Ortiz, Monico; Cunningham, Thomas; Andersen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts the major functional blocks of a system, now undergoing development, for conditioning neural signals acquired by electrodes implanted in a brain. The overall functions to be performed by this system can be summarized as preamplification, multiplexing, digitization, and high-pass filtering. Other systems under development for recording neural signals typically contain resistor-capacitor analog low-pass filters characterized by cutoff frequencies in the vicinity of 100 Hz. In the application for which this system is being developed, there is a requirement for a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz. Because the resistors needed to obtain such a low cutoff frequency would be impractically large, it was decided to perform low-pass filtering by use of digital rather than analog circuitry. In addition, it was decided to timemultiplex the digitized signals from the multiple input channels into a single stream of data in a single output channel. The signal in each input channel is first processed by a preamplifier having a voltage gain of approximately 50. Embedded in each preamplifier is a low-pass anti-aliasing filter having a cutoff frequency of approximately 10 kHz. The anti-aliasing filters make it possible to couple the outputs of the preamplifiers to the input ports of a multiplexer. The output of the multiplexer is a single stream of time-multiplexed samples of analog signals. This stream is processed by a main differential amplifier, the output of which is sent to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The output of the ADC is sent to a digital signal processor (DSP).

  1. Alternative X-ray filters for an intra-oral digital radiographic system

    PubMed Central

    Stecke, J; Cruz, AD; Almeida, SM; Bóscolo, FN

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the modulation of the radiation spectrum with the use of alternative X-ray filters in the quality of intra-oral digital images from storage phosphor plates. Methods The radiographic exposures were performed in a GE 1000 X-ray machine (General Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI), operating at 65 kVp, 10 mA, 40 cm focus receptor distance using three different exposure times: 0.05 s, 0.16 s and 0.35 s. The control filter (GC) was 100% aluminium (Al) with a thickness of 1.5 mm. The tested filters were: G1, 97% Al and 3% copper (Cu) with 1.47 mm thickness; G2, 96% Al and 4% Cu with 1.53 mm thickness; G3, 95% Al and 5% zinc (Zn) with 1.56 mm thickness; G4, 98% Al and 2% Zn with 1.5 mm thickness; and G5, 95% Cu and 5% Zn with 1.6 mm thickness. For formation of the image, a 12-step Al wedge (each step with increments of 1 mm in thickness) was radiographed 10 times. Pixel values measured in digital images were converted into optical density (OD). Results All replicates showed OD with high reproducibility (r > 0.95) for all exposure times and tested filters. In comparison between filters, statistically significant differences in density (p < 0.05) were observed. The OD curve of the G5 filter in all exposure times and G3 filter in an exposure time of 0.05 s showed changes in shape (p < 0.05). Conclusions Excluding the G5 filter, all others tested filters can be used as a substitute for GC without losses in image quality. PMID:22282509

  2. Efficient implementations of pipelined CORDIC-based IIR digital filters using fast orthonormal μ-rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Parhi, Keshab K.; Hekstra, Gerben J.; Deprettere, Ed F. A.

    1998-10-01

    CORDIC based IIR digital filters are orthogonal filters whose internal computations consist of orthogonal transformations. These filters possess desirable properties for VLSI implementations such as regularity, local connection, low sensitivity to finite word-length implementation, and elimination of limit cycles. Recently, fine-grain pipelined CORDIC based IIR digital filter architectures which can perform the filtering operations at arbitrarily high sample rates at the cost of linear increase in hardware complexity have been developed. These pipelined architectures consists of only Givens rotations and a few additions which can be mapped onto CORDIC arithmetic based processors. However, in practical applications, implementations of GIvens rotations using traditional CORDIC arithmetic are quite expensive. For example, for 16 bit accuracy, using floating point data format with 16 bit mantissa and 5 bit exponent, it will require approximately 20 pairs of shift-add operations for one Givens rotation. In this paper, we propose an efficient implementation of pipelined CORDIC based IIR digital filters based on fast orthonormal (mu) -rotations. Using this method, the Givens rotations are approximated by angel corresponding to orthonormal (mu) -rotations, which are based on the idea of CORDIC and can perform rotation with minimal number of shift-add operations. We present various methods of construction for such orthonormal (mu) -rotations. A significant reduction of the number of required shift-add operations is achieved. All types of fast rotations can be implemented as a cascade of only four basic types of shift-add stages. These stages can be executed on a modified floating-point CORDIC architecture, making the pipelined filter highly suitable for VLSI implementations.

  3. On the properties of artificial neural network filters for bone-suppressed digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunpyeong; Park, Junbeom; Kim, Daecheon; Youn, Hanbean; Jeon, Hosang; Kim, Jin Sung; Kang, Dong-Joong; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy imaging can enhance lesion conspicuity. However, the conventional (fast kilovoltage switching) dual-shot dual-energy imaging is vulnerable to patient motion. The single-shot method requires a special design of detector system. Alternatively, single-shot bone-suppressed imaging is possible using post-image processing combined with a filter obtained from training an artificial neural network. In this study, the authors investigate the general properties of artificial neural network filters for bone-suppressed digital radiography. The filter properties are characterized in terms of various parameters such as the size of input vector, the number of hidden units, the learning rate, and so on. The preliminary result shows that the bone-suppressed image obtained from the filter, which is designed with 5,000 teaching images from a single radiograph, results in about 95% similarity with a commercial bone-enhanced image.

  4. Detection of signals by the digital integrate-and-dump filter with offset sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Hurd, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrate and Dump Filter (IDF) is used as a matched filter for the detection of signals in additive white Gaussian noise. The performance of the digital integrate and dump filter is evaluated. The case considered is when symbol times are known and the sampling clock is free running at a constant rate, i.e., the sampling clock is not phase locked to the symbol clock. Degradations in the output signal to noise ratio of the digital implementation due to sampling rate, sampling offset, and finite bandwidth, resulting from the anti-aliasing low pass prefilter, are computed and compared with those of the analog counterpart. It is shown that the digital IDF performs within 0.6 dB of the ideal analog IDF whenever the prefilter bandwidth exceeds four times the symbol rate and when sampling is performed at the Nyquist rate. The loss can be reduced to 0.3 dB by doubling the sampling rate, where 0.2 dB loss results from finite bandwidth and 0.1 dB results from the digital IDF.

  5. Real-time design of N-dimensional digital filters for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drynkin, Vladimir N.

    1995-12-01

    The main body of remote sensing data is obtained with the aid of optoelectronic and photographic devices. This data is usually referred to as the video information since it may be presented as images of terrestrial surface on a satellite track or an airway. This is the reason of increasing interest of specialists in the field of the remote sensing devices design to the methods of synthesis of optimal data processing hardware. The design of effective systems of the remote sensing data formation and transmission are impossible without using the state-of- the-art synthesis methods of digital image processing systems, taking account of a message source and their recipient characteristic properties. It is possible to take account of these characteristic properties only on the basis of optimal N-dimensional digital filtering. From this point of view the N-dimensional filter, used for video images filtering, becomes optimal only in the case of coincidence of the pass band region of its spatial frequency response (SFR) with the isoenergetic surface of the image spectrum with allowance for eyesight characteristics. In the light of the above the problem of N-dimensional digital filters design with the given pass band region configuration becomes actual. Incidentally the practicable interest presents first of all the methods, allowing with relatively low hardware expenses to design structures, from one part operating in the real time, and from the other -- approaching best of all the given characteristics. In this case it is necessary to ensure stability during their operation. In the following we shall present the results of the synthesis method development of N-dimensional digital filters with the guaranteed stability and the given pass band region configuration, realizing the image processing in the real time.

  6. The use of linear programming techniques to design optimal digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, R. C.; Burlage, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    A time domain technique is developed to design finite-duration impulse response digital filters using linear programming. Two related applications of this technique in data transmission systems are considered. The first is the design of pulse shaping digital filters to generate or detect signaling waveforms transmitted over bandlimited channels that are assumed to have ideal low pass or bandpass characteristics. The second is the design of digital filters to be used as preset equalizers in cascade with channels that have known impulse response characteristics. Example designs are presented which illustrate that excellent waveforms can be generated with frequency-sampling filters and the ease with which digital transversal filters can be designed for preset equalization.

  7. Digital hydrograph filtering in small size rainfall-dominated terrigenous watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Antonia; Villani, Paolo; Guida, Domenico; Cuomo, Albina

    2016-04-01

    The study aim is an analysis of the ability of digital hydrograph filtering tools for the characterization of the baseflow source contributing to total streamflow for a forested, terrigenous hard rock rainfall-dominated small catchment. Daily streamflow and electrical conductivity (EC) data for an experimental catchment, the T. Ciciriello catchment, a 3km2 watershed located in Southern Italy, have been collected to the purpose since 2012. The application of a mass balance filter (MBF using electrical conductivity as tracer data) has pointed out a seasonal characterization of the baseflow pattern, contributing to total streamflow by 90% during the low flow period and up to 40% during the high flow period. The Lyne and Hollick one parameter and the two parameter Eckhardt digital filters have been furthermore processed, both in an uncalibrated and calibrated application. During the low flow period, the one parameter filter appears particularly suited for ungauged cases, as the uncalibrated and calibrated application are almost identical, with relative prediction errors, compared to MBF, smaller than 5%. The uncalibrated two parameters filter generates instead large relative error of about 35%. To improve the baseflow description in particular during the low flow period and to correct large (28%) underestimation of the minimum baseflow value, a seasonal calibration for the BFImax parameter was needed. During the high flow period, the one and the two parameters filters are respectively associated to an overestimation (20%) and underestimation (10%). For this period of the year, the monitoring campaign strongly indicates a large range of variability for the EC values, probably caused by dilution and mixing processes from different water sources and flow paths. As the variability is intrinsically embedded within the MBF method, it is not at all accounted for by the digital filters, which are only able to distinguish between two different component and then between two

  8. Noise impact of single-event upsets on an FPGA-based digital filter

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Keith S; Caffrey, Michael P; Graham, Paul S; Pratt, Brian H; Wirthlin, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays are well-suited to DSP and digital communications applications. SRAM-based FPGAs, however, are susceptible to radiation-induced single-event upsets (SEUs) when deployed in space environments. These effects are often handled with the area and power-intensive TMR mitigation technique. This paper evaluates the effects of SEUs in the FPGA configuration memory as noise in a digital filter, showing that many SEUs in a digital communications system cause effects that could be considered noise rather than circuit failure. Since DSP and digital communications applications are designed to withstand certain types of noise, SEU mitigation techniques that are less costly than TMR may be applicable. This could result in large savings in area and power when implementing a reliable system. Our experiments show that, of the SEUs that affected the digital filter with a 20 dB SNR input signal, less than 14% caused an SNR loss of more than 1 dB at the output.

  9. Low-complexity digital filter geometry for spherical coded imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Robinson, M. D.

    2009-08-01

    Recent research in the area of electro-optical system design identified the benefits of spherical aberration for extending the depth-of-field of electro-optical imaging systems. In such imaging systems, spherical aberration is deliberately introduced by the optical system lowering system modulation transfer function (MTF) and then subsequently corrected using digital processing. Previous research, however, requires complex digital postprocessing algorithms severely limiting its applicability to only expensive systems. In this paper, we examine the ability of low-cost spatially invariant finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters to restore system MTF degraded by spherical aberration. We introduce an analytical model for choosing the minimum, and hence cheapest, FIR filter size capable of providing the critical level sharpening to render artifact-free images. We identify a robust quality criterion based on the post-processed MTF for developing this model. We demonstrate the reliability of the estimated model by showing simulated spherical coded imaging results. We also evaluate the hardware complexity of the FIR filters implemented for various spherical aberrations on a low-end Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform.

  10. Two dimensional recursive digital filters for near real time image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D.; Sherrod, E.

    1980-01-01

    A program was designed toward the demonstration of the feasibility of using two dimensional recursive digital filters for subjective image processing applications that require rapid turn around. The concept of the use of a dedicated minicomputer for the processor for this application was demonstrated. The minicomputer used was the HP1000 series E with a RTE 2 disc operating system and 32K words of memory. A Grinnel 256 x 512 x 8 bit display system was used to display the images. Sample images were provided by NASA Goddard on a 800 BPI, 9 track tape. Four 512 x 512 images representing 4 spectral regions of the same scene were provided. These images were filtered with enhancement filters developed during this effort.

  11. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography system, filtered images, and subtraction radiography

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Filho, Liogi Iwaki; Queiroz, Alfredo De Franco; Geron, Lucas Bachegas Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three different imaging systems: Direct digital radiography system (DDR-CMOS), four types of filtered images, and a priori and a posteriori registration of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) in the diagnosis of proximal defects. Materials and Methods: The teeth were arranged in pairs in 10 blocks of vinyl polysiloxane, and proximal defects were performed with drills of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm diameter. Kodak RVG 6100 sensor was used to capture the images. A posteriori DSR registrations were done with Regeemy 0.2.43 and subtraction with Image Tool 3.0. Filtered images were obtained with Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1 software. Images (n = 360) were evaluated by three raters, all experts in dental radiology. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) were higher for DSR images with all three drills (Az = 0.896, 0.979, and 1.000 for drills 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm, respectively). The highest values were found for 1-mm drills and the lowest for 0.25-mm drills, with negative filter having the lowest values of all (Az = 0.631). Conclusion: The best method of diagnosis was by using a DSR. The negative filter obtained the worst results. Larger drills showed the highest sensitivity and specificity values of the area under the ROC curve. PMID:24124300

  12. Phase Response Design of Recursive All-Pass Digital Filters Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Der

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new design scheme for the phase response of an all-pass recursive digital filter. A variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm will be utilized for solving this kind of filter design problem. It is here called the modified PSO (MPSO) algorithm in which another adjusting factor is more introduced in the velocity updating formula of the algorithm in order to improve the searching ability. In the proposed method, all of the designed filter coefficients are firstly collected to be a parameter vector and this vector is regarded as a particle of the algorithm. The MPSO with a modified velocity formula will force all particles into moving toward the optimal or near optimal solution by minimizing some defined objective function of the optimization problem. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, two different kinds of linear phase response design examples are illustrated and the general PSO algorithm is compared as well. The obtained results show that the MPSO is superior to the general PSO for the phase response design of digital recursive all-pass filter. PMID:26366168

  13. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  14. Image pre-filtering for measurement error reduction in digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yihao; Sun, Chen; Song, Yuntao; Chen, Jubing

    2015-02-01

    In digital image correlation, the sub-pixel intensity interpolation causes a systematic error in the measured displacements. The error increases toward high-frequency component of the speckle pattern. In practice, a captured image is usually corrupted by additive white noise. The noise introduces additional energy in the high frequencies and therefore raises the systematic error. Meanwhile, the noise also elevates the random error which increases with the noise power. In order to reduce the systematic error and the random error of the measurements, we apply a pre-filtering to the images prior to the correlation so that the high-frequency contents are suppressed. Two spatial-domain filters (binomial and Gaussian) and two frequency-domain filters (Butterworth and Wiener) are tested on speckle images undergoing both simulated and real-world translations. By evaluating the errors of the various combinations of speckle patterns, interpolators, noise levels, and filter configurations, we come to the following conclusions. All the four filters are able to reduce the systematic error. Meanwhile, the random error can also be reduced if the signal power is mainly distributed around DC. For high-frequency speckle patterns, the low-pass filters (binomial, Gaussian and Butterworth) slightly increase the random error and Butterworth filter produces the lowest random error among them. By using Wiener filter with over-estimated noise power, the random error can be reduced but the resultant systematic error is higher than that of low-pass filters. In general, Butterworth filter is recommended for error reduction due to its flexibility of passband selection and maximal preservation of the allowed frequencies. Binomial filter enables efficient implementation and thus becomes a good option if computational cost is a critical issue. While used together with pre-filtering, B-spline interpolator produces lower systematic error than bicubic interpolator and similar level of the random

  15. Computer Simulation Results and Analysis for a Root-Raised Cosine Filter Design using Canonical Signed Digits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heechul

    1996-01-01

    Filters implemented using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients have been studied for many years as an efficient way to increase the speed and reduce the hardware complexity. A simple and very effective method for designing a CSD filter with a specific set of filter parameters has been investigated and its simulation results are presented here. In order to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers, the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is used. Furthermore, an attempt is made to improve frequency response of the CSD filter by allocating an extra non-zero digit for normalized coefficients exceeding one-half. Due to limited filter aperture width in examples presented here, the frequency response of CSD filter as the number of non-zero digits in a CSD code increases is not affected much. A root-raised cosine filter model is employed as a base line for this design approach. Finally, the CSD filter simulation results and a hardware complexity comparison with a conventional filter are also shown along with the eye diagrams an Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance curves.

  16. Digital restoration of indium-111 and iodine-123 SPECT images with optimized Metz filters

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.; Doherty, P.W.; Bianco, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    A number of radiopharmaceuticals of great current clinical interest for imaging are labeled with radionuclides that emit medium- to high-energy photons either as their primary radiation, or in low abundance in addition to their primary radiation. The imaging characteristics of these radionuclides result in gamma camera image quality that is inferior to that of /sup 99m/Tc images. Thus, in this investigation /sup 111/In and /sup 123/I contaminated with approximately 4% /sup 124/I were chosen to test the hypothesis that a dramatic improvement in planar and SPECT images may be obtainable with digital image restoration. The count-dependent Metz filter is shown to be able to deconvolve the rapid drop at low spatial frequencies in the imaging system modulation transfer function (MTF) resulting from the acceptance of septal penetration and scatter in the camera window. Use of the Metz filter was found to result in improved spatial resolution as measured by both the full width at half maximum and full width at tenth maximum for both planar and SPECT studies. Two-dimensional, prereconstruction filtering with optimized Metz filters was also determined to improve image contrast, while decreasing the noise level for SPECT studies. A dramatic improvement in image quality was observed with the clinical application of this filter to SPECT imaging.

  17. Efficient variable bandwidth filters for digital hearing aid using Farrow structure

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, Nisha; Elias, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Design of a digital hearing aid requires a set of filters that gives reasonable audiogram matching for the concerned type of hearing loss. This paper proposes the use of a variable bandwidth filter, using Farrow subfilters, for this purpose. The design of the variable bandwidth filter is carried out for a set of selected bandwidths. Each of these bands is frequency shifted and provided with sufficient magnitude gain, such that, the different bands combine to give a frequency response that closely matches the audiogram. Due to the adjustable bandedges in the basic filter, this technique allows the designer to add reconfigurability to the system. This technique is simple and efficient when compared with the existing methods. Results show that lower order filters and better audiogram matching with lesser matching errors are obtained using Farrow structure. This, in turn reduces implementation complexity. The cost effectiveness of this technique also comes from the fact that, the user can reprogram the same device, once his hearing loss pattern is found to have changed in due course of time, without the need to replace it completely. PMID:26966566

  18. Soft-error filtering: A solution to the reliability problem of future VLSI digital circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Savaria, Y.; Rumin, N.C.; Hayes, J.F.; Agarwal, V.

    1986-05-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to scale down the feature sizes in VLSI digital circuits, soft errors will eventually limit the reliability of these circuits. An important source of these errors will be the products of radioactive decay. It is proposed to combat these transient errors by a new technique called soft-error filtering (SEF). This is based on filtering the input to every latch in the VLSI circuit, thereby preventing these transients, generated by alpha particle hits in the combinational section, from being latched in the corresponding registers. Several approaches to the problem of designing filtering latches are compared. This comparison demonstrates the superiority of a double-filter realization. The design for a CMOS implementation of the double-filter latch is presented. Not only is the design simple and efficient, but it can be expected to be tolerant to process variations. A comparison of SEF with conventional techniques for dealing with soft errors shows the former to be generally much more attractive, from the point of view of both area and time overhead.

  19. Statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences formed from the sum of maximum-length sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.

  20. Perception of anatomical structures in digitally filtered and conventional panoramic radiographs: a clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, BG; Alpöz, E; Soğur, E; Mert, A

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were to compare subjective image quality of clinical images obtained with a storage phosphor plate (SPP)-based digital and conventional film-based panoramic system for the visualization of various anatomical structures and to evaluate the effect of various processing algorithms on image interpretation. Methods Panoramic radiographs were taken in 42 patients both with film and with a SPP system. SPP images were treated with shadow, sharpen, negative, greyscale sigma and greyscale exponential filters. Four observers subjectively evaluated films and unfiltered and filtered SPP images for the visibility of anatomical structures with various radiodensities as well as for overall image quality on a three-point rating scale. The statistical methods used were Kruskal–Wallis, odds ratio analysis and Cohen's kappa. Results No statistically significant difference was found between film and unfiltered digital images except for low-contrast structures (P > 0.05). Film images were preferred for the visibility of low-contrast structures (P < 0.05). Best overall image quality was obtained with sharpened images (P < 0.05) followed by films and unfiltered digital images. Among all filtered images, sharpened ones received the highest ratings for the visibility of all anatomical structures (P < 0.05). The intra- and interobserver agreement ranged between moderate and substantial and between fair and moderate, respectively. Conclusions Film and unfiltered SPP-based panoramic images performed equally well in terms of overall quality; however, films were best for the perception of low-contrast structures. The sharpening filter may be recommended for enhancing SPP panoramic images to improve the visual perception of most of the anatomical structures as well as overall quality. PMID:20841460

  1. Vegetation indices derived from a modified digital camera in combination with different blocking filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainer, Karl; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Remote and proximal sensing have become valuable and broadly used tools in ecosystem research. Radiation reflected and scattered at and from the vegetation is used to infer information about vegetation biomass, structure, vitality and functioning, just to name a few. To this end numerous vegetation indices have been established, which relate reflectance in different wavelengths to each other. While such indices are usually calculated from reflectance data measured by spectro-radiometers we did a study using a commercially available digital camera, from which the infrared (IR) band elimination filter was removed. By removing this filter, the camera sensor became sensitive for IR radiation besides the visible spectrum. Comparing measurements with this modified camera and a hyperspectral spectro-radiometer over different vegetation and surfaces we determined the potential of such a modified camera to measure different vegetation indices. To this end we compared 71 vegetation indices derived from spectro-radiometer data with 63 indices derived from the modified digital camera. We found that many of these different indices featured relatively high correlations. Especially the rgR (green/red ratio) and NDI (normalized difference vegetation index) calculated from data of the modified camera do correlate very well with vegetation indices that are known for representing the amount and vitality of green biomass, as these are the NIDI (normalized infrared vegetation index) and the LIC (curvature index). We thus conclude from this experiment, that given a proper inter-calibration, a commercially available digital camera can be modified and used as a reasonable alternative tool to determine vegetation biomass and/or vitality. In addition to these measurements currently different band elimination filters are used to improve the information content of the digital images.

  2. Modeling ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds via digitally filtered FTIR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenbach, T.

    1994-12-31

    As part of an agreement with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Eastman Kodak Company has a program to monitor ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds at its fence lines. Currently, canister-based point sensors are used to collect a time-averaged sample every sixth day. The staff required to position, retrieve, and analyze these canisters makes this procedure expensive. Alternative methods are being investigated that can provide similar results in real time, while also saving costs. One such method is Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Radian Corporation performed a series of FTIR fence-line monitoring experiments at Kodak about one year ago. The spectra collected during this experiment are complicated by the presence of water vapor bands. Digital filtering techniques utilizing the Fourier transform are being explored as a means of removing the interference due to water vapor. When a digital filter is used as a spectral preprocessor, partial least squares (PLS) techniques can be employed to provide a powerful prediction pool. This seminar will describe the operation of the Fourier filters and present some encouraging preliminary results from PLS models.

  3. Measurement of subcellular texture by optical Gabor-like filtering with a digital micromirror device

    PubMed Central

    Pasternack, Robert M.; Qian, Zhen; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; White, Eileen; Boustany, Nada N.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical Fourier processing method to quantify object texture arising from subcellular feature orientation within unstained living cells. Using a digital micromirror device as a Fourier spatial filter, we measured cellular responses to two-dimensional optical Gabor-like filters optimized to sense orientation of nonspherical particles, such as mitochondria, with a width around 0.45 μm. Our method showed significantly rounder structures within apoptosis-defective cells lacking the proapoptotic mitochondrial effectors Bax and Bak, when compared with Bax/Bak expressing cells functional for apoptosis, consistent with reported differences in mitochondrial shape in these cells. By decoupling spatial frequency resolution from image resolution, this method enables rapid analysis of nonspherical submicrometer scatterers in an under-sampled large field of view and yields spatially localized morphometric parameters that improve the quantitative assessment of biological function. PMID:18830354

  4. Image reconstruction for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) by using projection-angle-dependent filter functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonok; Park, Chulkyu; Cho, Hyosung; Je, Uikyu; Hong, Daeki; Lee, Minsik; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo

    2014-09-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is considered in clinics as a standard three-dimensional imaging modality, allowing the earlier detection of cancer. It typically acquires only 10-30 projections over a limited angle range of 15-60° with a stationary detector and typically uses a computationally-efficient filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction. However, a common FBP algorithm yields poor image quality resulting from the loss of average image value and the presence of severe image artifacts due to the elimination of the dc component of the image by the ramp filter and to the incomplete data, respectively. As an alternative, iterative reconstruction methods are often used in DBT to overcome these difficulties, even though they are still computationally expensive. In this study, as a compromise, we considered a projection-angle-dependent filtering method in which one-dimensional geometry-adapted filter kernels are computed with the aid of a conjugate-gradient method and are incorporated into the standard FBP framework. We implemented the proposed algorithm and performed systematic simulation works to investigate the imaging characteristics. Our results indicate that the proposed method is superior to a conventional FBP method for DBT imaging and has a comparable computational cost, while preserving good image homogeneity and edge sharpening with no serious image artifacts.

  5. Digital direct electron imaging of energy-filtered electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespucci, S.; Winkelmann, A.; Naresh-Kumar, G.; Mingard, K. P.; Maneuski, D.; Edwards, P. R.; Day, A. P.; O'Shea, V.; Trager-Cowan, C.

    2015-11-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction is a scanning electron microscopy technique used to obtain crystallographic information on materials. It allows the nondestructive mapping of crystal structure, texture, and strain with a lateral and depth resolution on the order of tens of nanometers. Electron backscatter diffraction patterns (EBSPs) are presently acquired using a detector comprising a scintillator coupled to a digital camera, and the crystallographic information obtainable is limited by the conversion of electrons to photons and then back to electrons again. In this article we will report the direct acquisition of energy-filtered EBSPs using a digital complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid pixel detector, Timepix. We show results from a range of samples with different mass and density, namely diamond, silicon, and GaN. Direct electron detection allows the acquisition of EBSPs at lower (≤5 keV) electron beam energies. This results in a reduction in the depth and lateral extension of the volume of the specimen contributing to the pattern and will lead to a significant improvement in lateral and depth resolution. Direct electron detection together with energy filtering (electrons having energy below a specific value are excluded) also leads to an improvement in spatial resolution but in addition provides an unprecedented increase in the detail in the acquired EBSPs. An increase in contrast and higher-order diffraction features are observed. In addition, excess-deficiency effects appear to be suppressed on energy filtering. This allows the fundamental physics of pattern formation to be interrogated and will enable a step change in the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for crystal phase identification and the mapping of strain. The enhancement in the contrast in high-pass energy-filtered EBSD patterns is found to be stronger for lighter, less dense materials. The improved contrast for such materials will enable the application of the EBSD

  6. Chest Radiography using Patient-Specific Digitally-Prepared Compensating Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Naimuddin, Shaikh; Dobbins, James T.; Mistretta, Charles A.; Peppler, Walter W.; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Cusma, Jack T.; McDermott, John C.; Kudva, Bakki V.; Melbve, Kenneth M.

    1985-09-01

    We have used a prototype digital beam attenuator (DBA) system to generate patient-specific digitally-prepared compensating filters for chest radiography of a human subject. The compensated radiographs demonstrate substantially more information in areas such as the mediastinum and upper abdomen which normally are underpenetrated in conventional chest radiographs. The compensated image was acquired with high contrast, high speed film-screen receptors improving the visibility of pulmonary parenchymal detail while minimizing patient radiation exposure. Currently we are limited by a two-hour preparation time and position the attenuator manually. We are developing a second generation DBA system featuring fast (15 second) fabrication times and automatic positioning of the attenuator. We expect that these features will relieve some of the misregistration errors present in our initial examination.

  7. Processing of noisy magnetotelluric data using digital filters and additional data selection criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, S. L.; Harinarayana, T.; Dawes, G. J. K.; Hutton, V. R. S.

    1988-10-01

    Although the magnetotelluric (MT) method is known to be effective and fast in probing the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth at crustal depths, the results are often degraded by industrial and cultural noise. To obtain reliable processed results for modelling, it is first necessary to extract or select the natural signals from the contaminated time series. Various noise-reduction techniques based on digital filters are discussed with special reference to persistent noise signals, e.g. from power lines, DC-operated railways and electrical fences. Both previously suggested techniques (delay-line and notch filtering) and two other procedures (maximum entropy extension and deconvolution filtering) are applied to both synthetic data and to field observations from southern Scotland and the Italian Alps. Better quality data sets and more geophysically acceptable Earth models are shown to result. Noise of a more intermittent nature has recently been observed in MT observations near the development site of the geothermal power station on Milos, Greece. Large highly coherent electromagnetic field signals were observed to coincide with the opening and closure of the valves on the test wells. In this case, meaningful apparent resistivity curves could be obtained from an undisturbed subset of the previously accepted data, which had been selected mainly on the basis of signal power. Delay-line filtering is shown to be superior to notch filtering in eliminating non-sinusoidal noise, while both the MEM extension and the window deconvolution techniques are found to be useful in spike removal. These studies illustrate that use of an automatic data selection procedure should only be undertaken with great care in areas where the cultural noise is high. In such cases, continuous time-domain monitoring of the MT signals is recommended. The appropriate techniques of noise reduction can then be applied.

  8. Digital filter based on the Fisher linear discriminant to reduce dead-time paralysis in photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Shane Z.; Schmitt, Paul D.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Muir, Ryan D.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2013-03-01

    Photon counting represents the Poisson limit in signal to noise, but can often be complicated in imaging applications by detector paralysis, arising from the finite rise / fall time of the detector upon photon absorption. We present here an approach for reducing dead-time by generating a deconvolution digital filter based on optimizing the Fisher linear discriminant. In brief, two classes are defined, one in which a photon event is initiated at the origin of the digital filter, and one in the photon event is non-coincident with the filter origin. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is then performed to optimize the digital filter that best resolves the coincident and non-coincident training set data.1 Once trained, implementation of the filter can be performed quickly, significantly reducing dead-time issues and measurement bias in photon counting applications. Experimental demonstration of the LDA-filter approach was performed in fluorescence microscopy measurements using a highly convolved impulse response with considerable ringing. Analysis of the counts supports the capabilities of the filter in recovering deconvolved impulse responses under the conditions considered in the study. Potential additional applications and possible limitations are also considered.

  9. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S

    2015-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

  10. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise

    PubMed Central

    RIMELL, Andrew N.; MANSFIELD, Neil J.; PADDAN, Gurmail S.

    2014-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker’s noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human’s response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

  11. Fast Convolution Using Generalized Sliding Fermat Number Transform with Application to Digital Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, Hamzé Haidar; Bazzi, Oussama; Alaeddine, Ali Haidar; Mohanna, Yasser; Burel, Gilles

    This paper is about a new efficient method for the implementation of a Block Proportionate Normalized Least Mean Square (BPNLMS++) adaptive filter using the Fermat Number Transform (FNT) and its inverse (IFNT). These transforms present advantages compared to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the inverse (IFFT). An efficient state space method for implementing the FNT over rectangular windows is used in the cases where there is a large overlap between the consecutive input signals. This is called Generalized Sliding Fermat Number Transform (GSFNT) and is useful for reducing the computational complexity of finite ring convolvers and correlators. In this contribution, we propose, as a first objective, an efficient state algorithm with the purpose of reducing the complexity of IFNT. This algorithm, called Inverse Generalized Sliding Fermat Number Transform (IGSFNT), uses the technique of Generalized Sliding associated to matricial calculation in the Galois Field. The second objective is to realize an implementation of the BPNLMS++ adaptive filter using GSFNT and IGSFNT, which can significantly reduce the computation complexity of the filter implantation on digital signal processors.

  12. Detecting curvatures in digital images using filters derived from differential geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro Giraldo, Juanita

    2015-09-01

    Detection of curvature in digital images is an important theoretical and practical problem in image processing. Many important features in an image are associated with curvature and the detection of such features is reduced to detection and characterization of curvatures. Differential geometry studies many kinds of curvature operators and from these curvature operators is possible to derive powerful filters for image processing which are able to detect curvature in digital images and videos. The curvature operators are formulated in terms of partial differential operators which can be applied to images via convolution with generalized kernels derived from the the Korteweg- de Vries soliton . We present an algorithm for detection of curvature in digital images which is implemented using the Maple package ImageTools. Some experiments were performed and the results were very good. In a future research will be interesting to compare the results using the Korteweg-de Vries soliton with the results obtained using Airy derivatives. It is claimed that the resulting curvature detectors could be incorporated in standard programs for image processing.

  13. Digital optical processor based on symbolic substitution using holographic matched filtering.

    PubMed

    Jeon, H I; Abushagur, M A; Sawchuk, A A; Jenkins, B K

    1990-05-10

    We propose a digital optical arithmetic processor design based on symbolic substitution using holographic matched and space-invariant filters. The proposed system performs Boolean logic, binary addition, and subtraction in a highly parallel manner; i.e., the processing time depends on word size but not array size. Algorithms for performing binary addition and subtraction in parallel are presented. A skew problem occurring when symbolic substitution is applied to binary addition and subtraction with space-invariant systems is addressed, and its solution is suggested. Crosstalk in symbolic substitution is described, and new symbols which can prevent the crosstalk are introduced. System analysis and fundamental limitations of the proposed system are also presented in terms of processing time, overall light efficiency, and the maximum array size of the input data plane. The performance of the proposed system with that of the current electronic supercomputers has been compared by combining information about the processing time and maximum array size. PMID:20563140

  14. Multiwavelength phase unwrapping and aberration correction using depth filtered digital holography.

    PubMed

    Jaedicke, Volker; Goebel, Sebastian; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Gerhardt, Nils C; Welp, Hubert; Hofmann, Martin R

    2014-07-15

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to processing data from a standard spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using depth filtered digital holography (DFDH). Intensity-based OCT processing has an axial resolution of the order of a few micrometers. When the phase information is used to obtain optical path length differences, subwavelength accuracy can be achieved, but this limits the resolvable step heights to half of the wavelength of the system. Thus there is a metrology gap between phase- and intensity-based methods. Our concept addresses this metrology gap by combining DFHD with multiwavelength phase unwrapping. Additionally, the measurements are corrected for aberrations. Here, we present proof of concept measurements of a structured semiconductor sample. PMID:25121676

  15. Subband Quantum Scattering Times for Algaas/GaAs Obtained Using Digital Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Haughland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Bibyk, S. B.; Ringel, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we investigate both the transport and quantum scattering times as a function of the carrier concentration for a modulation doped Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs structure. Carriers in the well are generated as a result of the persistent photoconductivity effect. When more than one subband becomes populated, digital filtering is used to separate the components for each of the excited subbands. We find that the quantum scattering time for the ground subband increases initially as the carrier concentration is increased. However, once the second subband becomes populated, the ground subband scattering time begins to decrease. The quantum scattering time for the excited subband is also observed to decrease as the concentration is increased. From the ratio of the transport and quantum scattering times, it is seen that the transport in the well becomes more isotropic also as the concentration is increased.

  16. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography*

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Lucas; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Viloria, Carolina; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL) of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography. PMID:26811553

  17. Design and analysis of filter-based optical systems for spectral responsivity estimation of digital video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gao-Wei; Jian, Hong-Da; Yeh, Zong-Mu; Cheng, Chin-Pao

    2004-02-01

    For estimating spectral responsivities of digital video cameras, a filter-based optical system is designed with sophisticated filter selections, in this paper. The filter consideration in the presence of noise is central to the optical systems design, since the spectral filters primarily prescribe the structure of the perturbed system. A theoretical basis is presented to confirm that sophisticated filter selections can make this system as insensitive to noise as possible. Also, we propose a filter selection method based on the orthogonal-triangular (QR) decomposition with column pivoting (QRCP). To investigate the noise effects, we assess the estimation errors between the actual and estimated spectral responsivities, with the different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels of an eight-bit/channel camera. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method yields satisfactory estimation accuracy. That is, the filter-based optical system with the spectral filters selected from the QRCP-based method is much less sensitive to noise than those with other filters from different selections.

  18. Speckle reduction process based on digital filtering and wavelet compounding in optical coherence tomography for dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Valverde, Juan J.; Ortuño, Juan E.; Guerra, Pedro; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Rubio-Guivernau, José L.; Santos, Andrés.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we propose a new speckle reduction process and compare it with various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential, using several sets of dermatological OCT B-scans. To validate the performance we used a custom-designed spectral domain OCT and two different data set groups. The first group consisted in five datasets of a single B-scan captured N times (with N<20), the second were five 3D volumes of 25 Bscans. As quality metrics we used signal to noise (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR) and equivalent number of looks (ENL) ratios. Our results show that a process based on a combination of a 2D enhanced sigma digital filter and a wavelet compounding method achieves the best results in terms of the improvement of the quality metrics. In the first group of individual B-scans we achieved improvements in SNR, CNR and ENL of 16.87 dB, 2.19 and 328 respectively; for the 3D volume datasets the improvements were 15.65 dB, 3.44 and 1148. Our results suggest that the proposed enhancement process may significantly reduce speckle, increasing SNR, CNR and ENL and reducing the number of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

  19. Automated Fourier space region-recognition filtering for off-axis digital holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuefei; Nguyen, Chuong Vinh; Pratap, Mrinalini; Zheng, Yujie; Wang, Yi; Nisbet, David R.; Williams, Richard J.; Rug, Melanie; Maier, Alexander G.; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-01-01

    Automated label-free quantitative imaging of biological samples can greatly benefit high throughput diseases diagnosis. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful quantitative label-free imaging tool that retrieves structural details of cellular samples non-invasively. In off-axis DHM, a proper spatial filtering window in Fourier space is crucial to the quality of reconstructed phase image. Here we describe a region-recognition approach that combines shape recognition with an iterative thresholding method to extracts the optimal shape of frequency components. The region recognition technique offers fully automated adaptive filtering that can operate with a variety of samples and imaging conditions. When imaging through optically scattering biological hydrogel matrix, the technique surpasses previous histogram thresholding techniques without requiring any manual intervention. Finally, we automate the extraction of the statistical difference of optical height between malaria parasite infected and uninfected red blood cells. The method described here paves way to greater autonomy in automated DHM imaging for imaging live cell in thick cell cultures. PMID:27570702

  20. On the structural limitations of recursive digital filters for base flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Costelloe, Justin F.; Peterson, Tim J.; Western, Andrew W.

    2016-06-01

    Recursive digital filters (RDFs) are widely used for estimating base flow from streamflow hydrographs, and various forms of RDFs have been developed based on different physical models. Numerical experiments have been used to objectively evaluate their performance, but they have not been sufficiently comprehensive to assess a wide range of RDFs. This paper extends these studies to understand the limitations of a generalized RDF method as a pathway for future field calibration. Two formalisms are presented to generalize most existing RDFs, allowing systematic tuning of their complexity. The RDFs with variable complexity are evaluated collectively in a synthetic setting, using modeled daily base flow produced by Li et al. (2014) from a range of synthetic catchments simulated with HydroGeoSphere. Our evaluation reveals that there are optimal RDF complexities in reproducing base flow simulations but shows that there is an inherent physical inconsistency within the RDF construction. Even under the idealized setting where true base flow data are available to calibrate the RDFs, there is persistent disagreement between true and estimated base flow over catchments with small base flow components, low saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil and larger surface runoff. The simplest explanation is that low base flow "signal" in the streamflow data is hard to distinguish, although more complex RDFs can improve upon the simpler Eckhardt filter at these catchments.

  1. Application of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of optimal deblurring filters for dental X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. S.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, S. I.; Je, U. K.

    2012-04-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited-angle tomographic technique that provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT) but at reduced dose and cost. Thus, the potential for application of DTS to dental X-ray imaging seems promising. As a continuation of our dental radiography R&D, we developed an effective DTS reconstruction algorithm and implemented it in conjunction with a commercial dental CT system for potential use in dental implant placement. The reconstruction algorithm employed a backprojection filtering (BPF) method based upon optimal deblurring filters to suppress effectively both the blur artifacts originating from the out-focus planes and the high-frequency noise. To verify the usefulness of the reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation works and evaluated the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works in which DTS images of enhanced anatomical resolution were successfully obtained by using the algorithm and were promising to our ongoing applications to dental X-ray imaging. In this paper, our approach to the development of the DTS reconstruction algorithm and the results are described in detail.

  2. High-resolution image digitizing through 12x3-bit RGB-filtered CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Pau, Michael C. Y.

    1996-09-01

    A high resolution computer-controlled CCD image capturing system is developed by using a 12 bits 1024 by 1024 pixels CCD camera and motorized RGB filters to grasp an image with color depth up to 36 bits. The filters distinguish the major components of color and collect them separately while the CCD camera maintains the spatial resolution and detector filling factor. The color separation can be done optically rather than electronically. The operation is simply by placing the capturing objects like color photos, slides and even x-ray transparencies under the camera system, the necessary parameters such as integration time, mixing level and light intensity are automatically adjusted by an on-line expert system. This greatly reduces the restrictions of the capturing species. This unique approach can save considerable time for adjusting the quality of image, give much more flexibility of manipulating captured object even if it is a 3D object with minimal setup fixers. In addition, cross sectional dimension of a 3D capturing object can be analyzed by adapting a fiber optic ring light source. It is particularly useful in non-contact metrology of a 3D structure. The digitized information can be stored in an easily transferable format. Users can also perform a special LUT mapping automatically or manually. Applications of the system include medical images archiving, printing quality control, 3D machine vision, and etc.

  3. Automated Fourier space region-recognition filtering for off-axis digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Xuefei; Nguyen, Chuong Vinh; Pratap, Mrinalini; Zheng, Yujie; Wang, Yi; Nisbet, David R; Williams, Richard J; Rug, Melanie; Maier, Alexander G; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-08-01

    Automated label-free quantitative imaging of biological samples can greatly benefit high throughput diseases diagnosis. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful quantitative label-free imaging tool that retrieves structural details of cellular samples non-invasively. In off-axis DHM, a proper spatial filtering window in Fourier space is crucial to the quality of reconstructed phase image. Here we describe a region-recognition approach that combines shape recognition with an iterative thresholding method to extracts the optimal shape of frequency components. The region recognition technique offers fully automated adaptive filtering that can operate with a variety of samples and imaging conditions. When imaging through optically scattering biological hydrogel matrix, the technique surpasses previous histogram thresholding techniques without requiring any manual intervention. Finally, we automate the extraction of the statistical difference of optical height between malaria parasite infected and uninfected red blood cells. The method described here paves way to greater autonomy in automated DHM imaging for imaging live cell in thick cell cultures. PMID:27570702

  4. Digital separation of diaminobenzidine-stained tissues via an automatic color-filtering for immunohistochemical quantification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rong; Ma, Xiaomian; Bian, Zhaoying; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-02-01

    The digital separation of diaminobenzidine (DAB)-stained tissues from hematoxylin background is an important pre-processing step to analyze immunostains. In most stain separation methods, specific color channels (for example: RGB, HSI, CMYK) or color deconvolution matrices are used to obtain different tissue contrasts between DAB- and hematoxylin-stained areas. However, these methods could produce incomplete separation or color changes because the color spectra of stains and co-localized stains overlap in histological images. Therefore, we proposed an automatic color-filtering to separate hematoxylin- and DAB-stained tissues. In implantation, the RGB images of DAB-labeled immunostains are first converted to 8-bit BN images by a mathematical translation to produce the largest contrast between brown DAB-stained tissues and blue hematoxylin-stained tissues. The first valley in the histogram revised by nonuniform quantization is set as the cut-off point to obtain a brown filter. DAB-stained tissues are accurately delineated from the background counterstain, resulting in DAB-only-image and De-DAB-image. Subsequently, a blue filter is designed in the CIE-Lab color space to further delineate the hematoxylin-stained tissues from the De-DAB-image. Finally, the average values of the remaining pixels of the De-DAB-image are set as the background color of the DAB-only-image to manage uneven dyeing and provide DAB-stained-image for adaptive immunohistochemistry quantitation. Extensive experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method has significant advantages compared with existing methods in terms of complete stain separation without changing the color in DAB-stained areas. PMID:25780744

  5. Design and implementation of a multiband digital filter using FPGA to extract the ECG signal in the presence of different interference signals.

    PubMed

    Aboutabikh, Kamal; Aboukerdah, Nader

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical way to synthesize and filter an ECG signal in the presence of four types of interference signals: (1) those arising from power networks with a fundamental frequency of 50Hz, (2) those arising from respiration, having a frequency range from 0.05 to 0.5Hz, (3) muscle signals with a frequency of 25Hz, and (4) white noise present within the ECG signal band. This was done by implementing a multiband digital filter (seven bands) of type FIR Multiband Least Squares using a digital programmable device (Cyclone II EP2C70F896C6 FPGA, Altera), which was placed on an education and development board (DE2-70, Terasic). This filter was designed using the VHDL language in the Quartus II 9.1 design environment. The proposed method depends on Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (DDFS) designed to synthesize the ECG signal and various interference signals. So that the synthetic ECG specifications would be closer to actual ECG signals after filtering, we designed in a single multiband digital filter instead of using three separate digital filters LPF, HPF, BSF. Thus all interference signals were removed with a single digital filter. The multiband digital filter results were studied using a digital oscilloscope to characterize input and output signals in the presence of differing sinusoidal interference signals and white noise. PMID:25912983

  6. Using digital filtering techniques as an aid in wind turbine data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Teresa

    1994-11-01

    Research involving very large sets of digital data is often difficult due to the enormity of the database. In the case of a wind turbine operating under varying environmental conditions, determining which data are representative of the blade aerodynamics and which are due to transient flow ingestion effects or errors in instrumentation, operation, and data collection is of primary concern to researchers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado collected extensive data on a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) during a turbine test project called the Combined Experiment. A principal objective of this experiment was to provide a means to predict HAWT aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical operational loads based upon analytical models of aerodynamic performance related to blade design and inflow conditions. In a collaborative effort with the Aerospace Engineering Department at the University of Colorado at Boulder, a team of researchers has evolved and utilized various digital filtering techniques in analyzing the data from the Combined Experiment. A preliminary analysis of the data set was performed to determine how to best approach the data. The reduced data set emphasized selection of inflow conditions such that the aerodynamic data could be compared directly to wind tunnel data obtained for the same airfoil design as used for the HAWT's blades. It will be shown that this reduced data set has yielded valid, reproducible results that a simple averaging technique or a random selection approach cannot achieve. These findings provide a stable baseline against which operational HAWT data can be compared.

  7. Using digital filtering techniques as an aid in wind turbine data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, T.

    1994-11-01

    Research involving very large sets of digital data is often difficult due to the enormity of the database. In the case of a wind turbine operating under varying environmental conditions, determining which data are representative of the blade aerodynamics and which are due to transient flow ingestion effects or errors in instrumentation, operation, and data collection is of primary concern to researchers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado collected extensive data on a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) during a turbine test project called the Combined Experiment. A principal objective of this experiment was to provide a means to predict HAWT aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical operational loads based upon analytical models of aerodynamic performance related to blade design and inflow conditions. In a collaborative effort with the Aerospace Engineering Department at the University of Colorado at Boulder, a team of researchers has evolved and utilized various digital filtering techniques in analyzing the data from the Combined Experiment. A preliminary analysis of the data set was performed to determine how to best approach the data. The reduced data set emphasized selection of inflow conditions such that the aerodynamic data could be compared directly to wind tunnel data obtained for the same airfoil design as used for the HAWT`s blades. It will be shown that this reduced data set has yielded valid, reproducible results that a simple averaging technique or a random selection approach cannot achieve. These findings provide a stable baseline against which operational HAWT data can be compared.

  8. Optimizing the anode-filter combination in the sense of image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjonen, Mari; Strömmer, Pekka

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the optimized image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography, and provides recommendations concerning anode-filter combinations in digital mammography, which is based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) detector technology. The full field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on a-Se technology, which is also a platform of tomosynthesis prototype, was used in this study. X-ray tube anode-filter combinations, which we studied, were tungsten (W) - rhodium (Rh) and tungsten (W) - silver (Ag). Anatomically adaptable fully automatic exposure control (AAEC) was used. The average glandular doses (AGD) were calculated using a specific program developed by Planmed, which automates the method described by Dance et al. Image quality was evaluated in two different ways: a subjective image quality evaluation, and contrast and noise analysis. By using W-Rh and W-Ag anode-filter combinations can be achieved a significantly lower average glandular dose compared with molybdenum (Mo) - molybdenum (Mo) or Mo-Rh. The average glandular dose reduction was achieved from 25 % to 60 %. In the future, the evaluation will concentrate to study more filter combinations and the effect of higher kV (>35 kV) values, which seems be useful while optimizing the dose in digital mammography.

  9. Digital tapped delay lines for HWIL testing of matched filter radar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard F.; Braselton, William J.; Mohlere, Richard D.

    2009-05-01

    Matched filter processing for pulse compression of phase coded waveforms is a classic method for increasing radar range measurement resolution. A generic approach for simulating high resolution range extended radar scenes in a Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) test environment is to pass the phase coded radar transmit pulse through an RF tapped delay line comprised of individually amplitude- and phase-weighted output taps. In the generic approach, the taps are closely spaced relative to time intervals equivalent to the range resolution of the compressed radar pulse. For a range-extended high resolution clutter scene, the increased number of these taps can make an analog implementation of an RF tapped delay system impractical. Engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have addressed this problem by transferring RF tapped delay line signal operations to the digital domain. New digital tapped delay line (DTDL) systems have been designed and demonstrated which are physically compact compared to analog RF TDLs, leverage low cost FPGA and data converter technology, and may be readily expanded using open slots in a VME card cage. In initial HWIL applications, the new DTDLs have been shown to produce better dynamic range in pulse compressed range profiles than their analog TDL predecessors. This paper describes the signal requirements and system architecture for digital tapped delay lines. Implementation, performance, and HWIL simulation integration issues for AMRDEC's first generation DTDLs are addressed. The paper concludes with future requirements and plans for ongoing DTDL technology development at AMRDEC.

  10. Hydro-geo-chemical streamflow analysis as a support for digital hydrograph filtering in a small, rainfall dominated, sandstone watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is an analysis of the ability of digital hydrograph filtering tools for the characterization of the baseflow source contributing to total streamflow for a typical, small, sandstone, rainfall dominated catchment. Daily streamflow and electrical conductivity data for an experimental catchment, the Ciciriello catchment, a 3km2 watershed located in Southern Italy, have been collected to the purpose since 2012. The application of a mass balance filter (MBF), using electrical conductivity as tracer data, has pointed out a seasonal characterization of the baseflow pattern, contributing to total streamflow by 90% during the low flow period and up to 40% during the high flow period. The Lyne and Hollick one parameter and the two parameters Eckhardt digital filters have been furthermore processed, both in an uncalibrated and calibrated application. Providing a preliminary total streamflow and baseflow recession analysis, the one parameter filter appears particularly suited for ungauged cases, as the uncalibrated and calibrated applications are almost identical, with relative prediction errors, compared to MBF, smaller than 5%. The uncalibrated two parameters filter generates instead large relative error of about 35%. To improve the baseflow description, in particular during the low flow period, and to correct large (28%) underestimation of the minimum baseflow value, a seasonal calibration for the BFImax parameter (the maximum BaseFlow Index that can be modeled by the filter algorithm) is in fact needed.

  11. Frequency filtering to suppress background noise in fingerprint evidence: quantifying the fidelity of digitally enhanced fingerprint images.

    PubMed

    Speir, Jacqueline A; Hietpas, Jack

    2014-09-01

    Fingerprint evidence can benefit in image quality if transformed using digital image processing techniques. This is especially true when considering prints that cannot be easily lifted (such as those deposited on porous paper substrates), or when the mechanism of lifting does not effectively reduce background interferences. In these instances, frequency filtering is one type of mathematical transformation that can serve to increase image clarity and the ability to extract minutiae relevant to pairwise comparisons. To quantify the impact of frequency filtering on image quality, high quality and low quality (noisy) prints were collected. The high quality prints served as exemplars that were compared to the low quality prints both pre- and post-filtering. The resulting pairwise match scores indicate that: (1) frequency filtering has a low probability of creating false positive associations, (2) 90% of the post-filtered images result in a normalized gain in match score, (3) frequency filtering doubled the probability of obtaining match scores greater than 30% (for the automated algorithm employed in this study), and (4) filtering can double the probability of obtaining 10 or more matching minutiae when comparing same source prints. Overall, the research indicates a reasonable and quantifiable payoff in increased clarity, matching minutiae and pairwise similarity for post-filtered images when compared to known-match exemplars. PMID:25047216

  12. A method to improve the determination of wave perturbations close to the tropopause by using a digital filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.; Llamedo, P.; Hierro, R.; Schmidt, T.; Haser, A.; Wickert, J.

    2011-09-01

    GPS radio occultation satellite data allowed to analyze in the last decade for the first time a large amount of atmospheric temperature profiles including both the troposphere and the stratosphere all over the globe. Wave amplitude enhancements have been systematically observed around tropopause levels, which are apparently due to artifacts generated by any digital filter used to isolate the wave components from these data. We present a new filtering method which can be equally applied to temperature or refractivity profiles. It was tested with synthetic temperature data based on NCEP reanalyes and observed wave climatologies and it was also statistically validated with GPS radio occultation profiles from the COSMIC mission. The suggested technique significantly reduces artificial enhancements around the tropopause, mainly at low latitudes, where a sharp lapse rate change usually exists. This represents an improvement in comparison to previous applications of standard filters. In addition it would allow the study of longer vertical wavelengths than previously done with other filtering procedures.

  13. Multiscale bilateral filtering for improving image quality in digital breast tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Detection of subtle microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a challenging task because of the large, noisy DBT volume. It is important to enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in DBT reconstruction. Most regularization methods depend on local gradient and may treat the ill-defined margins or subtle spiculations of masses and subtle microcalcifications as noise because of their small gradient. The authors developed a new multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization method for the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) to improve the CNR of microcalcifications without compromising the quality of masses. Methods: The MSBF exploits a multiscale structure of DBT images to suppress noise and selectively enhance high frequency structures. At the end of each SART iteration, every DBT slice is decomposed into several frequency bands via Laplacian pyramid decomposition. No regularization is applied to the low frequency bands so that subtle edges of masses and structured background are preserved. Bilateral filtering is applied to the high frequency bands to enhance microcalcifications while suppressing noise. The regularized DBT images are used for updating in the next SART iteration. The new MSBF method was compared with the nonconvex total p-variation (TpV) method for noise regularization with SART. A GE GEN2 prototype DBT system was used for acquisition of projections at 21 angles in 3° increments over a ±30° range. The reconstruction image quality with no regularization (NR) and that with the two regularization methods were compared using the DBT scans of a heterogeneous breast phantom and several human subjects with masses and microcalcifications. The CNR and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line profiles of microcalcifications and across the spiculations within their in-focus DBT slices were used as image quality measures. Results: The MSBF method reduced contouring artifacts

  14. Micropower CMOS Integrated Low-Noise Amplification, Filtering, and Digitization of Multimodal Neuropotentials

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Murari, Kartikeya; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Thakor, Nitish

    2009-01-01

    Electrical activity in the brain spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring simultaneous recording of multiple modalities of neurophysiological signals in order to capture various aspects of brain state dynamics. Here, we present a 16-channel neural interface integrated circuit fabricated in a 0.5 μm 3M2P CMOS process for selective digital acquisition of biopotentials across the spectrum of neural signal modalities in the brain, ranging from single spike action potentials to local field potentials (LFP), electrocorticograms (ECoG), and electroencephalograms (EEG). Each channel is composed of a tunable bandwidth, fixed gain front-end amplifier and a programmable gain/resolution continuous-time incremental ΔΣ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A two-stage topology for the front-end voltage amplifier with capacitive feedback offers independent tuning of the amplifier bandpass frequency corners, and attains a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 2.9 at 8.2 kHz bandwidth for spike recording, and a NEF of 3.2 at 140 Hz bandwidth for EEG recording. The amplifier has a measured midband gain of 39.6 dB, frequency response from 0.2 Hz to 8.2 kHz, and an input-referred noise of 1.94 μVrms while drawing 12.2 μA of current from a 3.3 V supply. The lower and higher cutoff frequencies of the bandpass filter are adjustable from 0.2 to 94 Hz and 140 Hz to 8.2 kHz, respectively. At 10-bit resolution, the ADC has an SNDR of 56 dB while consuming 76 μW power. Time-modulation feedback in the ADC offers programmable digital gain (1–4096) for auto-ranging, further improving the dynamic range and linearity of the ADC. Experimental recordings with the system show spike signals in rat somatosensory cortex as well as alpha EEG activity in a human subject. PMID:20046962

  15. Micropower CMOS Integrated Low-Noise Amplification, Filtering, and Digitization of Multimodal Neuropotentials.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, M; Murari, K; Cauwenberghs, G; Thakor, N

    2009-02-01

    Electrical activity in the brain spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring simultaneous recording of multiple modalities of neurophysiological signals in order to capture various aspects of brain state dynamics. Here, we present a 16-channel neural interface integrated circuit fabricated in a 0.5 mum 3M2P CMOS process for selective digital acquisition of biopotentials across the spectrum of neural signal modalities in the brain, ranging from single spike action potentials to local field potentials (LFP), electrocorticograms (ECoG), and electroencephalograms (EEG). Each channel is composed of a tunable bandwidth, fixed gain front-end amplifier and a programmable gain/resolution continuous-time incremental DeltaSigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A two-stage topology for the front-end voltage amplifier with capacitive feedback offers independent tuning of the amplifier bandpass frequency corners, and attains a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 2.9 at 8.2 kHz bandwidth for spike recording, and a NEF of 3.2 at 140 Hz bandwidth for EEG recording. The amplifier has a measured midband gain of 39.6 dB, frequency response from 0.2 Hz to 8.2 kHz, and an input-referred noise of 1.94 muV rms while drawing 12.2 muA of current from a 3.3 V supply. The lower and higher cutoff frequencies of the bandpass filter are adjustable from 0.2 to 94 Hz and 140 Hz to 8.2 kHz, respectively. At 10-bit resolution, the ADC has an SNDR of 56 dB while consuming 76 muW power. Time-modulation feedback in the ADC offers programmable digital gain (1-4096) for auto-ranging, further improving the dynamic range and linearity of the ADC. Experimental recordings with the system show spike signals in rat somatosensory cortex as well as alpha EEG activity in a human subject. PMID:20046962

  16. Time-domain damping models in structural acoustics using digital filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parret-Fréaud, Augustin; Cotté, Benjamin; Chaigne, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach in order to formulate well-posed time-domain damping models able to represent various frequency domain profiles of damping properties. The novelty of this approach is to represent the behavior law of a given material directly in a discrete-time framework as a digital filter, which is synthesized for each material from a discrete set of frequency-domain data such as complex modulus through an optimization process. A key point is the addition of specific constraints to this process in order to guarantee stability, causality and verification of thermodynamics second law when transposing the resulting discrete-time behavior law into the time domain. Thus, this method offers a framework which is particularly suitable for time-domain simulations in structural dynamics and acoustics for a wide range of materials (polymers, wood, foam, etc.), allowing to control and even reduce the distortion effects induced by time-discretization schemes on the frequency response of continuous-time behavior laws.

  17. High-accuracy fit of the poles of spectroscopy amplifiers designed for mixed analog-digital filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bittanti, S.; Gatti, E.; Ripamonti, G.; Savaresi, S.M.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, a method for the identification of the poles` and zeros` position of an analog amplifier for nuclear spectroscopy used as a prefilter for a subsequent digital filter setup is presented. The proposed technique is based upon a subspace-based system state-space identification (4SID) method, which is well suited to a data set constituted by a noisy measurement of the sampled impulse response of the circuit. The algorithm runs unassisted and does not require skills by the operator. The experiments confirm that by using the so-obtained pole values, the shape of the impulse response of the amplifier can be fit with much better than 1% accuracy. Consequently, the overall filtering (analog + digital) can have finite duration and a top with a flatness much better than 1%.

  18. Real-time digital filtering, event triggering, and tomographic reconstruction of JET soft x-ray data (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. W.; Blackler, K.; Gill, R. D.; van der Goot, E.; Holm, J.

    1990-10-01

    Based upon the experience gained with the present soft x-ray data acquisition system, new techniques are being developed which make extensive use of digital signal processors (DSPs). Digital filters make 13 further frequencies available in real time from the input sampling frequency of 200 kHz. In parallel, various algorithms running on further DSPs generate triggers in response to a range of events in the plasma. The sawtooth crash can be detected, for example, with a delay of only 50 μs from the onset of the collapse. The trigger processor interacts with the digital filter boards to ensure data of the appropriate frequency is recorded throughout a plasma discharge. An independent link is used to pass 780 and 24 Hz filtered data to a network of transputers. A full tomographic inversion and display of the 24 Hz data is carried out in real time using this 15 transputer array. The 780 Hz data are stored for immediate detailed playback following the pulse. Such a system could considerably improve the quality of present plasma diagnostic data which is, in general, sampled at one fixed frequency throughout a discharge. Further, it should provide valuable information towards designing diagnostic data acquisition systems for future long pulse operation machines when a high degree of real-time processing will be required, while retaining the ability to detect, record, and analyze events of interest within such long plasma discharges.

  19. A method to improve the determination of wave perturbations close to the tropopause by using a digital filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.; Llamedo, P.; Hierro, R.; Schmidt, T.; Haser, A.; Wickert, J.

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of gravity wave activity all over the globe derived from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles led some years ago to the following question: are the wave amplitude enhancements systematically observed around tropopause levels due to physical processes or are they a simple artifact generated by any digital filter used to isolate the wave components? The latter alternative has been found to be the correct one. This has been concluded after almost a decade of work on global wave climatologies obtained from GPS radio occultation satellite data, which allowed to analyze, for the first time, a large amount of atmospheric profiles including both the troposphere and the stratosphere. We present a new filtering method which can be equally applied to temperature or refractivity profiles. The suggested technique significantly reduces artificial enhancements around the tropopause, which represents an improvement in comparison to previous applications of standard filters.

  20. Complementary Bandwidth Extension Method Using Analog Forward and Digital Inverse Filters and Its Application to Noncontact ECG Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowada, Daisuke; Ueno, Akinori

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for extending bandwidth of ECG measuring device without deteriorating the baseline tolerance for body motion. The proposed method is realized by synthesizing a two-stage analog forward filter with two different corner frequencies and a digital inverse filter having a corner frequency identical with the higher one of the analog filter. We applied the method to bed-type capacitive ECG sensor which can detect electrocardiographic potential non-intrusively and indirectly. The results demonstrated that the proposed method could precisely recover low-frequency components like T-wave. Furthermore, we confirmed that QTc (corrected QT interval) could be estimated from the recovered wave and that the QTc correlated 0.81 on the average with that obtained from Lead II ECG for seven subjects. These results indicate that the proposed method is useful to screening of long QT syndrome by combining the method with the bed-type capacitive ECG sensor.

  1. Adaptive box filters for removal of random noise from digital images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1990-01-01

    Adaptive box-filtering algorithms to remove random bit errors and to smooth noisy data have been developed. For both procedures, the standard deviation of those pixels within a local box surrounding each pixel is used. A series of two or three filters with decreasing box sizes can be run to clean up extremely noisy images and to remove bit errors near sharp edges. The second filter, for noise smoothing, is similar to the 'sigma filter' of Lee (1983). The technique effectively reduces speckle in radar images without eliminating fine details.

  2. High-resolution dyed color-filter-material for use in digital photography applications: cyan, magenta, and yellow color photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu; Mayo, Jonathan W.; Planje, Curtis; Rieken, Lorie; Brand, Gary

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a new set of cyan, magenta and yellow (CMY) dyed color filter materials to meet the need of digital photography applications. These new color filter materials consist of a dye, a photo sensitive polymer binder, photo initiators, and acrylic monomers in addition to safe solvents such as propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME) which allow deposition of thin film layers by standard spin-on coating techniques. CMY materials share many desirable properties with standard photoresists, e.g., excellent coating quality, thin film uniformity, and good adhesion to semiconductor substrates. They work as negative resists and are sensitive to i-line UV light with photo speed of 300 mJ/cm2 and below. We have shown, for example, that a 1 micrometers film exposed and developed will exhibit high- resolution feature sizes of 3 micrometers pixels and below. These CMY materials have excellent thermal and light stability and good color characteristics.

  3. Two-mode multiline laser stabilization using a Fabry-Perot filter under analog and digital computer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Serio, R.; Ruff, G. A.; Wing, W. H.

    1984-02-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer, servolocked to one of the output frequencies of a multiline laser, is used as a tracking filter so that a second servoloop can accurately stabilize that laser line to features of its intensity-versus-frequency profile. More stable locks occur where two longitudinal modes lase simultaneously than where the single-mode line intensity is maximized. Both analog and digital servoloops have been used for stabilizing a continuous-wave CO laser cavity. The microcomputer-aided digital stabilization yields the more reliable frequency locks and needs negligible frequency dithering. It has produced short-term (less than 1 s) laser linewidths less than 100 kHz and long-term (greater than 100 s) instability estimated as 80 kHz at a laser operating frequency of 55 THz in a noisy laboratory environment.

  4. Stent enhancement using a locally adaptive unsharp masking filter in digital x-ray fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Ekanayake, Eranda

    2014-03-01

    Low exposure X-ray fluoroscopy is used to guide some complicate interventional procedures. Due to the inherent high levels of noise, improving the visibility of some interventional devices such as stent will greatly benefit those interventional procedures. Stent, which is made up of tiny steel wires, is also suffered from contrast dilutions of large flat panel detector pixels. A novel adaptive unsharp masking filter has been developed to improve stent contrast in real-time applications. In unsharp masking processing, the background is estimated and subtracted from the original input image to create a foreground image containing objects of interest. A background estimator is therefore critical in the unsharp masking processing. In this specific study, orientation filter kernels are used as the background estimator. To make the process simple and fast, the kernels average along a line of pixels. A high orientation resolution of 18° is used. A nonlinear operator is then used to combine the information from the images generated from convolving the original background and noise only images with orientation filters. A computerized Monte Carlo simulation followed by ROC study is used to identify the best nonlinear operator. We then apply the unsharp masking filter to the images with stents present. It is shown that the locally adaptive unsharp making filter is an effective filter for improving stent visibility in the interventional fluoroscopy. We also apply a spatio-temporal channelized human observer model to quantitatively optimize and evaluate the filter.

  5. A gaussian band pass filter for digital enhancement of nuclear medicine images

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.T.; Park, C.H.; Hichwa, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Information in nuclear medicine images is obscured due to the presence of Poisson noise and the finite resolution of the detection system. Many filters have been developed to recover resolution and suppress noise, most notably the Metz and Wiener filters. The generation of these filters requires knowledge of the system MTF. The authors have investigated the properties of a two dimensional circularly symmetric truncated Gaussian function as a filter to be applied in the spatial frequency domain. The filter is expressed as exp(-(..mu..-..mu../sub o/)/sup 2//2sigma/sup 2/) where ..mu../sub o/ is the displacement of the Gaussian from the origin and sigma is the degree of spread. These parameters are optimized from the image power spectrum according to the following empirical rules the magnitude at the origin is 0.3, and the spatial frequency at which the magnitude of the power spectrum exceeds twice that of the noise level is 2sigma from the mean of the Gaussian (..mu../sub o/). Condition 1 preferentially enhances the information in the middle frequencies while condition 2 assures that the filter goes to 0 at spatial frequencies where noise dominates. The filter can be generated automatically by computer program. It does not require the knowledge of MTF. In addition, the coordinate space representation is a Gaussian modulated by a cosine function which can be analytically determined allowing straightfoward application of this filter as a convolution in coordinate space. The filter has been successfully applied to all types of nuclear medicine images including PET brain section images.

  6. Design of recursive digital filters having specified phase and magnitude characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. E.; Condon, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method for a computer-aided design of a class of optimum filters, having specifications in the frequency domain of both magnitude and phase, is described. The method, an extension to the work of Steiglitz, uses the Fletcher-Powell algorithm to minimize a weighted squared magnitude and phase criterion. Results using the algorithm for the design of filters having specified phase as well as specified magnitude and phase compromise are presented.

  7. Adaptive box filters for removal of random noise from digital images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed adaptive box-filtering algorithms to (1) remove random bit errors (pixel values with no relation to the image scene) and (2) smooth noisy data (pixels related to the image scene but with an additive or multiplicative component of noise). For both procedures, we use the standard deviation (??) of those pixels within a local box surrounding each pixel, hence they are adaptive filters. This technique effectively reduces speckle in radar images without eliminating fine details. -from Authors

  8. Hybrid method for designing digital FIR filters based on fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Baderia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar Singh, Girish

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript, a hybrid approach based on Lagrange multiplier method and cuckoo search (CS) optimization technique is proposed for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters using fractional derivative constraints. In the proposed method, FIR filter is designed by optimizing the integral squares in passband and stopband from ideal response such that the fractional derivatives of designed filter response become zero at a given frequency point. Lagrange multiplier method is exploited for finding the optimized filter coefficients. Optimal value of fractional derivative constraints for optimized filter coefficients are determined by minimizing the objective function constructed using a sum of maximum passband ripple and maximum stopband ripple in frequency domain using CS algorithm. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕ(p)), stopband error (ϕ(s)), stopband attenuation (A(s)), maximum passband ripple (MPR), maximum stopband ripple (MSR) and CPU time. A comparative study of the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) for designing FIR filters using the proposed method is also made. PMID:26142984

  9. Implementation of a truncated cusp filter for real-time digital pulse processing in nuclear spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovac, M.; Csato, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work the transfer function for a truncated cusp infinite impulse response (IIR) filter has been derived. The truncated cusp filter, when given an exponential pulse in the presence of white noise, outputs a truncated cusp pulse which is optimum pulse shape under the constraint of finite pulse duration. However it features a pole outside of the unit-circle and is therefore inherently unstable. To overcome this instability a switching algorithm with two alternating poles has been applied. The filter has been simulated with MATLAB and Simulink and implemented on-board a FPGA. The pulses from a waveform generator and silicon drift detector (SDD) have been also processed by the filter and results compared with theory. We find that the simulation and measurements were in agreement and show that energy resolution due to electronic noise can be improved by up to 7.5% using a truncated cusp instead of triangular filter. An improvement of up to 2.8% in overall energy resolution was measured with a typical X-ray spectrometer based on a SDD detector with a nominal energy resolution of 150 eV at energies of MnKα line.

  10. Digital filter design with zero shift on charge amplifiers for low shock calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozato, H.; Bruns, T.; Volkers, H.; Oota, A.

    2014-03-01

    Zero shift caused by the low frequency response of charge amplifiers is one of the most significant factors in shock measurements with long duration, such as low shock calibration of accelerometers. In order to reproduce the same zero shift as the charge amplifier, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters were developed by applying a second order transfer function to the high pass characteristic in the low frequency part of the measured frequency response of charge amplifiers. For the experimental verification of the zero shift using the IIR filter, input/output signals of the charge amplifier were investigated by using rectangular waveforms with a peak voltage of 2 V and pulse width of 10 ms and 5 ms, respectively. As indicated by the results, the IIR filter succeeds in following the same zero shift as the charge amplifier.

  11. Passive auto-focus for digital still cameras and camera phones: Filter-switching and low-light techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamadia, Mark Noel

    In order to gain valuable market share in the growing consumer digital still camera and camera phone market, camera manufacturers have to continually add and improve existing features to their latest product offerings. Auto-focus (AF) is one such feature, whose aim is to enable consumers to quickly take sharply focused pictures with little or no manual intervention in adjusting the camera's focus lens. While AF has been a standard feature in digital still and cell-phone cameras, consumers often complain about their cameras' slow AF performance, which may lead to missed photographic opportunities, rendering valuable moments and events with undesired out-of-focus pictures. This dissertation addresses this critical issue to advance the state-of-the-art in the digital band-pass filter, passive AF method. This method is widely used to realize AF in the camera industry, where a focus actuator is adjusted via a search algorithm to locate the in-focus position by maximizing a sharpness measure extracted from a particular frequency band of the incoming image of the scene. There are no known systematic methods for automatically deriving the parameters such as the digital pass-bands or the search step-size increments used in existing passive AF schemes. Conventional methods require time consuming experimentation and tuning in order to arrive at a set of parameters which balance AF performance in terms of speed and accuracy ultimately causing a delay in product time-to-market. This dissertation presents a new framework for determining an optimal set of passive AF parameters, named Filter- Switching AF, providing an automatic approach to achieve superior AF performance, both in good and low lighting conditions based on the following performance measures (metrics): speed (total number of iterations), accuracy (offset from truth), power consumption (total distance moved), and user experience (in-focus position overrun). Performance results using three different prototype cameras

  12. A Study on Compact Wide Bandpass Filter Using Inter-Digital Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Jumpei; Yasuzumi, Takenori; Uwano, Tomoki; Hashimoto, Osamu

    A new type of the wide-band BPF made up of an inter-digital resonator and parallel-coupled lines was proposed. The bandwidth of the inter-digital resonator becomes wider by increasing the number of fingers. The design of the parallel-coupled line was performed by optimazing the structural parameters so that the bandwidth is the same as that of the inter-digital resonator. The measured results of the combination of above elements for the BPF agreed well with the simulated ones such that the insertion loss is less than 0.67dB and that the sharp skirt characteristics are realized by attenuation poles near the edges of the passband.

  13. FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

  14. Fault scarp identification in side-scan sonar and bathymetry images from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using wavelet-based digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Sarah A.; Smith, Deborah K.

    1996-12-01

    Digital filters designed using wavelet theory are applied to high resolution deep-towed side-scan sonar data from the median valley walls, crestal mountains, and flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 29°10' N. With proper tuning, the digital filters are able to identify the location, orientation, length, and width of highly reflective linear features in sonar images. These features are presumed to represent the acoustic backscatter from axis-facing normal faults. The fault locations obtained from the digital filters are well correlated with visual geologic interpretation of the images. The side-scan sonar images are also compared with swath bathymetry from the same area. The digitally filtered bathymetry images contain nine of the eleven faults identified by eye in the detailed geologic interpretation of the side-scan data. Faults with widths (measured perpendicular to their strike) of less than about 150 m are missed in the bathymetry analysis due to the coarser resolution of these data. This digital image processing technique demonstrates the potential of wavelet-based analysis to reduce subjectivity and labor involved in mapping and analyzing topographic features in side-scan sonar and bathymetric image data.

  15. Stability margins in a design method for 2-dimensional recursive digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crebbin, G.; Attikiouzel, J.

    1982-06-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the extension of a concept of stability margin introduced by Crebbin and Attikiouzel (1981). When implemented as a constraint in a 2-D filter design problem, the stability margin guarantees stability, and, in addition, has a moderating effect on the behavior in either the frequency or the spatial domain. An investigation is conducted regarding the possibility of incorporating stability margins into available automated design methods, and a description is provided of a design method which uses the simplex algorithm reported by Nelder and Mead (1975). The considered algorithm is well suited to handle the constraints imposed by stability and by stability margins. Attention is given to filter structures, the design program, additional computing time for stability testing, problems of stable-only design methods, and relationships between pole position, frequency response, and spatial response.

  16. Pipelined digital SAR azimuth correlator using hybrid FFT-transversal filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Liu, K. Y. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar system (SAR) having a range correlator is provided with a hybrid azimuth correlator which utilizes a block-pipe-lined fast Fourier transform (FFT). The correlator has a predetermined FFT transform size with delay elements for delaying SAR range correlated data so as to embed in the Fourier transform operation a corner-turning function as the range correlated SAR data is converted from the time domain to a frequency domain. The azimuth correlator is comprised of a transversal filter to receive the SAR data in the frequency domain, a generator for range migration compensation and azimuth reference functions, and an azimuth reference multiplier for correlation of the SAR data. Following the transversal filter is a block-pipelined inverse FFT used to restore azimuth correlated data in the frequency domain to the time domain for imaging.

  17. Impulsive noise reduction in digital phase-sensitive demodulation by nonlinear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ziqiang; Wang, Huaxiang; Yin, Wuliang; Yang, Wuqiang

    2015-07-01

    Phase-sensitive demodulation is widely used in many systems, e.g. impedance measurement, communication, sonar and radar. In most cases, white noise is assumed in system design and analysis. However, impulsive noise is often encountered in many applications, which imposes challenges for a phase-sensitive demodulator (PSD). This paper presents a nonlinear filter for removing impulsive noise prior to the PSD. Unlike its linear counterparts, it is analysed in the time domain rather than in the frequency domain, making it easier to implement. The performance of the proposed method is compared to a standard PSD with a low-pass filter to suppress the impulsive noise and the theoretical limits of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analysed. The theoretical prediction has been validated by numerical simulation and experiment. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve SNR improvement of 10.8 dB or greater when impulse rate α = 0.01. Statistical analysis shows that 97.2% of the impulses can be rejected by the median filter of length 3 when impulse rate is less than or equal to 0.1.

  18. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  19. Effects of range bin shape and Doppler filter response in a digital SAR data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    In calibrating the backscatter coefficient obtained with an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system to determine absolute values of radar cross-section and reflectivity it is common practice to use a target of known radar cross-section placed within the scene. A corner reflector acts as a point target, but the return from it may not be centered in the resolution cell. It is important, for accurate calibration, to perform straddling corrections based on the range bin and Doppler filter response curves.

  20. High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

  1. Common-path depth-filtered digital holography for high resolution imaging of buried semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Schellenberg, Falk; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Paar, Christof; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in reflection geometry for non-destructive 3D imaging of semiconductor devices. This technique provides high resolution information of the inner structure of a sample while maintaining its integrity. To illustrate the performance of the DHM, we use our setup to localize the precise spots for laser fault injection, in the security related field of side-channel attacks. While digital holographic microscopy techniques easily offer high resolution phase images of surface structures in reflection geometry, they are typically incapable to provide high quality phase images of buried structures due to the interference of reflected waves from different interfaces inside the structure. Our setup includes a sCMOS camera for image capture, arranged in a common-path interferometer to provide very high phase stability. As a proof of principle, we show sample images of the inner structure of a modern microcontroller. Finally, we compare our holographic method to classic optical beam induced current (OBIC) imaging to demonstrate its benefits.

  2. Direct-drive digitally-commutated filter wheel positioning system for cryogenic optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorell, Kenneth R.; Aubrun, Jean-Noel; Opyd, Walter G.; Wood, Allen D.

    1993-01-01

    A control system is presented for precise and rapid positioning of spectral filters in the multispectral infrared optical system used for the MUlti-Spectral Infrared Camera (MUSIC). A hybrid system employing a stepper motor as a direct-drive brushless servomotor presents an ideal solution, applying high torque at low speed for the optimum response as limited by available torque. As the end of the repositioning transient is approached, closed-loop proportional control of torque provides quick settling to a positioning accuracy of 0.02 degrees. The use of a stepper motor avoids the problems of a brushed DC servomotor, such as brush and bearing failures at high speeds in a cryogenic vacuum, and backlash in reduction gears. The analog servo loop with commutation hardware to optimally switch the current to the stepper motor windings, avoids problems typical of stepper motors, such as limited positioning precision and high power dissipation while holding position.

  3. An optimal modeling of multidimensional wave digital filtering network for free vibration analysis of symmetrically laminated composite FSDT plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chien-Hsun

    2015-02-01

    The technique of multidimensional wave digital filtering (MDWDF) that builds on traveling wave formulation of lumped electrical elements, is successfully implemented on the study of dynamic responses of symmetrically laminated composite plate based on the first order shear deformation theory. The philosophy applied for the first time in this laminate mechanics relies on integration of certain principles involving modeling and simulation, circuit theory, and MD digital signal processing to provide a great variety of outstanding features. Especially benefited by the conservation of passivity gives rise to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) for the issue of numerical stability of a MD discrete system. Adopting the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm, an effective optimization technique for rapidly achieving solution spaces of NLP models, numerical stability of the MDWDF network is well received at all time by the satisfaction of the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability criterion with the least restriction. In particular, optimum of the NLP has led to the optimality of the network in terms of effectively and accurately predicting the desired fundamental frequency, and thus to give an insight into the robustness of the network by looking at the distribution of system energies. To further explore the application of the optimum network, more numerical examples are engaged in efforts to achieve a qualitative understanding of the behavior of the laminar system. These are carried out by investigating various effects based on different stacking sequences, stiffness and span-to-thickness ratios, mode shapes and boundary conditions. Results are scrupulously validated by cross referencing with early published works, which show that the present method is in excellent agreement with other numerical and analytical methods.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of the seasonal variation of solar elevation angle and azimuth on the processes of digital filtering and thematic classification of relief units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the seasonal variation of illumination over digital processing of LANDSAT images are evaluated. Two sets of LANDSAT data referring to the orbit 150 and row 28 were selected with illumination parameters varying from 43 deg to 64 deg for azimuth and from 30 deg to 36 deg for solar elevation respectively. IMAGE-100 system permitted the digital processing of LANDSAT data. Original images were transformed by means of digital filtering so as to enhance their spatial features. The resulting images were used to obtain an unsupervised classification of relief units. Topographic variables (declivity, altitude, relief range and slope length) were used to identify the true relief units existing on the ground. The LANDSAT over pass data show that digital processing is highly affected by illumination geometry, and there is no correspondence between relief units as defined by spectral features and those resulting from topographic features.

  5. Real-time experimental demonstrations of software reconfigurable optical OFDM transceivers utilizing DSP-based digital orthogonal filters for SDN PONs.

    PubMed

    Duan, X; Giddings, R P; Bolea, M; Ling, Y; Cao, B; Mansoor, S; Tang, J M

    2014-08-11

    Real-time optical OFDM (OOFDM) transceivers with on-line software-controllable channel reconfigurability and transmission performance adaptability are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, utilizing Hilbert-pair-based 32-tap digital orthogonal filters implemented in FPGAs. By making use of an 8-bit DAC/ADC operating at 2GS/s, an oversampling factor of 2 and an EML intensity modulator, the demonstrated RF conversion-free transceiver supports end-to-end real-time simultaneous adaptive transmissions, within a 1GHz signal spectrum region, of a 2.03Gb/s in-phase OOFDM channel and a 1.41Gb/s quadrature-phase OOFDM channel over a 25km SSMF IMDD system. In addition, detailed experimental explorations are also undertaken of key physical mechanisms limiting the maximum achievable transmission performance, impacts of transceiver's channel multiplexing/demultiplexing operations on the system BER performance, and the feasibility of utilizing adaptive modulation to combat impairments associated with low-complexity digital filter designs. Furthermore, experimental results indicate that the transceiver incorporating a fixed digital orthogonal filter DSP architecture can be made transparent to various signal modulation formats up to 64-QAM. PMID:25321051

  6. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume

    SciTech Connect

    Samala, Ravi K. Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Sahiner, Berkman

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a

  7. Investigation of the effect of anode/filter materials on the dose and image quality of a digital mammography system based on an amorphous selenium flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Baldelli, P; Phelan, N; Egan, G

    2010-04-01

    A comparison, in terms of image quality and glandular breast dose, was carried out between two similar digital mammography systems using amorphous selenium flat panel detectors. The two digital mammography systems currently available from Lorad-Hologic were compared. The original system utilises Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh as target/filter combinations, while the new system uses W/Rh and W/Ag. Images of multiple mammography phantoms with simulated compressed breast thicknesses of 4 cm, 5 cm and 6 cm and various glandular tissue equivalency were acquired under different spectral conditions. The contrast of five details, corresponding to five glandular compositions, was calculated and the ratio of the square of the contrast-to-noise ratio to the average glandular dose was used as a figure-of-merit (FOM) to compare results. For each phantom thickness and target/filter combination, there is an optimum voltage that maximises the FOM. Results show that the W/Rh combination is the best choice for all the detection tasks studied, but for thicknesses greater than 6 cm the W/Ag combination would probably be the best choice. In addition, the new system with W filter presents a better optimisation of the automatic exposure control in comparison with the original system with Mo filter. PMID:20019173

  8. Comparison of advanced DSP techniques for spectrally efficient Nyquist-WDM signal generation using digital FIR filters at transmitters based on higher-order modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    To support the ever-increasing demand for high-speed optical communications, Nyquist spectral shaping serves as a promising technique to improve spectral efficiency (SE) by generating near-rectangular spectra with negligible crosstalk and inter-symbol interference in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems. Compared with specially-designed optical methods, DSP-based electrical filters are more flexible as they can generate different filter shapes and modulation formats. However, such transmitter-side pre-filtering approach is sensitive to the limited taps of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter, for the complexity of the required DSP and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is limited by the cost and power consumption of optical transponder. In this paper, we investigate the performance and complexity of transmitter-side FIR-based DSP with polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) high-order quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats. Our results show that Nyquist 64-QAM, 16-QAM and QPSK WDM signals can be sufficiently generated by digital FIR filters with 57, 37, and 17 taps respectively. Then we explore the effects of the required spectral pre-emphasis, bandwidth and resolution on the performance of Nyquist-WDM systems. To obtain negligible OSNR penalty with a roll-off factor of 0.1, two-channel-interleaved DAC requires a Gaussian electrical filter with the bandwidth of 0.4-0.6 times of the symbol rate for PDM-64QAM, 0.35-0.65 times for PDM-16QAM, and 0.3-0.8 times for PDM-QPSK, with required DAC resolutions as 8, 7, 6 bits correspondingly. As a tradeoff, PDM-64QAM can be a promising candidate for SE improvement in next-generation optical metro networks.

  9. A multi-directional and multi-scale roughness filter to detect lineament segments on digital elevation models - analyzing spatial objects in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Sebastian; Robl, Jörg; Wendt, Lorenz; Willingshofer, Ernst; Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-04-01

    Automated lineament analysis on remotely sensed data requires two general process steps: The identification of neighboring pixels showing high contrast and the conversion of these domains into lines. The target output is the lineaments' position, extent and orientation. We developed a lineament extraction tool programmed in R using digital elevation models as input data to generate morphological lineaments defined as follows: A morphological lineament represents a zone of high relief roughness, whose length significantly exceeds the width. As relief roughness any deviation from a flat plane, defined by a roughness threshold, is considered. In our novel approach a multi-directional and multi-scale roughness filter uses moving windows of different neighborhood sizes to identify threshold limited rough domains on digital elevation models. Surface roughness is calculated as the vertical elevation difference between the center cell and the different orientated straight lines connecting two edge cells of a neighborhood, divided by the horizontal distance of the edge cells. Thus multiple roughness values depending on the neighborhood sizes and orientations of the edge connecting lines are generated for each cell and their maximum and minimum values are extracted. Thereby negative signs of the roughness parameter represent concave relief structures as valleys, positive signs convex relief structures as ridges. A threshold defines domains of high relief roughness. These domains are thinned to a representative point pattern by a 3x3 neighborhood filter, highlighting maximum and minimum roughness peaks, and representing the center points of lineament segments. The orientation and extent of the lineament segments are calculated within the roughness domains, generating a straight line segment in the direction of least roughness differences. We tested our algorithm on digital elevation models of multiple sources and scales and compared the results visually with shaded relief map

  10. Micro-light-pipe array with an excitation attenuation filter for lensless digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Hironari; Nagasaki, Mizuki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for detecting various biomarkers with hypersensitivity. We have been developing compact systems by replacing the fluorescence microscope with a CMOS image sensor. Here, we propose a micro-light-pipe array structure made of metal filled with dye-doped resin, which can be used as a fabrication substrate of the micro-reaction-chamber array of digital ELISA. The possibility that this structure enhances the coupling efficiency for fluorescence was simulated using a simple model. To realize the structure, we fabricated a 30-µm-thick micropipe array by copper electroplating around a thick photoresist pattern. The typical diameter of each fabricated micropipe was 10 µm. The pipes were filled with yellow-dye-doped epoxy resin. The transmittance ratio of fluorescence and excitation light could be controlled by adjusting the doping concentration. We confirmed that an angled excitation light incidence suppressed the leakage of excitation light.

  11. Co-design of an in-line holographic microscope with enhanced axial resolution: selective filtering digital holography.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne; Cazier, Anthony; Fournel, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Common-path digital in-line holography is considered as a valuable 3D diagnostic technique for a wide range of applications. This configuration is cost effective and relatively immune to variation in the experimental environment. Nevertheless, due to its common-path geometry, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired hologram is weak as most of the detector (i.e., CCD/CMOS sensor) dynamics are occupied by the reference field signal, whose energy is orders of magnitude higher than the field scattered by the imaged object. As it is intrinsically impossible to modify the ratio of energy of reference to the object field, we propose a co-design approach (optics/data processing) to tackle this issue. The reference to the object field ratio is adjusted by adding a 4-f device to a conventional in-line holographic setup, making it possible to reduce the weight of the reference field while keeping the object field almost constant. Theoretical analysis of the Crámer-Rao lower bounds of the corresponding imaging model illustrates the advantages of this approach. These lower bounds can be asymptotically reached using a parametric inverse problem reconstruction. This implementation results in a 60% gain in axial localization accuracy (for 100 μm diameter spherical objects) compared to a classical in-line holography setup. PMID:26831591

  12. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  13. Mean glandular dose estimation using MCNPX for a digital breast tomosynthesis system with tungsten/aluminum and tungsten/aluminum+silver x-ray anode-filter combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Andy K. W.; Darambara, Dimitra G.; Stewart, Alexander; Gunn, Spencer; Bullard, Edward

    2008-12-15

    Breast cancer screening with x-ray mammography, using one or two projection images of the breast, is an indispensible tool in the early detection of breast cancer in women. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging technique that promises higher sensitivity and specificity in breast cancer screening at a similar radiation dose to conventional two-view screening mammography. In DBT a 3D volume is reconstructed with anisotropic voxels from a limited number of x-ray projection images acquired over a limited angle. Although the benefit of early cancer detection through screening mammography outweighs the potential risks associated with radiation, the radiation dosage to women in terms of mean glandular dose (MGD) is carefully monitored. This work studies the MGD arising from a prototype DBT system under various parameters. Two anode/filter combinations (W/Al and W/Al+Ag) were investigated; the tube potential ranges from 20 to 50 kVp; and the breast size varied between 4 and 10 cm chest wall-to-nipple distance and between 3 and 7 cm compressed breast thickness. The dosimetric effect of breast positioning with respect to the imaging detector was also reviewed. It was found that the position of the breast can affect the MGD by as much as 5% to 13% depending on the breast size.

  14. Data requirements for using combined conductivity mass balance and recursive digital filter method to estimate groundwater recharge in a small watershed, New Brunswick, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Xing, Zisheng; Danielescu, Serban; Li, Sheng; Jiang, Yefang; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of baseflow and groundwater recharge rates is important for hydrological analysis and modelling. A new approach which combines recursive digital filter (RDF) model with conductivity mass balance (CMB) method was considered to be reliable for baseflow separation because the combined method takes advantages of the reduced data requirement for RDF method and the reliability of CMB method. However, it is not clear what the minimum data requirements for producing acceptable estimates of the RDF model parameters are. In this study, 19-year record of stream discharge and water conductivity collected from the Black Brook Watershed (BBW), NB, Canada were used to test the combined baseflow separation method and assess the variability of parameters in the model over seasons. The data requirements and potential bias in estimated baseflow index (BFI) were evaluated using conductivity data for different seasons and/or resampled data segments at various sampling durations. Results indicated that the data collected during ground-frozen season are more suitable to estimate baseflow conductivity (Cbf) and data during snow-melting period are more suitable to estimate runoff conductivity (Cro). Relative errors of baseflow estimation were inversely proportional to the number of conductivity data records. A minimum of six-month discharge and conductivity data is required to obtain reliable parameters for current method with acceptable errors. We further found that the average annual recharge rate for the BBW was 322 mm in the past twenty years.

  15. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  16. Analog and digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  17. Stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, P. D.; Coyle, E. J.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1986-08-01

    A large class of easily implemented nonlinear filters called stack filters are discussed which includes the rank order operators in addition to the compositions of morphological operators. Techniques similar to those used to determine the root signal behavior of median filters are employed to study the convergence properties of the filters, and necessary conditions for a stack filter to preserve monotone regions or edges in signals, and the output distribution of the filters, are obtained. Among the stack filters of window width three are found asymmetric median filters in which one removes only positive going edges, the other removes only negative going edges, while the median filter removes impulses of both signs.

  18. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  19. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  20. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  1. Digital communications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorstyn, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

  2. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  3. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  5. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  6. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  7. Theory and applications of sampled analog recursive CTD comb filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, T. F.; Holmes, S. V.; Ejaz, A.; Piazza, F.; Saetre, L. T.; Freund, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sampled analog comb filter using a recursive filter implementation was studied. Charge transfer device delay lines were used as the delay elements. The similarities and differences between sampled analog recursive filter and digital recursive filter were pointed out. Both canceller type and integrator type comb filter using the first order or the second order canonical circuits were studied. Experimental results of frequency response are presented to show their difference from that of digital filters. A theoretical analysis was presented based essentially on the digital filter theory but modified to take into account the differences described above. The usefulness of this theory in analyzing the comb filter characteristics was discussed. Several applications of both the canceller type comb filter and the integrator type comb filter were demonstrated.

  8. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Dilmore, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  9. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  10. A microprocessor based anti-aliasing filter for a PCM system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, D. C.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Described is the design and evaluation of a microprocessor based digital filter. The filter was made to investigate the feasibility of a digital replacement for the analog pre-sampling filters used in telemetry systems at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (DFRF). The digital filter will utilize an Intel 2920 Analog Signal Processor (ASP) chip. Testing includes measurements of: (1) the filter frequency response and, (2) the filter signal resolution. The evaluation of the digital filter was made on the basis of circuit size, projected environmental stability and filter resolution. The 2920 based digital filter was found to meet or exceed the pre-sampling filter specifications for limited signal resolution applications.

  11. Complementary code and digital filtering for detection of weak VHF radar signals from the mesoscale. [SOUSY-VHF radar, Harz Mountains, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.; Czechowsky, P.

    1983-01-01

    The SOUSY-VHF-Radar operates at a frequency of 53.5 MHz in a valley in the Harz mountains, Germany, 90 km from Hanover. The radar controller, which is programmed by a 16-bit computer holds 1024 program steps in core and controls, via 8 channels, the whole radar system: in particular the master oscillator, the transmitter, the transmit-receive-switch, the receiver, the analog to digital converter, and the hardware adder. The high-sensitivity receiver has a dynamic range of 70 dB and a video bandwidth of 1 MHz. Phase coding schemes are applied, in particular for investigations at mesospheric heights, in order to carry out measurements with the maximum duty cycle and the maximum height resolution. The computer takes the data from the adder to store it in magnetic tape or disc. The radar controller is programmed by the computer using simple FORTRAN IV statements. After the program has been loaded and the computer has started the radar controller, it runs automatically, stopping at the program end. In case of errors or failures occurring during the radar operation, the radar controller is shut off caused either by a safety circuit or by a power failure circuit or by a parity check system.

  12. Real-time visualization of low contrast targets from high-dynamic range infrared images based on temporal digital detail enhancement filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Frederic; Schockaert, Cedric; Mirbach, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    An image detail enhancement method to effectively visualize low contrast targets in high-dynamic range (HDR) infrared (IR) images is presented regardless of the dynamic range width. In general, high temperature dynamics from real-world scenes used to be encoded in a 12 or 14 bits IR image. However, the limitations of the human visual perception, from which no more than 128 shades of gray are distinguishable, and the 8-bit working range of common display devices make necessary an effective 12/14 bits HDR mapping into the 8-bit data representation. To do so, we propose to independently treat the base and detail image components that result from splitting the IR image using two dedicated guided filters. We also introduce a plausibility mask from which those regions that are prominent to present noise are accurately defined to be explicitly tackled to avoid noise amplification. The final 8-bit data representation results from the combination of the processed detail and base image components and its mapping to the 8-bit domain using an adaptive histogram-based projection approach. The limits of the histogram are accommodated through time in order to avoid global brightness fluctuations between frames. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed noise-aware approach preserves low contrast details with an overall contrast enhancement of the image. A comparison with widely used HDR mapping approaches and runtime analysis is also provided. Furthermore, the proposed mathematical formulation enables a real-time adjustment of the global contrast and brightness, letting the operator adapt to the visualization display device without nondesirable artifacts.

  13. Microprocessor realizations of range rate filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The performance of five digital range rate filters is evaluated. A range rate filter receives an input of range data from a radar unit and produces an output of smoothed range data and its estimated derivative range rate. The filters are compared through simulation on an IBM 370. Two of the filter designs are implemented on a 6800 microprocessor-based system. Comparisons are made on the bases of noise variance reduction ratios and convergence times of the filters in response to simulated range signals.

  14. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Imaging Data: Depth-Optimized Co-adds Over 300 deg$^2$ in Five Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Annis, James; Buck, Zoë; Green, Richard; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-06-25

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ~300 deg(2) on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ~1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ~90 deg(2) of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources).

  15. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82 IMAGING DATA: DEPTH-OPTIMIZED CO-ADDS OVER 300 deg{sup 2} IN FIVE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Green, Richard; Bian, Fuyan; Strauss, Michael A.; Buck, Zoë; Annis, James; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-07-01

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ∼300 deg{sup 2} on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ∼1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ∼90 deg{sup 2} of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources)

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Imaging Data: Depth-optimized Co-adds over 300 deg2 in Five Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Annis, James; Buck, Zoë; Green, Richard; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-07-01

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ~300 deg2 on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ~1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ~90 deg2 of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources).

  17. The Role of a Digital Librarian in the Management of Digital Information Systems (DIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for digital librarians who will manage and organize digital libraries. Topics include digital information systems; the information superhighway; navigation, browsing, and filtering; multimedia searching and indexing; data mining; information access and retrieval; competencies and skills for a digital librarian; and professional…

  18. Digital Libraries: The Grand Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the technical, economic, social, and cultural challenges to building a national digital library system. Selecting and filtering information, building and scaling distributed digital library networks, invoicing, payment, authorizing access, the locus of planning leadership, and the information poor are discussed. (Contains three…

  19. Performance comparison of denoising filters for source camera identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortiana, A.; Conotter, V.; Boato, G.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2011-02-01

    Source identification for digital content is one of the main branches of digital image forensics. It relies on the extraction of the photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) noise as a unique intrinsic fingerprint that efficiently characterizes the digital device which generated the content. Such noise is estimated as the difference between the content and its de-noised version obtained via denoising filter processing. This paper proposes a performance comparison of different denoising filters for source identification purposes. In particular, results achieved with a sophisticated 3D filter are presented and discussed with respect to state-of-the-art denoising filters previously employed in such a context.

  20. Digital Demodulator For Advanced Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Hurd, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Complexity and cost reduced by new design for half-band filters. Digital demodulator designed for use in reception of phase- and amplitude-modulated digital signals of bandwidths up to 15 MHz on microwave carriers. System performs coherent demodulation in phase and in quadrature with carrier locked in phase to intermediate frequency of 10 MHz. Design suitable for fabrication in very-large-scale integrated circuitry. Principal innovative feature of demodulator is design of half-band digital low-pass filters that remove sum-frequency components.

  1. Digital signal conditioning for flight test instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn A.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to digital measurement processes on aircraft is provided. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog-intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. The topics include measurements that are digital in origin, as well as sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Examples of data extraction techniques are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  2. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  3. A method for reducing sampling jitter in digital control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; HURBD W. J.; Hurd, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Digital phase lock loop system is designed by smoothing the proportional control with a low pass filter. This method does not significantly affect the loop dynamics when the smoothing filter bandwidth is wide compared to loop bandwidth.

  4. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  5. Eyeglass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  6. Fully digital readout of segmented solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, K. H.; Badura, E.; Bräuning, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Märtin, R.; Minami, S.; Ott, W.; Spillmann, U.; Stöhlker, Th; Weber, G.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the digital readout of semiconductor detectors in combination with digital filters was investigated. Both non-segmented high-purity germanium and segmented planar lithium-drifted silicon detectors were used. In each case, photons from a stationary americium (241Am) gamma source were detected. The resulting preamplifier output pulses were digitized at a fixed sampling frequency and stored entirely. Digital filters were applied to the stored waveforms to extract time and energy information. The performance of different digital filters was compared. The optimum energy resolution obtained was comparable with the value resulting from an analogue readout system based on standard nuclear instrumentation module and versatile module Europe bus electronics.

  7. Transmission through crossed polaroid filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    2001-04-01

    A modification to a digital lux meter is described. A Malus' law experiment performed with the meter gives unexpected results. The modified meter is used to show that the unexpected findings result from the inability of Polaroid filters to polarize radiation that is outside the range of visible light. With the use of a diffraction grating and the modified meter crossed Polaroids are shown to transmit infrared radiation.

  8. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

  9. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  10. Optimum PWM waveform synthesis - a filtering approach

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    A fundamentally different approach is proposed for the synthesis of optimum pulsewidth modulated (PWM) waveforms for highpower inverter applications. Conventional optimum PWM waveform synthesis techniques which seek to control harmonic levels in the inverter output directly are seen to be equivalent to a filtering operation. Digital filter structures capable of processing PWM waveforms are examined and waveform synthesis strategies are proposed and verified experimentally. Finally, the design of a high-performance PWM waveform generator is detailed.

  11. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  12. [Bilateral filter applied to bone scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Katayama, Yutaka; Ueda, Kentaro; Hiura, Shinsaku; Yamanaga, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Ohmura, Masahiro; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Kawabe, Joji; Shiomi, Susumu

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the image quality using a post process rather than a correction process at acquisition time. We used a smoothing filter that is widely used on a compact digital camera. Especially for nuclear medicine, when we use a short acquisition time, we will get images that have a large increase in statistical noise. For those images, we validated the efficiency of the smoothing filter by assessing two characteristic parameters. In addition, we defined the best smoothing filter parameters to get stable images that reduced the influence of statistical noise. PMID:24366556

  13. Interactive digital signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.; Wenger, R. M.; Behannon, K. W.; Byrnes, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Interactive Digital Signal Processor (IDSP) is examined. It consists of a set of time series analysis Operators each of which operates on an input file to produce an output file. The operators can be executed in any order that makes sense and recursively, if desired. The operators are the various algorithms used in digital time series analysis work. User written operators can be easily interfaced to the sysatem. The system can be operated both interactively and in batch mode. In IDSP a file can consist of up to n (currently n=8) simultaneous time series. IDSP currently includes over thirty standard operators that range from Fourier transform operations, design and application of digital filters, eigenvalue analysis, to operators that provide graphical output, allow batch operation, editing and display information.

  14. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  15. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Doherty, P.W.; Penney, B.C.

    1984-11-01

    Two-dimensional filtering, both before and after reconstruction, has been applied to the processing of single photon emission computerized tomographic (SPECT) images. The filters investigated were the count-dependent Metz filter and Wiener filter, both of which automatically adapt to the image being processed. Using a SPECT phantom, with images reconstructed with these filters rather than the ramp, the authors observed a statistically signficant increase in the image contrast for solid Plexiglas spheres, and significant decrease in the percent fractional standard deviation of counts in a region of uniform activity. The adaptability of these filters is demonstrated by a comparison of SPECT acquisition of the phantom at two different count levels. An example of the application to clinical studies is presented. Two-dimensional digital image restoration with these techniques can produce a significant increase in SPECT image quality, with a small cost in processing time when these techniques are implemented on an array processor.

  16. Distributed digital signal processors for multi-body structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon K.

    1990-01-01

    Several digital filter designs were investigated which may be used to process sensor data from large space structures and to design digital hardware to implement the distributed signal processing architecture. Several experimental tests articles are available at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate these designs. A summary of some of the digital filter designs is presented, an evaluation of their characteristics relative to control design is discussed, and candidate hardware microcontroller/microcomputer components are given. Future activities include software evaluation of the digital filter designs and actual hardware inplementation of some of the signal processor algorithms on an experimental testbed at NASA Langley.

  17. Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2012-10-01

    Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  18. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  19. Special IC's in digital switching - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, S. D.

    1981-08-01

    This paper traces the influence of special-purpose integrated and LSI circuits in digital switching systems. The existence of custom digital chips, codecs and filters, and high- and low-voltage analog crosspoint arrays is related to the choice between alternative architectures. Recent trends toward replacing mature components such as transformers by subscriber line interface circuits (SLIC's) are outlined

  20. An eight-neighbor filter for LARSYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, S.; Giddings, L.

    1976-01-01

    An eight-neighbor filter was developed for the LARSYS program. It is used in cleaning zones and sharpening boundaries during the digitization of hand-painted zone maps, in making computer-based vegetation zones more homogeneous, and in classification of natural images, such as LANDSAT or other multispectral imagery.

  1. Weighted Integrate-And-Dump Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin

    1989-01-01

    Digital weighted integrate-and-dump filter (WIDF) proposed for detection of weak rectangular-pulse signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Received signal first low-pass prefiltered, and samples taken at multiple of symbol frequency. Improved performance means lower sampling and processing rates used for given symbol rate, reducing cost of system.

  2. FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

    This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

  3. Image watermarking extraction using Fourier domain Wiener filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Philip; Pavlidis, Marios; Panwar, Ankit; Nnamadim, Ozoemena; Kypraios, Ioannis; Mitra, Bhargav; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Digital watermarking is a vital process for protecting the copyright of images. This paper presents a method of embedding a private robust watermark into a digital image. The full complex form the Wiener filter is used to extract the signal from the watermarked image. This is shown to outperform the more conventional approximate notation. The results are shown to be extremely noise insensitive.

  4. Minimum mean absolute error estimation over the class of generalized stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jean-Hsang; Coyle, Edward J.

    1990-04-01

    A class of sliding window operators called generalized stack filters is developed. This class of filters, which includes all rank order filters, stack filters, and digital morphological filters, is the set of all filters possessing the threshold decomposition architecture and a consistency property called the stacking property. Conditions under which these filters possess the weak superposition property known as threshold decomposition are determined. An algorithm is provided for determining a generalized stack filter which minimizes the mean absolute error (MAE) between the output of the filter and a desired input signal, given noisy observations of that signal. The algorithm is a linear program whose complexity depends on the window width of the filter and the number of threshold levels observed by each of the filters in the superposition architecture. The results show that choosing the generalized stack filter which minimizes the MAE is equivalent to massively parallel threshold-crossing decision making when the decisions are consistent with each other.

  5. Frequency Synthesizer For Tracking Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Digital frequency-synthesizing subsystem generates trains of pulses, free of jitter, for use as frequency-control signals in tracking filters. Part of assembly of electronic equipment used to measure vibrations in bearings in rotating machinery. Designed to meet requirements for tracking narrow-band cage-rotation and ball-pass components of vibrations, as discussed in "Frequency-Tracking Error Detector" (MFS-29538) and "Ball-Pass Cage-Modulation Detector" (MFS-29539). Synthesizer includes preset counter, output of which controls signal for ball-pass filter. Input to this preset counter updated every 2 microseconds: responds almost immediately, effectively eliminating relatively long response time (lock-in time) and phase jitter.

  6. Digital Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  7. AER image filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  8. Digital signal conditioning for flight test, volume 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Flight test instrumentation engineers are provided with an introduction to digital processes on aircraft. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. Topics include: measurements that are digital in origin, sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing of data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Some example data extractions are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

  9. Computational Analysis of Quadrupole Mass Filters Employing Nontraditional Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabeck, Gregory F.; Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2016-06-01

    Quadrupole mass filters using non-sinusoidal driving potentials present exciting opportunities for new functionality. Predicting figures of merit like resolving power and transmission efficiency helps characterize these emerging devices. To this end, matrix methods of solving the Hill equation of ion motion are employed to calculate stability diagrams and pseudopotential well depth maps in the a,q plane for arbitrary waveforms. The theoretical resolving power and well depth of digital, trapezoidal and sinusoidal mass filters are compared. Simplified expressions for digital mass filter operation are presented.

  10. Computational Analysis of Quadrupole Mass Filters Employing Nontraditional Waveforms.

    PubMed

    Brabeck, Gregory F; Reilly, Peter T A

    2016-06-01

    Quadrupole mass filters using non-sinusoidal driving potentials present exciting opportunities for new functionality. Predicting figures of merit like resolving power and transmission efficiency helps characterize these emerging devices. To this end, matrix methods of solving the Hill equation of ion motion are employed to calculate stability diagrams and pseudopotential well depth maps in the a,q plane for arbitrary waveforms. The theoretical resolving power and well depth of digital, trapezoidal and sinusoidal mass filters are compared. Simplified expressions for digital mass filter operation are presented. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27091594

  11. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  12. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  13. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  14. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  15. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  16. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  17. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Presently, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images are usually reconstructed by arbitrarily selecting a one-dimensional ''window'' function for use in reconstruction. A better method would be to automatically choose among a family of two-dimensional image restoration filters in such a way as to produce ''optimum'' image quality. Two-dimensional image processing techniques offer the advantages of a larger statistical sampling of the data for better noise reduction, and two-dimensional image deconvolution to correct for blurring during acquisition. An investigation of two such ''optimal'' digital image restoration techniques (the count-dependent Metz filter and the Wiener filter) was made. They were applied both as two-dimensional ''window'' functions for preprocessing SPECT images, and for filtering reconstructed images. Their performance was compared by measuring image contrast and per cent fractional standard deviation (% FSD) in multiple-acquisitions of the Jaszczak SPECT phantom at two different count levels. A statistically significant increase in image contrast and decrease in % FSD was observed with these techniques when compared to the results of reconstruction with a ramp filter. The adaptability of the techniques was manifested in a lesser % reduction in % FSD at the high count level coupled with a greater enhancement in image contrast. Using an array processor, processing time was 0.2 sec per image for the Metz filter and 3 sec for the Wiener filter. It is concluded that two-dimensional digital image restoration with these techniques can produce a significant increase in SPECT image quality.

  18. Properties of multilayer filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

  19. High-speed Digital Baseband Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, F. P.; Quirk, M. P.; Jurgens, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of designing a digital, complex, baseband mixer with a 50 MHz sampling rate is explored. The baseband filter must provide passbands with linear phase response to minimize intersymbol interference. The effects of signal quantization, filter coefficient quantization, dynamic range, filter response characteristics, and the performance of the mixer when used for cross correlation and autocorrelation pulse detection techniques are discussed. This filter was designed for use in the high speed data acquisition system (HSDAS), an advanced experimental system in the Deep Space Network.

  20. Orthonormal filters for identification in active control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Many active noise and vibration control systems require models of the control paths. When the controlled system changes slightly over time, adaptive digital filters for the identification of the models are useful. This paper aims at the investigation of a special class of adaptive digital filters: orthonormal filter banks possess the robust and simple adaptation of the widely applied finite impulse response (FIR) filters, but at a lower model order, which is important when considering implementation on embedded systems. However, the filter banks require prior knowledge about the resonance frequencies and damping of the structure. This knowledge can be supposed to be of limited precision, since in many practical systems, uncertainties in the structural parameters exist. In this work, a procedure using a number of training systems to find the fixed parameters for the filter banks is applied. The effect of uncertainties in the prior knowledge on the model error is examined both with a basic example and in an experiment. Furthermore, the possibilities to compensate for the imprecise prior knowledge by a higher filter order are investigated. Also comparisons with FIR filters are implemented in order to assess the possible advantages of the orthonormal filter banks. Numerical and experimental investigations show that significantly lower computational effort can be reached by the filter banks under certain conditions.

  1. A complete digital optics applied to digital holographic microscopy: application to chromatic aberration compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, Tristan; Charrière, Florian; Kühn, Jonas; Montfort, Frédéric; Depeursinge, Christian

    2007-06-01

    In optics, optical elements are used to transform, to filter or to process physical wavefronts in order to magnify images, compensate for aberration or to suppress unwanted diffracted order for example. Because digital holography provides numerical wavefronts, we developed a digital optics, involving numerical elements such as numerical lenses and pinholes, to mimic numerically what is usually done physically, with the advantage to be able to define any shape for these elements and to place them everywhere without obstruction problems. We demonstrate that automatic and non-automatic procedures allow diffracted order or parasitic interferences filtering, compensation for aberration and image distortion, and control of position and magnification of reconstructed wavefront. We apply this digital optics to compensate for chromatic aberration in multi-wavelength holography in order to have perfect superposition between wavefronts reconstructed from digital hologram recorded with different wavelengths. This has a great importance for synthetic wavelength digital holography or tomographic digital holography that use multiple wavelengths.

  2. Digital Earth Watch: Investigating the World with Digital Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A. D.; Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Pickle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Every digital camera including the smart phone camera can be a scientific tool. Pictures contain millions of color intensity measurements organized spatially allowing us to measure properties of objects in the images. This presentation will demonstrate how digital pictures can be used for a variety of studies with a special emphasis on using repeat digital photographs to study change-over-time in outdoor settings with a Picture Post. Demonstrations will include using inexpensive color filters to take pictures that enhance features in images such as unhealthy leaves on plants, or clouds in the sky. Software available at no cost from the Digital Earth Watch (DEW) website that lets students explore light, color and pixels, manipulate color in images and make measurements, will be demonstrated. DEW and Picture Post were developed with support from NASA. Please visit our websites: DEW: http://dew.globalsystemsscience.orgPicture Post: http://picturepost.unh.edu

  3. Artifacts in digital images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorre, J. J.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Three kinds of artifacts unique to digital images are illustrated, namely aliasing caused by undersampling, interference phenomena caused by improper display of images, and harmonic overtones caused by quantization of amplitudes. Special attention is given to undersampling when the sample size and interval are the same. It is noted that this situation is important because it is typical of solid-state cameras. Quantization of image data of necessity introduces energy at harmonic overtones of the image spectrum. This energy is aliased if the frequency of the overtones is greater than 0.5 cycle/pixel. It cannot be selectively removed from the image through filtering, and the best way to suppress it is to maximize the amplification of the sensor before digital encoding.

  4. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  5. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  6. Corrosion resistant filter unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, J.M.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fluid filter assembly adapted for the filtration of corrosive fluid to be injected into a well bore at pressure levels which may exceed 10,000 pounds per square. It comprises: a frame assembly for the mounting of a portion of the fluid filter assembly therein, the frame assembly; filter pods, the plurality of filter pods forming at least two banks of filter pods, each bank having at least two filter pods therein, each bank of the filter pods being supported by one or more the supports of the plurality of supports secured to selected struts of the frame assembly; an inlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid to the plurality of filter pods, the inlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby flow of the corrosive fluid can be directed to each bank of the filter pods; an outlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid from the filter pods, the outlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods; a first valve means to control the flow of the corrosive fluid between banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby the flow of the corrosive fluid can be selectively directed to each bank of the filter pods; a second valve means to selectively control the flow of the corrosive fluid between the inlet manifold and the outlet manifold; and union means for interconnecting the filter pods, inlet manifold and outlet manifold, each of the union means including mechanical connection means and internal seal means for isolating the corrosive fluids from the mechanical connection means.

  7. Investigation of the epoch state filter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A navigation filtering technique has been formulated using as state variables the initial or epoch position and velocity of the spacecraft. The estimate of this initial state is then improved by filtering new measurements. The current state may be obtained by a conic extrapolation of the epoch state. Results of a digital computer simulation of the epoch state filter show that this formulation of the navigational problem results in less computer run time and less computer storage space than conventional techniques. The errors produced by this technique have been demonstrated to be comparable to those obtained by conventional maximum-likelihood filtering.

  8. Digital metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1’, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call ‘metamaterial bits’, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental ‘metamaterial bytes’ with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.

  9. Digital metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061

  10. An image-dependent Metz filter for nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    King, M A; Penney, B C; Glick, S J

    1988-12-01

    To provide optimal image quality, digital filters should account for both the count level and the object imaged. That is, they should be image-dependent. By using the constraint equation of constrained least-squares (CLS) restoration to determine one parameter of the Metz filter, a filter which adapts to the image has been developed. This filter has been named the Constrained Least-Squares Metz filter. The filter makes use of a regression relation to convert the Metz filter parameter determined using the CLS criterion to the value which would minimize the normalized mean square error (NMSE). The regression relation and the parameters which specify the general form of the Metz filter were determined using images of the Alderson liver and spleen phantoms. The designed filter was tested for its ability to adapt to other objects with images from each of three different test objects. When the values of the Metz filter parameters for these images determined by the CLS-Metz filter were compared by a regression analysis to those which minimized the NMSE for each image, a correlation coefficient of 0.98, a slope of 0.95, and a zero intercept of 0.1 were obtained. With clinical images, the CLS-Metz filter has been shown to provide consistently good image quality with images as diverse as heart perfusion images and bone studies. PMID:3264021

  11. Wedge-filtering of geomorphologic terrestrial laser scan data.

    PubMed

    Panholzer, Helmut; Prokop, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning is of increasing importance for surveying and hazard assessments. Digital terrain models are generated using the resultant data to analyze surface processes. In order to determine the terrain surface as precisely as possible, it is often necessary to filter out points that do not represent the terrain surface. Examples are vegetation, vehicles, and animals. Filtering in mountainous terrain is more difficult than in other topography types. Here, existing automatic filtering solutions are not acceptable, because they are usually designed for airborne scan data. The present article describes a method specifically suitable for filtering terrestrial laser scanning data. This method is based on the direct line of sight between the scanner and the measured point and the assumption that no other surface point can be located in the area above this connection line. This assumption is only true for terrestrial laser data, but not for airborne data. We present a comparison of the wedge filtering to a modified inverse distance filtering method (IDWMO) filtered point cloud data. Both methods use manually filtered surfaces as reference. The comparison shows that the mean error and root-mean-square-error (RSME) between the results and the manually filtered surface of the two methods are similar. A significantly higher number of points of the terrain surface could be preserved, however, using the wedge-filtering approach. Therefore, we suggest that wedge-filtering should be integrated as a further parameter into already existing filtering processes, but is not suited as a standalone solution so far. PMID:23429548

  12. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  13. Modular, Parallel Pulse-Shaping Filter Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    Novel architectures based on parallel subconvolution frequency-domain filtering methods have been developed for modular processing rate reduction of discrete-time pulse-shaping filters. Such pulse-shaping is desirable and often necessary to obtain bandwidth efficiency in very-high-rate wireless communications systems. In principle, this processing could be implemented in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Whereas other approaches to digital pulse-shaping are based primarily on time-domain processing concepts, the theory and design rules of the architectures presented here are founded on frequency-domain processing that has advantages in certain systems.

  14. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, Harry S.; Thompson, Robert C.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Perkins, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.

  15. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, H.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Hubbard, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1997-03-25

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, where after the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant. 5 figs.

  16. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  17. [The study of baseline estimated in digital XRF analyzer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Jian-Bin; Fang, Fang; Shi, Ze-Ming; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yi; Cao, Jian-Yu; Zhu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    For the digital X-ray fluorescence analyzer, the voltage of the instability baseline will directly affect the performance of the instrument, resulting in decreased energy resolution. In order to solve this problem, Kalman filtering algorithm was used for pulse signal baseline estimate in the digital X-ray fluorescence. Whether using the classic Kalman filter, or the simplified sage-husa, or the improved sage-husa, their baseline filtering effects were all poor. So, it is necessary to improve and optimize existing algorithms. The method of Double-Forgotten was put forward to establish a new model of adaptive Kalman filter algorithm based on the sage-husa. The experiment results show that a very good filtering effect was obtained using the mathematical model of the baseline filter. The algorithm solved the problem of filtering divergence, avoided slow convergence of baseline and realized the pulse baseline restoration, and improved the instrumental energy resolution. PMID:23586263

  18. Digital Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and…

  19. Digital TMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

  20. Digital Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blansett, Jim

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…

  1. Digital Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues…

  2. Why Digitize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Abby

    This paper is a response to discussions of digitization at meetings of the National Humanities Alliance (NHA). NHA asked the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) to evaluate the experiences of cultural institutions with digitization projects to date and to summarize what has been learned about the advantages and disadvantages of…

  3. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  4. HEPA filter monitoring program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  5. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  6. The application of digital signal processing techniques to a teleoperator radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujol, A.

    1982-01-01

    A digital signal processing system was studied for the determination of the spectral frequency distribution of echo signals from a teleoperator radar system. The system consisted of a sample and hold circuit, an analog to digital converter, a digital filter, and a Fast Fourier Transform. The system is interfaced to a 16 bit microprocessor. The microprocessor is programmed to control the complete digital signal processing. The digital filtering and Fast Fourier Transform functions are implemented by a S2815 digital filter/utility peripheral chip and a S2814A Fast Fourier Transform chip. The S2815 initially simulates a low-pass Butterworth filter with later expansion to complete filter circuit (bandpass and highpass) synthesizing.

  7. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  8. Nonlinear optimal semirecursive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Frederick E.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid approach to filtering, in which part of the filter is recursive but another part in non-recursive. The practical utility of this notion is to reduce computational complexity. In particular, if the non- recursive part of the filter is sufficiently small, then such a filter might be cost-effective to run in real-time with computer technology available now or in the future.

  9. The ribosome filter redux.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-09-15

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  10. Filter service system

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  11. HEPA filter encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  12. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  13. Practical Active Capacitor Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

  14. Fully synthesised decimation filter for delta-sigma A/D converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hyungdong; Byun, Sanho; Choi, Youngkil; Roh, Jeongjin

    2010-06-01

    Digital decimation filters are used in delta-sigma analogue-to-digital converters to reduce the oversampled data rate to the final Nyquist rate. This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully synthesised digital decimation filter that provides a time-to-market advantage. The filter consists of a cascaded integrator-comb filter and two cascaded half-band FIR filters. A canonical signed-digit representation of the filter coefficients is used to minimise the area and to reduce the hardware complexity of the multiplication arithmetic. Coefficient multiplications are implemented by using shifters and adders. This three-stage decimation filter is fabricated by using 0.25-μm CMOS technology with an active area of 1.36 mm2 and shows 4.4 mW power consumption at a clock rate of 2.8224 MHz. Experimental results show that this digital decimation filter is suitable for use in oversampled data converters and can be applied to new processes requiring a fast redesign time. This is possible because the filter does not have process-dependent ROM or RAM circuits.

  15. Exponential filtering of singular values improves photoacoustic image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Manish; Gutta, Sreedevi; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2016-09-01

    Model-based image reconstruction techniques yield better quantitative accuracy in photoacoustic image reconstruction. In this work, an exponential filtering of singular values was proposed for carrying out the image reconstruction in photoacoustic tomography. The results were compared with widely popular Tikhonov regularization, time reversal, and the state of the art least-squares QR-based reconstruction algorithms for three digital phantom cases with varying signal-to-noise ratios of data. It was shown that exponential filtering provides superior photoacoustic images of better quantitative accuracy. Moreover, the proposed filtering approach was observed to be less biased toward the regularization parameter and did not come with any additional computational burden as it was implemented within the Tikhonov filtering framework. It was also shown that the standard Tikhonov filtering becomes an approximation to the proposed exponential filtering. PMID:27607501

  16. Regenerative particulate filter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development, design, and fabrication of a prototype filter regeneration unit for regenerating clean fluid particle filter elements by using a backflush/jet impingement technique are reported. Development tests were also conducted on a vortex particle separator designed for use in zero gravity environment. A maintainable filter was designed, fabricated and tested that allows filter element replacement without any leakage or spillage of system fluid. Also described are spacecraft fluid system design and filter maintenance techniques with respect to inflight maintenance for the space shuttle and space station.

  17. Low cost voice compression for mobile digital radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for low cost rubust voice compression at 4800 bits per second was studied. The approach was based on using a cascade of digital biquad adaptive filters with simplified multipulse excitation followed by simple bit sequence compression.

  18. Photocopy of photograph (digital image located in LBNL Photo Lab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (digital image located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-108). March 2005. FAN ROOM WITH STAIR TO FILTER BANKS, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  19. Economical Implementation of a Filter Engine in an FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A logic design has been conceived for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that would implement a complex system of multiple digital state-space filters. The main innovative aspect of this design lies in providing for reuse of parts of the FPGA hardware to perform different parts of the filter computations at different times, in such a manner as to enable the timely performance of all required computations in the face of limitations on available FPGA hardware resources. The implementation of the digital state-space filter involves matrix vector multiplications, which, in the absence of the present innovation, would ordinarily necessitate some multiplexing of vector elements and/or routing of data flows along multiple paths. The design concept calls for implementing vector registers as shift registers to simplify operand access to multipliers and accumulators, obviating both multiplexing and routing of data along multiple paths. Each vector register would be reused for different parts of a calculation. Outputs would always be drawn from the same register, and inputs would always be loaded into the same register. A simple state machine would control each filter. The output of a given filter would be passed to the next filter, accompanied by a "valid" signal, which would start the state machine of the next filter. Multiple filter modules would share a multiplication/accumulation arithmetic unit. The filter computations would be timed by use of a clock having a frequency high enough, relative to the input and output data rate, to provide enough cycles for matrix and vector arithmetic operations. This design concept could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which digital filters are used and/or vectors are multiplied by coefficient matrices. Examples of such applications include general signal processing, filtering of signals in control systems, processing of geophysical measurements, and medical imaging. For these and other applications, it could be

  20. Design of thin-film filters for resolution improvements in filter-array based spectrometers using DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Kim, Cheolsun; Ju, Gun Wu; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-05-01

    Miniature spectrometers have been widely developed in various academic and industrial applications such as bio-medical, chemical and environmental engineering. As a family of spectrometers, optical filter-array based spectrometers fabricated using CMOS or Nano technology provide miniaturization, superior portability and cost effectiveness. In filterarray based spectrometers, the resolution which represents the ability how closely resolve two neighboring spectra, depends on the number of filters and the characteristics of the transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. In practice, due to the small-size and low-cost fabrication, the number of filters is limited and the shape of the TF of each filter is nonideal. As a development of modern digital signal processing (DSP), the spectrometers are equipped with DSP algorithms not only to alleviate distortions due to unexpected noise or interferences among filters but also reconstruct the original signal spectrum. For a high-resolution spectrum reconstruction by the DSP, the TFs of the filters need to be sufficiently uncorrelated with each other. In this paper, we present a design of optical thin-film filters which have the uncorrelated TFs. Each filter consists of multiple layers of high- and low-refractive index materials deposited on a substrate. The proposed design helps the DSP algorithm to improve resolution with a small number of filters. We demonstrate that a resolution of 5 nm within a range from 500 nm to 1100 nm can be achieved with only 64 filters.

  1. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  2. Optical Kalman filtering for missile guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Neuman, C. P.; Lycas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Optical systolic array processors constitute a powerful and general-purpose set of optical architectures with high computational rates. In this paper, Kalman filtering, a novel application for these architectures, is investigated. All required operations are detailed; their realization by optical and special-purpose analog electronics are specified; and the processing time of the system is quantified. The specific Kalman filter application chosen is for an air-to-air missile guidance controller. The architecture realized in this paper meets the design goal of a fully adaptive Kalman filter which processes a measurement every 1 msec. The vital issue of flow and pipelining of data and operations in a systolic array processor is addressed. The approach is sufficiently general and can be realized on an optical or digital systolic array processor.

  3. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  4. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  5. A Novel Modulation Classification Approach Using Gabor Filter Network

    PubMed Central

    Ghauri, Sajjad Ahmed; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Cheema, Tanveer Ahmed; Malik, Aqdas Naveed

    2014-01-01

    A Gabor filter network based approach is used for feature extraction and classification of digital modulated signals by adaptively tuning the parameters of Gabor filter network. Modulation classification of digitally modulated signals is done under the influence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The modulations considered for the classification purpose are PSK 2 to 64, FSK 2 to 64, and QAM 4 to 64. The Gabor filter network uses the network structure of two layers; the first layer which is input layer constitutes the adaptive feature extraction part and the second layer constitutes the signal classification part. The Gabor atom parameters are tuned using Delta rule and updating of weights of Gabor filter using least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The simulation results show that proposed novel modulation classification algorithm has high classification accuracy at low signal to noise ratio (SNR) on AWGN channel. PMID:25126603

  6. A matched filter algorithm for acoustic signal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, D. W.

    1985-06-01

    This thesis is a presentation of several alternative acoustic filter designs which allow Space Shuttle payload experiment initiation prior to launch. This initiation is accomplished independently of any spacecraft services by means of a matched band-pass filter tuned to the acoustic signal characteristic of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which is brought up to operating RPM's approximately five minutes prior to launch. These alternative designs include an analog filter built around operational amplifiers, a digital IIR design implemented with an INTEL 2920 Signal Processor, and an Adaptive FIR Weiner design. Working prototypes of the first two filters are developed and a discussion of the advantage of the 2920 digital design is presented.

  7. Digital clubbing

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa

    2012-01-01

    Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350

  8. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  9. Digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, J S; Rodway, G W; Middleton, P M; McCarthy, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective The emergence of a new generation of “point‐and‐shoot” digital cameras offers doctors a compact, portable and user‐friendly solution to the recording of highly detailed digital photographs and video images. This work highlights the use of such technology, and provides information for those who wish to record, store and display their own medical images. Methods Over a 3‐month period, a digital camera was carried by a doctor in a busy, adult emergency department and used to record a range of clinical images that were subsequently transferred to a computer database. Results In total, 493 digital images were recorded, of which 428 were photographs and 65 were video clips. These were successfully used for teaching purposes, publications and patient records. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of informed consent, the selection of a suitable package of digital technology and the role of basic photographic technique in developing a successful digital database in a busy clinical environment. PMID:17068281

  10. Digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, J S

    2006-01-01

    Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994

  11. Modems for emerging digital cellular-mobile radio system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, Kamilo

    1991-01-01

    Digital modem techniques for emerging digital cellular telecommunications-mobile radio system applications are described and analyzed. In particular, theoretical performance, experimental results, principles of operation, and various architectures of pi/4-QPSK (pi/4-shifted coherent or differential QPSK) modems for second-generation US digital cellular radio system applications are presented. The spectral/power efficiency and performance of the pi/4-QPSK modems (American and Japanese digital cellular emerging standards) are studied and briefly compared to GMSK (Gaussian minimum-shift keying) modems (proposed for European DECT and GSM cellular standards). Improved filtering strategies and digital pilot-aided (digital channel sounding) techniques are also considered for pi/4-QPSK and other digital modems. These techniques could significantly improve the performance of digital cellular and other digital land mobile and satellite mobile radio systems. More spectrally efficient modem trends for future cellular/mobile (land mobile) and satellite communication systems applications are also highlighted.

  12. Fabric filter blinding mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.; Shang, J.Y.

    1982-08-01

    This discussion of various bag/cloth filter degradation mechanisms is mostly common sense. However, this information is occasionally lost in the subtleties of real-system operation. Although this paper is written with reference to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) applications, the insights are generally applicable. For enumeration of particular filter fabric and baghouse experiences in FBC applications, the reader is referred to a report by Davy McKee Corporatin (no date). A fabric filter is a composite matrix of fibers oriented to retain the dust particles from dust-laden gas. The cleaned gas passes through the fabric filter; the retained dust particles are deposited on the surface of (and within) the fiber matrix. The retained dust can be later removed through mechanical means. The fabric may be made of any fibrous material, spun in yarn, and then woven, impacted, needled, or bonded into a felt. Deep penetration of aggregated fine particles, lack of dust removal during filter cleaning, and chars or condensed aerosols may contribute to the increase in pressure drop across the filter. This increases the filter operation power consumption and, consequently, reduces the filtration capacity. The phenomenon of building a high-pressure drop in spite of filter cleaning provisions is known as blinding. In order to maintain an acceptable gas throughput, blinding problems must be addressed. Recommendations are given: maintain temperature above dew point, use filter aids, by-pass filter during start-up or operational upsets, etc.

  13. Switched Band-Pass Filters for Adaptive Transceivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Switched band-pass filters are key components of proposed adaptive, software- defined radio transceivers that would be parts of envisioned digital-data-communication networks that would enable real-time acquisition and monitoring of data from geographically distributed sensors. Examples of sensors to be connected to such networks include security cameras, radio-frequency identification units, and geolocation units based on the Global Positioning System. Through suitable software configuration and without changing hardware, these transceivers could be made to operate according to any of a number of complex wireless-communication standards that could be characterized by diverse modulation schemes, bandwidths, and data-handling protocols. The adaptive transceivers would include field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal-processing hardware. In the receiving path of a transceiver, the incoming signal would be amplified by a low-noise amplifier (LNA). The output spectrum of the LNA would be processed by a band-pass filter operating in the frequency range between 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. Then a down-converter would translate the signal to a lower frequency range to facilitate analog-to-digital conversion, which would be followed by baseband processing by one or more FPGAs. In the transmitting path, a digital stream would first be converted to an analog signal, which would then be up-converted to a selected frequency band before being applied to a transmitting power amplifier. The aforementioned band-pass filter in the receiving path would be a combination of resonant inductor-and-capacitor filters and switched band-pass filters. The overall combination would implement a switch function designed mathematically to exhibit desired frequency responses and to switch the signal in each frequency band to an analog-to-digital converter appropriate for that band to produce a digital intermediate-frequency signal for digital signal processing.

  14. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

  15. Filtering separators having filter cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Margraf, A.

    1984-08-28

    This invention relates to filtering separators of the kind having a housing which is subdivided by a partition, provided with parallel rows of holes or slots, into a dust-laden gas space for receiving filter elements positioned in parallel rows and being impinged upon by dust-laden gas from the outside towards the inside, and a clean gas space. In addition, the housing is provided with a chamber for cleansing the filter element surfaces of a row by counterflow action while covering at the same time the partition holes or slots leading to the adjacent rows of filter elements. The chamber is arranged for the supply of compressed air to at least one injector arranged to feed compressed air and secondary air to the row of filter elements to be cleansed. The chamber is also reciprocatingly displaceable along the partition in periodic and intermittent manner. According to the invention, a surface of the chamber facing towards the partition covers at least two of the rows of holes or slots of the partition, and the chamber is closed upon itself with respect to the clean gas space, and is connected to a compressed air reservoir via a distributor pipe and a control valve. At least one of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements in flow communication therewith are in flow communication with the discharge side of at least one injector acted upon with compressed air. At least one other row of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements is in flow communication with the suction side of the injector.

  16. Terahertz digital holography image processing based on MAP algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-Hao; Li, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Terahertz digital holography combines the terahertz technology and digital holography technology at present, fully exploits the advantages in both of them. Unfortunately, the quality of terahertz digital holography reconstruction images is gravely harmed by speckle noise which hinders the popularization of this technology. In this paper, the maximum a posterior estimation (MAP) filter is harnessed for the restoration of the digital reconstruction images. The filtering results are compared with images filtered by Wiener Filter and conventional frequency-domain filters from both subjective and objective perspectives. As for objective assessment, we adopted speckle index (SPKI) and edge preserving index (EPI) to quantitate the quality of images. In this paper, Canny edge detector is also used to outline the target in original and reconstruction images, which then act as an important role in the evaluation of filter performance. All the analysis indicate that maximum a posterior estimation filtering algorithm performs superiorly compared with the other two competitors in this paper and has enhanced the terahertz digital holography reconstruction images to a certain degree, allowing for a more accurate boundary identification.

  17. Software Would Largely Automate Design of Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Jason C. H.; Negast, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Embedded Navigation Filter Automatic Designer (ENFAD) is a computer program being developed to automate the most difficult tasks in designing embedded software to implement a Kalman filter in a navigation system. The most difficult tasks are selection of error states of the filter and tuning of filter parameters, which are timeconsuming trial-and-error tasks that require expertise and rarely yield optimum results. An optimum selection of error states and filter parameters depends on navigation-sensor and vehicle characteristics, and on filter processing time. ENFAD would include a simulation module that would incorporate all possible error states with respect to a given set of vehicle and sensor characteristics. The first of two iterative optimization loops would vary the selection of error states until the best filter performance was achieved in Monte Carlo simulations. For a fixed selection of error states, the second loop would vary the filter parameter values until an optimal performance value was obtained. Design constraints would be satisfied in the optimization loops. Users would supply vehicle and sensor test data that would be used to refine digital models in ENFAD. Filter processing time and filter accuracy would be computed by ENFAD.

  18. Impact of data assimilation filtering methods on the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, David; Ren, Shuzhan; Polavarapu, Saroja; Rochon, Yves J.; Nezlin, Yulia; Beagley, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional data assimilation schemes typically produce analyses that are not in balance. This is evidenced by the generation of spurious high-frequency waves during the first 2 d of forecasts which start from analyses. To remove these spurious waves, assimilation systems frequently filter analyses before using them in models. This work examines the behavior of various spurious wave filtering methods in the context of a model with a mesosphere. Since gravity waves comprise a significant portion of the mesospheric energy spectrum, it is necessary to retain naturally occurring high-frequency waves while filtering spurious waves. The results show that filtering the full analysis state can remove many important high-frequency oscillations from the mesosphere. On the other hand, filtering analysis increments preserves much more of the natural variability of the model. The incremental analysis updating scheme and the incremental digital filter, which are equivalent for linear models and identical coefficients, are shown to give very similar results in the context of a realistic nonlinear model. Results also show a nonlocal response to the insertion of analysis increments in the troposphere and stratosphere. The global mean temperature in the vicinity of the model lid and the diurnal tidal amplitudes are sensitive to the choice of filtering schemes because the filters reduce the amount of resolved waves available to propagate upward into mesosphere. This sensitivity of the mesosphere to the filtering of the lower atmosphere is exploited to choose an optimal filter for our system using measurements of the mesosphere.

  19. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  20. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  1. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  2. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, D.

    1988-06-30

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream is described. The filter includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. A cover screen isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of porous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses. 6 figs.

  3. Detection of signals by weighted integrate-and-dump filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.

    1987-01-01

    A Weighted Integrate and Dump Filter (WIDF) is presented that results in reducing those losses in telemetry symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) which occur in digital Integrate and Dump Filters (IDFs) when the samples are not phase locked to the input data symbol clock. The Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is used to derive a set of weights for approximating the analog integrate and dump filter, which is the matched filter for detection of signals in additive white Gaussian noise. This new digital matched filter results in considerable performance improvement compared to unweighted digital matched filters. An example is presented for a sampling rate of four times the symbol rate. As the sampling offset (or phase) varies with respect to the data symbol boundaries, the output SNR varies 1 dB for an unweighted IDF, but only 0.3 dB for the optimum WIDF, averaged over random data patterns. This improvement in performance relative to unweighted IDF means that significantly lower sampling and processing rates can be used for given telemetry symbol rates, resulting in reduced system cost.

  4. Burst noise reduction of image by decimation and adaptive weighted median filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Fumitaka; Meguro, Mitsuhiko; Hamada, Nozomu

    2000-12-01

    The removal of noise in image is one of the important issues, and useful as a preprocessing for edge detection, motion estimation and so on. Recently, many studies on the nonlinear digital filter for impulsive noise reduction have been reported. The median filter, the representative of the nonlinear filters, is very effective for removing impulsive noise and preserving sharp edge. In some cases, burst (i.e., successive) impulsive noise is added to image, and this type of noise is difficult to remove by using the median filter. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Weighted Median (AWM) filter with Decimation (AWM-D filter) for burst noise reduction. This method can also be applied to recover large destructive regions, such as blotch and scratch. The proposed filter is an extension of the Decimated Median (DM) filter, which is useful for reducing successive impulsive noise. The DM filter can split long impulsive noise sequences into short ones, and remove burst noise in spite of the short filter window. Nevertheless, the DM filter also has two disadvantages. One is that the signals without added noise is unnecessary filtered. The other is that the position information in the window is not considered in the weight determinative process, as common in the median type filter. To improve detail-preserving property of the DM filter, we use the noise detection procedure and the AWM-D filter, which can be tuned by Least Mean Absolute (LMA) algorithm. The AWM-D filter preserves details more precisely than the median-type filter, because the AWM-D filter has the weights that can control the filter output. Through some simulations, the higher performance of the proposed filter is shown compared with the simple median, the WM filter, and the DM filter.

  5. Digital signal processing for a thermal neutron detector using ZnS(Ag):6LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosset, J.-B.; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Hildebrandt, M.; Schlumpf, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present a digital signal processing system based on a photon counting approach which we developed for a thermal neutron detector consisting of ZnS(Ag):6LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs. Three digital filters have been evaluated: a moving sum, a moving sum after differentiation and a digital CR-RC4 filter. The performances of the detector with these filters are presented. A full analog signal processing using a CR-RC4 filter has been emulated digitally. The detector performance obtained with this analog approach is compared with the one obtained with the best performing digital approach.

  6. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  7. Filter vapor trap

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  8. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC), with Westinghouse are developing high temperature particulate filters for application in integrated, coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power generation systems. Development of these IGCC and PFBC advanced power cycles using subpilot and pilot scale facilities include the integrated operation of a high temperature particulate filter. This testing provides the basis for evaluating filter design, performance and operation characteristics in the actual process gas environment. This operating data is essential for the specification of components and materials and successful scaleup of the filter systems for demonstration and commercial application.

  9. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  10. Filter construction and design.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2006-01-01

    Sterilizing and pre-filters are manufactured in different formats and designs. The criteria for the specific designs are set by the application and the specifications of the filter user. The optimal filter unit or even system requires evaluation, such as flow rate, throughput, unspecific adsorption, steam sterilizability and chemical compatibility. These parameters are commonly tested within a qualification phase, which ensures that an optimal filter design and combination finds its use. If such design investigations are neglected it could be costly in the process scale. PMID:16570863

  11. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  12. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  13. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  14. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or

  15. Digital computer processing of X-ray photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.; Selzer, R. H.

    1967-01-01

    Digital computers correct various distortions in medical and biological photographs. One of the principal methods of computer enhancement involves the use of a two-dimensional digital filter to modify the frequency spectrum of the picture. Another computer processing method is image subtraction.

  16. Microcomputer-Based Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Jr., Rocco; Rao, S. Sathyanarayan

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system (Apple II microcomputer interfaced to flexible, custom-designed digital hardware) which can provide: (1) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computation on real-time data with a video display of spectrum; (2) frequency synthesis experiments using the inverse FFT; and (3) real-time digital filtering experiments. (JN)

  17. Applications of energy filtered imaging in biology.

    PubMed

    Shuman, H; Somlyo, A V; Safer, D; Frey, T; Somlyo, A P

    1983-01-01

    We describe the use of a magnetic sector spectrometer positioned below the projection chamber of an electron microscope for energy filtered transmission imaging. The spectrometer used has circular pole face edges and is corrected for second order aberrations. A round EM lens is placed after the sector to form a real image of the virtual achromatic image produced by the spectrometer. A slit placed in the dispersion plane allows the passage of electrons in a selected energy range. The filtered image is projected onto a transmission phosphor and acquired with a silicon intensified TV camera and stored in digital form on computer disk. Filtered images are taken at two energies, one immediately preceding (pre-edge) and one on the characteristic energy loss (edge). To obtain images showing the distribution of elements, background subtraction is performed by either subtraction or division of edge and pre-edge images. The optical properties of the imaging system are described and the results are illustrated by energy filtered images of single ferritin molecules (Fe M2,3 and C k), the phosphorus distribution in ribosomes (PL2,3) and the localization of calcium in muscle (Ca L2, 3). The major advantage of the system, compared to other energy filtered imaging methods, is that it can be readily adapted to existing high vacuum microscopes without the necessity of modifying the column to insert a spectrometer. PMID:6635570

  18. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  19. Uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters for boundary filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falissard, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the use of Shapiro filters for boundary filtering. A new class of uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters is proposed and compared to classical Shapiro filters and even-order decentered Shapiro filters. The theoretical analysis shows that the proposed boundary filters are more accurate than the centered Shapiro filters and more robust than the even-order decentered boundary filters usable at the same distance to the boundary. The benefit of the new boundary filters is assessed for computations using the compressible Euler equations.

  20. Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

  1. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  2. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  3. Digital caliper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, Louella E.

    1967-01-01

    The large number of measurements needed to describe fully the characteristics of biological specimens and other objects has always been tedious and time consuming. The work can be done much more rapidly and with greater accuracy with a digital caliper recently developed by us. The digital caliper is a new electronic instrument built to measure objects precisely throughout the range of 0.1 mm to 1.0 m. Calipers of several different discrete sizes make it possible to select the most convenient unit for the particular range of length and degree of accuracy desired.

  4. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  5. Digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.

    The theory, realization techniques, and applications of digital filtering are surveyed, with an emphasis on the development of software, in a handbook for advanced students of electrical and electronic engineering and practicing development engineers. The foundations of the theory of discrete signals and systems are introduced. The design of one-dimensional linear systems is discussed, and the techniques are expanded to the treatment of two-dimensional discrete and multidimensional analog systems. Numerical systems, quantification and limitation, and the characteristics of particular signal-processing devices are considered in a section on design realization. An appendix contains definitions of the basic mathematical concepts, derivations and proofs, and tables of integration and differentiation formulas.

  6. Quantitative analysis of CT scans of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Smith, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    Candle filters are being developed to remove coal ash and other fine particles (<15{mu}m) from hot (ca. 1000 K) gas streams. In the present work, a color scanner was used to digitize hard-copy CT X-ray images of cylindrical SiC filters, and linear regressions converted the scanned (color) data to a filter density for each pixel. These data, with the aid of the density of SiC, gave a filter porosity for each pixel. Radial averages, density-density correlation functions, and other statistical analyses were performed on the density data. The CT images also detected the presence and depth of cracks that developed during usage of the filters. The quantitative data promise to be a very useful addition to the color images.

  7. Continuous-time analog filter in CMOS nanoscale era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baschirotto, A.; De Matteis, M.; Pezzotta, A.; D'Amico, S.

    2014-04-01

    Analog filters are key blocks in analog signal processing. They are widely employed in many systems, like wireless transceivers, detectors read-out, sensors interfaces, etc. The IC technology choice for such systems is mainly dictated by the requirements of high speed and low power consumption of digital circuits. This pushed an impressive movement towards scaled technology and this has important consequences on the analog circuits design. The impact of technology scaling down to nanometre scale on analog filters design is here investigated. For instance, supply voltage reduction in analog filters limits circuits design solutions and could result in higher power consumption. Moreover, at the same time, innovative systems push analog filters to get higher and higher operation frequencies, due to the increasing bandwidth/speed requirements. Recent solutions for efficient low-voltage and high frequency analog filters in nanometre technology are described.

  8. Downflow dust filter

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, K.L.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an industrial dust filter apparatus comprising: a housing including upper, intermediate and lower sections, the upper section having a top opening inlet for particulate laden gases and the lower section tapering downwardly to a particulate outlet; a plurality of vertically arranged substantially cylindrical filters supported in substantially parallel relationship to each other in the intermediate section of the housing, the filters being closed at their upper ends and having their exterior filter surfaces exposed to particulate laden gases from the inlet; at least one horizontal duct extending across the housing beneath the filters, closed at one end and opening at its other end to a clean gas outlet through a side wall of the intermediate housing section; means communicating the lower open end of the filters through the upper walls of the duct so that the duct functions as a clean gas plenum; a plurality of verturis, vertically supported in the duct, on aligned with each filter; and means in the duct for pulse firing a jet of air upwardly through the venturis into the interior of the filters to remove particulates from the outer surfaces thereof.

  9. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  10. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  11. Active rejector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchinskii, A.G.; Pirogov, S.G.; Savchenko, V.M.; Yakushev, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an active rejector filter for suppressing noise signals in the frequency range 50-100 Hz and for extracting a vlf information signal. The filter has the following characteristics: a high input impedance, a resonant frequency of 75 Hz, a Q of 1.25, and an attenuation factor of 53 dB at resonant frequency.

  12. Digital watermarking algorithm based on HVS in wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Xia, Ping; Liu, Xiaomei

    2013-10-01

    As a new technique used to protect the copyright of digital productions, the digital watermark technique has drawn extensive attention. A digital watermarking algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was presented according to human visual properties in the paper. Then some attack analyses were given. Experimental results show that the watermarking scheme proposed in this paper is invisible and robust to cropping, and also has good robustness to cut , compression , filtering , and noise adding .

  13. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  14. DESDynI Quad First Stage Processor - A Four Channel Digitizer and Digital Beam Forming Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chung-Lun; Shaffer, Scott; Smythe, Robert; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Li, Samuel; Liao, Eric; Lim, Chester; Morfopolous, Arin; Veilleux, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Deformation, Eco-Systems, and Dynamics of Ice Radar (DESDynI-R) L-band SAR instrument employs multiple digital channels to optimize resolution while keeping a large swath on a single pass. High-speed digitization with very fine synchronization and digital beam forming are necessary in order to facilitate this new technique. The Quad First Stage Processor (qFSP) was developed to achieve both the processing performance as well as the digitizing fidelity in order to accomplish this sweeping SAR technique. The qFSP utilizes high precision and high-speed analog to digital converters (ADCs), each with a finely adjustable clock distribution network to digitize the channels at the fidelity necessary to allow for digital beam forming. The Xilinx produced FX130T Virtex 5 part handles the processing to digitally calibrate each channel as well as filter and beam form the receive signals. Demonstrating the digital processing required for digital beam forming and digital calibration is instrumental to the viability of the proposed DESDynI instrument. The qFSP development brings this implementation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. This paper will detail the design and development of the prototype qFSP as well as the preliminary results from hardware tests.

  15. Sintered composite filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  16. Sub-micron filter

    DOEpatents

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  17. Implicit Kalman filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  18. Multidimensional synthetic estimation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The synthetic estimation filter (SEF) crafts an affine variation into its response to a changing parameter (e.g. scale or rotation). Sets of such filters are used in an estimation correlator to reduce the number of filters required for a given tracking accuracy. By overspecifying the system (one more SEF than parameters to be tracked), the ratio of correlation responses between filters forms a robust estimator into the spanned domain of the parameters. Previous results dealt with a laboratory correlator which could track a single parameter. This paper explores the SEF and the estimator's extension to more dimensions. A 2D example is given in which a reduction of filters from 25 to 3 is demonstrated to span a 4-degree square portion of pose space.

  19. Information geometric nonlinear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Nigel J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops information geometric representations for nonlinear filters in continuous time. The posterior distribution associated with an abstract nonlinear filtering problem is shown to satisfy a stochastic differential equation on a Hilbert information manifold. This supports the Fisher metric as a pseudo-Riemannian metric. Flows of Shannon information are shown to be connected with the quadratic variation of the process of posterior distributions in this metric. Apart from providing a suitable setting in which to study such information-theoretic properties, the Hilbert manifold has an appropriate topology from the point of view of multi-objective filter approximations. A general class of finite-dimensional exponential filters is shown to fit within this framework, and an intrinsic evolution equation, involving Amari's -1-covariant derivative, is developed for such filters. Three example systems, one of infinite dimension, are developed in detail.

  20. Photometric transformation from RGB Bayer filter system to Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woojin; Pak, Soojong; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2016-01-01

    The RGB Bayer filter system consists of a mosaic of R, G , and B filters on the grid of the photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Lot of unique astronomical data obtained using an RGB Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g. supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research requires that reliable photometric transformation methods are available between the systems. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the RGB Bayer filter system (RB,GB , and BB) into the Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system (BJ,VJ , and RC). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in the Johnson-Cousins filters (BJcal,VJcal , and RCcal) as functions of RGB magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e. the residuals, are Δ (BJ -BJcal) = 0.064 mag, Δ (VJ -VJcal) = 0.041 mag, and Δ (RC -RCcal) = 0.039 mag. The calculated Johnson-Cousins magnitudes from the transformation equations show a good linear correlation with the observed Johnson-Cousins magnitudes.

  1. Digital Tidbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

  2. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  3. Digital books.

    PubMed

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books. PMID:22024672

  4. Digital Badges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, they…

  5. Monolithically Integrated Reconfigurable Filters for Microwave Photonic Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Erik J.

    For the purposes of commercial communication and military electronic warfare and radar alike, there is an increasing interest in RF systems that can handle very wide instantaneous bandwidths at high center frequencies. Optical signal processing has the capability to reduce latency, improve size, weight and power (SwAP) performance, and overcome the inherent bandwidth limitations of electronic counterparts. By rapidly pre-filtering wide bandwidth microwave signals in the optical domain, the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and subsequent digital signal processing (DSP) can be significantly relieved. Compared to channelizing and add/drop filters for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications, the microwave filter application is much more challenging as it requires a more versatile filter, ideally with tunability in both frequency and bandwidth. In this work such a filter was developed using integrated photonics. By integrating the filter on a single InP chip, the stability required for coherent filtering is met, while the active integration platform offers a flexible filter design and higher tolerance in the coupler and fabrication specifications. Using an entirely deep etched fabrication with a single blanket regrowth, a simple fabrication with high yield is achieved. The reconfigurable filter is designed as an array of uncoupled filter stages with each filter stage reconfigurable as a filter pole or zero with arbitrary magnitude and phase. This gives rise to a flexible ffilter synthesis, much like an optical version of DSP filters. Flat-topped bandpass filters are demonstrated with frequency tunability over 30 GHz, bandwidth adjustable between 1.9 and 5.4 GHz, and stopband rejection >32 dB. In order to meet the stringent spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) requirements of the microwave application, a novel epitaxial layer integration platform is developed. Optimized for high optical saturation power and low propagation loss, it produces semiconductor

  6. NIR-green-blue high-resolution digital images for assessement of winter cover crop biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many small unmanned aerial systems use true-color digital cameras for remote sensing. For some cameras, only the red channel is sensitive to near-infrared (NIR) light; we attached a custom red-blocking filter to a digital camera to obtain NIR-green-blue digital images. One advantage of this low-co...

  7. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  8. Lossless compression of weight vectors from an adaptive filter

    SciTech Connect

    Bredemann, M.V.; Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

    1994-08-01

    Techniques for lossless waveform compression can be applied to the transmission of weight vectors from an orbiting satellite. The vectors, which are a part of a hybrid analog/digital adaptive filter, are a representation of the radio frequency background seen by the satellite. An approach is used which treats each adaptive weight as a time-varying waveform.

  9. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  10. Method of filtering

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.R.

    1985-04-09

    This invention provides a non-fibrous combustible filter aid for vacuum pre-coat filter units which is effective to maintain a filter bed coating on rotary filter drums just sufficiently porous to pass the liquid of a slurry while retaining the slurry solids thereon and is capable of being scraped off the bed in thin film form with the slurry solids thereon. The filter aid comprises relatively non-compressible non-fibrous granular charcoal or nut shell particles having a dry bulk density from about 0.3 to about 0.6 grams per cubic centimeter, a particle density of about 1.4 to 1.7 grams per cubis centimeter and a particle size range of 30 to 125 microns. The filter aid of this invention is capable of being burned with the solids deposited thereon to recover the heat value thereof or to dispose of the solids, is free from silicates or other non-combustible ingredients, and is devoid of fibers which will interfere with the proper operation of the filter unit.

  11. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  12. Digital Holography Display (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Asundi, A.; Yu, Yang; Xiao, Zhen Zhong

    This paper describes the extension work from the last Digital Holography Projector System. From the developed works shows that, some unforeseen factors have created the difficulties for the system alignment. Such factors are the DMD frame rate, light source and diffractive zero order. It is really the challenging development works to achieve the virtual 3D model display on the high speed rotation screen. The three most key factors are emphasizing: 1) The display device's frame rate; 2) The light source orientation angle; and 3) The zero order filtering optic. 1) This device's is the digital micro mirror, in short is DMD. It is the high speed switching device has developed by the most recent technology. The switching frame rate can go up as high as 291fps. At first, the 8 bits depth file must be digitalized and stored for DMD onboard Ram. The digitalized data are transmitting from the PC USB to DMD onboard Ram. Instead of the data are downloading directly from the PC to DVI or VGA during display, this downloading method cause slower down the display speed, which is the common frame rate of 30 Hz. Next, the onboard Ram data then transfer to the DMD mirror's for display, at the 8 bits 291 fps speed. At this frame rate, the display 2D image can almost cover for 10 of out of the 360 0 in 1 revolution. 2) This laser light source must be installed such that free for orientated in any arbitrary angle from 220 to 450. Which is normalized to the DMD mirrors and the brief sketch show on figure (a). The purpose of orientated the light source is ensure that multi diffractive order would be reflected straight from the mirrors. (This multi diffractive order is the phenomenon of the digital micro mirror's characteristic). This mean, the reconstruct images would be followed the DMD normalized direction reflected up to fibre conduit. Moreover, this orientated method install of the laser light source is making space for other optical lenses or device driver/controller. Because, all

  13. Comparative study of two structures of shunt active filter suppressing particular harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchaita, L.; Salem Nia, A.; Saadate, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of shunt active filters used for suppressing particular harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in utility distribution power systems. Both structures of shunt active filter, voltage source active filter (VSAF) and current source active filter (CSAF), are considered. The analytical study of specific harmonics identification in a given spectrum is first presented. For simulation as well as experimentation the nonlinear load is a conventional three phase thyristor rectifier and harmonics 5 and 7 are selected to be eliminated by active filter. The whole system consisting of the ac power supply network, the SCR rectifier and the shunt active filter (VSAF/CSAF) is then simulated. The simulation results are discussed and the efficiency of the two kinds of active filter are compared. Finally, for the first structure, VSAF, the simulation results are confirmed by experimental test realized by means of a fully digital control active power filter developed in our laboratory.

  14. Modeling Flow Past a Tilted Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M A; Wang, S L

    2009-06-29

    Inferior vena cava filters are medical devices used to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) from deep vein thrombosis. In particular, retrievable filters are well-suited for patients who are unresponsive to anticoagulation therapy and whose risk of PE decreased with time. The goal of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the flow past an unoccluded and partially occluded Celect inferior vena cava filter. In particular, the hemodynamic response to thrombus volume and filter tilt is examined, and the results are compared with flow conditions that are known to be thrombogenic. A computer model of the filter inside a model vena cava is constructed using high resolution digital photographs and methods of computer aided design. The models are parameterized using the Overture software framework, and a collection of overlapping grids is constructed to discretize the flow domain. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, and the characteristics of the flow (i.e., velocity contours and wall shear stresses) are computed. The volume of stagnant and recirculating flow increases with thrombus volume. In addition, as the filter increases tilt, the cava wall adjacent to the tilted filter is subjected to low velocity flow that gives rise to regions of low wall shear stress. The results demonstrate the ease of IVC filter modeling with the Overture software framework. Flow conditions caused by the tilted Celect filter may elevate the risk of intrafilter thrombosis and facilitate vascular remodeling. This latter condition also increases the risk of penetration and potential incorporation of the hook of the filter into the vena caval wall, thereby complicating filter retrieval. Consequently, severe tilt at the time of filter deployment may warrant early clinical intervention.

  15. Solc filter engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, W. J.; Title, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Solc (1965) filter configuration is presented which is both tunable and spectrally variable, since it possesses an adjustable bandwidth, and which although less efficient than a Lyot filter is attractive because of its spectral versatility. The lossless design, using only an entrance and exit polarizer, improves throughput generally and especially in the IR, where polarizers are less convenient than dichroic sheet polarizers. Attention is given to the transmission profiles of Solc filters with different numbers of elements and split elements, as well as their mechanical design features.

  16. Digital psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

  17. Improved optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Filter includes partial polarizer between birefrigent elements. Plastic film on partial polarizer compensates for any polarization rotation by partial polarizer. Two quarter-wave plates change incident, linearly polarized light into elliptically polarized light.

  18. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Hot gas filters have been implemented and operated in four different test facilities: Subpilot scale entrained gasifier, located at the Texaco Montebello Research facilities in California, Foster Wheeler Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion pilot plant facilities, located in Livingston, New Jersey, Slipstream of the American Electric Power (AEP) 70 MW (electric) Tidd-PFBC, located in Brilliant, Ohio, and in the Ahlstrom 10 MW (thermal) Circulating PFBC facility, located in Karhula, Finland. Candle filter testing has occurred at all four facilities; cross flow filter testing has occurred at the Texaco and Foster Wheeler facilities. Table 1 identifies and summarizes the key operating characteristics of these facilities and the type and scale of filter unit tested. A brief description of each project is given.

  19. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  20. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  1. Anti-Glare Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Glare from CRT screens has been blamed for blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, etc. Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI) manufactures a coating to reduce glare which was used to coat the windows on the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft. In addition, OCLI offers anti-glare filters (Glare Guard) utilizing the same thin film coating technology. The coating minimizes brightness, provides enhanced contrast and improves readability. The filters are OCLI's first consumer product.

  2. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  3. Ground point filtering of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Seijmonsbergen, Arie; Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have proved invaluable for generating high-resolution and multi-temporal imagery. Based on photographic surveys, 3D surface reconstructions can be derived photogrammetrically so producing point clouds, orthophotos and surface models. For geomorphological or ecological applications it may be necessary to separate ground points from vegetation points. Existing filtering methods are designed for point clouds derived using other methods, e.g. laser scanning. The purpose of this paper is to test three filtering algorithms for the extraction of ground points from point clouds derived from low-altitude aerial photography. Three subareas were selected from a single flight which represent different scenarios: 1) low relief, sparsely vegetated area, 2) low relief, moderately vegetated area, 3) medium relief and moderately vegetated area. The three filtering methods are used to classify ground points in different ways, based on 1) RGB color values from training samples, 2) TIN densification as implemented in LAStools, and 3) an iterative surface lowering algorithm. Ground points are then interpolated into a digital terrain model using inverse distance weighting. The results suggest that different landscapes require different filtering methods for optimal ground point extraction. While iterative surface lowering and TIN densification are fully automated, color-based classification require fine-tuning in order to optimize the filtering results. Finally, we conclude that filtering photogrammetric point clouds could provide a cheap alternative to laser scan surveys for creating digital terrain models in sparsely vegetated areas.

  4. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  5. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Maurice J.; Zaladonis, Larry A.

    1988-09-27

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge using an overhead crane. The filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station.

  6. Digital Pulse Processing for Steff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitt, A. J.; Dare, J. A.; Smith, A. G.; Tsekhanovich, I.

    2011-10-01

    The SpecTrometer for Exotic Fission Fragments (STEFF) is a Manchester based experiment that uses two segmented Bragg Chambers to determine fission fragment energies of a 252Cf source. In this work the pulses collected in the Bragg chambers are processed digitally using Flash ADC's in GRT4 cards and a DAQ. Algorithms have been developed to sort the data pulses off-line. These include routines for the removal of noise and cross talk through digital filtering, adjusting the data for ballistic deficit and adding back pulses from the individual anode segments. From the corrected data, the mass and Z of the fission fragments is deducible. Current methods and present challenges will be discussed.

  7. Vibration analysis using digital correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Lehner, David L.; Dudderar, T. Dixon; Matthys, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a computer-based optical method for locating the positions of nodes and antinodes in vibrating members. Structured light patterns are projected at an angle onto the vibrating surface using a 35 mm slide projector. The vibrating surface and the projected images are captured in a time averaged photograph which is subsequently digitized. The inherent fringe patterns are filtered to determine amplitudes of vibration, and computer programs are used to compare the time averaged images to images recorded prior to excitation to locate nodes and antinodes. Some of the influences of pattern regularity on digital correlation are demonstrated, and a speckle-based method for determining the mode shapes and the amplitudes of vibration with variable sensitivity is suggested.

  8. Filter and method of fabricating

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    2006-02-14

    A method of making a filter includes the steps of: providing a substrate having a porous surface; applying to the porous surface a coating of dry powder comprising particles to form a filter preform; and heating the filter preform to bind the substrate and the particles together to form a filter.

  9. An interactive method for digitizing zone maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.; Thompson, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for digitizing maps that consist of zones, such as contour or climatic zone maps. A color-coded map is prepared by any convenient process. The map is then read into memory of an Image 100 computer by means of its table scanner, using colored filters. Zones are separated and stored in themes, using standard classification procedures. Thematic data are written on magnetic tape and these data, appropriately coded, are combined to make a digitized image on tape. Step-by-step procedures are given for digitization of crop moisture index maps with this procedure. In addition, a complete example of the digitization of a climatic zone map is given.

  10. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  11. An IIR median hybrid filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  12. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  13. Anti-clogging filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  14. Adaptive high temperature superconducting filters for interference rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Raihn, K.F.; Fenzi, N.O.; Hey-Shipton, G.L.; Saito, E.R.; Loung, P.V.; Aidnik, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    An optically switched high temperature superconducting (HTS) band-reject filter bank is presented. Fast low loss switching of high quality (Q) factor HTS filter elements enables digital selection of arbitrary pass-bands and stop-bands. Patterned pieces of GaAs and silicon are used in the manufacture of the photosensitive switches. Fiber optic cabling is used to transfer the optical energy from an LED to the switch. The fiber optic cable minimizes the thermal loading of the filter package and de-couples the switch`s power source from the RF circuit. This paper will discuss the development of a computer-controlled HTS bank of optically switchable, narrow band, high Q bandstop filters which incorporates a cryocooler to maintain the 77 K operating temperature of the HTS microwave circuit.

  15. Initial flight results of the TRMM Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  16. Initial Flight Results of the TRMM Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft is a nadir pointing spacecraft that nominally controls attitude based on the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) output. After a potential single point failure in the ESA was identified, the contingency attitude determination method chosen to backup the ESA-based system was a sixth-order extended Kalman filter that uses magnetometer and digital sun sensor measurements. A brief description of the TRMM Kalman filter will be given, including some implementation issues and algorithm heritage. Operational aspects of the Kalman filter and some failure detection and correction will be described. The Kalman filter was tested in a sun pointing attitude and in a nadir pointing attitude during the in-orbit checkout period, and results from those tests will be presented. This paper will describe some lessons learned from the experience of the TRMM team.

  17. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented.

  18. Realization of Multi-Delay Filter Using Fermat Number Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, Hamzé Haidar; Baghious, El Houssaïn; Madre, Guillaume; Burel, Gilles

    This paper is about an efficient implementation of adaptive filtering for echo cancelers. The first objective of this paper is to propose a simplified method of the flexible block Multi-Delay Filter (MDF) algorithm in the time-domain. Then, we will derive a new method for the step-size adaptation coefficient. The second objective is about the realization of a Block Proportionate Normalized Least Mean Squares (BPNLMS++) with the simplified MDF (SMDF) implementation. Using the new step-size method and the smaller block dimension proposed by SMDF, we achieve a faster convergence of the adaptive process with a limited computational cost. Then, an efficient implementation of the new procedure (SMDF-BPNLMS++) block filtering is proposed using Fermat Number Transform, which can significantly reduce the computation complexity of filter implantation on Digital Signal Processor.

  19. Filter cake characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide gas turbine protection. The ILEC system is a ceramic barrier hot gas filter (HGF) that removes particulate while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur, alkali, and potentially other contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases. The gas-phase contaminant removal is performed by sorbent particles injected into the HGF. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests. The program has conducted ceramic barrier filter testing under simulated PFBC conditions to resolve issues relating to filter cake permeability, pulse cleaning, and filter cake additive performance. ILEC testing has also been performed to assess the potential for in-filter sulfur and alkali removal.

  20. Filter component assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.W.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a more ruggedized filter system that utilizes porous ceramic filters which have improved resistance to damage resulting from crack propagation, thermal fatigue and/or thermal excursions during plant or process transient conditions, and/or mechanical ash bridging events within the candle filter array. As part of the current Phase 1, Task 1, effort of this program, Westinghouse is evaluating the filtration characteristics, mechanical integrity, and corrosion resistance of the following advanced or second generation candle filters for use in advanced coal-fired process applications: 3M CVI-SiC composite--chemical vapor infiltration of silicon carbide into an aluminosilicate Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber preform; DuPont PRD-66--filament wound candle filter structure containing corundum, cordierite, cristobalite, and mullite; DuPont SiC-SiC--chemical infiltration of silicon carbide into a silicon carbide Nicalon{trademark} fiber mat or felt preform; and IF and P Fibrosic{trademark}--vacuum infiltrated oxide-based chopped fibrous matrix. Results to date are presented.

  1. Multilayer volume microwave filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdev, V. I.; Smirnov, S. V.; Chernushenko, A. M.

    1985-09-01

    Multilayer volume microwave filters are particularly suitable for miniaturization of radioelectronic devices by way of circuit integration, the principal advantage over planar filters being the much higher Q-factor; Q sub 0 or = 10 to the 3rd power as compared with Q sub 0 or = 10 to the 2nd power. Their metal-dielectric structure forms an array of coupled half-wavelength resonators electrically symmetric with respect to the center layer, coupling being effected by a magnetic field normal to the plane of resonators. The structure consists of an asymmetric strip line with conductor at the input end, followed by a metal layer with cut out symmetric slot line, a dielectric layer, a symmetric strip line with conductor, a metal layer with cut out symmetric slot line, a dielectric layer, and an asymmetric strip line with conductor at the output end. The size of such a filter depends directly on the number of resonator stages and, without the case, is comparable with the size of conventional filters on symmetric strip lines only but is much smaller than that of conventional filters on asymmetric strip lines only.

  2. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Starrett, H.S.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program have been: (1) the post-test evaluation of candle filters, (2) to measure the material properties of current filter materials, destructively and non-destructively, and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, (3) to develop an understanding of the material requirements for hot gas filter elements, (4) to develop material property goals for filter materials, and (5) to establish test matrices and a protocol to evaluate candidate filter materials.

  3. Filters for Submillimeter Electromagnetic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    New manufacturing process produces filters strong, yet have small, precise dimensions and smooth surface finish essential for dichroic filtering at submillimeter wavelengths. Many filters, each one essentially wafer containing fine metal grid made at same time. Stacked square wires plated, fused, and etched to form arrays of holes. Grid of nickel and tin held in brass ring. Wall thickness, thickness of filter (hole depth) and lateral hole dimensions all depend upon operating frequency and filter characteristics.

  4. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  5. DOE HEPA filter test program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  6. Scanning for Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Librarians and archivists find themselves facing the prospect of digitization. Everyone is doing it, everyone needs it. Discussions rage nationally and internationally concerning what to digitize and the best means to present and retain digital objects. Digitization is the act of making something digital, expressing a physical object "in numerical…

  7. Stack filter classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  8. Kalman filter modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation of appropriate state-space models for Kalman filtering applications is studied. The so-called model is completely specified by four matrix parameters and the initial conditions of the recursive equations. Once these are determined, the die is cast, and the way in which the measurements are weighted is determined foreverafter. Thus, finding a model that fits the physical situation at hand is all important. Also, it is often the most difficult aspect of designing a Kalman filter. Formulation of discrete state models from the spectral density and ARMA random process descriptions is discussed. Finally, it is pointed out that many common processes encountered in applied work (such as band-limited white noise) simply do not lend themselves very well to Kalman filter modeling.

  9. Groundspeed filtering for CTAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Ground speed is one of the radar observables which is obtained along with position and heading from NASA Ames Center radar. Within the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS), groundspeed is converted into airspeed using the wind speeds which CTAS obtains from the NOAA weather grid. This airspeed is then used in the trajectory synthesis logic which computes the trajectory for each individual aircraft. The time history of the typical radar groundspeed data is generally quite noisy, with high frequency variations on the order of five knots, and occasional 'outliers' which can be significantly different from the probable true speed. To try to smooth out these speeds and make the ETA estimate less erratic, filtering of the ground speed is done within CTAS. In its base form, the CTAS filter is a 'moving average' filter which averages the last ten radar values. In addition, there is separate logic to detect and correct for 'outliers', and acceleration logic which limits the groundspeed change in adjacent time samples. As will be shown, these additional modifications do cause significant changes in the actual groundspeed filter output. The conclusion is that the current ground speed filter logic is unable to track accurately the speed variations observed on many aircraft. The Kalman filter logic however, appears to be an improvement to the current algorithm used to smooth ground speed variations, while being simpler and more efficient to implement. Additional logic which can test for true 'outliers' can easily be added by looking at the difference in the a priori and post priori Kalman estimates, and not updating if the difference in these quantities is too large.

  10. A class of optimum digital phase locked loops for the DSN advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    A class of optimum digital filters for digital phase locked loop of the deep space network advanced receiver is discussed. The filter minimizes a weighted combination of the variance of the random component of the phase error and the sum square of the deterministic dynamic component of phase error at the output of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO). By varying the weighting coefficient over a suitable range of values, a wide set of filters are obtained such that, for any specified value of the equivalent loop-noise bandwidth, there corresponds a unique filter in this class. This filter thus has the property of having the best transient response over all possible filters of the same bandwidth and type. The optimum filters are also evaluated in terms of their gain margin for stability and their steady-state error performance.

  11. Electronically tuned optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, J. A.; Pasierb, E. F.; Oh, C. S.; Mccaffrey, M. T.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed account is given of efforts to develop a three layer, polychromic filter that can be tuned electronically. The operation of the filter is based on the cooperative alignment of pleochroic dye molecules by nematic liquid crystals activated by electric fields. This orientation produces changes in the optical density of the material and thus changes in the color of light transmitted through the medium. In addition, attempts to improve materials and devices which employ field induced changes of a cholesteric to a nematic liquid crystal are presented.

  12. ACTIVE FILTER HARDWARE DESIGN & PERFORMANCE FOR THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SELLERS,D; FERRON,J.R; WALKER,M.L; BROESCH,J.D

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The digital plasma control system (PCS), currently in operation on the DIII-D tokamak, requires inputs from a large number of sensors. Due to the nature of the digitizers and the relative noisy environment from which these signals are derived, each of the 32 signals must be conditioned via an active filter. Two different types of filters, Chebyshev and Bessel with fixed frequencies: 100 Hz Bessel was used for filtering the motional Stark effect diagnostic data. 800 Hz Bessel was designed to filter plasma control data and 1200 Hz Chebyshev is used with closed loop control of choppers. The performance of the plasma control system is greatly influenced by how well the actual filter responses match the software model used in the control system algorithms. This paper addresses the various issues facing the designer in matching the electrical design with the theoretical.

  13. Digital exploitation of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital processing and analysis scheme for use with digitized synthetic aperture radar data was developed. Using data from a four channel system, the imagery is preprocessed using specially designed software and then analyzed using preexisting facilities originally intended for use with MSS type data. Geometric and radiometric correction may be performed if desired, as well as classification analysis, Fast Fourier transform, filtering and level slice and display functions. The system provides low cost output in real time, permitting interactive imagery analysis. System information flow diagrams as well as sample output products are shown.

  14. Digital demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, T. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A digital demodulator for converting pulse code modulated data from phase shift key (PSK) to non return to zero (NRZ) and to biphase data is described. The demodulator is composed of standard integrated logic circuits. The key to the demodulation function is a pair of cross coupled one shot multivibrators and which with a flip-flop produce the NRZ-L is all that is required, the circuitry is greatly simplified and the 2(v) times bit rate contraint can be removed from the carrier. A flip-flop, an OR gate, and AND gate and a binary counter generate the bit rate clock (BTCK) for the NRZ-L. The remainder of the circuitry is for converting the NRZ-L and BTCK into biphase data. The device was designed for use in the space shuttle bay environment measurements.

  15. Digital Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.

  16. Digital Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Digital Avionics activities played an important role in the advancements made in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. This document profiles advances made in each of these areas by the aerospace industry, NASA centers, and the U.S. military. Emerging communication technologies covered in this document include Internet connectivity onboard aircraft, wireless broadband communication for aircraft, and a mobile router for aircraft to communicate in multiple communication networks over the course of a flight. Military technologies covered in this document include avionics for unmanned combat air vehicles and microsatellites, and head-up displays. Other technologies covered in this document include an electronic flight bag for the Boeing 777, and surveillance systems for managing airport operations.

  17. Digital structural

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.

  18. A New Method to Cancel RFI---The Adaptive Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, R.; Barnbaum, C.

    1996-12-01

    An increasing amount of precious radio frequency spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized each year to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Some radio spectral lines of astronomical interest occur outside the protected radio astronomy bands and are unobservable due to heavy interference. Conventional approaches to deal with RFI include legislation, notch filters, RF shielding, and post-processing techniques. Although these techniques are somewhat successful, each suffers from insufficient interference cancellation. One concept of interference excision that has not been used before in radio astronomy is adaptive interference cancellation. The concept of adaptive interference canceling was first introduced in the mid-1970s as a way to reduce unwanted noise in low frequency (audio) systems. Examples of such systems include the canceling of maternal ECG in fetal electrocardiography and the reduction of engine noise in the passenger compartment of automobiles. Only recently have high-speed digital filter chips made adaptive filtering possible in a bandwidth as large a few megahertz, finally opening the door to astronomical uses. The system consists of two receivers: the main beam of the radio telescope receives the desired signal corrupted by RFI coming in the sidelobes, and the reference antenna receives only the RFI. The reference antenna is processed using a digital adaptive filter and then subtracted from the signal in the main beam, thus producing the system output. The weights of the digital filter are adjusted by way of an algorithm that minimizes, in a least-squares sense, the power output of the system. Through an adaptive-iterative process, the interference canceler will lock onto the RFI and the filter will adjust itself to minimize the effect of the RFI at the system output. We are building a prototype 100 MHz receiver and will measure the cancellation

  19. Flight test experience with pilot-induced-oscillation suppression filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, M. F.; Smith, R. E.; Stewart, J. F.; Bailey, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Digital flight control systems are popular for their flexibility, reliability, and power; however, their use sometimes results in deficient handling qualities, including pilot-induced oscillation (PIO), which can require extensive redesign of the control system. When redesign is not immediately possible, temporary solutions, such as the PIO suppression (PIOS) filter developed for the Space Shuttle, have been proposed. To determine the effectiveness of such PIOS filters on more conventional, high-performance aircraft, three experiments were performed using the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire and USAF/Calspan NT-33 variable-stability aircraft. Two types of PIOS filters were evaluated, using high-gain, precision tasks (close formation, probe-and-drogue refueling, and precision touch-and-go landing) with a time delay or a first-order lag added to make the aircraft prone to PIO. Various configurations of the PIOS filter were evaluated in the flight programs, and most of the PIOS filter configurations reduced the occurrence of PIOs and improved the handling qualities of the PIO-prone aircraft. These experiments also confirmed the influence of high-gain tasks and excessive control system time delay in evoking pilot-induced oscillations.

  20. Flight test experience with pilot-induced-oscillation suppressor filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, M. F.; Smith, R. E.; Stewart, J. F.; Bailey, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Digital flight control systems are popular for their flexibility, reliability, and power; however, their use sometimes results in deficient handling qualities, including pilot-induced oscillation (PIO), which can require extensive redesign of the control system. When redesign is not immediately possible, temporary solutions, such as the PIO suppression (PIOS) filter developed for the Space Shuttle, have been proposed. To determine the effectiveness of such PIOS filters on more conventional, high-performance aircraft, three experiments were performed using the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire and USAF/Calspan NT-33 variable-stability aircraft. Two types of PIOS filters were evaluated, using high-gain, precision tasks (close formation, probe-and-drogue refueling, and precision touch-and-go landing) with a time delay or a first-order lag added to make the aircraft prone to PIO. Various configurations of the PIOS filter were evaluated in the flight programs, and most of the PIOS filter configurations reduced the occurrence of PIOs and improved the handling qualities of the PIO-prone aircraft. These experiments also confirmed the influence of high-gain tasks and excessive control system time delay in evoking pilot-induced oscillations.

  1. A comparison of methods for DPLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre, S.; Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.; Statman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Four design methodologies for loop filters for a class of digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) are presented. The first design maps an optimum analog filter into the digital domain; the second approach designs a filter that minimizes in discrete time weighted combination of the variance of the phase error due to noise and the sum square of the deterministic phase error component; the third method uses Kalman filter estimation theory to design a filter composed of a least squares fading memory estimator and a predictor. The last design relies on classical theory, including rules for the design of compensators. Linear analysis is used throughout the article to compare different designs, and includes stability, steady state performance and transient behavior of the loops. Design methodology is not critical when the loop update rate can be made high relative to loop bandwidth, as the performance approaches that of continuous time. For low update rates, however, the miminization method is significantly superior to the other methods.

  2. Digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, Peyton Z., Jr.

    The fundamental principles of digital communication and the design of practical digital communication systems are explored in an introductory textbook for senior and graduate students of electrical engineering. Chapters are devoted to sampling principles, baseband digital waveforms, baseband digital systems, bandpass binary digital systems, and M-ary digital systems. Deterministic signals, networks, and random-signal theory are reviewed in extensive appendices, and graphs, flow charts, diagrams, and problems are provided.

  3. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Tressler, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter {times} 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  4. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M. . Science and Technology Center); Tressler, R.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter [times] 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  5. Multichannel birefringent filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouxiang, A.; Huefeng, H.

    1985-01-01

    A birefringent filter with a large field of view and no additional polarization is discussed. It plays an important role in observing the solar monochromatic image and the solar vector magnetic field. It has only one channel. For simultaneous multichannel observations, the solar spectrograph is better than the birefringent filter. A suggestion was proposed to try to obtain a multichannel birefringent filter which will be used in a new telescope at the Huairou reservoir station of Beijing Observatory. By means of N polarizing beam splitters, (N+1) channels can be divided. In principle, any number of limitless channels can be obtained, thereby subdividing the whole solar spectrum. But since the space in a telescope is limited, the channels to be used are also limited. For the new telescope, 5 and 9 channels are being considered, and the spectral range is from lambda 3800A to lambda 7000A. Many lines are included in this range, for example, H, K, H beta, lambda lambda 5324A, 5250A, 6302A, H alpha, etc., and some of the lines are suited to measure solar velocity fields. According to the character of these lines, the half width of each channel is determined. Moreover, in some channels the solid polarizing Michelson interferometer is considered for measuring velocity field with a lm/s accuracy. The advantages of the filter and problems to be solved are listed.

  6. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L.

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  7. Foam For Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Like nature's honeycomb, foam is a structure of many-sided cells, apparently solid but actually only three percent material and 97 percent air. Foam is made by a heat-producing chemical reaction which expands a plastic material in a manner somewhat akin to the heat-induced rising of a loaf of bread. The resulting structure of interconnected cells is flexible yet strong and extremely versatile in applicati6n. Foam can, for example, be a sound absorber in one form, while in another it allows sound to pass through it. It can be a very soft powder puff material and at the same time a highly abrasive scrubber. A sampling of foam uses includes stereo speaker grilles, applying postage meter ink, filtering lawnmower carburetor air; deadening noise in trucks and tractors, applying cosmetics, releasing fabric softener and antistatic agents in home clothes dryers, painting, filtering factory heating and ventilating systems, shining shoes, polishing cars, sponge-mopping floors, acting as pre-operative surgical scrubbers-the list is virtually limitless. The process by which foam is made produces "windows," thin plastic membranes connecting the cell walls. Windowed foam is used in many applications but for certain others-filtering, for example-it is desirable to have a completely open network. Scott Paper Company's Foam Division, Chester, Pennsylvania, improved a patented method of "removing the windows," to create an open structure that affords special utility in filtering applications. NASA technology contributed to Scott's improvement.

  8. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  9. Ozone decomposing filter

    SciTech Connect

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Whinnery, L.L. Jr.

    1999-11-02

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  10. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  11. Filter Component Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced particulate filtration systems are currently being developed at Westinghouse for use in both coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems. To date, Westinghouse has demonstrated 5855 hours of successful operation of first generation monolithic filter elements in PFBC applications when ash bridging or process thermal transient excursions are avoided. Alternate advanced monolithic and second generation fiber reinforced, filament wound and vacuum infiltrated filters are also being developed which are considered to have enhanced high temperature creep resistance, improved fracture toughness, or enhanced thermal shock characteristics, respectively. Mechanical and component fabrication improvements, as well as degradation mechanisms for each filter element have been identified by Westinghouse during exposure to simulated PFBC operating conditions and alkali-containing steam/air environments. Additional effort is currently being focused on determining the stability of the advanced monolithic high temperature creep resistant clay bonded silicon carbide (SiC) materials, alumina/mullite, and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC materials during operation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (W-APF) system at Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Select advanced filter materials are being defined for additional long-term exposure in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gas streams. The results of these efforts are summarized in this paper. 6 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  13. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  14. Interactive Computing and Graphics in Undergraduate Digital Signal Processing. Microcomputing Working Paper Series F 84-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onaral, Banu; And Others

    This report describes the development of a Drexel University electrical and computer engineering course on digital filter design that used interactive computing and graphics, and was one of three courses in a senior-level sequence on digital signal processing (DSP). Interactive and digital analysis/design routines and the interconnection of these…

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTER WHEEL MACHINE USED TO FILTER OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTER WHEEL MACHINE USED TO FILTER OUT AND SEPARATE BICARBONATE FROM AMMONIONATED BRINE. DISCHARGE FROM STRIPPER COLUMNS (SOLVAY COLUMNS). - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  18. Eulerian Time-Domain Filtering for Spatial LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Eulerian time-domain filtering seems to be appropriate for LES (large eddy simulation) of flows whose large coherent structures convect approximately at a common characteristic velocity; e.g., mixing layers, jets, and wakes. For these flows, we develop an approach to LES based on an explicit second-order digital Butterworth filter, which is applied in,the time domain in an Eulerian context. The approach is validated through a priori and a posteriori analyses of the simulated flow of a heated, subsonic, axisymmetric jet.

  19. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  20. Method and apparatus for filtering visual documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E. (Inventor); Shelton, Robert O. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing an abstract or condensed version of a visual document is presented. The frames comprising the visual document are first sampled to reduce the number of frames required for processing. The frames are then subjected to a structural decomposition process that reduces all information in each frame to a set of values. These values are in turn normalized and further combined to produce only one information content value per frame. The information content values of these frames are then compared to a selected distribution cutoff point. This effectively selects those values at the tails of a normal distribution, thus filtering key frames from their surrounding frames. The value for each frame is then compared with the value from the previous frame, and the respective frame is finally stored only if the values are significantly different. The method filters or compresses a visual document with a reduction in digital storage on the ratio of up to 700 to 1 or more, depending on the content of the visual document being filtered.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

    2002-06-30

    Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program

  2. An all digital low data rate communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.; Fan, M.

    1973-01-01

    The advent of digital hardwares has made it feasible to implement many communication system components digitally. With the exception of frequency down conversion, the proposed low data rate communication system uses digital hardwares completely. Although the system is designed primarily for deep space communications with large frequency uncertainty and low signal-to-noise ratio, it is also suitable for other low data rate applications with time-shared operation among a number of channels. Emphasis is placed on the fast Fourier transform receiver and the automatic frequency control via digital filtering. The speed available from the digital system allows sophisticated signal processing to reduce frequency uncertainty and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The practical limitations of the system such as the finite register length are examined. It is concluded that the proposed all-digital system is not only technically feasible but also has potential cost reduction over the existing receiving systems.

  3. Digital processing of radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  4. Application of square-root filtering for spacecraft attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Goka, T.

    1978-01-01

    Suitable digital algorithms are developed and tested for providing on-board precision attitude estimation and pointing control for potential use in the Landsat-D spacecraft. These algorithms provide pointing accuracy of better than 0.01 deg. To obtain necessary precision with efficient software, a six state-variable square-root Kalman filter combines two star tracker measurements to update attitude estimates obtained from processing three gyro outputs. The validity of the estimation and control algorithms are established, and the sensitivity of their performance to various error sources and software parameters are investigated by detailed digital simulation. Spacecraft computer memory, cycle time, and accuracy requirements are estimated.

  5. Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1989-01-01

    Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

  6. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  7. Active resistance capacitance filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Filters, formed by combinations of distributed RC elements with positive-feedback voltage amplifiers, provide transfer functions similar to those the heavier LC filters ordinarily employ. They also provide signal amplification.

  8. Cigarette Filter-based Assays as Proxies for Toxicant Exposure and Smoking Behavior A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, John L.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Shields, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cigarettes are being marketed with filters that differ in composition and design. The filters have different toxicant trapping efficiency and smoking stains reflect variations in smoking behavior. Presented herein are the results of a structured literature review that was performed to identify cigarette filter-based assays that may serve as proxies for mouth-level exposure and assessing smoking methods. Methods A search of the published scientific literature and internal tobacco company documents from 1954 to 2009 was performed. Results The literature search identified diverse schemes for assessing cigarette filters, including visual inspection and digital imaging of smoked-stained spent filters, and quantitative determinations for total particulate matter (TPM), nicotine, and solanesol. The results also showed that: (a) there is sufficient data to link filter-based chemical measures to standardized smoking machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine; (b) TPM eluted from filters or in chemical digest of filters can be used to estimate the efficiency of the filter for trapping smoke solids; (c) visual and digital inspection of spent filters are useful as indicators of variations in smoking behaviors; and (d) there is a correlation between solanesol and nicotine measured in filters and exposure biomarkers in smokers. Conclusions The cigarette filter may prove useful in estimating smoking behaviors such as filter vent blocking and puffing intensity, and may have utility as proxy measures of mouth-level smoke exposure in clinical trials. Additional investigations are needed to compare the different proposed assay schemes and the assay results with measurements of human biomarker assays of smoke exposure. PMID:19959679

  9. Digital photorefraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Jorge, Jorge M.

    1997-12-01

    The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.

  10. Digital photorefraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.

    1998-01-01

    The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.

  11. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    SciTech Connect

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented.

  12. The Magnetic Centrifugal Mass Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-08-04

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages. __________________________________________________

  13. Symmetric Phase Only Filtering for Improved DPIV Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2006-01-01

    The standard approach in Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) data processing is to use Fast Fourier Transforms to obtain the cross-correlation of two single exposure subregions, where the location of the cross-correlation peak is representative of the most probable particle displacement across the subregion. This standard DPIV processing technique is analogous to Matched Spatial Filtering, a technique commonly used in optical correlators to perform the crosscorrelation operation. Phase only filtering is a well known variation of Matched Spatial Filtering, which when used to process DPIV image data yields correlation peaks which are narrower and up to an order of magnitude larger than those obtained using traditional DPIV processing. In addition to possessing desirable correlation plane features, phase only filters also provide superior performance in the presence of DC noise in the correlation subregion. When DPIV image subregions contaminated with surface flare light or high background noise levels are processed using phase only filters, the correlation peak pertaining only to the particle displacement is readily detected above any signal stemming from the DC objects. Tedious image masking or background image subtraction are not required. Both theoretical and experimental analyses of the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the filter functions are presented. In addition, a new Symmetric Phase Only Filtering (SPOF) technique, which is a variation on the traditional phase only filtering technique, is described and demonstrated. The SPOF technique exceeds the performance of the traditionally accepted phase only filtering techniques and is easily implemented in standard DPIV FFT based correlation processing with no significant computational performance penalty. An "Automatic" SPOF algorithm is presented which determines when the SPOF is able to provide better signal to noise results than traditional PIV processing. The SPOF based optical correlation processing

  14. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  15. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  16. Filtered cathodic arc source

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Disclosed is a continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45{degrees} to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  17. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  18. Dichroic ultraviolet light filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, Christoph; Weder, Christoph; Smith, Paul

    2003-10-01

    With the intention to produce dichroic filters for use in photoluminescent systems that rely on polarized UV light, we synthesized a number of linear, dichroic dyes, which absorb mainly in the near-UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. These dyes were designed for compatibility with common thermoplastic polymers such as linear low-density poly(ethylene), poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide-12. Films of these host polymers that consisted of 0.2% by weight of various dichroic UV dyes were produced by common melt-processing schemes. Uniaxial drawing of these films yielded highly dichroic UV filters with dichroic ratios in absorption that in some cases exceeded 100. The fact that these free-standing films display little or no coloration and are environmentally stable makes them useful for various applications that involve generation of polarized UV light.

  19. High frequency integrated MOS filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques exist for implementing integrated MOS filters. These techniques fit into the general categories of sampled and tuned continuous-time filters. Advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed. This paper focuses primarily on the high frequency capabilities of MOS integrated filters.

  20. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  1. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  2. Quick-change filter cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  3. BMP FILTERS: UPFLOW VS. DOWNFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater filters are typically operated in a downflow mode. This research had two objectives: 1) to determine the increased life of a filter operated in an upflow mode, and 2) to determine if the operation of a downflow, mixed-media filter could be modeled using the power equat...

  4. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  5. H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

  6. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  7. Improvement in birefringent filters. IV - The alternate partial polarizer filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    The design and performance of a birefringent filter with alternate partial polarizers are analyzed. The properties of several filter configurations with imperfect intermediate polarizers are examined. It is shown that such filters have significant advantages in transmission and profile shape over both the standard Lyot and the contrast element Lyot filters. These theoretical advantages are demonstrated by the measured properties of an actual filter using the alternate partial polarizer (APP) design. This filter is a four-module eight-crystal APP device which has been built using Polaroid HN-38 for the perfect polarizers and two laminated sheets of HN-55 for the partial polarizers. The measured characteristics of the filter are found to be in good agreement with theory.

  8. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  9. An estimator-predictor approach to PLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Hurd, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital phase locked loops (DPLL) using estimation theory concepts in the selection of a loop filter is presented. The key concept, that the DPLL closed-loop transfer function is decomposed into an estimator and a predictor, is discussed. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher-order derivatives, and the predictor compensates for the transport lag inherent in the loop.

  10. Imaging Spectrometer With Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer constructed from charged-coupled-device video camera; liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF) placed in front of camera lens; and associated digital and analog control, signal-processing, and data-processing circuits. To enable operation of instrument in specific application for which designed (balloon flights in cold weather), camera and LCTF surrounded by electric heating pad. Total operating power, excluding that consumed by heating pad, 16 W. Instrument weighs 4.5 kg.

  11. National Seismic Stations transducers and filters

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, P.W.; Hummell, M.

    1981-01-13

    The National Seismic Stations (NSS) instruments are being developed for seismic monitoring of regional and teleseismic events. They consist of two 3-component, broadband, borehole seismometers: the KS-36000 and the S-700, which is the backup for the KS-36000. Output is divided into frequency bands to reduce data loss due to saturation. Complete block diagrams of the KS-36000 and S-700 NSS seismometers and filters are presented. Both open-loop and closed-loop steady-state amplitude and phase curves are given. Without band-pass filters (but with shaping filters) the KS-36000 has a flat (i.e., between the -3dB points) velocity sensitivity from 0.03 to 23 Hz. With its shaping filters, the S-700 is flat from 0.2 to 40 Hz. The structure of the three band-pass filters (LP, MP, and SP) is superimposed on these velocity sensitivities. Passbands of the resulting overall velocity sensitivity for the KS-36000 are as follows: LP band = 0.01-0.05 Hz, MP band = 0.02-1.3 Hz, and SP band = 1-10 Hz. Step-function responses and phase and group delays are given for each of the bands. The MP-band step response is oscillatory due to its sharp, high-frequency cutoff, but an MP-band filter with a less abrupt cutoff eliminates the oscillation. To generate typical NSS output seismograms, velocity inputs from four representative seismic events were used: an underground nuclear test (..delta.. approx. = 3.6/sup 0/), a regional earthquake (..delta.. approx. = 20/sup 0/), a local earthquake (..delta.. approx. = 1.5/sup 0/), and a teleseismic earthquake (..delta.. approx. = 123/sup 0/). The velocity inputs for these events were obtained from the LLNL digital seismic network (DSS) around the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The seismograms resulting from each of the bands were satisfactory, although the low-frequency corner of the MP band should be increased in frequency to 0.08 Hz.

  12. Evaluation of real-time digital pulse shapers with various HPGe and silicon radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menaa, N.; D'Agostino, P.; Zakrzewski, B.; Jordanov, V. T.

    2011-10-01

    Real-time digital pulse shaping techniques allow synthesis of pulse shapes that have been difficult to realize using the traditional analog methods. Using real-time digital shapers, triangular/trapezoidal filters can be synthesized in real time. These filters exhibit digital control on the rise time, fall time, and flat-top of the trapezoidal shape. Thus, the trapezoidal shape can be adjusted for optimum performance at different distributions of the series and parallel noise. The trapezoidal weighting function (WF) represents the optimum time-limited pulse shape when only parallel and series noises are present in the detector system. In the presence of 1/ F noise, the optimum WF changes depending on the 1/ F noise contribution. In this paper, we report on the results of the evaluation of new filter types for processing signals from CANBERRA high purity germanium (HPGe) and passivated, implanted, planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The objective of the evaluation is to determine improvements in performance over the current trapezoidal (digital) filter. The evaluation is performed using a customized CANBERRA digital signal processing unit that is fitted with new FPGA designs and any required firmware modifications to support operation of the new filters. The evaluated filters include the Cusp, one-over-F (1/ F), and pseudo-Gaussian filters. The results are compared with the CANBERRA trapezoidal shaper.

  13. Adaptive multidirectional frequency domain filter for noise removal in wrapped phase patterns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guixiong; Chen, Dongxue; Peng, Yanhua; Zeng, Qilin

    2016-08-01

    In order to avoid the detrimental effects of excessive noise in the phase fringe patterns of a laser digital interferometer over the accuracy of phase unwrapping and the successful detection of mechanical fatigue defects, an effective method of adaptive multidirectional frequency domain filtering is introduced based on the characteristics of the energy spectrum of localized wrapped phase patterns. Not only can this method automatically set the cutoff frequency, but it can also effectively filter out noise while preserving the image edge information. Compared with the sine and cosine transform filtering and the multidirectional frequency domain filtering, the experimental results demonstrate that the image filtered by our method has the fewest number of residues and is the closest to the noise-free image, compared to the two aforementioned methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of this adaptive multidirectional frequency domain filter. PMID:27505376

  14. Comb-based radiofrequency photonic filters with rapid tunability and high selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supradeepa, V. R.; Long, Christopher M.; Wu, Rui; Ferdous, Fahmida; Hamidi, Ehsan; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2012-03-01

    Photonic technologies have received considerable attention regarding the enhancement of radiofrequency electrical systems, including high-frequency analogue signal transmission, control of phased arrays, analog-to-digital conversion and signal processing. Although the potential of radiofrequency photonics for the implementation of tunable electrical filters over broad radiofrequency bandwidths has been much discussed, the realization of programmable filters with highly selective filter lineshapes and rapid reconfigurability has faced significant challenges. A new approach for radiofrequency photonic filters based on frequency combs offers a potential route to simultaneous high stopband attenuation, fast tunability and bandwidth reconfiguration. In one configuration, tuning of the radiofrequency passband frequency is demonstrated with unprecedented (~40 ns) speed by controlling the optical delay between combs. In a second, fixed filter configuration, cascaded four-wave mixing simultaneously broadens and smoothes the comb spectra, resulting in Gaussian radiofrequency filter lineshapes exhibiting an extremely high (>60 dB) main lobe to sidelobe suppression ratio and (>70 dB) stopband attenuation.

  15. Development of narrow-band low-frequency active filters for DC railway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Weem, J. van der

    1994-12-31

    To avoid failures in the signalling systems of light-rail plants low frequency components of the line current may often not exceed specified limits. These limits are in the range of 0.1% of the line current. Presently the low frequency components are damped with passive filters. This paper proposes an active filter to reduce the low frequency components of the line current. A method for dimensioning a digital control algorithm for active filters, which are implemented in the railway vehicle, is presented. Time domain simulations are carried out. They predicted a good behaviour of the active filter for all kinds of vehicles and different realistic conditions. The active filter was realized with an IGBT-inverter and the filter algorithm was implemented in a microcontroller, to ensure a high flexibility. The measurements presented in this paper prove the validity of the simulations. 19 refs.

  16. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  17. COBE experience with filter QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filla, O.; Keat, J.; Chu, D.

    1991-10-01

    A gyro based filter variation on the standard QUEST attitude determination algorithm is applied to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Filter QUEST is found to be three times as fast as the batch estimator and slightly more accurate than regular QUEST. Perhaps more important than its speed or accuracy is the fact that Filter QUEST can provide real time attitude solutions when regular QUEST cannot, due to lack of observability. Filter QUEST is also easy to use and adjust for the proper memory length. Suitable applications for Filter QUEST include coarse and real time attitude determination.

  18. Filtering information from human experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

  19. COBE experience with filter QUEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filla, O.; Keat, J.; Chu, D.

    1991-01-01

    A gyro based filter variation on the standard QUEST attitude determination algorithm is applied to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Filter QUEST is found to be three times as fast as the batch estimator and slightly more accurate than regular QUEST. Perhaps more important than its speed or accuracy is the fact that Filter QUEST can provide real time attitude solutions when regular QUEST cannot, due to lack of observability. Filter QUEST is also easy to use and adjust for the proper memory length. Suitable applications for Filter QUEST include coarse and real time attitude determination.

  20. Digital Mammography: Improvements in Breast Cancer Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-06

    X-ray mammography is the most sensitive imaging technique for early detection of breast cancer (diagnostics). It is performed by a radiological system equipped with a rotating molybdenum (Mo) anode tube with an additional Mo filter. In the production of X-ray, bremsstrahlung photons produce an intense diffuse radiation, affecting the contrast between normal and cancerous tissue. So it is known that a good mammographic imaging can help to detect cancer in the first stages avoiding surgery, amputation or even death. In the last years there has been some developments in new imaging techniques to improve the contrast spatial resolution between different tissues: digital imaging, or the so call digital mammography. Digital mammographic imaging is considered an improvement in the prevention of breast cancer due to the advantages it offers.

  1. Development of digital stethoscope for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Lakhe, Aparna; Sodhi, Isha; Warrier, Jyothi; Sinha, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    The stethoscope is a medical acoustic device which is used to auscultate internal body sounds, mainly the heart and lungs. A digital stethoscope overcomes the limitations of a conventional stethoscope as the sound data is transformed into electrical signals which can be amplified, stored, replayed and, more importantly, sent for an expert opinion, making it very useful in telemedicine. With the above in view, a low cost digital stethoscope has been developed which is interfaceble with mobile communication devices. In this instrument sounds from various locations can be captured with the help of an electret condenser microphone. Captured sound is filtered, amplified and processed digitally using an adaptive line enhancement technique to obtain audible and distinct heart sounds. PMID:26728637

  2. Kaon Filtering For CLAS Data

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, J.

    2001-01-30

    The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended.

  3. Digital audio signal filtration based on the dual-tree wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, A. S.; Pavlov, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    A new method of digital audio signal filtration based on the dual-tree wavelet transform is described. An adaptive approach is proposed that allows the automatic adjustment of parameters of the wavelet filter to be optimized. A significant improvement of the quality of signal filtration is demonstrated in comparison to the traditionally used filters based on the discrete wavelet transform.

  4. Adaptive filtering of radar images for autofocus applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.; Frost, V. S.; Gardner, J. S.; Eland, D. R.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Autofocus techniques are being designed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to automatically choose the filter parameters (i.e., the focus) for the digital synthetic aperture radar correlator; currently, processing relies upon interaction with a human operator who uses his subjective assessment of the quality of the processed SAR data. Algorithms were devised applying image cross-correlation to aid in the choice of filter parameters, but this method also has its drawbacks in that the cross-correlation result may not be readily interpretable. Enhanced performance of the cross-correlation techniques of JPL was hypothesized given that the images to be cross-correlated were first filtered to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the pair of scenes. The results of experiments are described and images are shown.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  6. A hardware implementation of multiresolution filtering for broadband instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-01

    The authors have constructed a wavelet processing board that implements a 14-level wavelet transform. The board uses a high-speed, analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, a hardware queue, and five fixed-point digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a parallel pipeline architecture. All five processors are independently programmable. The board is designed as a general purpose engine for instrumentation applications requiring near real-time wavelet processing or multiscale filtering. The present application is the processing engine of a magnetic field monitor that covers 305 Hz through 5 MHz. The monitor is used for the detection of peak values of magnetic fields in nuclear power plants. This paper describes the design, development, simulation, and testing of the system. Specific issues include the conditioning of real-world signals for wavelet processing, practical trade-offs between queue length and filter length, selection of filter coefficients, simulation of a 14-octave filter bank, and limitations imposed by a fixed-point processor. Test results from the completed wavelet board are included.

  7. A digital control system for external magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J. M.; Klein, A. J.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. Sunn

    2009-04-15

    A feedback system for controlling external, long-wavelength magnetohydrodynamic activity is described. The system is comprised of a network of localized magnetic pickup and control coils driven by four independent, low-latency field-programable gate array controllers. The control algorithm incorporates digital spatial filtering to resolve low mode number activity, temporal filtering to correct for frequency-dependent amplitude and phase transfer effects in the control hardware, and a Kalman filter to distinguish the unstable plasma mode from noise.

  8. Recognition and inference of crevice processing on digitized paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppiah, S. P.; Srivatsa, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper is designed to detect and removal of cracks on digitized paintings. The cracks are detected by threshold. Afterwards, the thin dark brush strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using Median radial basis function neural network on hue and saturation data, Semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack is filled using wiener filter. The paper is well designed in such a way that most of the cracks on digitized paintings have identified and removed. The paper % of betterment is 90%. This paper helps us to perform not only on digitized paintings but also the medical images and bmp images. This paper is implemented by Mat Lab.

  9. Tracking of vessel diameter fluctuations using digital image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Shanti J.; Yip, C.-Y.; Diller, Kenneth R.; Bovik, Alan C.

    1990-05-01

    An automatic digital image processing technique for vasomotion analysis in peripheral microcirculation at multiple sites simultaneously and in real time, is presented. The algorithm utilizes either fluorescent or bright field microimages of the vasculature as input. The video images are digitized and analyzed on-line by an IBM RT PC. Using digital filtering and edge detection, the technique allows simultaneous diameter measurement at more than one site. The sampling frequency is higher than 5 Hz when only one site is tracked. The performance of the algorithm is tested in the hamster cutaneous microcirculation.

  10. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  11. Charcoal filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  12. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  13. Robust Kriged Kalman Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Baingana, Brian; Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Mateos, Gonzalo; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-11-11

    Although the kriged Kalman filter (KKF) has well-documented merits for prediction of spatial-temporal processes, its performance degrades in the presence of outliers due to anomalous events, or measurement equipment failures. This paper proposes a robust KKF model that explicitly accounts for presence of measurement outliers. Exploiting outlier sparsity, a novel l1-regularized estimator that jointly predicts the spatial-temporal process at unmonitored locations, while identifying measurement outliers is put forth. Numerical tests are conducted on a synthetic Internet protocol (IP) network, and real transformer load data. Test results corroborate the effectiveness of the novel estimator in joint spatial prediction and outlier identification.

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-06-14

    This study embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. Finally, the resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  15. Comparison of Filters Dedicated to Speckle Suppression in SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupidura, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effectiveness of different filtering methods dedicated to speckle suppression in SAR images. The tests were performed on RadarSat-2 images and on an artificial image treated with simulated speckle noise. The research analysed the performance of particular filters related to the effectiveness of speckle suppression and to the ability to preserve image details and edges. Speckle is a phenomenon inherent to radar images - a deterministic noise connected with land cover type, but also causing significant changes in digital numbers of pixels. As a result, it may affect interpretation, classification and other processes concerning radar images. Speckle, resembling "salt and pepper" noise, has the form of a set of relatively small groups of pixels of values markedly different from values of other pixels representing the same type of land cover. Suppression of this noise may also cause suppression of small image details, therefore the ability to preserve the important parts of an image, was analysed as well. In the present study, selected filters were tested, and methods dedicated particularly to speckle noise suppression: Frost, Gamma-MAP, Lee, Lee-Sigma, Local Region, general filtering methods which might be effective in this respect: Mean, Median, in addition to morphological filters (alternate sequential filters with multiple structuring element and by reconstruction). The analysis presented in this paper compared the effectiveness of different filtering methods. It proved that some of the dedicated radar filters are efficient tools for speckle suppression, but also demonstrated a significant efficiency of the morphological approach, especially its ability to preserve image details.

  16. Superconductor Digital Electronics: -- Current Status, Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhanov, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Two major applications of superconductor electronics: communications and supercomputing will be presented. These areas hold a significant promise of a large impact on electronics state-of-the-art for the defense and commercial markets stemming from the fundamental advantages of superconductivity: simultaneous high speed and low power, lossless interconnect, natural quantization, and high sensitivity. The availability of relatively small cryocoolers lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled superconductor electronic systems. These fundamental advantages enabled a novel Digital-RF architecture - a disruptive technological approach changing wireless communications, radar, and surveillance system architectures dramatically. Practical results were achieved for Digital-RF systems in which wide-band, multi-band radio frequency signals are directly digitized and digital domain is expanded throughout the entire system. Digital-RF systems combine digital and mixed signal integrated circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, superconductor analog filter circuits, and semiconductor post-processing circuits. The demonstrated cryocooled Digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals, enabling multi-net data links, and performing signal acquisition from HF to L-band with 30 GHz clock frequencies. In supercomputing, superconductivity leads to the highest energy efficiencies per operation. Superconductor technology based on manipulation and ballistic transfer of magnetic flux quanta provides a superior low-power alternative to CMOS and other charge-transfer based device technologies. The fundamental energy consumption in SFQ circuits defined by flux quanta energy 2 x 10-19 J. Recently, a novel energy-efficient zero-static-power SFQ technology, eSFQ/ERSFQ was invented, which retains all advantages of standard RSFQ circuits: high-speed, dc power, internal memory. The

  17. Filtering in SPECT Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Maria; Ploussi, Agapi

    2011-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is widely implemented in nuclear medicine as its clinical role in the diagnosis and management of several diseases is, many times, very helpful (e.g., myocardium perfusion imaging). The quality of SPECT images are degraded by several factors such as noise because of the limited number of counts, attenuation, or scatter of photons. Image filtering is necessary to compensate these effects and, therefore, to improve image quality. The goal of filtering in tomographic images is to suppress statistical noise and simultaneously to preserve spatial resolution and contrast. The aim of this work is to describe the most widely used filters in SPECT applications and how these affect the image quality. The choice of the filter type, the cut-off frequency and the order is a major problem in clinical routine. In many clinical cases, information for specific parameters is not provided, and findings cannot be extrapolated to other similar SPECT imaging applications. A literature review for the determination of the mostly used filters in cardiac, brain, bone, liver, kidneys, and thyroid applications is also presented. As resulting from the overview, no filter is perfect, and the selection of the proper filters, most of the times, is done empirically. The standardization of image-processing results may limit the filter types for each SPECT examination to certain few filters and some of their parameters. Standardization, also, helps in reducing image processing time, as the filters and their parameters must be standardised before being put to clinical use. Commercial reconstruction software selections lead to comparable results interdepartmentally. The manufacturers normally supply default filters/parameters, but these may not be relevant in various clinical situations. After proper standardisation, it is possible to use many suitable filters or one optimal filter. PMID:21760768

  18. Digital tracking loops for a programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis and hardware emulation of the tracking loops for a very flexible programmable digital modem (PDM) will be presented. The modem is capable of being programmed for 2, 4, 8, 16-PSK, 16-QAM, MSK, and Offset-QPSK modulation schemes over a range of data rates from 2.34 to 300 Mbps with programmable spectral occupancy from 1.2 to 1.8 times the symbol rate; these operational parameters are executable in burst or continuous mode. All of the critical processing in both the modulator and demodulator is done at baseband with very high-speed digital hardware and memory. Quadrature analog front-ends are used for translation between baseband and the IF center frequency. The modulator is based on a table lookup approach, where precomputed samples are stored in memory and clocked out according to the incoming data pattern. The sample values are predistorted to counteract the effects of the other filtering functions in the link as well as any transmission impairments. The demodulator architecture was adapted from a joint estimator-detector (JED) mathematical analysis. Its structure is applicable to most signalling formats that can be represented in a two-dimensional space. The JED realization uses interdependent, mutually aiding tracking loops with post-detection data feedback. To expedite and provide for more reliable synchronization, initial estimates for these loops are computed in a parallel acquisition processor. The cornerstone of the demodulator realization is the pre-averager received data filter which allows operation over a broad range of data rates without any hardware changes and greatly simplifies the implementation complexity. The emulation results confirmed tracking loop operation over the entire range of operational parameters listed above, as well as the capability of achieving and maintaining synchronization at BER's in excess of 10(exp -1). The emulation results also showed very close agreement with the tracking loop analysis, and

  19. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists. PMID:15352557

  20. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  1. A DSP-Based Beam Current Monitoring System for Machine Protection Using Adaptive Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    J. Musson; H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Hereford

    2001-06-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is currently using an analog beam current monitoring (BCM) system for its machine protection system (MPS), which has a loss accuracy of 2 micro-amps. Recent burn-through simulations predict catastrophic beam line component failures below 1 micro-amp of loss, resulting in a blind spot for the MPS. Revised MPS requirements target an ultimate beam loss accuracy of 250 nA. A new beam current monitoring system has been developed which utilizes modern digital receiver technology and digital signal processing concepts. The receiver employs a direct-digital down converter integrated circuit, mated with a Jefferson Lab digital signal processor VME card. Adaptive filtering is used to take advantage of current-dependent burn-through rates. Benefits of such a system include elimination of DC offsets, generic algorithm development, extensive filter options, and interfaces to UNIX-based control systems.

  2. The effect of filter cakes on filter medium resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, G.G.; Arconti, J.; Kanel, J.

    1994-10-01

    The high resistance of a filter medium to fluid flow is a universal problem affecting many industries. The small thickness of the filter media makes local pressure and porosity measurements impractical. Analysis of the continuum equations and boundary conditions provide a basis for defining a relative medium resistance. Experiments are conducted on three particulate materials and on three different high flow rate filter media. The results show that the increase in medium resistance varies up to about four times the resistance of a clean filter medium with no cake present. The results also show that in most cases the relative resistance is dependent upon cake height.

  3. Adaptive particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark R.; Gutchess, Dan; Checka, Neal; Snorrason, Magnús

    2006-05-01

    Image exploitation algorithms for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and weapon systems are extremely sensitive to differences between the operating conditions (OCs) under which they are trained and the extended operating conditions (EOCs) in which the fielded algorithms are tested. As an example, terrain type is an important OC for the problem of tracking hostile vehicles from an airborne camera. A system designed to track cars driving on highways and on major city streets would probably not do well in the EOC of parking lots because of the very different dynamics. In this paper, we present a system we call ALPS for Adaptive Learning in Particle Systems. ALPS takes as input a sequence of video images and produces labeled tracks. The system detects moving targets and tracks those targets across multiple frames using a multiple hypothesis tracker (MHT) tightly coupled with a particle filter. This tracker exploits the strengths of traditional MHT based tracking algorithms by directly incorporating tree-based hypothesis considerations into the particle filter update and resampling steps. We demonstrate results in a parking lot domain tracking objects through occlusions and object interactions.

  4. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  5. Nanoparticle optical notch filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinadhuni, Pradeep Kumar

    Developing novel light blocking products involves the design of a nanoparticle optical notch filter, working on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). These light blocking products can be used in many applications. One such application is to naturally reduce migraine headaches and light sensitivity. Melanopsin ganglion cells present in the retina of the human eye, connect to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the body's clock) in the brain, where they participate in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms. As the Melanopsin ganglion cells are involved in triggering the migraine headaches in photophobic patients, it is necessary to block the part of visible spectrum that activates these cells. It is observed from the action potential spectrum of the ganglion cells that they absorb light ranging from 450-500nm (blue-green part) of the visible spectrum with a λmax (peak sensitivity) of around 480nm (blue line). Currently prescribed for migraine patients is the FL-41 coating, which blocks a broad range of wavelengths, including wavelengths associated with melanopsin absorption. The nanoparticle optical notch filter is designed to block light only at 480nm, hence offering an effective prescription for the treatment of migraine headaches.

  6. Recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2008-03-25

    Systems and methods are described for recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image. A method includes digitally recording, at a first reference beam-object beam angle, a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a first spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the first reference beam-object beam angle; digitally recording, at a second reference beam-object beam angle, a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a second spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the second reference beam-object beam angle; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and define a first result; performing a first inverse Fourier transform on the first result; applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and define a second result; and performing a second inverse Fourier transform on the second result, wherein the first reference beam-object beam angle is not equal to the second reference beam-object beam angle and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  7. Non-maximally decimated filter bank-based single-carrier receiver: a pathway to next-generation wideband communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaofei; harris, fred; Venosa, Elettra; Rao, Bhaskar D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the design of a wideband digital modem based on non-maximally decimated filter bank (NMDFB) with perfect reconstruction (PR) property. The PR-NMDFB contains an analysis filter bank (AFB) and a synthesis filter bank (SFB) whose efficient polyphase forms are named as polyphase analysis channelizer (PAC) and polyphase synthesis channelizer (PSC). The waveform being processed is the legacy square root Nyquist-shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). In contrast to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the shaped QAM transmission has much superior performance properties in throughput, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and synchronization. We will show the PR-NMDFB is capable of efficiently performing several key tasks of a digital receiver with dramatic workload reduction. This includes digital filtering, carrier recovery, and symbol timing recovery. Moreover, the nature of NMDFB allows the signal processing to operate a significantly reduced sample rate, which is a desired characteristic for replacing current FIR implementation in wideband systems.

  8. A study of digital holographic filters generation. Phase 2: Digital data communication system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    An empirical study of the performance of the Viterbi decoders in bursty channels was carried out and an improved algebraic decoder for nonsystematic codes was developed. The hybrid algorithm was simulated for the (2,1), k = 7 code on a computer using 20 channels having various error statistics, ranging from pure random error to pure bursty channels. The hybrid system outperformed both the algebraic and the Viterbi decoders in every case, except the 1% random error channel where the Viterbi decoder had one bit less decoding error.

  9. The Layering of Mathematical Interpretations through Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    How might understanding emerge when learners engage mathematical phenomena through digital technologies? This paper considers the ways children's mathematical thinking was influenced by their interpretations through various pedagogical discourses and how understanding emerged through those various filters. Current research into using digital…

  10. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research directions in the fields of digital signal processing and modern control and estimation theory are discussed. Stability theory, linear prediction and parameter identification, system synthesis and implementation, two-dimensional filtering, decentralized control and estimation, and image processing are considered in order to uncover some of the basic similarities and differences in the goals, techniques, and philosophy of the disciplines.

  11. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research areas associated with digital signal processing and control and estimation theory are identified. Particular attention is given to image processing, system identification problems (parameter identification, linear prediction, least squares, Kalman filtering), stability analyses (the use of the Liapunov theory, frequency domain criteria, passivity), and multiparameter systems, distributed processes, and random fields.

  12. Imagining the Digital Library in a Commercialized Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckart, Ronald J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses digital library planning in light of Internet commerce and technological innovation in marketing and customer relations that are transforming user expectations about Web sites that offer products and services. Topics include user self-sufficiency; personalized service; artificial intelligence; collaborative filtering; and electronic…

  13. Processor for high-density digital tape-recorded signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashlock, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear filter and detection theory can bear on problem of reconstructing recorded bit stream. Problem can be taken from realm of nonlinear problems even though basic record process is still recognized as highly nonlinear. Digital tape recorder can be modeled as particular type of linear communication channel with intersymbol interference.

  14. Experiences with digital processing of images at INPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascarenhas, N. D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Four different research experiments with digital image processing at INPE will be described: (1) edge detection by hypothesis testing; (2) image interpolation by finite impulse response filters; (3) spatial feature extraction methods in multispectral classification; and (4) translational image registration by sequential tests of hypotheses.

  15. Digital stethoscope system: the feasibility of cardiac auscultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Młyńczak, Marcel; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Cybulski, Gerard

    2013-10-01

    The application of the digital stethoscope system is a new tendency in methods of cardiac auscultation. Heart sounds, generated by the fluctuations of blood velocity and vibrations of muscle structure, are an important signal in the primary diagnosis of heart diseases. Since the XIXs century for physical examination an analog stethoscope was used, but the development of microelectronics enable the construction of digital stethoscopes which started modern phonocardiography. The typical hardware of the system could be divided into analog and digital parts, respectively. The first one consists of microphone and pre-amplifier. The second one contains a microcontroller with peripherals for data saving and transmission. Usually the specialized software is applied for the signal acquisition and digital signal processing (filtering, spectral analysis and others). This paper presents an overview of methods used in cardiac auscultation and expected developing path in the future. It also contains the description of our digital stethoscope system, which is planned to be used in poliphysiographical studies.

  16. An all digital low data rate communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-H.; Fan, M.

    1973-01-01

    The advent of digital hardwares has made it feasible to implement many communication system components digitally. With the exception of frequency down conversion, the proposed low data rate communication system uses digital hardware completely. Although the system is designed primarily for deep space communications with large frequency uncertainty and low signal-to-noise ratio, it is also suitable for other low data rate applications with time-shared operation among a number of channels. Emphasis is placed on the fast Fourier transform receiver and the automatic frequency control via digital filtering. The speed available from the digital system allows sophisticated signal processing to reduce frequency uncertainty and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Digital cartography of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.; Duck, B.; Edwards, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution controlled mosaic of the hemisphere of Io centered on longitude 310 degrees is produced. Digital cartographic techniques were employed. Approximately 80 Voyager 1 clear and blue filter frames were utilized. This mosaic was merged with low-resolution color images. This dataset is compared to the geologic map of this region. Passage of the Voyager spacecraft through the Io plasma torus during acquisition of the highest resolution images exposed the vidicon detectors to ionized radiation, resulting in dark-current buildup on the vidicon. Because the vidicon is scanned from top to bottom, more charge accumulated toward the bottom of the frames, and the additive error increases from top to bottom as a ramp function. This ramp function was removed by using a model. Photometric normalizations were applied using the Minnaert function. An attempt to use Hapke's photometric function revealed that this function does not adequately describe Io's limb darkening at emission angles greater than 80 degrees. In contrast, the Minnaert function accurately describes the limb darkening up to emission angles of about 89 degrees. The improved set of discrete camera angles derived from this effort will be used in conjunction with the space telemetry pointing history file (the IPPS file), corrected on 4 or 12 second intervals to derive a revised time history for the pointing of the Infrared Interferometric Spectrometer (IRIS). For IRIS observations acquired between camera shutterings, the IPPS file can be corrected by linear interpolation, provided that the spacecraft motions were continuous. Image areas corresponding to the fields of view of IRIS spectra acquired between camera shutterings will be extracted from the mosaic to place the IRIS observations and hotspot models into geologic context.

  18. Digital carbonate rock physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  19. Digital cartography of Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Duck, B.; Edwards, Kathleen

    1991-06-01

    A high resolution controlled mosaic of the hemisphere of Io centered on longitude 310 degrees is produced. Digital cartographic techniques were employed. Approximately 80 Voyager 1 clear and blue filter frames were utilized. This mosaic was merged with low-resolution color images. This dataset is compared to the geologic map of this region. Passage of the Voyager spacecraft through the Io plasma torus during acquisition of the highest resolution images exposed the vidicon detectors to ionized radiation, resulting in dark-current buildup on the vidicon. Because the vidicon is scanned from top to bottom, more charge accumulated toward the bottom of the frames, and the additive error increases from top to bottom as a ramp function. This ramp function was removed by using a model. Photometric normalizations were applied using the Minnaert function. An attempt to use Hapke's photometric function revealed that this function does not adequately describe Io's limb darkening at emission angles greater than 80 degrees. In contrast, the Minnaert function accurately describes the limb darkening up to emission angles of about 89 degrees. The improved set of discrete camera angles derived from this effort will be used in conjunction with the space telemetry pointing history file (the IPPS file), corrected on 4 or 12 second intervals to derive a revised time history for the pointing of the Infrared Interferometric Spectrometer (IRIS). For IRIS observations acquired between camera shutterings, the IPPS file can be corrected by linear interpolation, provided that the spacecraft motions were continuous. Image areas corresponding to the fields of view of IRIS spectra acquired between camera shutterings will be extracted from the mosaic to place the IRIS observations and hotspot models into geologic context.

  20. The Digital Fields Board for the FIELDS instrument suite on the Solar Probe Plus mission: Analog and digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, David M.; Ergun, Robert E.; Bolton, Mary; Kien, Mark; Summers, David; Stevens, Ken; Yehle, Alan; Karlsson, Magnus; Hoxie, Vaughn C.; Bale, Stuart D.; Goetz, Keith

    2016-06-01

    The first in situ measurements of electric and magnetic fields in the near-Sun environment (< 0.25 AU from the Sun) will be made by the FIELDS instrument suite on the Solar Probe Plus mission. The Digital Fields Board (DFB) is an electronics board within FIELDS that performs analog and digital signal processing, as well as digitization, for signals between DC and 60 kHz from five voltage sensors and four search coil magnetometer channels. These nine input signals are processed on the DFB into 26 analog data streams. A specialized application-specific integrated circuit performs analog to digital conversion on all 26 analog channels simultaneously. The DFB then processes the digital data using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), generating a variety of data products, including digitally filtered continuous waveforms, high-rate burst capture waveforms, power spectra, cross spectra, band-pass filter data, and several ancillary products. While the data products are optimized for encounter-based mission operations, they are also highly configurable, a key design aspect for a mission of exploration. This paper describes the analog and digital signal processing used to ensure that the DFB produces high-quality science data, using minimal resources, in the challenging near-Sun environment.