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1

Digital hf radar observations of equatorial spread-F  

SciTech Connect

Modern digital ionosondes, with both direction finding and doppler capabilities can provide large scale pictures of the Spread-F irregularity regions. A morphological framework has been developed that allows interpretation of the hf radar data. A large scale irregularity structure is found to be nightward of the dusk terminator, stationary in the solar reference frame. As the plasma moves through this foehn-wall-like structure it descends, and irregularities may be generated. Localized upwellings, or bubbles, may be produced, and they drift with the background plasma. The spread-F irregularity region is found to be best characterized as a partly cloudy sky, due to the patchiness of the substructures. 13 references, 16 figures.

Argo, P.E.

1984-01-01

2

WAVE-DRIVEN SURFACE FROM HF RADAR  

E-print Network

FEATURE INTERNAL CURRENTS WAVE-DRIVEN SURFACE FROM HF RADAR By Lynn K. Shay Observations from-fre- quency (HF) radar have revealed that not only are the low-frequency and tidal currents resolved of the horizontal flow structure from HF radar pro- vides the spatial context for moored and ship- based

Miami, University of

3

Waveform analysis for HF ground wave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to general radar designing principles, this paper discusses the concepts and pro- cessing techniques concerning the radar waveform analysis. For the need in developing HF ground wave system, as requested by a key oceanic project in the national 863 plans, basic theories and parameter de- sign techniques on Frequency Modulated Interrupted Continuous Wave (FMICW) have been studied. This study

Wu Shi-cai; Yang Zi-jie; Wen Bi-yang; Shi Zhen-hua; Tian Jian-sheng

2001-01-01

4

HF radar role in an integrated ocean observing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Coastal Ocean radar Network (ACORN) is a monitoring network of HF radars which are being installed around Australia under a National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). It is a five-year project, at the end of which there will be five pairs of radar stations and one triplet installed and operating, enabled by the central pool of funding for

M. L. Heron; A. Prytz

2009-01-01

5

All-digital radar architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

Molchanov, Pavlo A.

2014-10-01

6

Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data  

E-print Network

Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data N. F-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

On the accuracy of HF radar surface current measurements: Intercomparisons with ship-based sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency (HF) radar systems can provide periodic, two-dimensional, vector current estimates over an area approaching 1000 km . As the use of these HF systems has gained wider acceptance, a number of attempts have been made to estimate the accuracy of such systems. However, comparisons of HF radar current estimates with in situ sensors are difficult to interpret since HF

R. D. Chapman; L. K. Shay; H. C. Graber; J. B. Edson; A. Karachintsev; C. L. Trump; D. B. Ross

1997-01-01

8

KONRAD: Wide band digital HF receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic support measures (ESM) and spread spectrum techniques, i.e. direct sequence (DS) or frequency hopping (FH), in the HF band require a high dynamic range as well as a large instantaneous bandwidth in the receiver. This report describes an experimental digital receiver utilizing digitally implemented quadrature splitting and baseband translation. It is shown that the use of digital quadrature splitting improves the image rejection and that oversampling and digital filtering improves the dynamic range. The receiver is built of standard components which give a beneficial cost/performance ratio. The focus is on the analog hardware of the experimental digital receiver named KONRAD. The report also serves as the manual for this receiver.

Oscarsson, F.

1994-01-01

9

Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

2008-01-01

10

Plume effect on radar cross section of missiles at HF band  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar cross section of missiles at HF band is affected by the presence of the missile plume. In fact, although the plume is transparent at microwave frequencies, it reflects almost the totality of the energy at the HF band. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of the missile plume on its radar cross section (RCS) at HF band.

M. Martorella; R. Soleti; F. Berizzi; E. Dalle Mese

2003-01-01

11

Design of LXIbus Interface Circuit for HF Ground Wave Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the requirements of modularization and standardization, this paper presents the design principle of general purpose LXI bus interface for high frequency ground wave radar (HF GWR) based on LXI bus using DSP ADSP-21062, Ethernet controller DM9000A and dual-ported RAM (DPRAM). It describes the hardware design and data transmission mode in detail. With the advantages of high flexibility, integrity

Wu Gongcheng; Chen Zezong; Xu Chao

2007-01-01

12

Multifrequency HF radar observations of surface currents: measurements from different systems and environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present three aspects of current HF radar research. First, they examine the consistency of measurements by HF ground wave radars with different designs, but operating on the same physical principles. This is done using data from the commercially available SeaSonde (Codar Ocean Systems) and from the Multifrequency Coastal Radar (MCR), which is a research system. Data from the

John Vesecky; Jessica Drake; Michal Plume; C. Teague; L. Meadows; Y. Fernandez; Ken Davidson; Jeff Paduan

2001-01-01

13

Sea State Monitoring HF Radar Controller Using Reconfigurable LabView FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Frequency (HF) Radars are used extensively for ocean observation and to provide synoptic current maps covering thousands of kilometres. HF Radar for Ocean observation is under development at SAMEER, IIT Bombay Campus. The project is funded by the Government of India, Ministry of Earth Sciences. The controller for this Radar is designed using NI LabVIEW 8.5 Professional System Development

Shubhada Gadgil; Dharmesh Verma; Meena S. Panse; Kushal Tuckley

2009-01-01

14

Toward an european Med HF-radar coastal monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of coastal areas through HF radar is developping in the european Mediterranean coasts, through national and international projects. Surface current maps may be used for process studies, forecast correction through assimilation, or for practical applications in transport studies (jellyfish, oil-spill, search-and-rescue operations). Results of radar campaigns in the North-western Mediterranean (evidence of mesoscale eddy in the Gulf of Lions and identification of dynamical structures by FSLE in the Ligurian Sea) are shown, as well as techniques for current reconstruction using a single site. A new inter-regional european project started in summer 2010, regrouping 5 countries for an integrated oil-spill coastal awarness network is presented.

Molcard, A.; Fraunie, P.

2010-12-01

15

Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes  

E-print Network

Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes Tadahiko Ogawa1 (200x) xx:1­8 Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes Tadahiko in Finland are presented. The echoes were detected at four frequencies of 9, 11, 13 and 15 MHz at slant

Kirkwood, Sheila

16

A Nested Multi-static HF Radar Testbed for the New York Bight and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface currents are envisioned to be an integral component of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and High Frequency (HF) radar technologies provide the means to measure these data across multiple scales. The Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (COOL) has continuously operated a nested network of HF radars since 1998 as part of a sustained coastal observatory centered on

J. T. Kohut; S. M. Glenn; H. J. Roarty; O. M. Schofield

2007-01-01

17

A Regional HF Radar Pilot Product: Serving IOOS needs in the Mid-Atlantic Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface currents are an integral component of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and High Frequency (HF) radar technologies provide the means to measure these data across regional scales. A national committee on surface current mapping, supported by OCEAN.US, has outlined an organizational structure for a national HF radar system. This plan separates the national system into regional centers responsible

J. Kohut

2006-01-01

18

Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

Mallik, Udayan

2011-01-01

19

HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida  

E-print Network

HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida A. B-frequency Wellen radar (WERA), transmitting at 16.045 MHz, was deployed along the eastern Florida Shelf current measurements within the radar footprint along the shelf break at 86-m depth. The shallowest ADCP

Miami, University of

20

On the design of a 2D array HF skywave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

New generation of HF skywave radars moves toward 2D array solution to get high signal to noise ratio (SNR), low probability of intercept (LPI), precise electronic scanning, faster scanning time. Critical elements for the design of such a system are radar configuration, antenna design, transmission waveforms and architecture, signal processing, radar management and control system. The goal of this paper

F. Berizzi; E. Dalle Mese; A. Monorchio; A. Capria; R. Soleti

2008-01-01

21

Comparison of multifrequency phased-array and direction-finding HF radar systems during COPE3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several HF radar systems were used to map ocean surface currents in the third Chesapeake Outflow Plume Experiment (COPE-3) conducted just outside the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, off Virginia Beach, VA during October and November 1997. A multifrequency radar system recently constructed by the University of Michigan, an Ocean Surface Current Radar (OSCR) system operated by the University of Miami,

C. C. Teague; D. M. Fernandez; K. E. Laws; J. D. Paduan; J. F. Vesecky

1998-01-01

22

Measuring rms Wave Height and the Scalar Ocean Wave Spectrum With HF Skywave Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of rms wave height and the scalar ocean wave frequency spectrum were made by inverting high-frequency (HF) skywave radar-measured sea-echo Doppler spectra. Whereas low-power surface- wave radars can make these measurements out to approximately 100 km from the radar, coverage out to 3000 km can be obtained with skywave radars that illuminate the sea via a single ionospheric reflection.

Joseph W. Maresca; T. M. Georges

1980-01-01

23

Low-Profile Multifrequency HF Antenna Design for Coastal Radar Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design for an electrically small high-frequency (HF) antenna suitable for coastal radar applications is presented. The principle design objectives were to develop an HF antenna resonant at multiple frequencies that is also compact and easily transportable for deployment to coastal sites and on floating platforms. The compact antenna achieves practical performance values for radiation resistance, bandwidth, and gain

James Baker; Hyoung-Sun Youn; Nuri Celik; Magdy F. Iskander

2010-01-01

24

Meridian-scanning photometer, coherent HF radar, and magnetometer observations of the cusp: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the cusp region and post- noon sector for an interval of predominantly IMF By, Bz < 0 nT are studied with the CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, a meridian-scanning photometer located at Ny Alesund, Svalbard, and a meridional network of magnetometers. The scanning mode of the radar is such that one beam is sampled every 14 s,

S. E. Milan; M. Lester; S. W. H. Cowley; J. Moen; P. E. Sandholt; C. J. Owen

1999-01-01

25

Inversion of swell frequency from a 1-year HF radar dataset collected in Brittany (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents long period ocean wave (swell) frequencies inverted from a 13-month dataset of high-frequency (HF) phased array radars and an assessment of these estimates by comparison with WAVEWATCH III model data. The method of swell frequency inversion from high-frequency radar sea echo Doppler spectra is described. Radar data were collected from a two-site HF Wellen Radar (WERA) radar system on the west coast of Brittany (France) operating at 12 MHz. A standard beam-forming processing technique has been used to obtain Doppler spectra of processed radar cells. Swell frequencies are obtained from the frequencies of particular spectral peaks of the second-order continuum in hourly averaged Doppler spectra. The data coverage of effective Doppler spectra considered for swell frequency estimates shows the influence of islands and shallow water effects. Swell estimates from both radar stations are in good agreement. The comparison of radar-derived results to WAVEWATCH III (WW3) estimates shows that radar measurements agree quite well with model results. The bias and standard deviation between two estimates are very small for swells with frequency less than 0.09 Hz (period >11 s), whereas radar estimates are generally lower than model estimates for shorter swells, along with higher standard deviation. Statistical analysis suggests that radar measurement uncertainty explains most of the difference between radar and model estimates. For each swell event, time series of frequency exhibits a quasi-linear frequency increase which is associated with the dispersive property of wave phase velocity. The use of swell frequency estimates from both radars on common radar cells only slightly increases the accuracy of swell frequency measurement.

Wang, Weili; Forget, Philippe; Guan, Changlong

2014-10-01

26

Characterization of ocean surface current properties from single site HF\\/VHF radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface current mapping from HF\\/VHF coastal radars traditionally requires at least two distant sites. Vector velocities are\\u000a estimated by combining the radial velocity components measured by the radars. In many circumstances (e.g., failures, interferences,\\u000a logistics constraints), such a combination is not possible by lack of data from one station. Two methods are evaluated to\\u000a get information on surface circulation from

Julien Marmain; Philippe Forget; Anne Molcard

27

Design and applications of a versatile HF radar calibration target in low Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High frequency (HF) radars are used to detect ionospheric irregularities, meteor trails, and moving targets. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is a simple radar target in space to help determine the operational parameters of ground HF radars. PERCS will have a known radar cross section that is independent of observation direction within 0.5 dB. The PERCS satellite can be launched in a stowed configuration that has about 1 m in diameter. After launch, the PERCS will expand to a diameter of almost 10 m. Upon expansion, a stable wire frame is formed to act as a radar scatter target in the form of a polyhedral sphere. The simplest version of the sphere has 60 vertices (V60) that are joined to 90 rigid segments. Each segment is hinged so that the PERCS can be folded into a compact package for launch. Analysis of the V60 wire frame with a 10 m diameter shows that the radar cross section (RCS) is nearly independent of viewing angle up to 30 MHz. Another design with 240 vertices produces even better performance. Radar systems will be calibrated using the radar echo data and the precise knowledge of the target RCS, position, and velocity. The PERCS can reflect radar signals from natural targets such as field aligned and current driven irregularities not presently accessible from ground-based radars. The wire frame structure has several advantages over a metalized spheroid "balloon" with (1) much less drag, (2) larger radar cross section, and (3) lower fabrication cost.

Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Thomason, Joe F.; Rodriquez, Serafin P.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Koss, Steven M.; Nurnberger, Mike; Hoberman, Chuck; Davis, Matthew; Hysell, David L.; Kelley, Michael C.

2008-02-01

28

APQ-102 imaging radar digital image quality study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified APQ-102 sidelooking radar collected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data which was digitized and recorded on wideband magnetic tape. These tapes were then ground processed into computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The CCT's may then be processed into high resolution radar images by software on the CYBER computer.

Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

1982-01-01

29

Optimization of boundary conditions of a North Western Mediterranean coastal zone using HF radar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correction of open boundary conditions (OBC) is attempted to improve surface velocity fields by assimilating HF radar velocities in a North Western Mediterranean (NWM) coastal model nested in a large scale operational model (Mercator Ocean system PSY2) providing IC (Initial Conditions) and OBC. A method based on HF radar velocities assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to derive the optimal wind forcing had already been validated. The objective of this work is to implement this method to the OBC correction. An ensemble simulation of the NWM sea model is carried out under different OBC to estimate model error covariance and covariance between surface currents and OBC. We evaluate the ability to correct the baroclinic oceanic forcings and to improve the surface current using a distant HF radar system. First, the method is assessed using twin experiments and a NWM sea model based on a Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) configuration at 1/12. Next, the method is applied to a high resolution (1/64) NEMO-based model using a HF radar system operating in the Cote d'Azur. The method evaluation is done in both the eulerian and the lagrangian framework, based on a comprehensive data set (surface radial currents, surface drifter trajectories) obtained during the TOSCA (MedProgram) campaign. TOSCA project intends to optimize the response to marine accidents (oil spill, search and rescue) in Mediterranean sea, and the radar data assimilation may represent a great advantage to describe with more accuracy surface currents. Keywords : HF radar, data assimilation, ensemble simulation, surface meso-scale process, North Western Mediterranean sea, coastal modelling.

Marmain, Julien; Molcard, Anne; Forget, Philippe; Barth, Alexander

2013-04-01

30

Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.

Dicenzo, A.

1979-01-01

31

Predicting the capabilities of ship monitoring by HF radar in coastal regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maritime domain awareness is important for coastal nations in terms of applications to coastal conservancy, security, fishery and stewardship of their exclusive economic zones (EEZs). Maritime situational awareness involves knowing the location, speed and bearing of ships and boats in the EEZ. HF radar is a useful tool in providing ship information in real time. It is especially effective when

Kenneth Laws; John Vesecky; Jeffrey Paduan

2011-01-01

32

HF radar in French Mediterranean Sea: an element of MOOSE Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment  

E-print Network

HF radar in French Mediterranean Sea: an element of MOOSE Mediterranean Ocean Observing System , Pascal Guterman2 , Karim Bernardet2 1 Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO, UM 110, USTV. In the framework of the French MOOSE project (Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment

Boyer, Edmond

33

Multiple scattering of HF skywave radar signals : Physics, interpretation and exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

HF radar signals rely on the ionosphere to achieve over-the-horizon surveillance, but this is obtained at the expense of subjecting the signals to a diverse range of scattering and modulation phenomena. Many of these effects are associated with multiple scattering, both in the ionosphere and near the earthpsilas surface. This paper reviews a variety of multiple scattering phenomena and shows

Stuart Anderson

2008-01-01

34

Surface current and wave validation of a nested regional HF radar Network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Frequency Surface Current Mapping Radar Network is being developed as a backbone system within the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Of the core variables recognized in the IOOS Development Plan, two can be measured by high frequency radar (HFR): ocean surface currents and ocean surface waves. Rutgers University operates a nested multi-frequency network of HF radar systems

J. Kohut; H. Roarty; S. Licthenwalner; S. Glenn; D. Barrick; B. Lipa; A. Allen

2008-01-01

35

Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) Polarimetric Upgrade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art radar system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center for the development and implementation of digital beamforming radar techniques. DBSAR was recently upgraded to polarimetric operation in order to enhance its capability as a science instrument. Two polarimetric approaches were carried out which will be demonstrated in upcoming flight campaigns.

Rincon, Rafael F.; Perrine, Martin; McLinden, Matthew; Valett, Susan

2011-01-01

36

On the use of HF radar for diagnostics of traveling ionospheric disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an investigation of an efficiency of the HF radar for diagnostics of medium-scale and large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs and LSTIDs). The simulation of the TIDs influence on the ground backscatter signal characteristics was carried out. The method of the HF signal characteristics calculation developed in ISTP SB RAS on the basis of waveguide approach was used. Ionospheric disturbance model used in the simulation was analytical representation taking into account of basic TIDs parameters. The background electron density distribution was calculated by IRI2007 model. The simulation was carried out for different sets of TIDs parameters and directions of the sounding. We studied the TIDs influence on signal characteristics of SuperDARN radars located both in European (Pykkvybaer, Hankasalmi) and Asian (Bratsk, Magadan) longitudinal sector. The simulation allowed us to determine the relation between basic TIDs parameters and variations of the received signal characteristics. The results of TIDs diagnostics for CUTLAS radars experiment are discussed.

Kurkin, Vladimir I.; Lester, Mark; Oinats, Alexey V.; Kutelev, Konstantin A.

2010-05-01

37

Analysis of radar images by means of digital terrain models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the importance of digital terrain models in the processing, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data is increasing. In investigations related to the study of radar images, digital terrain models can have a particular significance, because radar reflection is a function of the terrain characteristics. A procedure for the analysis and interpretation of radar images is discussed. The procedure is based on a utilization of computer simulation which makes it possible to produce simulated radar images on the basis of a digital terrain model. The simulated radar images are used for the geometric and radiometric rectification of real radar images. A description of the employed procedures is provided, and the obtained results are discussed, taking into account a test area in Northern California.

Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Kobrick, M.

1984-01-01

38

A Multi-frequency Beam-forming HF Radar for Tsunami Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a new multi-frequency beam-forming HF radar design for robust detection and tracking of tsunami waves from 200 km distances, providing continuous coverage of the tsunami wave pattern after it impinges on the continental shelf. The method works by mapping ocean currents at long range using traditional HF radar method of radial Bragg line Doppler shift measurements. The tsunami is detected by anomalous spatial patterns of higher than normal Bragg-line shifts due to the large orbital wave of the series of tsunami wave crests as they impinge on the continental shelf. An approach using beam forming of 16 or 32 antenna elements provides an update every five minutes or less, while Direction-of-Arrival method systems using just a few antenna elements inherently require of the order of 30 to 60 minutes for a reliable current map. The multi-frequency radar provides a more robust capability than the single frequency HF radar for at least two reasons. First, because the HF channel user spectrum suffers diurnal variability in channel occupancy due to the ionosphere changing with time of day, low frequencies can become contaminated with user noise, so that maximum range for reliable detection not achieved. Under this condition, one would rely on quiet higher HF frequencies that lie above the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) for ionospheric reflection propagation. Alternatively, for daylight operation when low frequency utilization can be used to minimize surface wave propagation loss, the sea state might not be sufficiently active to allow long range coverage needed for reliable detection, due to the lack of ocean wave spectral energy at the Bragg-resonant wave frequency. Thus, single- frequency radars, operating in the 4-6 MHz range to minimize propagation losses to achieve long-range coverage, would suffer due to low wind conditions. The multi-frequency HF radar discussed here allows one to dynamically choose the optimum frequency from a set of 8 to 16, as allowed by local radio frequency allocation authorities, assuming just a single frequency is used at a time. Alternatively, one may choose four to eight frequencies operating simultaneously, to allow the clearest channel and best signal strength channel for enhanced processing. We will discuss the tradeoffs on multiple frequency use versus single optimum frequency use, both using a multi-frequency radar capability. Results of preliminary testing of a prototype system at Duck, NC will also be presented.

Trizna, D. B.

2007-05-01

39

Developing tools for digital radar image data evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The refinement of radar image analysis methods has led to a need for a systems approach to radar image processing software. Developments stimulated through satellite radar are combined with standard image processing techniques to create a user environment to manipulate and analyze airborne and satellite radar images. One aim is to create radar products for the user from the original data to enhance the ease of understanding the contents. The results are called secondary image products and derive from the original digital images. Another aim is to support interactive SAR image analysis. Software methods permit use of a digital height model to create ortho images, synthetic images, stereo-ortho images, radar maps or color combinations of different component products. Efforts are ongoing to integrate individual tools into a combined hardware/software environment for interactive radar image analysis.

Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Raggam, J.

1986-01-01

40

Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital image transformation and rectification can be described in three categories: (1) digital rectification of spacecraft pictures on workable stereoplotters; (2) digital correction of radar image geometry; and (3) digital reconstruction of shaded relief maps and perspective views including stereograms. Digital rectification can make high-oblique pictures workable on stereoplotters that would otherwise not accommodate such extreme tilt angles. It also enables panoramic line-scan geometry to be used to compile contour maps with photogrammetric plotters. Rectifications were digitally processed on both Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars as well as radar images taken by various radar systems. By merging digital terrain data with image data, perspective and three-dimensional views of Olympus Mons and Tithonium Chasma, also of Mars, are reconstructed through digital image processing. ?? 1985.

Wu, S.S.C.

1985-01-01

41

Applications of spectral estimation techniques to radar Doppler processing: Simulation and analysis of HF (High-frquency) skywave radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is the second paper in a series of studies of the application of spectral estimations techniques to Doppler processing of coherent radar signals. In this work, simulated high-frequency (HF) radar sea scatter time series are generated and processed by use of three different spectral estimation algorithms and the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The sea clutter is simulated by narrowband filtering a wideband Gaussian noise spectrum in the frequency domain, with filter widths appropriate to describe first-order Bragg lines and second-order continuum. Targets are introduced as sinusoids, stepped by 5 dB for eight different echo power values, and stepped in Doppler frequency for four different values relative to the clutter. These simulations identify problems that appear unique to Doppler processing of coherent radar data in the presence of broadband clutter, and are in distinction to the application of spectral estimation to processing in the spatial domain. In the latter case, the spectral contributions are generally narrowly confined in the angular power spectral estimate, and the aim is to separate these contributions in the presence of noise. The HF radar application is concerned with separation of weak targets in the presence of stronger clutter returns, which are relati vely broad compared to the target return. It appears that the Burg maximum entropy method allows the detection of targets in clutter under conditions which the FFT is incapable of detection with any degree of accuracy.

Trizna, D. B.; McNeal, G. D.

1985-12-01

42

Digital orthogonal receiver for wideband radar based on compressed sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital orthogonal receiver is one of the key techniques in digital receiver of soft radar, and compressed sensing is attracting more and more attention in radar signal processing. In this paper, we propose a CS digital orthogonal receiver for wideband radar which utilizes compressed sampling in the acquisition of radar raw data. In order to reconstruct complex signal from sub-sampled raw data, a novel sparse dictionary is proposed to represent the real-valued radar raw signal sparsely. Using our dictionary and CS algorithm, we can reconstruct the complex-valued radar signal from sub-sampled echoes. Compared with conventional digital orthogonal radar receiver, the architecture of receiver in this paper is more simplified and the sampling frequency of ADC is reduced sharply. At the same time, the range profile can be obtained during the reconstruction, so the matched filtering can be eliminated in the receiver. Some experiments on ISAR imaging based on simulated data prove that the phase information of radar echoes is well reserved in our orthogonal receiver and the whole design is effective for wideband radar.

Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

2014-10-01

43

DIGITAL VISION he advent of phased array radars and space-time adaptive processing has given radar  

E-print Network

© DIGITAL VISION T he advent of phased array radars and space-time adaptive processing has given radar designers the ability make radars adaptable on receive. The current state of radar technolo- gy of pairs of complementary sequences. Shortly thereafter, Welti proposed to use Golay sequences in radar

Nehorai, Arye

44

Low-cost, panelized digital array radar antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design challenges associated with the development of the antenna array for a highly-integrated, low-cost, panelized radar system have been presented, and the methodology for the development of a digital array radar (DAR) antenna panel has been detailed. Now that a solution for the maximization of scan range in in the DAR antenna panel has been identified, the next step

C. Fulton; W. Chappell

2008-01-01

45

47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emissions in the HF broadcasting service. (a) For digitally modulated...Audio-frequency band. The quality of service, using digital source coding...of 3 kHz). The choice of audio quality is connected to the needs...

2011-10-01

46

The first in-situ observations of echoing HF radar backscatter targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first direct measurements of HF-backscatter echoing electron density structures were conduced by the ICI-2 sounding rocket launched into the cusp ionosphere over Svalbard 5 December 2008. The echoing targets for coherent HF radars are 10-m scale electron density structures, half the operating radar wave length. Descending from ~300-200 km altitude, ICI-2 traversed volumes of HF backscatter detected by the CUTLASS radar, near the poleward boundary of the active cusp. ICI-2 carried a novel 4-Needle Langmuir Probe system capable to measure absolute electron density at 5.7 kHz sampling rate which means sub-meter resolution along the trajectory. The payload was also equipped with a high resolution electron spectrometer to resolve fine scale structures in the cusp auroral precipitation, and it carried an electric field experiment to measure the plasma drift surrounding the space craft. The 10-m plasma irregularities were observed near the trailing edge of km scale gradients in the electron density, which is in favour of the gradient drift instability. The electron density gradients on which the gradient drift instability could operate were apparently modulated by the electron precipitation. Furthermore, plasma structuring also occurred near the centre of the inverted V electron beam, indicating that a current driven instability process is also to be considered.

Moen, J. I.; Oksavik, K.; Abe, T.; Lester, M.; Saito, Y.; Bekkeng, J. K.; Jacobsen, K. S.; Bekkeng, T. A.

2010-12-01

47

Observations of convection vortices in the afternoon sector using the SuperDARN HF radars  

SciTech Connect

Observations of convection vortices using the new SuperDARN HF radars are presented. The velocity field derived from the overlapping fields of view of the new HF radars at Kapuskasing, Ontario, and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, often image the portion of the convection pattern near the convection reversal boundary. Observations from near the convection reversal boundary in the afternoon sector of October 22, 1993, showed two convection vortices evolving within the field of view of both radars. The first vortex appeared at about 2120 UT and the second at about 2145 UT: 1446 MLT and 1512 MLT, respectively. The vortices were roughly 900 km in diameter and moved tailward with a velocity of about 600 m/s. At the times the vortices were observed by the radars, ground-based magnetometers of the CANOPUS and MACCS chains show transient deflections of near 100 nT, and the GOES 6 and GOES 7 satellite magnetometers showed significant decreases in the magnetospheric magnetic field strength. Data from the Geotail satellite magnetometer lagged by an appropriate time interval indicated that there were southward turnings of the interplanetary magnetic field that coincided with the decreases of magnetospheric magnetic field strength. The observations differ in many respects from previously published vortex observations. It is theorized that the vortices were caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer. 48 refs.

Bristow, W.A.; Greenwald, R.A.; Sibeck, D.G. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)] [and others] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States); and others

1995-10-01

48

Surface current patterns in the Ibiza Channel with the use of High Frequency (HF) Radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ibiza Channel located between the East Coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and the West Coast of Ibiza, at the Balearic Islands, is a well-known biodiversity hot spot. This area is relevant due to the interaction of water masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean - ascending through the Iberian Peninsula coast - with the older Atlantic waters descending from the Gulf of Lion. In 2012, the installation of Coastal HF Radar in the area provides valuable information for the study of the surface transport along the channel. The Coastal HF Radar operates since June 2012, and provides hourly surface current maps with a spatial resolution of approximately 3 km and a range reaching up to 70 km offshore. The instrument forms part of a monitoring multi-platform system, which is completed with satellite-derived data, gliders, modelling and fixed and lagrangian buoys. All HF Radar data are processed with standard quality control methods. Drifter velocity obtained from lagrangian buoys for two oceanographic campaigns, satellite-derived data and currentmeter data from a fixed buoy in the Ibiza Channel are used to validate the HF Radar data. All surface current data are used to perform a spectrum analysis in order to show the physical processes, at the main temporal periods. The contribution of the different temporal scales to the total Kinetic Energy has been analysed for the first time at different seasonal intervals. This served to evaluate the energetic importance of the different components of the surface currents. The inertial currents have a lower contribution to the total KE during winter, compared with the summer period. Besides, the spatial distribution of the inertial component to the total KE varies seasonally, and according to the bathymetry of the area. The low-pass (sub-inertial) filtered HF Radar currents show a predominant northern current during the summer months in the channel, and a mean southern current during the winter period. These results are discussed and related with the external forcing, and bathymetry distribution, according to coastal or open ocean data.

Lana, Arancha; Fernndez, Vicente; Troupin, Charles; Pascual, Ananda; Orfila, Alejandro; Tintor, Joaqun

2014-05-01

49

Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance Characteristics Over Texas Using the TIDDBIT HF Doppler Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) are generated by numerous lower atmospheric processes, such as storms, and by auroral processes in the ionosphere. At ionospheric heights, the motion of the neutral gas in the AGW sets the ionosphere into motion. The waves displace the isoionic contours, resulting in a travelling ionospheric disturbance (TID). TIDs can be thought of as traveling corrugations in the ionosphere, and they can seriously affect HF radio communications and surveillance systems. Consequently, one of the most sensitive methods for detecting transient changes in the ionosphere is the HF Doppler technique operating in the 3-10 MHz band. A simple Doppler system consists of a CW (continuous wave) radio transmitter and receiver, which are highly frequency-stable. When a HF radio wave is reflected from the ionosphere, movement of the reflection point during passage of a TID produces a change in phase path and a Doppler shift proportional to the time rate of change of the phase path. The Doppler system is sensitive to motions of the ionospheric reflection point, and it therefore provides an accurate measure of both the TID and AGW periods. Similarly, because the TID velocity is determined simply from triangulation using the time-delays between perturbations at different reflection points, the TID velocities are also an accurate estimate of the underlying gravity wave horizontal and vertical trace velocities. HF Doppler systems have advantages over all other techniques for the measurement of TID characteristics. They are more amenable to analysis than data from ionosonde chains, and their time resolution (30 sec) is much higher than that of ionosondes . Unlike total electron content (TEC) methods, which respond to height-integrated TID effects, the HF Doppler radar responds to TIDs at the altitude of the radio reflection point. Finally, HF Doppler systems have low power consumption, so that both spatial and temporal resolution can be maintained for many days without the costs that would be associated with an incoherent-scatter radar. SwRI recently designed, built and deployed an HF Doppler sounding system for three months, in Texas, to investigate TIDs. The TIDDBIT radar consisted of three transmitters (Austin, Uvalde and St. Hedwig) and a receiver in San Antonio, Texas. Using cross-spectral analysis and triangulation of the TIDDBIT signals, TID speeds and azimuths were obtained for each wave frequency. We provide a synoptic survey of the TID characteristics observed over Texas during January-March 2002. Such a system would be of great utility for the study of gravity wave seeding of low latitude ionospheric irregularities.

Wene, G.; Crowley, G.; Fessler, B.; Bronn, J.

2004-05-01

50

Digital methods of the optimum processing of radar signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In book questions of use\\/application of digital computers for optimum processing of radar signals are examined. Primary attention is given to the detection of signals from the targets, hidden by interferences, and to the determination of the target coordinates. Is described the work of the simplest diagrams of working\\/treatment, their operating principle, and also work of some nodes of digital

S. V. Samsonenko

1985-01-01

51

Determination of ionospheric parameters in real time using SuperDARN HF Radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for determining key ionospheric parameters from high-frequency (HF) over-the-horizon radar ground scatter data is investigated using two Southern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars and also a Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN radar with reliable elevation angle-of-arrival capability. Ground scatter data are analyzed over a range of frequencies from 8 to 18 MHz to determine the maximum usable frequency and the vertical critical frequency over a wide geographical area within the radar field of view. The technique is shown to be well suited to middle to high latitudes where backscatter echoes from the ground dominate over those from ionospheric scattering targets. However, the technique is shown to break down during the winter months and away from solar maximum. It is shown that the use of reliable elevation angles can greatly enhance such methods allowing discrimination between ground scatter propagating via the E and F regions. It is also shown that contamination from very low velocity ionospheric scatter and ground scatter originating from the back lobe of the radar can be effectively filtered out, with the use of reliable elevation angles. This greatly improves the reliability of the ionospheric data products and allows for a high degree of automation of the process.

Bland, Emma C.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Larquier, Sebastien; Devlin, John C.

2014-07-01

52

Measurements of hf auroral clutter using the verona ava linear array radar (VALAR). Report for June 1990-June 1991  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of high frequency (HF) auroral clutter using the Verona Ava Linear Array Radar (VALAR) system are presented. VALAR is an experimental HF backscatter system capable of obtaining high resolution synoptic mapping of HF auroral clutter. The receive system includes a 700 meter long linear array. providing the high azimuthal resolution required for determining the spatial distribution of HF auroral clutter. Since the completion of the system at the end of 1989, data acquisition campaigns have been carried out on a near-monthly basis. In this report, the authors provide a brief description of VALAR and present preliminary measurements of three types of phenomena: ground backscatter, slant-F, and auroral backscatter.

Choi, D.S.; Weijers, B.; Myers, N.B.

1994-03-01

53

Synergistic surface current mapping by spaceborne stereo imaging and coastal HF radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well validated optical and radar methods of surface current measurement at high spatial resolution (nominally <100 m) from space can greatly advance our ability to monitor earth's oceans, coastal zones, lakes and rivers. With interest growing in optical along-track stereo techniques for surface current and wave motion determinations, questions of how to interpret such data and how to relate them to measurements made by better validated techniques arise. Here we make the first systematic appraisal of surface currents derived from along-track stereo Sun glitter (ATSSG) imagery through comparisons with simultaneous synoptic flows observed by coastal HF radars working at frequencies of 13.9 and 24.5 MHz, which return averaged currents within surface layers of roughly 1 m and 2 m depth respectively. At our Tsushima Strait (Japan) test site, we found that these two techniques provided largely compatible surface current patterns, with the main difference apparent in current strength. Within the northwest (southern) comparison region, the magnitudes of the ATSSG current vectors derived for 13 August 2006 were on average 22% (40%) higher than the corresponding vectors for the 1-m (2-m) depth radar. These results reflect near-surface vertical current structure, differences in the flow components sensed by the two techniques and disparities in instrumental performance. The vertical profile constructed here from ATSSG, HF radar and ADCP data is the first to resolve downwind drift in the upper 2 m of the open ocean. The profile e-folding depth suggests Stokes drift from waves of 10-m wavelength visible in the images.

Matthews, John Philip; Yoshikawa, Yutaka

2012-09-01

54

Assessment of the impact of HF radar current measurements on hydrodynamical model forecasts in the German Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of high frequency (HF) radar measurements in the German Bight is investigated using a statistical assessment approach as well as an assimilation method. Within the project COSYNA (Coastal Observation SYstem for Northern and Arctic seas) three HF radar stations located in Wangerooge, Bsum, and Sylt will provide continuous surface current measurements. The presented study is about first steps towards the use of these data in an assimilation system to improve forecasts with a three dimensional hydrodynamical model. To get a first idea about the impact of radar measurements, an optimal linear estimator is used to re-construct the complete surface current field from HF radar observations taking into account both the prior current distribution and radar measurement errors. The prior current distribution is estimated using a three dimensional hydrodynamical primitive equation model with 1 km resolution. The performance of the HF radar observations is quantified in terms of the re-construction quality. Different combinations of radar stations are investigated using synthetic observations. In particular the impact of the additional two-dimensional information obtained with two stations instead of one station is illustrated. The direct use of radial current components for the re-construction is compared to the use of surface current vectors derived from the combination of two or three radar stations. Apart from the capability of the HF radar observations to provide estimates of the current field at the time of the observations, the potential of the measurements to provide forecasts is investigated with the linear re-construction approach as well. Furthermore the linear approach is used to re-construct the surface elevation rate of change making use of the continuity equation. An assimilation method based on the ensemble Kalman filter is used for a first impact assessment of HF radar measurements within a forecast system. Synthetic measurements with different characteristics, e.g., different combinations of radar stations, different measurement errors, are investigated. Twin runs are performed to compare forecasts with different configurations of the assimilation system, e.g., different assimilation intervals or different numbers of ensemble members. First available measurements of the radial surface current component obtained by the Wangerooge station are analyzed. Both the horizontal current field structure and the temporal evolution of the current field are compared to the numerical model with a focus on the M2 tidal signal. The analysis will also provide a statistics on the frequency of missing values, which is important for the assimilation of the data.

Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil; Ziemer, Friedwart; Gurgel, Klaus-Werner

2010-05-01

55

HF Doppler and VHF radar observations of upper atmospheric disturbances caused by weak cold front during winter time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simultaneous use of the Taiwan VHF radar and the HF Doppler sounder for remote measurement of three-dimensional winds, gravity waves, and density perturbations at mesospheric and thermospheric heights is demonstrated. A special event of atmospheric disturbances caused by propagating gravity waves excited by weak convective motions in winter time were investigated. The three-dimensional wind velocities at different heights were determined, and the frequency, horizontal wavelength, vertical wavelength, and phase velocity of the gravity waves were measured. The subtropical, low-latitude site makes the VHF radar and HF Doppler array systems unique, and the observations especially valuable for space projects dealing with low-latitude atmosphere.

Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Gao, M.; Johnson, D. L.; Yang, F. W.

1990-01-01

56

Mapping surface currents from HF radar radial velocity measurements using optimal interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal interpolation (OI) method to compute surface vector current fields from radial velocity measurements derived from high-frequency (HF) radars is presented. The method assumes a smooth spatial covariance relationship between neighboring vector currents, in contrast to the more commonly used un-weighted least-squares fitting (UWLS) method, which assumes a constant vector velocity within a defined search radius. This OI method can directly compute any quantities linearly related to the radial velocities, such as vector currents and dynamic quantities (divergence and vorticity) as well as the uncertainties of those respective fields. The OI method is found to be more stable than the UWLS method and reduces spurious vector solutions near the baselines between HF radar installations. The OI method produces a covariance of the uncertainty of the estimated vector current fields. Three nondimensional uncertainty indices are introduced to characterize the uncertainty of the vector current at a point, representing an ellipse with directional characteristics. The vector current estimation using the OI method eliminates the need for multiple mapping steps and optimally fills intermittent coverage gaps. The effects of angular interpolation of radial velocities, a commonly used step in the preprocessing of radial velocity data prior to vector current computation in the UWLS method, are presented.

Kim, Sung Yong; Terrill, Eric J.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

2008-10-01

57

Characterizing Long Island Sound outflows from HF radar using self-organizing maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface outflows from the Long Island Sound are examined from one-year records of HF radar (CODAR) observations. Synoptic flow patterns are identified using manual classification, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition, and self-organizing maps (SOM). Four characteristic flow patterns for the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons each are obtained through a 2 2 SOM array. The SOM is confirmed by comparison with manual classification, and is shown to be a significant improvement over EOF classification. It is suggested that the degrees of freedom of the leading EOF modes can be used as a constraint on the otherwise arbitrary SOM dimension. The relationship between the flow patterns and the winds also can be conveniently examined in SOM. The outflows are shown to interact strongly with the ambient coastal currents, both of which are under the influence of the winds. This result challenges the conventional wisdom which often treats the outflows independent of the ambient currents. The advantage of using SOM in synthesizing and interpreting synoptic HF radar observations is clearly demonstrated.

Mau, Jenq-Chi; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ullman, David S.; Codiga, Daniel L.

2007-08-01

58

Kilometric irregularities in the E and R regions of the daytime equatorial ionosphere observed by a high resolution HF radar  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe results from a vertically oriented HF radar operated in the Ivory Coast, which studied irregularities in the E and F regions of the equatorial ionosphere. The authors report on irregularity observations at heights consistent with the equatorial electrojet, and at heights above the electrojet, and into the F1 layer. They observe irregularities into the F region in this work. The radar operated in the frequency range from 1 to 8 MHz.

Blanc, E.; Mercandalli, B. [Laboratorie de Detection et de Geophysique, Bruyeres le Chatel (France)] [Laboratorie de Detection et de Geophysique, Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Houngninou, E.

1996-03-15

59

Methods for the extraction of long-period ocean wave parameters from narrow beam HF radar sea echo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes inversion methods for HF radar sea echo Doppler spectra, giving parameters of the ocean wave spectrum in the important long-wavelength region. Radar spectra exhibiting very narrow spikes in the higher-order structure adjacent to the first-order lines are indicative of ocean wave components with a single dominant wavelength. In the simplest method of interpretation these components are assumed

Belinda Lipa; Donald Barrick

1980-01-01

60

HF (HIGH FREQUENCY) RADAR MEASUREMENTS OF CIRCULATION IN THE EASTERN STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA NEAR PROTECTION ISLAND (JULY, 1979)  

EPA Science Inventory

During July 1979 the surface currents in the Eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca were mapped with a High Frequency (HF) radar system (CODAR). These currents were measured simultaneously over several hundred square kilometers continuously for five days. The strong tidal currents and es...

61

HF (HIGH FREQUENCY) RADAR MEASUREMENTS OF CIRCULATION IN THE EASTERN STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA (AUGUST, 1978)  

EPA Science Inventory

During August, 1978, the surface currents in the Eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca were mapped with a High Frequency (HF) radar system (CODAR). The surface currents were measured simultaneously over several hundred square kilometers at one hour intervals continuously for five days. ...

62

A relaxation method for integral inversion applied to HF radar measurement of the ocean wave directional spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chahine-Twomey relaxation method for inversion of the atmospheric radiative transfer equation is extended to provide an inverse solution to Barrick's equation describing second order scatter of high frequency (HF) radio waves from the ocean surface. The success of the method is demonstrated here using synthesised radar Doppler spectra obtained by solving the direct problem with wave buoy directional spectrum

LUCY R. WYATT

1990-01-01

63

The potential of bistatic HF surface wave radar system for the surveillance of water-entry area along coastline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bistatic\\/monostatic HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) experiment was conducted using both the transmit and receive systems of the HFSWR at Cape Race, Newfoundland and the receive system of the HFSWR at Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland. While the HFSWR at Cape Race operated in the monostatic mode, the transmitter at Cape Race and the receiver at Cape Bonavista were synchronized via

H. Leong

2006-01-01

64

Occurrence characteristics of Mesosphere Summer Echoes observed by the SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At high latitudes in summer, neutral temperature of the mesopause around the 85 km altitude goes below about 150 K, heavy charged ice aerosol particles are generated, which reduce electron diffusivity. Neutral air turbulence in combination with the reduced electron diffusivity leads to the creation of structures which backscatter radio waves (Rapp and Lbken, ACP, 2004). As a result, the echoes backscattered near the mesopause are frequently observed in summer in the polar region as Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs). In recent years mesosphere echoes have been observed not only in the polar region but also at midlatitudes as Mesosphere Summer Echoes (MSEs) (Ogawa et al., JASTP, 2011). In this study, we present a statistical analysis of MSEs observed by the midlatitude SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar (geographic latitude: +43.53 N deg). We make use of the criteria for identifying MSEs adopted by Ogawa et al. (EPS, in press) who have performed an event study of MSE using the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar. As a result, MSEs are observed more frequently in the daytime (07 to 18 LT) and summer (in particular June and July) than other local times and seasons. This result is similar to the characteristics of PMSEs previously reported by Hosokawa et al. (GRL, 2005) using high latitude SuperDARN radars. MSEs are often contaminated with echoes from the Es layer. In order to identify MSEs exactly and understand the generation mechanisms of MSEs at midlatitudes, it is important to obtain neutral wind information near the mesopause because some MSE structures might be transported from higher latitudes by neutral winds (Singer et al., ASR, 2003), which affect the Doppler velocity of MSEs. If the Doppler velocity of MSEs is consistent with neutral wind velocity, it becomes credible that the echoes are MSEs. In this aspect we can set more appropriate criterion for identifying MSEs by accounting for the altitude distribution of neutral winds. We use the technique employed by Yukimatu and Tsutsumi (GRL, 2002) and Tsutsumi et al. (Radio Sci., 2009) to obtain neutral wind information from meteor echoes using SuperDARN radars. We are in the process of comparing Doppler velocity of HF echoes with neutral wind velocity and will present the results of this analysis. The altitude distribution of echoes can be obtained from interferometer array data, which is useful for distinguishing between MSEs and E region echoes. The detailed results with their interpretation will be presented.

Tsuya, T.; Nishitani, N.; Ogawa, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yukimatu, A. S.

2013-12-01

65

Mesopheric turbulence intensities measured with a HF radar at 35 deg S. Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory was developed for extracting turbulence energy dissipation rates from spectra measured with a radar. It is shown that factors apart from turbulence contribute to the observed spectral widths, and that these factors must be considered if accurate estimates of energy dissipation rates are to be obtained. In particular, beam-width broadening and shear broadening are important. The first results obtained with this theory are presented. The rules were obtained using the large HF array at Adelaide, Australia, primarily during the Southern Hemisphere winter of 1981. Results are consistent with rocket measurements of turbulence, with typical values varying between 0.01 and 1/0.2 W kg at 80-90 km altitude.

Hocking, W. K.

1983-01-01

66

Spatial and temporal behavior of ULF pulsations observed by the Goose Bay HF radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques which allow the instantaneous amplitude and phase to be determined as functions of geomagnetic lattitude, longitude, and time are employed to carry out a detailed analysis of HF radar data of a ULF pulsation event in the postmidnight sector on January 11, 1989. Field line resonances with several different frequencies occur simultaneously at different latitudes. These can be associated with cavity mode frequencies of 1.3 mHz, 1.9 mHz, 2.7 mGz, and 3.3 mHz. These frequencies are constant to better than 10 percent over a local time period of nearly 4 hr. The field-aligned currents driven by the resonances can be as large as 5 micro-A/sq m at ionospheric heights. The data support a picture of modes driven by solar wind impulses.

Walker, A. D. M.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, K. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Samson, J. C.

1992-01-01

67

Three-Frequency Nonlinear Heterodyne Detection. 2: Digital Communications and Pulsed Radar  

E-print Network

Three-Frequency Nonlinear Heterodyne Detection. 2: Digital Communications and Pulsed Radar Malvin Carl Teich and Rainfield Y. Yen Part 1 of this paper [Appl. Opt. 14,666 (1975)]dealt with the cw radar the technique for a number of specificpulsed radar and digital communications applications. Both the vacuum

Teich, Malvin C.

68

Synthetic aperture radar and digital processing: An introduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented with emphasis on digital data collection and processing. Background information on waveform frequency and phase notation, mixing, Q conversion, sampling and cross correlation operations is included for clarity. The fate of a SAR signal from transmission to processed image is traced in detail, using the model of a single bright point target against a dark background. Some of the principal problems connected with SAR processing are also discussed.

Dicenzo, A.

1981-01-01

69

A digital beamforming radar profiler for imaging turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital beamforming techniques with adaptive processing have been used for several decades in high performance radar systems to track targets in the presence of jamming. With the availability of inexpensive microwave and digital componentry, these techniques are now practical for non-military applications. The authors have recently developed a 915 MHz digital beamforming radar system, termed the Turbulent Eddy Profiler, designed

James B. Mead; Geoffrey Hopcraft; Brian Pollard; Robert G. McIntosh

1996-01-01

70

Modeling and performance of HF/OTH (High-Frequency/Over-the-Horizon) radar target identification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Radar Target Identification (RTI) techniques have been developed at The Ohio State University in recent years. Using the ElectroScience Laboratory compact range a large database of coherent RCS measurement has been constructed for several types of targets (aircraft, ships, and ground vehicles) at a variety of polarizations, aspect angles, and frequency bands. This extensive database has been used to analyze the performance of several different classification algorithms through the use of computer simulations. In order to optimize classification performance, it was concluded that the radar frequency range should lie in the Rayleigh-resonance frequency range, where the wavelength is on the order of or larger than the target size. For aircraft and ships with general dimensions on the order of 10 meters to 100 meters it is apparent that the High Frequency (HF) band provides optimal classification performance. Since existing HF radars are currently being used for detection and tracking or aircraft and ships of these dimensions, it is natural to further investigate the possibility of using these existing radars as the measurement devices in a radar target classification system.

Strausberger, Donald J.

71

Use of 'velocity projection' to estimate the variation of sea-surface height fromHF Doppler radar current measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of 'velocity projection' (J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 6973) is used to estimate the sea-surface height field and its change over time from measurements of surface velocity made using a shore-based HF Doppler radar over a3 0? 30-kmregion of the continental shelf located near the m outh of the Chesapeake Bay (USA). Projected current profiles are compared with

G. O. Marmorino; C. Y. Shen; T. E. Evans; G. J. Lindemann; Z. R. Hallock; L. K. Shay

72

Experimental investigation of the relationship between HF radar measurements of currents and the dynamical properties of the upper ocean.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forget P., Barbin Y., Bellomo L., Doglioli, *Lecuyer E., Frauni P., Malengros D., Marmain J., Molcard A., Petrenko A., Quentin C., *Sentchev A. Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography-MIO UM 110 UTLN - AMU - CNRS/INSU 7294 - IRD 235 BP 20132 F-83957 La Garde cedex *Laboratoire d'Ocanologie et Gosciences CNRS UMR 8187 LOG Universit du Littoral - Cte d'Opale 32 avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux The increasing application of HF radio-oceanography for coastal circulation monitoring requires a validation of the radar derived current velocities using independent velocity estimates. Surface currents measured by radar, as they are relative to some finite patch of the sea (the radar cell), depend on the spatial distribution of the current within the radar cell, its time variability, its vertical structure near the surface and the presence of ocean waves. We present an experimental investigation conducted in the NW Mediterranean to measure radial surface currents by HF radar simultaneously to the dynamical properties of the surface ocean. These latter included high resolution current profiling by ADCP, microprofiling of temperature/salinity by SCAMP and Lagrangian velocities from surface drifting buoys. All the data were GPS geo-localized. The current profiling by towed ADCP was performed along the radar beam directions. The poster shows the first results of the experiment and presents samples of the 3D structure of the horizontal current (down to 15m and over some km2) and of the stratification. The spatial distribution of the surface currents is described from Lagrangian measurements. The radar derived surface currents are discussed on the basis of these in situ data. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the LEFE IMAGO program of CNRS -INSU, project SUBCORAD.

Fraunie, Philippe

2014-05-01

73

Model of the Long Island Sound outflow: Comparison with year-long HF radar and Doppler current observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional primitive-equation model is used to simulate the Long Island Sound (LIS) outflow for a 1-year (2001) period. The model domain includes LIS and New York Bight (NYB). Tidal and wind forcing are included, and seasonal salinity and temperature variations are assimilated. The model results are validated with the HF radar, moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and ferry-based ADCP observations. The agreement between simulated and observed flow patterns generally is very good. The difference in seasonal mean currents between the model and moored ADCP is about 0.01 m/s; the correlation of dominant velocity fluctuations between the model and HF radar is 0.83; and the difference in mean LIS transport between the model and shipboard ADCP is about 5%. However, the model predicts a prominent tidally generated headland eddy not supported by the HF radar observation. The model sensitivity study indicates that the tides, winds, and ambient coastal front all have important impact on the buoyant outflow. The tides and winds cause stronger vertical mixing, which reduces the surface plume strength. The ambient coastal front, on the other hand, tends to enhance the plume.

Mau, Jenq-Chi; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ullman, David S.; Codiga, Daniel L.

2008-08-01

74

Interference-Detection Module in a Digital Radar Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital receiver in a 1.26-GHz spaceborne radar scatterometer now undergoing development includes a module for detecting radio-frequency interference (RFI) that could contaminate scientific data intended to be acquired by the scatterometer. The role of the RFI-detection module is to identify time intervals during which the received signal is likely to be contaminated by RFI and thereby to enable exclusion, from further scientific data processing, of signal data acquired during those intervals. The underlying concepts of detection of RFI and rejection of RFI-contaminated signal data are also potentially applicable in advanced terrestrial radio receivers, including software-defined radio receivers in general, receivers in cellular telephones and other wireless consumer electronic devices, and receivers in automotive collision-avoidance radar systems.

Fischman, Mark; Berkun, Andrew; Chu, Anhua; Freedman, Adam; Jourdan, Michael; McWatters, Dalia; Paller, Mimi

2009-01-01

75

A Cascaded Approach for Correcting Ionospheric Contamination with Large Amplitude in HF Skywave Radars  

PubMed Central

Ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude causes broadening sea clutter's Bragg peaks to overlap each other; the performance of traditional decontamination methods about filtering Bragg peak is poor, which greatly limits the detection performance of HF skywave radars. In view of the ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude, this paper proposes a cascaded approach based on improved S-method to correct the ionospheric phase contamination. This approach consists of two correction steps. At the first step, a time-frequency distribution method based on improved S-method is adopted and an optimal detection method is designed to obtain a coarse ionospheric modulation estimation from the time-frequency distribution. At the second correction step, based on the phase gradient algorithm (PGA) is exploited to eliminate the residual contamination. Finally, use the measured data to verify the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results show the time-frequency resolution of this method is high and is not affected by the interference of the cross term; ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude can be corrected in low signal-to-noise (SNR); such a cascade correction method has a good effect. PMID:24578656

Wei, Yinsheng; Guo, Rujiang; Xu, Rongqing; Tang, Xiudong

2014-01-01

76

A cascaded approach for correcting ionospheric contamination with large amplitude in HF skywave radars.  

PubMed

Ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude causes broadening sea clutter's Bragg peaks to overlap each other; the performance of traditional decontamination methods about filtering Bragg peak is poor, which greatly limits the detection performance of HF skywave radars. In view of the ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude, this paper proposes a cascaded approach based on improved S-method to correct the ionospheric phase contamination. This approach consists of two correction steps. At the first step, a time-frequency distribution method based on improved S-method is adopted and an optimal detection method is designed to obtain a coarse ionospheric modulation estimation from the time-frequency distribution. At the second correction step, based on the phase gradient algorithm (PGA) is exploited to eliminate the residual contamination. Finally, use the measured data to verify the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results show the time-frequency resolution of this method is high and is not affected by the interference of the cross term; ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude can be corrected in low signal-to-noise (SNR); such a cascade correction method has a good effect. PMID:24578656

Li, Yajun; Wei, Yinsheng; Guo, Rujiang; Xu, Rongqing; Wang, Zhuoqun; Tang, Xiudong

2014-01-01

77

Coherent HF radar backscatter from small-scale irregularities in the dusk sector of the subauroral ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the characteristics of backscatter from decameter-scale ionospheric plasma density irregualarities, observed with an impressive regularity by the Goose Bay (Labrador) high-frequency (HF) radar in the dusk sector of the winter ionosphere, and discusses the relation of the scatter to the midlatitude trough. It is shown that this dusk scatter can be readily distinguished from other types of late afternoon/early evening scatter by the extreme equatorward position of its source region and by the low values of its associated radar Doppler velocities (not above 200 m/s) and spectral widths (not more than 200 m/s). A comparison of the radar observations with nearly simultaneous particle precipitation data obtained with the DMSP F6 satellite demonstrated that the source region of the backscatter lies within the subauroral ionosphere. It is shown that the characteristics of dusk scatter are compatible with the Spiro et al. (1978) model of the electrodynamics of the midlatitude trough.

Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Villain, J.-P.; Baker, K. B.; Newell, P. T.

1988-01-01

78

The Development of a Radar Digital Unit for the SASARII Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This dissertation describes the design, implementation and testing of the Radar Digital Unit (RDU), a subsystem for the South African Synthetic Aperture Radar II (SASARII). The SASARII is an airborne demonstrator SAR system for a spaceborne SAR and Un- manned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imaging radar. The demonstrator system parameters, such as bandwidth, reflect the desired spaceborne SAR parameters .

Justin Mark Webster

2004-01-01

79

Elliptical storm cell modeling of digital radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for spatial distributions of reflectivity in storm cells was fitted to digital radar data. The data were taken with a modified WSR-57 weather radar with 2.6-km resolution. The data consisted of modified B-scan records on magnetic tape of storm cells tracked at 0 deg elevation for several hours. The MIT L-band radar with 0.8-km resolution produced cross-section data on several cells at 1/2 deg elevation intervals. The model developed uses ellipses for contours of constant effective-reflectivity factor Z with constant orientation and eccentricity within a horizontal cell cross section at a given time and elevation. The centers of the ellipses are assumed to be uniformly spaced on a straight line, with areas linearly related to log Z. All cross sections are similar at different heights (except for cell tops, bottoms, and splitting cells), especially for the highest reflectivities; wind shear causes some translation and rotation between levels. Goodness-of-fit measures and parameters of interest for 204 ellipses are considered.

Altman, F. J.

1972-01-01

80

Characterization of HF Propagation for Digital Audio Broadcasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this presentation is to give a brief overview of some propagation measurements in the Short Wave (3-30 MHz) bands, made in support of a digital audio transmission system design for the Voice of America. This task is a follow on to the Digital Broadcast Satellite Radio task, during which several mitigation techniques would be applicable to digital audio in the Short Wave bands as well, in spite of the differences in propagation impairments in these two bands. Two series of propagation measurements were made to quantify the range of impairments that could be expected. An assessment of the performance of a prototype version of the receiver was also made.

Vaisnys, Arvydas

1997-01-01

81

Advanced ground-penetrating radar for digital soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable and optimal agricultural and environmental management of water and land resources particularly relies on the description and understanding of soil water distribution and dynamics at different scales. We present an advanced ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for mapping the shallow soil water content and unsaturated hydraulic properties at the field scale. The radar system is based on vector network analyzer technology, for which calibration is simple and constitutes an international standard. A directive horn antenna is used as both transmitter and receiver and operates off the ground. A full-waveform model describes accurately the radar signal, and is based on a linear system of complex transfer functions for efficiently describing electromagnetic phenomena within the antenna and its interaction with soil, and a specific solution of the three-dimensional Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in multilayered media. The soil electromagnetic properties and their vertical distribution are estimated by resorting to full-waveform inverse modeling using iterative global optimization methods. The proposed methodology has been validated for a series of model configurations of increasing complexity. The method is now routinely used for real-time mapping of soil surface water content and reconstruct a few number of shallow soil layers. For more complex configurations, it is necessary to regularize the inverse problem. We have shown that constraining radar data inversion using soil hydrodynamic modeling has the potential to reconstruct time-lapse, continuously variable, vertical soil water content profiles and identify the shallow unsaturated hydraulic properties. The proposed approach shows great promise for quantitative imaging of the soil properties at the field scale. The technique will be combined with electromagnetic induction in a mechanistic data fusion framework to further extend its capabilities in a digital soil mapping context.

Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Jadoon, K. Z.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.

2009-04-01

82

A Digital Array Radar with a Hierarchical System Architecture Caleb Fulton, Patrick Clough, Vijay Pai, and William Chappell  

E-print Network

A Digital Array Radar with a Hierarchical System Architecture Caleb Fulton, Patrick Clough, Vijay -- A digital array radar system prototype is pre sented that makes use of a hierarchical digital backend for future radars that fully embrace the concept of lowcost inte gration in a panelized platform

83

IF digitization receiver of wideband digital array radar test-bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an X-band, 8-element wideband digital array radar (DAR) test-bed is presented, which makes use of a novel digital backend coupled with highly-integrated, multi-channel intermediate frequency (IF) digital receiver. Radar returns are received by the broadband antenna and then down-converted to the IF of 0.6GHz-3.0GHz. Four band-pass filters are applied in the front-end to divide the IF returns into four frequency bands with the instantaneous bandwidth of 500MHz. Every four array elements utilize a digital receiver, which is focused in this paper. The digital receivers are designed in a compact and flexible manner to meet the demands of DAR system. Each receiver consists of a fourchannel ADC, a high-performance FPGA, four DDR3 chips and two optical transceivers. With the sampling rate of up to 1.2GHz each channel, the ADC is capable of directly sampling the IF returns of four array elements at 10bits. In addition to serving as FIFO and controller, the onboard FPGA is also utilized for the implementation of various real-time algorithms such as DDC and channel calibration. Data is converted to bit stream and transferred through two low overhead, high data rate and multi-channel optical transceivers. Key technologies such as channel calibration and wideband DOA are studied with the measured data which is obtained in the experiments to illustrate the functionality of the system.

Li, Weixing; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Jianzhi; Chen, Zengping

2014-10-01

84

The shuttle radar topography missiona new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 11 days in February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) successfully recorded by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data of the entire land mass of the earth between 60N and 57S. The data acquired in C- and X-bands are processed into the first global digital elevation models (DEMs) at 1 arc sec resolution, by NASA-JPL and German aerospace

Bernhard Rabus; Michael Eineder; Achim Roth; Richard Bamler

2003-01-01

85

Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany) derived from high resolution current mapping by HF radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high frequency radar (HFR) systems for near-real-time coastal ocean monitoring necessities that short time scale motions of the radar-derived velocities are better understood. While the ocean radar systems are able to describe coastal flow patterns with unprecedented details, the data they produce are often too sparse or gappy for applications such as the identification of coherent structures and fronts or understanding transport and mixing processes. In this study, we address two challenges. First, we report results from the HF radar system (WERA) which is routinely operating since 2006 on the western Brittany coast to monitor surface circulation in the Iroise Sea, over an area extending up to 100 km offshore. To obtain more reliable records of vector current fields at high space and time resolution, the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) direction finding algorithm is employed in conjunction with the variational interpolation (2dVar) of radar-derived velocities. This provides surface current maps at 1 km spacing and time resolution of 20 min. Removing the influence of the sea state on radar-derived current measurements is discussed and performed on some data sequences. Second, we examine in deep continuous 2d velocity records for a number of periods, exploring the different modes of variability of surface currents in the region. Given the extent, duration, and resolution of surface current velocity measurements, new quantitative insights from various time series and spatial analysis on higher frequency kinematics will be discussed. By better characterizing the full spectrum of flow regimes that contribute to the surface currents and their shears, a more complete picture of the circulation in the Iroise Sea can be obtained.

Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Barbin, Yves; Mari, Louis; Ardhuin, Fabrice

2010-05-01

86

Ground-based weather radar compatibility with digital radio-relay microwave systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for ground-based weather radar (meteorological radar) interference to digital microwave systems in the common carrier bands of 3700 to 4200 MHz and 5925 to 6425 MHz is examined. Reported cases of interference to microwave common carrier systems from ground-based weather radar systems have increased due to the trend towards digital modulations. Because of this interference, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, the Federal Communications Commission and the National Spectrum Managers Association formed an informal working group to investigate and document the potential problems. The existing and planned spectrum uses by ground-based weather radars and digital microwave systems are addressed as well as regulations and policy pertaining to their electromagnetic compatibility. Methods to mitigate the interference in both the radar transmitter and microwave receiver are also provided.

Gawthrop, P. E.; Patrick, G. M.

1990-03-01

87

Digital elevation models of the Moon from Earth-based radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) maps of the nearside and polar regions of the Moon can be obtained with an Earth-based radar interferometer. This paper describes the theoretical background, experimental setup, and processing techniques for a sequence of observations performed with the Goldstone Solar System Radar in 1997. These data provide radar imagery and digital elevation models of the polar areas and other

Jean-Luc Margot; Donald B. Campbell; Raymond F. Jurgens; Martin A. Slade

2000-01-01

88

Development of a ground signal processor for digital synthetic array radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified APQ-102 sidelooking array radar (SLAR) in a B-57 aircraft test bed is used, with other optical and infrared sensors, in remote sensing of Earth surface features for various users at NASA Johnson Space Center. The video from the radar is normally recorded on photographic film and subsequently processed photographically into high resolution radar images. Using a high speed sampling (digitizing) system, the two receiver channels of cross-and co-polarized video are recorded on wideband magnetic tape along with radar and platform parameters. These data are subsequently reformatted and processed into digital synthetic aperture radar images with the image data available on magnetic tape for subsequent analysis by investigators. The system design and results obtained are described.

Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

1981-01-01

89

Analysis of post-sunset F-region vertical plasma drifts during Counter Electrojet days using multi frequency HF Doppler Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, through a case study, an attempt has been made to bring out the relationship between post noon E-region electric field and post sunset F-region vertical plasma drift on quiet time Counter Electrojet (CEJ) days. Study carried out using the data from a multi frequency HF Doppler Radar and Digital Ionosonde located over Trivandrum (8.5 N; 77 E; 0.5 N dip lat.) a geomagnetic dip equatorial station in India during quite time CEJ days of the years 2004 and 2006, revealed some interesting aspects of the E region electrodynamics and post sunset F region electrodynamics. It has been observed that, in contrast to the normal electrojet (EEJ) days, the Pre-Reversal Enhancement (PRE) is either weakened or inhibited on CEJ days and the field reversal takes place much earlier than that on a normal day. It is suggested that even after the effects of the field reversal ceases to show up in the ground magnetic data, the reversed field may persist and shows up as a decrease in the PRE experienced by the F-region. In other words, the study indicates that the EEJ associated electrodynamics have a significant role in controlling the PRE.

Simi, K. G.; Vineeth, C.; Pant, T. K.

2014-08-01

90

Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-basedlidar and SuperDARN HF radar over Syowa Station, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Rayleigh-Raman lidar system had been installed by the 52nd JapaneseAntarctic Research Expedition on February, 2011 at Syowa Station Antarctica(69.0S, 39.5E). Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routineoperation. This event is the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station bya lidar. In the same night, SuperDARN HF radar with oblique incidence beamsalso detected Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) during 21:30UT to23:00UT. Although these signals were detected at different times andlocations, PMC motion estimated using horizontal wind velocities obtained bya collocated MF radar strongly suggests that they have a common origin (i.e.ice particle). We consider that this event occurred in the end of PMCactivity period at Syowa Station in the austral summer season (2010-2011),since the lidar did not detected any PMC signals on other days in February,2011. This is consistent with satellite-born PMC observations by AIM/CIPSand atmospheric temperature observations by AURA/MLS instruments.

Suzuki, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Ogawa, Tadahiko; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Sessai Yukimatu, Akira; Abo, Makoto

2012-07-01

91

Design of Solid-state Transmitter for Some HF Ground-wave Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the demand for the full solid-state transmitter in some high frequency ground-wave radar, it mainly discusses the design of the core parts of the transmitter, which are the power amplifier module as well the control and protection system. It presents a method to optimize the design of power amplifier module, some aspects related with both the final power

Hong Tao; Chen Baixiao; Zhang Shouhong

2006-01-01

92

Nature of Near-Inertial Motions in the Upper Ocean and a Possible Route towards HF Radar Probing of Seasonal Stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial band response of the upper ocean to changing wind is studied both theoretically and by analysis of observations in the Gulf of Lyons. The theoretical examination is carried out within the framework of the linearized Euler equations on the non-traditional f-plane. Due to the horizontal component of the Earth rotation for near-inertial waves with frequencies slightly below the local inertial frequency f there is a waveguide in the mixed layer confined from below by the pycnocline. When the stratification is shallow and strong these near-inertial motions are the ones most easily and strongly excited by the changing winds. The linear model predicts that in the presence of seasonal stratification the inertial band response of the upper ocean is dominated by these sub-inertial motions. These motions have been overlooked in the previous studies since they are absent under the traditional approximation. The in situ observations which employed buoys with thermistors, ADCPs, HF radars and SST data were carried out in the Gulf of Lyons in April-June 2006. The observations support the theoretical picture: a pronounced inertial band response occurs only in the presence of strong shallow stratification and is sharply localized near the surface. The surface signatures of these motions are easily captured by HF radars. The sensitivity of the inertial band response (as seen by HF radars) to the upper ocean stratification provides a possibility for developing HF radar probing of seasonal stratification. An analysis of continuous two year HF observations near the Porquerolle island confirms that the seasonal stratification is indeed the necessary condition for a strong inertial band response.

Shrira, Victor; Forget, Philippe

2014-05-01

93

Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-based lidar and SuperDARN HF radar at Syowa Station, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Rayleigh-Raman lidar system was installed in January 2011 at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0 S, 39.6 E). Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) were detected by lidar at around 22:30 UTC (LT -3 h) on 4 February 2011, which was the first day of observation. This was the first detection of PMCs over Syowa Station by lidar. On the same day, a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radar with oblique-incidence beams detected polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) between 21:30 and 23:00 UTC. This event is regarded as the last PMC activity around Syowa Station during the austral summer season (2010-2011), since no other PMC signals were detected by lidar in February 2011. This is consistent with results of PMC and mesopause temperature observations by satellite-born instruments of AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere)/CIPS (Cloud Imaging and Particle Size) and AURA/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and horizontal wind measurements taken by a separate MF radar. Doppler velocity of PMSE observed by the HF radar showed motion toward Syowa Station (westward). This westward motion is consistent with the wind velocities obtained by the MF radar. However, the PMSE region showed horizontal motion from a north-to-south direction during the PMC event. This event indicates that the apparent horizontal motion of the PMSE region can deviate from neutral wind directions and observed Doppler velocities.

Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M. K.; Ogawa, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T. D.; Tomikawa, Y.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Sato, N.

2013-10-01

94

Hybrid Optical/Digital Processor for Radar Imaging  

E-print Network

2003 #12;HEPC 2003 September 23, 2003 2 Problem Statement and Solution · Problem: ­ Projected BMD for Packaging AMS, FPGA based VMIC SBC Windows 2000 C++, Labview, Java #12;HEPC 2003 September 23, 2003 9 Radar

Kepner, Jeremy

95

Comparison of surface currents measured by HF Doppler radar in the western Florida Straits during November 1983 to January 1984 and Florida current transports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of surface currents measured by HF radar during November 29, 1983, to January 31, 1984, with radar sites at Jupiter and Stuart on the Florida east coast is carried out in comparison with currents and transports measured by moorings and submarine cable. While an earlier analysis of currents measured in summer 1983 with radars located at Palm Beach and Jupiter (Schott et al., 1985) found significant northward shear in the northward radar currents about 20 km offshore leading to concerns about a possible bias in the radar currents, this effect was not observed in the second application farther north. It is possible that the shear in the summer 1983 field might have been real and related to the topography in the southern part of the 1983 radar field where no intercomparison current data had been available. Concerning the usefulness of radar currents as Florida Current transport indicators, which was the prime intention of their application in the context of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies, this second study finds much more encouraging results than the one based on the observations of summer 1983. While the first study was inconclusive because only small transport fluctuations occurred during the summer 1983 observation period, this second study finds significant correlation. Florida Current transport fluctuations had a total range of 15106m3/s during the second observation period, and correlation with downstream radar currents, averaged zonally across the center of the radar field, was 0.85. Coherence was significant for periods longer than 5 days. Highest correlation with transport was found for radar currents farthest out, to the right of the axis of the stream.

Schott, Friedrich A.; Frisch, Shelby A.; Larsen, Jimmy C.

1986-07-01

96

Multiple frequency radar observations of high-latitude E region irregularities in the HF modified ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the results of the September 1983 observations of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs) in the Tromso, Norway region, made by backscatter radars operating at 46.9, 143.8, 21.4, and 140.0 MHz. Four classes of resonant instability processes at work in the E and F regions are examined in detail: (1) the coupling of parametric decay instability waves across geomagnetic field lines, (2) thermal parametric instability, (3) four-wave interaction thermal parametric instability, and (4) the resonance instability. The characteristics of the AFAI scatter are described, with special attention given to the growth and decay time constants, functional dependence on the heater power and polarization, and the scattering cross sections of the irregularities.

Noble, S. T.; Gordon, W. E.; Djuth, F. T.; Jost, R. J.; Hedberg, A.

1987-01-01

97

Evolution of negative SI-induced ionospheric flows observed by SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial evolution of vortex-like flow structures induced by a negative sudden impulse (SI-) is studied on the basis of SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar (KSR) with other ground and satellite data. A large dip in the solar wind density induced a fairly large SI- with a SYM-H amplitude of ~40 nT. The SI-induced ionospheric flow signatures in the evening sector (MLT ~ 19h) were observed by KSR as a westward flow associated with the preliminary impulse (PI) followed by a more intense eastward flow with the main impulse (MI) in the sub-auroral region of the magnetic latitude ~ 60-70 deg, consistent with the local ground magnetic field observations. Following the first PI-MI flow sequence, KSR saw a second and possibly third sequence of flow variation which were much smaller in flow amplitude than the first pair but showed qualitatively very similar flow variations and latitudinal/longitudinal propagation characteristics. These observations can be interpreted as aftershocks of the first PI-MI; the same sequence of vortices and field-aligned currents were generated and then drifted anti-sunward with the same mechanism, namely the pumping motion of the dayside magnetosphere. These results are qualitatively consistent with predictions suggested by recent numerical simulations.

Hori, T.; Shinbori, A.; Nishitani, N.; Kikuchi, T.; Fujita, S.; Nagatsuma, T.; Troshichev, O. A.; Yumoto, K.; Moiseev, A.; Seki, K.

2012-12-01

98

Evolution of negative SI-induced ionospheric flows observed by SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial evolution of vortex-like flow structures induced by a negative sudden impulse (SI-) is studied on the basis of SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar (KSR) with other ground and satellite data. A large dip in the solar wind density induced a fairly large SI- with a SYM-H amplitude of 40 nT. The SI-induced ionospheric flow signatures in the evening sector (MLT 19 h) were observed by KSR as a westward flow associated with the preliminary impulse (PI) followed by a more intense eastward flow with the main impulse (MI) in the sub-auroral region of the magnetic latitude 60-70 deg, consistent with the local ground magnetic field observations. Following the first PI-MI flow sequence, KSR saw a second and possibly third sequence of flow variation which were much smaller in flow amplitude than the first pair but showed qualitatively very similar flow variations and latitudinal/longitudinal propagation characteristics. These observations can be interpreted as aftershocks of the first PI-MI; the same sequence of vortices and field-aligned currents were generated and then drifted anti-sunward with the same mechanism, namely the pumping motion of the dayside magnetosphere. These results are qualitatively consistent with predictions suggested by recent numerical simulations.

Hori, T.; Shinbori, A.; Nishitani, N.; Kikuchi, T.; Fujita, S.; Nagatsuma, T.; Troshichev, O.; Yumoto, K.; Moiseyev, A.; Seki, K.

2012-12-01

99

Design and implementation of a digital impulse generator for a 24GHz UWB radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we design and implement a digital impulse generator using a DCM block and an OSERDES block for a 24GHz UWB impulse-Doppler radar. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has confirmed the spectrum from 22 to 29GHz for UWB radar with a limit power of -41.3dBm/MHz. UWB signal possesses an absolute bandwidth larger than 500MHz or a relative bandwidth up to 20%. The vehicle radar is the key technology with the inherent advantage detected the distance and the velocity regardless of weather. Radar has a role to measure the distance and the velocity of long-distance vehicle. But, the radar with 1m resolution is difficult to satisfy the detection performance in the blind spot zone because the blind spot zone needs high resolution. So, UWB impulse-Doppler radar with 30cm resolution is suitable for the blind spot zone. The designed impulse generator has a 2ns pulse width and 100us PRI. We perform simulations through Xilinx ISE; experiments use a spectrum analyzer and a digital oscilloscope. For UWB radar, we use an AD9779 DAC module with a 1Gsps maximum sampling rate. For equipment, we use a TDS5104B oscilloscope of Tektronix with 3dB bandwidth at 1GHz for the analysis of the time domain and an E4448A spectrum analyzer of Agilent with a 50GHz spectrum for the analysis of the frequency domain. The results of the digital impulse measurement show a 2ns pulse width in the time domain, a 500MHz bandwidth, and a 10KHz spectrum peak in the frequency domain.

Kim, Sang-Dong; Lee, Jong-Hun

2011-06-01

100

An atlas of November 1978 synthetic aperture radar digitized imagery for oil spill studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data set is described which consists of digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery plus correlative data and some preliminary analysis results. This data set should be of value to experimenters who are interested in the SAR instrument and its application to the detection and monitoring of oil on water and other distributed targets.

Maurer, H. E.; Oderman, W.; Crosswell, W. F.

1982-01-01

101

The application of digital signal processing techniques to a teleoperator radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital signal processing system was studied for the determination of the spectral frequency distribution of echo signals from a teleoperator radar system. The system consisted of a sample and hold circuit, an analog to digital converter, a digital filter, and a Fast Fourier Transform. The system is interfaced to a 16 bit microprocessor. The microprocessor is programmed to control the complete digital signal processing. The digital filtering and Fast Fourier Transform functions are implemented by a S2815 digital filter/utility peripheral chip and a S2814A Fast Fourier Transform chip. The S2815 initially simulates a low-pass Butterworth filter with later expansion to complete filter circuit (bandpass and highpass) synthesizing.

Pujol, A.

1982-01-01

102

Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances Generated by High Power HF SURA Facility: the Results from Kharkiv Incoherent Scatter Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of ionospheric disturbances observation which accompanied periodic near-Earth plasma heating by high-power HF SURA facility radiation were presented. The experiments to modify the ionosphere were conducted on September 20 - 23, 2010 between 12:50 and 17:40 UT. The temporal and height variations of electron density obtained by Kharkiv incoherent scatter radar were analyzed. The main feature of the present study was that the diagnostic instrument was located 1000 km away from the SURA facility. The ionospheric modifications were detected to significantly change the spectral content of wave disturbances in the electron density. The wave disturbance with a period of near 30 min that corresponds to facility cyclic operation (the heating of 20 min and the pause of 10 min) and with relative amplitude of 0.08 - 0.10 was at the heights of 200 - 300 km. Its time delay was of 60 - 90 min between the first heating start and wave observation. It is important that such disturbance was observed in all time intervals when the ionosphere was heated by high power HF radio waves. The apparent velocity of this wave disturbance was about 190 - 280 m/s, assuming that it was generated by the first heating switch-on. Since the ionosphere is inertial (and hence integrating) medium, it can be assumed that ionospheric disturbance generation occurred after second or third heating switch-on. The apparent wave velocity was then in the range of 280 - 560 m/s. Internal gravity waves and traveling ionospheric disturbances are known to have such horizontal velocities. Thus, the effect observed over Kharkiv may be explained by the generation and/or amplification of traveling ionospheric disturbances. This inferred wave pattern was in good agreement with theoretical estimates. The interaction of subsystems in the Earth - the atmosphere - the ionosphere - the magnetosphere system may possibly contribute to this observable effect. The observed wave disturbances may also be generated by solar terminator moving. Long-term, regular measurements are needed to more accurately separate the effects of ionosphere heating from those of terminator moving.

Chernogor, L.; Domnin, I.; Panasenko, S.; Uryadov, V.

2012-04-01

103

Characterizing observed circulation patterns within a bay using HF radar and numerical model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, High Frequency Radar (HFR), observations in conjunction with numerical model simulations investigate surface flow dynamics in a tidally-active, wind-driven bay; Galway Bay situated on the West coast of Ireland. Comparisons against ADCP sensor data permit an independent assessment of HFR and model performance, respectively. Results show root-mean-square (rms) differences in the range 10 - 12cm/s while model rms equalled 12 - 14cm/s. Subsequent analysis focus on a detailed comparison of HFR and model output. Harmonic analysis decompose both sets of surface currents based on distinct flow process, enabling a correlation analysis between the resultant output and dominant forcing parameters. Comparisons of barotropic model simulations and HFR tidal signal demonstrate consistently high agreement, particularly of the dominant M2 tidal signal. Analysis of residual flows demonstrate considerably poorer agreement, with the model failing to replicate complex flows. A number of hypotheses explaining this discrepancy are discussed, namely: discrepancies between regional-scale, coastal-ocean models and globally-influenced bay-scale dynamics; model uncertainties arising from highly-variable wind-driven flows across alarge body of water forced by point measurements of wind vectors; and the high dependence of model simulations on empirical wind-stress coefficients. The research demonstrates that an advanced, widely-used hydro-environmental model does not accurately reproduce aspects of surface flow processes, particularly with regards wind forcing. Considering the significance of surface boundary conditions in both coastal and open ocean dynamics, the viability of using a systematic analysis of results to improve model predictions is discussed.

O'Donncha, Fearghal; Hartnett, Michael; Nash, Stephen; Ren, Lei; Ragnoli, Emanuele

2015-02-01

104

A general interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds and Smith (1979) have considered the combined use of digital weather radar and satellite data in interactive systems for case study analysis and forecasting. Satellites view the top of clouds, whereas radar is capable of observing the detailed internal structure of clouds. The considered approach requires the use of a common coordinate system. In the present investigation, it was decided to use the satellite coordinate system as the base system in order to maintain the fullest resolution of the satellite data. The investigation is concerned with the development of a general interactive software system called RADPAK for remapping and analyzing conventional and Doppler radar data. RADPAK is implemented as a part of a minicomputer-based image processing system, called Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System. Attention is given to a general description of the RADPAK system, remapping methodology, and an example of satellite remapping.

Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.; Faghmous, M.; Heymsfield, G. M.

1981-01-01

105

Spectral analysis, digital integration, and measurement of low backscatter in coherent laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of surface acoustic wave (SAW) spectral analysis and digital integration that has been used previously in coherent CW laser work with CO2 lasers at 10.6 microns is described. Expressions are derived for the signal to noise ratio in the measured voltage spectrum with an approximation for the general case and rigorous treatment for the low signal case. The atmospheric backscatter data accumulated by the airborne LATAS (laser true airspeed) coherent laser radar system are analyzed.

Vaughan, J. M.; Callan, R. D.; Bowdle, D. A.; Rothermel, J.

1989-01-01

106

Estimating Lagrangian transport blending drifters with HF radar data and models: Results from the TOSCA experiment in the Ligurian Current (North Western Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrangian transport estimates are investigated using results from HF radar, model and drifter data during a dedicated experiment in the Ligurian Current in the Toulon area (North Western Mediterranean Sea). Uncertainty estimates on particle position, D(t), are computed and compared to absolute dispersion, D0(t), that provides an indication of the uncertainty in case of zero prior knowledge. In agreement with previous studies, radar results show that D(t)?1/2D0(t) (i.e. ?6 km after 24 h). Model results are less reliable, as it can be expected in highly nonlinear coastal flows without local data assimilation. The central result of this paper is that when drifters are promptly deployed in an area of interest, their data can be used to significantly improve transport estimates using the Lagrangian blending algorithm LAVA with velocity fields from models or radar. Uncertainty can be reduced to ?1/6D0(t), (i.e. ?2 km after 24 h) for both radar and model, implying a much reduced search range in case of operational applications. The method is also found to have some forecasting skills with uncertainty ?1/2D0(t) during the first ?6 h. Sensitivity tests provide indications on relevant time and space scales of predictability and provide suggestions for appropriate drifter sampling strategies.

Berta, Maristella; Bellomo, Lucio; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Griffa, Annalisa; Molcard, Anne; Marmain, Julien; Borghini, Mireno; Taillandier, Vincent

2014-11-01

107

A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

1991-01-01

108

Digital tapped delay lines for HWIL testing of matched filter radar receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matched filter processing for pulse compression of phase coded waveforms is a classic method for increasing radar range measurement resolution. A generic approach for simulating high resolution range extended radar scenes in a Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) test environment is to pass the phase coded radar transmit pulse through an RF tapped delay line comprised of individually amplitude- and phase-weighted output taps. In the generic approach, the taps are closely spaced relative to time intervals equivalent to the range resolution of the compressed radar pulse. For a range-extended high resolution clutter scene, the increased number of these taps can make an analog implementation of an RF tapped delay system impractical. Engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have addressed this problem by transferring RF tapped delay line signal operations to the digital domain. New digital tapped delay line (DTDL) systems have been designed and demonstrated which are physically compact compared to analog RF TDLs, leverage low cost FPGA and data converter technology, and may be readily expanded using open slots in a VME card cage. In initial HWIL applications, the new DTDLs have been shown to produce better dynamic range in pulse compressed range profiles than their analog TDL predecessors. This paper describes the signal requirements and system architecture for digital tapped delay lines. Implementation, performance, and HWIL simulation integration issues for AMRDEC's first generation DTDLs are addressed. The paper concludes with future requirements and plans for ongoing DTDL technology development at AMRDEC.

Olson, Richard F.; Braselton, William J.; Mohlere, Richard D.

2009-05-01

109

Complementary code and digital filtering for detection of weak VHF radar signals from the mesoscale. [SOUSY-VHF radar, Harz Mountains, Germany  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SOUSY-VHF-Radar operates at a frequency of 53.5 MHz in a valley in the Harz mountains, Germany, 90 km from Hanover. The radar controller, which is programmed by a 16-bit computer holds 1024 program steps in core and controls, via 8 channels, the whole radar system: in particular the master oscillator, the transmitter, the transmit-receive-switch, the receiver, the analog to digital converter, and the hardware adder. The high-sensitivity receiver has a dynamic range of 70 dB and a video bandwidth of 1 MHz. Phase coding schemes are applied, in particular for investigations at mesospheric heights, in order to carry out measurements with the maximum duty cycle and the maximum height resolution. The computer takes the data from the adder to store it in magnetic tape or disc. The radar controller is programmed by the computer using simple FORTRAN IV statements. After the program has been loaded and the computer has started the radar controller, it runs automatically, stopping at the program end. In case of errors or failures occurring during the radar operation, the radar controller is shut off caused either by a safety circuit or by a power failure circuit or by a parity check system.

Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.; Czechowsky, P.

1983-01-01

110

The Long Wavelength Array (LWA): A Large HF/VHF Array for Solar Physics, Ionospheric Science, and Solar Radar  

E-print Network

, and Solar Radar Namir E. Kassim Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Stephen M. White AFRL, Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque, NM 87117 Paul Rodriguez Consultant, Washington, DC 20375 Jacob M. Hartman, Brian

Ellingson, Steven W.

111

Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.

1988-01-01

112

Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

1991-01-01

113

Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR): Performance Analysis During the Eco-3D 2011 and Summer 2012 Flight Campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.

Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing

2014-01-01

114

Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcast Interference Suppression in Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.

Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.

2014-11-01

115

A Model for Radar Images and Its Application to Adaptive Digital Filtering of Multiplicative Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image

Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman

1982-01-01

116

47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the interleaved emission is not to the same geographical area as either of the emissions...using digitally modulated emissions may share the same spectrum or be interleaved with analog emissions in the same high frequency broadcasting...

2010-10-01

117

A 3D Optimal Interpolation Assimilation Scheme of HF Radar Current Data into a Numerical Ocean Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a technique for the 3D assimilation of ocean surface current measurements into a numerical ocean model based on data from High Frequency Radar (HFR) systems is presented. The technique is the combination of supplementary forcing on the surface and of and Ekman layer projection of the correction in the depth. Optimal interpolation through BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased Estimator) of the model predicted velocity and HFR observations is computed in order to derive a supplementary forcing applied at the surface boundary. In the depth the assimilation is propagated using an additional Ekman pumping (vertical velocity) based on the correction achieved by BLUE. In this work a HFR data assimilation system for hydrodynamic modelling of Galway Bay in Ireland is developed; it demonstrates the viability of adopting data assimilation techniques to improve the performance of numerical models in regions characterized by significant wind-driven flows. A network of CODAR Seasonde high frequency radars (HFR) deployed within Galway Bay, on the West Coast of Ireland, provides flow measurements adopted for this study. This system provides real-time synoptic measurements of both ocean surface currents and ocean surface waves in regions of the bay where radials from two or more radars intersect. Radar systems have a number of unique advantages in ocean modelling data assimilation schemes, namely, the ability to provide two-dimensional mapping of surface currents at resolutions that capture the complex structure related to coastal topography and the intrinsic instability scales of coastal circulation at a relatively low-cost. The radar system used in this study operates at a frequency of 25MHz which provides a sampling range of 25km at a spatial resolution of 300m.A detailed dataset of HFR observed velocities is collected at 60 minute intervals for a period chosen for comparison due to frequent occurrences of highly-energetic, storm-force events. In conjunction with this, a comprehensive weather station, tide gauge and river monitoring program is conducted. The data are then used to maintain density fields within the model and to force the wind direction and magnitude on flows. The Data Assimilation scheme is then assessed and validated via HFR surface flow measurements.

Ragnoli, Emanuele; Zhuk, Sergiy; Donncha, Fearghal O.; Suits, Frank; Hartnett, Michael

2013-04-01

118

Integration of radar altimeter, precision navigation, and digital terrain data for low-altitude flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avionic systems that depend on digitized terrain elevation data for guidance generation or navigational reference require accurate absolute and relative distance measurements to the terrain, especially as they approach lower altitudes. This is particularly exacting in low-altitude helicopter missions, where aggressive terrain hugging maneuvers create minimal horizontal and vertical clearances and demand precise terrain positioning. Sole reliance on airborne precision navigation and stored terrain elevation data for above-ground-level (AGL) positioning severely limits the operational altitude of such systems. A Kalman filter is presented which blends radar altimeter returns, precision navigation, and stored terrain elevation data for AGL positioning. The filter is evaluated using low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain. The proposed Kalman filter is found to remove large disparities in predicted AGL altitude (i.e., from airborne navigation and terrain elevation data) in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Previous work suggested a minimum clearance altitude of 220 ft AGL for a near-terrain guidance system; integration of a radar altimeter allows for operation of that system below 50 ft, subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations.

Zelenka, Richard E.

1992-01-01

119

The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar  

SciTech Connect

A continuous wave doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100. 6 refs.

Robinson, S.H.; Morrison, R.E.

1991-08-26

120

The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100.

Robinson, S. H.; Morrison, R. E.

1991-08-01

121

Atmospheric density remote sensing of mesosphere and thermosphere to be used for spacecraft design by adopting VHF radar and HF Doppler sounder at low latitude west Pacific site during winter time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous observations of VHF radar and HF Doppler array systems located at Chung Li (Taiwan) are used to observe three-dimensional wind speeds and gravity waves. The density perturbations are determined at different altitudes of the mesosphere and thermosphere during weak convective motions of the cold front in the winter. The present observations are believed to be valuable for space projects dealing with the low-latitude atmosphere.

Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Johnson, D. L.; Chen, A. J.; Lee, C. C.

1989-01-01

122

A comparison study of zonal drift velocities measurements as seen by MF spaced antenna and HF Doppler radar in the Indian dip equatorial mesospheric and lower thermospheric (80-100 km) region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous measurements of zonal drift velocities, observed in the heights of 84-98 km in the Indian geomagnetic dip equatorial region by an medium frequency (MF, 1.98 MHz) spaced antenna and a high-frequency (HF, 18 MHz) Doppler radars, are compared on selected few days in the solar maximum years of 1998, 1999, and 2000. The agreement between the two radar measurements is found to be good below about 88 km, where the neutral turbulence induced ionospheric irregularities are more predominant. Above 90 km, however, the agreement becomes poor and at the highest height of 98 km it becomes the least. At this height, more often the HF Doppler radar shows a westward drift of about 200 m/s whereas the MF spaced antenna radar values lie within 10 m/s and sometimes attain maximum values of 50 m/s. Detailed discussions are made on the possible sources of underestimation of the drift velocities measured by the MF radar and the nature of scattering irregularities that are produced because of large neutral turbulences and plasma instabilities. It is suggested that these neutral and plasma turbulences (particularly type II plasma irregularities) contribute in a different manner to different radar frequencies and techniques and hence very different drift velocities in the heights of 90-100 km particularly in the geomagnetic dip equatorial region. Discussions are also made on (1) the real atmospheric and ionospheric physical process prevailing in the 90-100 km region and (2) the technical aspects of the radars that limits them to measure only particular types of motion in this region.

Ramkumar, T. K.; Gurubaran, S.; Rajaram, R.; Tiwari, D.; Viswanathan, K. S.

2010-02-01

123

Digital processing considerations for extraction of ocean wave image spectra from raw synthetic aperture radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The digital processing requirements of several algorithms for extracting the spectrum of a detected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image from the raw SAR data are described and compared. The most efficient algorithms for image spectrum extraction from raw SAR data appear to be those containing an intermediate image formation step. It is shown that a recently developed compact formulation of the image spectrum in terms of the raw data is computationally inefficient when evaluated directly, in comparison with the classical method where matched-filter image formation is an intermediate result. It is also shown that a proposed indirect procedure for digitally implementing the same compact formulation is somewhat more efficient than the classical matched-filtering approach. However, this indirect procedure includes the image formation process as part of the total algorithm. Indeed, the computational savings afforded by the indirect implementation are identical to those obtained in SAR image formation processing when the matched-filtering algorithm is replaced by the well-known 'dechirp-Fourier transform' technique. Furthermore, corrections to account for slant-to-ground range conversion, spherical earth, etc., are often best implemented in the image domain, making intermediate image formation a valuable processing feature.

Lahaie, I. J.; Dias, A. R.; Darling, G. D.

1984-01-01

124

Frequency diversity wideband digital receiver and signal processor for solid-state dual-polarimetric weather radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent spate in the use of solid-state transmitters for weather radar systems has unexceptionably revolutionized the research in meteorology. The solid-state transmitters allow transmission of low peak powers without losing the radar range resolution by allowing the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this research, a novel frequency-diversity wideband waveform is proposed and realized to extenuate the low sensitivity of solid-state radars and mitigate the blind range problem tied with the longer pulse compression waveforms. The latest developments in the computing landscape have permitted the design of wideband digital receivers which can process this novel waveform on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips. In terms of signal processing, wideband systems are generally characterized by the fact that the bandwidth of the signal of interest is comparable to the sampled bandwidth; that is, a band of frequencies must be selected and filtered out from a comparable spectral window in which the signal might occur. The development of such a wideband digital receiver opens a window for exciting research opportunities for improved estimation of precipitation measurements for higher frequency systems such as X, Ku and Ka bands, satellite-borne radars and other solid-state ground-based radars. This research describes various unique challenges associated with the design of a multi-channel wideband receiver. The receiver consists of twelve channels which simultaneously downconvert and filter the digitized intermediate-frequency (IF) signal for radar data processing. The product processing for the multi-channel digital receiver mandates a software and network architecture which provides for generating and archiving a single meteorological product profile culled from multi-pulse profiles at an increased data date. The multi-channel digital receiver also continuously samples the transmit pulse for calibration of radar receiver gain and transmit power. The multi-channel digital receiver has been successfully deployed as a key component in the recently developed National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarization Doppler Radar (D3R). The D3R is the principal ground validation instrument for the precipitation measurements of the Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard the GPM Core Observatory satellite scheduled for launch in 2014. The D3R system employs two broadly separated frequencies at Ku- and Ka-bands that together make measurements for precipitation types which need higher sensitivity such as light rain, drizzle and snow. This research describes unique design space to configure the digital receiver for D3R at several processing levels. At length, this research presents analysis and results obtained by employing the multi-carrier waveforms for D3R during the 2012 GPM Cold-Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) campaign in Canada.

Mishra, Kumar Vijay

125

Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander.

Morrison, R. E.; Robinson, S. H.

126

Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR): an overview of a future radar facility  

E-print Network

Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR): an overview of a future radar facility D. M is a new polar cap HF radar facility which is to be deployed on Svalbard. The principal capabilities of SPEAR will include the generation of arti®cial plasma irregularities, operation as an `all-sky' HF radar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

128

A West Florida Shelf ROMS Nested into HYCOM: Ensemble-based Assimilation of HF-Radar Surface Currents and a 2005 Red Tide Case Study with Simulated Drifters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A West Florida Shelf (WFS) model is constructed by nesting the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) in the Atlantic Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to include both local and deep-ocean forcing, particularly the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC). Hindcast experiments from 2004 to 2006 are presented and compared to observed temperature (moorings and BSOP profiling floats), ADCP velocity time series and HF-Radar surface currents. Two different mixing schemes (Mellor Yamada level 2.5 and K-Profile Parameterization, KPP) are tested and the importance of the vertical resolution for mixing is addressed. The model results of those different configurations are compared to temperature observations on the shelf. Results obtained with the Mellor Yamada scheme are closer to observations during winter (negative buoyancy flux and strong winds) while in summer (positive buoyancy flux and in general weaker wind) the KPP scheme produces more realistic results. Given the present HYCOM configuration we assessed the benefit of nesting ROMS in HYCOM compared to nesting ROMS in climatology. The model solutions on the shelf were compared to various in situ data. The model performed best when using the HYCOM boundary values. Simulated trajectories for drifters deployed off Tampa Bay and Sarasota were used to address the evolution of Karenia brevis concentrations during the 2005 red tide. Near surface drifters were advected offshore, whereas drifters deployed in the bottom Ekman layer matched the subsequently observed Karenia brevis distributions, showing the importance of the 3D structure of coastal ocean currents for red tide on the WFS. As a first attempt at assimilating CODAR surface currents we used an ensemble simulation carried out under different wind forcings to estimate the error covariance of the model state vector and the covariance between the ocean currents and the wind. Improvements were obtained for the modeled currents, not only at the surface, but also at depth.

Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Weisberg, R. H.

2007-05-01

129

Experimental investigations of digital signal processing techniques in an FMCW radar for naval application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently we have observed increased interest in frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars, mainly because of their low probability of intercept (LPI) properties. In such radars the information on range of targets appears in the frequency domain and it is obtained on the basis of spectrum analysis carried out for a so called beat signal. The beat signal is a

A. Grzywacz

2002-01-01

130

A digital beamforming processor for the joint DoD/NASA space based radar mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2x50 m L-band radar system for both Earth science and intelligence related observations.

Fischman, Mark A.; Le, Charles; Rosen, Paul A.

2004-01-01

131

First observations of ionospheric irregularities and flows over the south geomagnetic pole from the SuperDARN HF radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2010 a new SuperDARN radar began operation at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. The radars orientation places the south geomagnetic pole near the center of the field of view at about 1200 km range. The radar is the highest latitude radar of the SuperDARN network, both geographically and geomagnetically, and the observations have a different character than those of the auroral zone radars. One particular feature of note is the high incidence of observed backscatter. When ionospheric altitudes are above the solar shadow height the incidence of observation is greater than 80% for a large portion of the radar field of view. This is indicative of the near constant presence of field-aligned density irregularities in the polar cap. This paper presents statistics of the observations along with estimates of the convection velocity maps. Prevailing IMF and solar wind velocity were taken from the Omni database and compared to the observed flows.

Bristow, W. A.; Parris, R. T.; Spaleta, J.

2010-12-01

132

In-flight detection of errors for enhanced aircraft flight safety and vertical accuracy improvement using digital terrain elevation data with an inertial navigation system, global positioning system and radar altimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation discusses integration architectures using digital terrain elevation data (DTED) with an inertial navigation system (INS), a global positioning system (GPS) and a radar altimeter. Two integration architectures are considered: DTED with INS, GPS and radar altimeter for aircraft vertical accuracy improvement during the final approach; and DTED with kinematic GPS (KGPS) and a radar altimeter for enhanced aircraft

Robert Anthony Gray

1999-01-01

133

Spatially Waveform Diverse Radar: Perspectives for High Frequency OTHR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar concepts to HF over-the-horizon radar is considered to improve radar timeline management flexibility and to permit adaptivity on transmit. MIMO radar concepts in the literature are inconsistent and in this paper the taxonomy of MIMO radar is clarified and distinctions between different MIMO radar types drawn. The term \\

Gordon J. Frazer; Yuri I. Abramovich; B. A. Johnson

2007-01-01

134

Radar Imaging Systems Joseph Charpentier  

E-print Network

Radar Imaging Systems Joseph Charpentier Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University types of radar imaging systems; synthetic aperture radar (SAR), through-the-wall radar, and digital holographic near field radar. Each system surveyed experiments that improved the quality of the resulting

135

LPI radar: fact or fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

LPI radar is a system that consists of a radar and ES system. Its performance depends on both components. An LPI performance factor is derived and applied to several examples. Operational LPI radars are described. A digital LPI radar detector is described and test results presented. A recent book on LPI radar received a number of somewhat critical reviews that

D. C. Schleher

2006-01-01

136

A digital elevation model of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined laser and radar altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When estimating elevation changes of ice-covered surfaces from radar altimetry, it is important to correct for slope-induced errors. They cause the reflecting point of the pulse to move up-slope and thus return estimates in the wrong coordinates. Slope-induced errors can be corrected for by introducing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this work, such a DEM is developed for the Greenland Ice Sheet using a combination of Envisat radar and ICESat laser altimetry. If time permits, CryoSat radar altimetry will be included as well. The reference year is 2010 and the spatial resolution 2.5 x 2.5 km. This is in accordance with the results obtained in the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project showing that a 5 x 5 km grid spacing is reasonable for ice sheet-wide change detection (Levinsen et al., 2013). Separate DEMs will be created for the given data sets, and the geostatistical spatial interpolation method collocation will be used to merge them, thus adjusting for potential inter-satellite biases. The final DEM is validated with temporally and spatially agreeing airborne lidar data acquired in the NASA IceBridge and ESA CryoVex campaigns. The motivation for developing a new DEM is based on 1) large surface changes presently being observed, and mainly in margin regions, hence necessitating updated topography maps for accurately deriving and correcting surface elevation changes, and 2) although radar altimetry is subject to surface penetration of the signal into the snowpack, data is acquired continuously in time. This is not the case with e.g. ICESat, where laser altimetry data were obtained in periods of active lasers, i.e. three times a year with a 35-day repeat track. Previous DEMs e.g. have 2007 as the nominal reference year, or they are built merely from ICESat data. These have elevation errors as small as 10 cm, which is lower than for Envisat and CryoSat. The advantage of an updated DEM consisting of combined radar and laser altimetry therefore is the possibility of achieving a high spatial and temporal coverage, as well as the opportunity to continuously map surface changes relative to an updated topography and slopes. References: Levinsen, J. F., Khvorostovsky, K., Ticconi, F., Shepherd, A., Forsberg, R., Srensen, L. S., Muir, A., Pie, N., Felikson, D., Flament, T., Hurkmans, R., Moholdt, G., Gunter, B., Lindenbergh, R. C., and Kleinherenbrink, M.: ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbr, Greenland - Round Robin results, The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 5433-5460, 2013.

Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Smith, Ben; Srensen, Louise S.; Forsberg, Ren

2014-05-01

137

High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

1980-01-01

138

Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.

1973-01-01

139

Ka-band Digitally Beamformed Airborne Radar Using SweepSAR Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a frequency-scaled SweepSAR demonstration that operates at Ka-Band (35.6 GHz), and closely approximates the DESDynl mission antenna geometry, scaled by 28. The concept relies on the SweepSAR measurement technique. An array of digital receivers captures waveforms from a multiplicity of elements. These are combined using digital beamforming in elevation and SAR processing to produce imagery. Ka-band (35.6 GHz) airborne SweepSAR using array-fed reflector and digital beamforming features eight simultaneous receive beams generated by a 40-cm offset-fed reflector and eight-element active array feed, and eight digital receiver channels with all raw data recorded and later used for beamforming. Illumination of the swath is accomplished using a slotted-waveguide antenna radiating 250 W peak power. This experiment has been used to demonstrate digital beamforming SweepSAR systems.

Sadowy, Gregory A.; Chuang, Chung-Lun; Ghaemi, Hirad; Heavey, Brandon A.; Lin, Lung-Sheng S.; Quaddus, Momin

2012-01-01

140

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution.

Tom G. Farr; Paul A. Rosen; Edward Caro; Robert Crippen; Riley Duren; Scott Hensley; Michael Kobrick; Mimi Paller; Ernesto Rodriguez; Ladislav Roth; David Seal; Scott Shaffer; Joanne Shimada; Jeffrey Umland; Marian Werner; Michael Oskin; Douglas Burbank; Douglas Alsdorf

2007-01-01

141

VOLUME 78, NUMBER 5 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 3 FEBRUARY 1997 Multifrequency Doppler Radar Observations of Electron Gyroharmonic Effects  

E-print Network

Doppler Radar Observations of Electron Gyroharmonic Effects during Electromagnetic Pumping the first detailed mul- tifrequency HF Doppler radar (MDR) studies of elec- tron gyroharmonic effects) Experimental results of multifrequency HF Doppler radar studies during electromagnetic pumping

142

Monitoring of Ground Movement and Generation of Digital Elevation Models Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has the potential for measuring deformation of the earth's surface with very high accuracy and for the development of digital elevation models. Both capabilities are of high relevance for ground movement assessment. In addition, when archived raw data is available (post 1992), recent historic movement may be quantifiable. InSAR utilizes satellite-based data acquired at two different times along orbits of a similar trajectory to detect changes in the ground surface elevation. This technique can be used to monitor ground movement for rectangular areas as large as 100 kilometers on a side. Knowledge of topography, geology, trends and mechanics of existing ground movement is required for successful interpretation of InSAR data. The detection of ground surface deformation in terrain of high slope relief terrain is difficult. For ground deformation mapping by means of InSAR it is necessary to separate the motion-related and the topographic phase contributions. This is achieved by using a low resolution digital elevation model (DEM) during the processing of InSAR data. The application of InSAR technology to mining areas provides monitoring of not only the active mine areas but also the adjacent regions that has been affected by mining. Thus InSAR technique proves to be an essential ground monitoring methods in future for mining areas. The results from the InSAR analysis are compared with data from a ground-based monitoring system comprised of measured survey prisms for an open pit mine in Canada. InSAR analysis provided the location of the stable site for relocating the crusher which was affected by movement of pit slope. The presentation will show the application of InSAR technology to various mines in USA and Canada. Besides subsidence evaluation, InSAR data is also used to generate digital elevation models (DEM) and digital terrain models (DTM). The DEM and DTM derived from InSAR data for a mine in Canada is compared with the survey and LIDAR data to demonstrate the applicability of InSAR data to model surface topography.

Panda, B. B.

2013-12-01

143

Digital ionosonde observations during equatorial spread F  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equatorial spread F data taken with a digital ionosonde/HF radar located at Huancayo, Peru, are presented and discussed. A modified phenomenology is developed which used the system's ability to do echo location. The onset of irregularities is seen to occur in the east and to move westward, while inside this large-scale structure the plasma is found to drift eastward. A very curious difference has been identified between spread F observations with the ionosonde and with the VHF radar at Jicamarca. At VHF, spread F onset often occurs when the ionosphere is rising, whereas in all five examples presented the digital ionosonde detected onset when the apparent ionosphere motion was downward. The result even held on the one night of common data taking. The effect could be instrumental, but maybe related to the considerable orographic differences in the two sites. During one night, data were obtained simultaneously with the HF radar, a rocket, and the Jicamarca VHF radar; comparisons of these data are discussed in detail. Additional evidence is presented that acoustic gravity waves play a role in the development of equatorial spread F and in the formation of detached plumes. To be self-consistent, the gravity waves must come from nearby sources such as the tropical rain forest to the east of Jicamarca.

Argo, P. E.; Kelley, M. C.

1986-05-01

144

The MST Radar Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

Roettger, J.

1984-01-01

145

The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

Woodman, R. F.

1983-01-01

146

Decoders for MST radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

Woodman, R. F.

1983-01-01

147

HF groundwave and skywave propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of HF ground- and skywave propagation are reviewed with regard to regular conditions as well as anomalous phenomena which may effect the signal characteristics and thus may have an influence on the performance of digital communication systems. Particular consideration is given to the statistics of signal fading as a basis for system design.

Hortenbach, Klaus-Juergen

1986-10-01

148

HF groundwave and skywave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of HF ground- and skywave propagation are reviewed with regard to regular conditions as well as anomalous phenomena which may effect the signal characteristics and thus may have an influence on the performance of digital communication systems. Particular consideration is given to the statistics of signal fading as a basis for system design.

Klaus-Juergen Hortenbach

1986-01-01

149

Radar in transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that radar engineers, at the end of 1984, find their field in transition between the conventional designs of the post War II era and the digitally controlled, solid-state systems which will be in place for the year 2000. The U.S. Navy has two major phased array radar systems in operation, including the rotating three-dimensional (3D) AN/SPS-48, and the phased-scanned AN/SPY-1 (Aegis) radars. The Aegis represents a major step beyond the conventional 3D and mechanical fire-control radars. However, it requires a special ship, dedicated to its use. Attention is given to questions regarding an extension of the application of Aegis technology to other U.S. Navy applications and to other navies, an ambitious solid-state radar program in the UK, and Army radars.

Barton, D. K.

1984-12-01

150

Modeling of wideband HF channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation of wideband high frequency (HF) system performance is currently not possible because such simulators do not exist. Moreover, there are no validated HF channel models for bandwidths of the order of one megahertz, on which to base the simulator design. Additive distortions, namely noise and interference, in the HF band are briefly reviewed. An introduction and an appraisal of past narrowband HF models are presented: their background, validation tests, and the NTIA/ITS development of the Watterson's simulator. That laboratory tool, judged best by many, works in real time and offers accurate representations of HF channel bandwidth up to 10 or 12 kHz. In the present study an extension to wideband models is attempted. Unfortunately, it suffers from an apparently serious shortage of measured data for the time-varying channel transfer function. A possible wideband model is hypothesized, conjectures are made, many questions are raised, but hardly any are answered. One is left faced with a requirement for an experimental program that is to ascertain the wideband characteristics of multipath fading for digital radio transmission in the HF band and over propagation paths of interest.

Nesenbergs, Martin

1988-03-01

151

HF excited instabilities in space plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has now become technologically feasible to construct ground-based HF radar systems which can deliver RF energy to the ionospheric plasma, with power densities sufficient to alter the ionospheric electron thermal budget and plasma characteristics. Effects produced by a ground-based transmitter of a power aperture of the order of 10,000 Mw sq m in the frequency range from 4 to 12 MHz are shown in a graph. Another graph presents a profile of electron gas temperature enhancement due to energy deposition by a high power HF transmitter. The conduction of high-power HF ionospheric plasma experiments is discussed. Attention is given to plasma instabilities, wave-particle acceleration effects, spacial and time scales, parametric instabilities, spread-F, and the possibility of placing high power-aperture radars on an orbiting space platform.

Carlson, H. C., Jr.; Duncan, L. M.

1977-01-01

152

Temperate Ice Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last few years. A key variable in the study of glacier dynamics is ice thickness. A few attempts have been made to develop airborne sounding radars for temperate-ice thickness measurements [Arcone et al., 2000]. There is an urgent need for compact radar for routine ice thickness measurements from ground-based and airborne platforms. Radars (Radio Detection and Ranging) have been widely used to measure ice thickness in Greenland and Antarctica. However, the radars used in these areas operate in the VHF and UHF part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Due to the composition of temperate ice, the attenuation and back-scatter from large pockets of water makes UHF and VHF ineffective in sounding of its thickness. Radars operating in lower part of the HF spectrum are required for sounding temperate ice. We are designing and developing a Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through the water pockets and provide a more accurate measurement of the ice thickness. TIDSoR is a light-weight system for ground-based operations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys in which weight is an important factor, such as in an UAV. TIDSoR operates on two channels in the HF spectrum using two-linear, frequency-modulated chirp waveforms. The two chirp frequency ranges are 7 to 8 MHz and 13.5 to 14.5 MHz. The radar will operate from a 12-V battery and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the battery. The radar consists of three main sections: Digital, RF and antenna. The digital-section generates the transmitter waveforms, timing and control signals, and digitizes processes and stores the received signal. The RF-section consists of a transmitter with a 20-W peak-power amplifier, band-pass filters, and a switching system for a shared antenna. The receiver consists of a blanking switch, a limiter, a low-noise amplifier, a band-pass filter and a data acquisition system to store the acquired data. At HF, a physically large-antenna is needed. TIDSoR takes advantage of the helix antenna concept to minimize its physical dimensions and weight. Moreover, the ability to achieve different polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical) was considered to maximize the performance of the radar system. Arcone, S. A., Lawson, D. E., Moran, M. and Delaney, A. J., 2000, 12-100-MHz profiles of ice depth and stratigraphy of three temperate glaciers. In: Proc. GPR 2000, Eighth Intl. Conf. Ground-Penetrating Radar, Gold Coast, Austral., 23-26 May, 2000.

Jara, V.; Player, K.; Gogineni, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Thompson, L.

2007-12-01

153

Remote sensing of sea state by radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years several radar techniques have evolved which allow the remote measurement of certain parameters important in the description of sea state. At MF and HF, monostatic and bistatic configurations employing satellites, ships, islands, and\\/or land based stations can measure the ocean waveheight spectrum with several frequencies via first-order Bragg scatter. At high HF and VHF, the ocean waveheight

D. Barrick

1972-01-01

154

Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line

Erhan Kudeki; Bela G. Fejer; Donald T. Farley; Christian Hanuise

1987-01-01

155

Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last decade. Radar instruments can be used to provide a wealth of information regarding the internal and basal conditions of large and small ice masses. These instruments typically operate in the VHF and UHF regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For temperate-ice sounding, however, the high water content produces scattering and attenuation in propagating radar waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, which significantly reduce the penetration depths. Radars operating in the HF band are better suited for systematic surveys of the thickness and sub-glacial topography of temperate-ice regions. We are developing a dual-frequency Temperate-Ice-Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through water pockets, thus providing more accurate measurements of temperate ice properties such as thickness and basal conditions. The radar is a light-weight, low power consumption portable system for surface-based observations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys. TIDSoR operates at two different center frequencies: 7.7 MHz and 14 MHz, with a maximum output peak power of 20 W. The transmit waveform is a digitally generated linear frequency-modulated chirp with 1 MHz bandwidth. The radar can be installed on aircrafts such as the CReSIS UAV [1], DCH-6 (Twin Otter), or P-3 Orion for aerial surveys, where it could be supported by the airplane power system. For surface based experiments, TIDSoR can operate in a backpack configuration powered by a compact battery system. The system can also be installed on a sled towed by a motorized vehicle, in which case the power supply can be replaced by a diesel generator. The radar consists of three functional blocks: the digital section, the radio-frequency (RF) section, and the antenna, and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the power supply. The digital section generates the transmit waveforms as well as timing and control signals. It also digitizes the output signal from the receiver and stores the data in binary format using a portable computer. The RF-section consists of a high- power transmitter and a low-noise receiver with digitally controlled variable gain. The antenna is time-shared between the transmitter and receiver by means of a transmit/receive (T/R) switch. In regards to the antenna, we have made a survey study of various electrically small antennas (ESA) to choose the most suitable radiating structure for this application. Among the different alternatives that provide a good trade-off between electrical performance and small size, we have adopted an ESA dipole configuration for airborne platforms and a half-wavelength radiator for the surface-based version. The airborne antenna solution is given after studying the geometry of the aerial vehicle and its fuselage contribution to the antenna radiation pattern. Dipoles are made of 11.6 mm diameter cables (AWG 0000) or printed patches embedded into the aircraft fuselage, wings, or both. The system is currently being integrated and tested. TIDSoR is expected to be deployed during the spring 2008 either in Alaska or Greenland for surface based observations. In this paper, we will discuss our design considerations and current progress towards the development of this radar system. [1] Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (Cresis), Sept 2008, [Online]. Available: http://www.cresis.ku.edu

Jara-Olivares, V. A.; Player, K.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, P.

2008-12-01

156

Meteor observations with the European incoherent scatter UHF radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar, which operates at a nominal frequency of 930 MHz, is introduced as a powerful meteor radar. Its high sensitivity is utilized to detect transient enhanced ionization trails caused by meteors of all orientations, in contrast to conventional HF and VHF backscatter radars, which observe only the meteor trails oriented approximately normal to the

Asta Pellinen-Wannberg; Gudmund Wannberg

1994-01-01

157

Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with direct digitization of wide band, high frequency radio frequency (RF) signals. At the same time the availability of relatively small 4K cryocoolers has lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled digital electronic systems. Recently, we have achieved a major breakthrough in the development, demonstration, and successful delivery of the cryocooled superconductor digital-RF receivers directly digitizing signals in a broad range from kilohertz to gigahertz. These essentially hybrid-technology systems combine a variety of superconductor and semiconductor technologies packaged with two-stage commercial cryocoolers: cryogenic Nb mixed-signal and digital circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, room-temperature amplifiers, FPGA processing and control circuitry. The demonstrated cryocooled digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals in X-band and performing signal acquisition in HF to L-band at 30GHz clock frequencies.

Mukhanov, Oleg A.; Kirichenko, Dmitri; Vernik, Igor V.; Filippov, Timur V.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Webber, Robert; Dotsenko, Vladimir; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Tang, Jia Cao; Sahu, Anubhav; Shevchenko, Pavel; Miller, Robert; Kaplan, Steven B.; Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan

158

Water slope and discharge in the Amazon River estimated using the shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that the standard deviation, hence error, of the water surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is 5.51 m for basin-wide, regional and local Amazon mainstem reaches. This error implies a minimum reach length of 733km in order to calculate a reliable water-surface slope. Resulting slopes are 1.92 +\\/- 0.19 cm\\/km for Manacapuru, 2.86 +\\/-

Gina LeFavour; Doug Alsdorf

2005-01-01

159

Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

2002-01-01

160

Large phased-array radars  

SciTech Connect

Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

Brookner, D.E.

1988-12-15

161

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The

T. G. Farr; M. Kobrick

2001-01-01

162

Bistatic radar sea state monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bistatic radar techniques were examined for remote measurement of the two-dimensional surface wave height spectrum of the ocean. One technique operates at high frequencies (HF), 3-30 MHz, and the other at ultrahigh frequencies (UHF), approximately 1 GHz. Only a preliminary theoretical examination of the UHF technique was performed; however the principle underlying the HF technique was demonstrated experimentally with results indicating that an HF bistatic system using a surface transmitter and an orbital receiver would be capable of measuring the two-dimensional wave height spectrum in the vicinity of the transmitter. An HF bistatic system could also be used with an airborne receiver for ground truth ocean wave spectrum measurements. Preliminary system requirements and hardware configurations are discussed for both an orbital system and an aircraft verification experiment.

Ruck, G. T.; Barrick, D. E.; Kaliszewski, T.

1972-01-01

163

Investigation and Development of Data-Driven D-Region Model for HF Systems Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Environment Corporation (SEC) and RP Consultants (RPC) are to develop and validate a weather-capable D region model for making High Frequency (HF) absorption predictions in support of the HF communications and radar communities. The weather-capable model will assimilate solar and earth space observations from NASA satellites. The model will account for solar-induced impacts on HF absorption, including X-rays, Solar Proton Events (SPE's), and auroral precipitation. The work plan includes: I . Optimize D-region model to quickly obtain ion and electron densities for proper HF absorption calculations. 2. Develop indices-driven modules for D-region ionization sources for low, mid, & high latitudes including X-rays, cosmic rays, auroral precipitation, & solar protons. (Note: solar spectrum & auroral modules already exist). 3. Setup low-cost monitors of existing HF beacons and add one single-frequency beacon. 4. Use PENEX HF-link database with HF monitor data to validate D-region/HF absorption model using climatological ionization drivers. 5. Develop algorithms to assimilate NASA satellite data of solar, interplanetary, and auroral observations into ionization source modules. 6. Use PENEX HF-link & HF-beacon data for skill score comparison of assimilation versus climatological D-region/HF absorption model. Only some satellites are available for the PENEX time period, thus, HF-beacon data is necessary. 7. Use HF beacon monitors to develop HF-link data assimilation algorithms for regional improvement to the D-region/HF absorption model.

Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.

2002-01-01

164

Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc K? Ciparoanas Sist?ma Radara Vlbi Nov?rojumiem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital base band converter (DBBC) system has been developed by the Istituto di Radioastronomia (Noto, Italy) for increasing the sensitivity of European VLBI Network (EVN) by expanding the full observed bandwidth using numerical methods. The output data rate of this VLBI-backend is raised from 1 to 4 Gbps for each radiotelescope. All operations related to the signal processing (frequency translation, amplification, frequency generation with local oscillators, etc.) are transferred to the digital domain, which allows - in addition to well-known advantages coming from digital technologies - achieving better repeatability, precision, simplicity, etc. The maximum input band of DBBC system is 3.5 GHz, and the instantaneous bandwidth is up to 1 GHz for each radio frequency/intermediate frequency (RF/IF) out of the eight possible. This backend is a highly powerful platform for other radioastronomy applications, and a number of additional so-called personalities have been developed and used. This includes PFB (polyphase filter bank) receivers and Spectra for high resolution spectroscopy. An additional new development with the same aim - to use the DBBC system as a multi-purpose backend - is related to the bi-static radar observations including Radar VLBI. In such observations it is possible to study the population of space debris, with detection of even centimetre class fragments. A powerful transmitter is used to illuminate the sky region to be analyzed, and the echoes coming from known or unknown objects are reflected to one or more groundbased telescopes thus producing a single-dish or interferometric detection. The DBBC Radar VLBI personality is able to realize a high-resolution spectrum analysis, maintaining in the central area the echo signal at the expected frequency including the Doppler shift of frequency. For extremely weak signals a very large integration time is needed, so for this personality different input parameters are provided. The realtime information can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sist?ma izstr?d?ta Noto Radioastronomijas instit?t?. Sist?mas galvenaisuzdevums - palielin?t visa Eiropas VLBI t?kla jut?bu - realiz?ts, palielinotvisas nov?rojam?s joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu sign?lu apstr?des metodes.Izejas datu pl?sma palielin?ta no 1 l?dz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoper?cijas, kas saist?tas ar sign?lu apstr?di (frekvences p?rveidoana, pastiprin?jums,iek?jie ?eneratori, utt.), realiz?tas digit?l? form?, kas ?auj ieg?t noz?m?gusuzlabojumus atk?rtojam?b?, precizit?t?, vienk?r?b?, nemaz neminot visp?rzin?m?spriekroc?bas, ko nodroina digit?lo tehnolo?iju izmantoana. Maksim?l? ieejassign?la frekven?u josla ir 3.5 GHz, un moment?nais joslas platums ir l?dz 1 GHz uzkatru no asto?iem iesp?jamajiem RF/IF kan?liem. ? datu re?istr?cijas sist?ma ir?oti veiktsp?j?ga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet ar? citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstr?d?ta vesela virkne programmat?ras pakot?u, kasv?l vair?k paplaina sist?mas funkcionalit?ti. Tas ietver PFB (Polif?zes FiltruBanka) uztv?r?jus "Spectra, kas piem?roti augstas iz?irtsp?jas spektroskopijasvajadz?b?m. Papildus realiz?ts jaunas programmat?ras risin?jums, ar m?r?iizmantot DBBC sist?mu k? daudzfunkcion?lu datu ciparoanas iek?rtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara nov?rojumiem, tai skait? ar? rad

Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

2012-12-01

165

Aircraft radar antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

Schrank, Helmut E.

1987-04-01

166

Radar sector blanker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radar sector blanker comprises in analog-to-digital converter and a sector controller unit. The analog-to-digital converter receives the analog synchro voltages describing the positioning of a radar antenna and changes these voltages into binary-coded decimal (BCD) information. The sector controller unit comprises a portable housing, a controller system, and a power supply. The controller system includes an OFF comparator circuit, an ON comparator circuit, an S-R latch, and a solid-state switch. Each comparator circuit comprises three cascaded transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated chips. The power supply gives a direct-current voltage to the solid-state switch and the TTL chips. The sector blanker blocks transmission for a predetermined rotational region or sector of a radar system.

Hall, Roger B.

1994-03-01

167

High-frequency radar observations of ocean surface currents.  

PubMed

This article reviews the discovery, development, and use of high-frequency (HF) radio wave backscatter in oceanography. HF radars, as the instruments are commonly called, remotely measure ocean surface currents by exploiting a Bragg resonant backscatter phenomenon. Electromagnetic waves in the HF band (3-30 MHz) have wavelengths that are commensurate with wind-driven gravity waves on the ocean surface; the ocean waves whose wavelengths are exactly half as long as those of the broadcast radio waves are responsible for the resonant backscatter. Networks of HF radar systems are capable of mapping surface currents hourly out to ranges approaching 200 km with a horizontal resolution of a few kilometers. Such information has many uses, including search and rescue support and oil-spill mitigation in real time and larval population connectivity assessment when viewed over many years. Today, HF radar networks form the backbone of many ocean observing systems, and the data are assimilated into ocean circulation models. PMID:22809196

Paduan, Jeffrey D; Washburn, Libe

2013-01-01

168

HF system design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder/decoder, channel encoder/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

Darnell, M.

1983-05-01

169

HF system design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder\\/decoder, channel encoder\\/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

M. Darnell

1983-01-01

170

Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents examples of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from two study sites in southeastern Florida where karstic Pleistocene platform carbonates that comprise the unconfined Biscayne aquifer were imaged. Important features shown on resultant GPR profiles include: (1) upward and lateral qualitative interpretative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity; (2) paleotopographic relief on karstic subaerial exposure surfaces; and (3) vertical stacking of chronostratigraphic high-frequency cycles (HFCs). These characteristics were verified by comparison to rock properties observed and measured in core samples, and identified in digital optical borehole images. Results demonstrate that an empirical relation exists between measured whole-core porosity and hydraulic conductivity, observed porosity on digital optical borehole images, formation conductivity, and GPR reflection amplitudes-as porosity and hydraulic conductivity determined from core and borehole images increases, formation conductivity increases, and GPR reflection amplitude decreases. This relation allows for qualitative interpretation of the vertical and lateral distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs. Two subtidal HFCs in the uppermost Biscayne aquifer have significantly unique populations of whole-core porosity values and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Porosity measurements from one cycle has a median value about two to three times greater than the values from the other HFC, and median values of vertical hydraulic-conductivity about three orders of magnitude higher than the other HFC. The HFC with the higher porosity and hydraulic conductivity values is shown as a discrete package of relatively low-amplitude reflections, whereas the HFC characterized by lower porosity and hydraulic-conductivity measurements is expressed by higher amplitude reflections. Porosity and hydraulic-conductivity values measured from whole-core samples, and vuggy porosity identified on digital borehole images from shallowing-upward, peritidal HFCs show that the highest porosity occurs at the base of the cycles, moderate porosity at the middle of the cycles, and lowest porosity occurs at the top of cycles. Hydraulic conductivity is also highest at the base of the peritidal cycles and lowest in the middle to upper parts of cycles. This change in porosity and hydraulic conductivity from bottom to top is visible as an upward variation in reflection amplitude on GPR profiles-lowest amplitudes at the base and highest at the cycle tops. This study demonstrates that GPR can be used to show the qualitative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within a cycle-stratigraphic framework composed of carbonate HFCs. The distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs is related to depositional textures. The upward and lateral patterns of the rock facies within the HFCs can be translated to geophysical-log properties and radar facies configurations that could aid in interpretation and prediction of ground-water flow through a carbonate aquifer. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cunningham, K.J.

2004-01-01

171

Radar Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radar tracking used to profile insect migration, mating and flight patterns. Many links to various pages include current workers in radar entomology, historical uses of the technology, and many images.

0000-00-00

172

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

173

Near field focusing algorithm for high frequency ground penetration imaging radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground penetrating radar has been successfully used for imaging stratigraphic structures. The goal of our ground penetrating radar program is to provide a capability for strategic subsurface target detection for military applications. This paper describes an experimental approach to high frequency (HF) radar sub-surface profiling, and the results obtained from signal and data processing for deep tunnel detection. Ongoing experiments

Russell D. Brown; E. Douglas Lynch; David W. Mokry; James M. VanDamme; Richard A. Schneible; Michael C. Wicks

1999-01-01

174

Temporal evolution of HF-enhanced plasma lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical investigation is conducted of the temporal evolution of HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs). An extended theoretical model is presented which was originally intended to explain the intensity overshoot of the high frequency enhanced plasma line (HFPL). The extension takes into consideration the fact that nonresistant heating of plasma electrons by the parametrically excited Langmuir waves can yield an apparent increment in electron temperature. It is pointed out that the HFPLs refer to the radar echoes at frequencies near the sum and difference of the radar frequency and the HF heater wave frequency. It is suggested that backscatter of radar signals from plasma waves having a wavenumber of 18/m cause the enhanced spectral lines.

Kuo, S. P.; Ho, A. Y.; Lee, M. C.

1990-01-01

175

Generation of ionospheric ducts by the HAARP HF heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an investigation of ionospheric ducts having the shape of large plasma sheets, generated by vertically transmitted HAARP HF heater waves in several experiments conducted in Gakona, Alaska. Theory predicts that O-mode heater wave-created ionospheric ducts form parallel-plate waveguides within the meridional plane, and those generated by the X-mode heater waves are orthogonal to the meridional plane. Our theoretical prediction is supported by measurements of ionosonde data (namely ionograms), range-time-intensity (RTI) plots of UHF and HF backscatter radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced EB drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and seen as slanted stripes in the RTI plots. This striking feature was also observed in our earlier experiments using the Arecibo UHF radar.

Cohen, J. A.; Pradipta, R.; Burton, L. M.; Labno, A.; Lee, M. C.; Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C.; Kuo, S. P.; Burke, W. J.; Mabius, D.; See, B. Z.

2010-12-01

176

A theoretical model for the temporal evolution of HF-enhanced plasma lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) observed in the Arecibo heating experiments refer to the radar returns at frequencies near the sum and difference of the radar frequency and the HF-heatear frequency. Those enhanced spectral lines are caused by backscatter of radar signals from parametrically excited plasma waves having a wavenumber of 18 n. A nonlinear theory was developed to describe the temporal evolution of those specified plasma waves and their originating altitude interval of HFPLs observed at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are explained. The theoretical resultsagree well with the observation (Djuth and Sulzer, 1989).

Kuo, S. P.; Ho, A. Y.; Lee, M. C.; Djuth, F. T.

1990-01-01

177

UNDERSTANDING HF CHANNEL SIMULATOR REQUIREMENTS IN ORDER TO REDUCE HF MODEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT VARIABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper begins with a brief overview of the HF channel and the mechanisms that hinder both analog and digital communications. Next the paper examines the Watterson channel model and describes the constituent parts common to most channel simulator implementations. This is followed by an overview of standards and documents which address various aspects of simulator implementations utilized for

W. N. Furman; J. W. Nieto

178

Multifrequency observations of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes using Alaskan radar facilities: Comparisons and scattering calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present polar mesospheric radar observations at three frequency bands (MF/HF/VHF) and eight radar frequencies: 2.43, 3.3, 4.53, 4.9, 7.6, 28, 50, and 139 MHz, in order to better understand the well known but still not fully understood Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE). The echo morphology at the different frequencies is described by means of case studies where PMSE events were observed concurrently using at least two radar systems deployed over the Alaskan central region. The identity of MF and HF radar echoes as PMSE is resolved for the first time by means of simultaneous measurements made with VHF radars, the reference sensors employed traditionally for PMSE studies. On the basis of echo duration and radar reflectivity estimates, we suggest that low-power HF radars would be more appropriate for PMSE monitoring. This is confirmed by a radar target analysis of turbulent scattering mechanisms in the polar summer mesosphere. MF radars show highly organized PMSE layers quite often but are more susceptible to ionospheric absorption and higher-altitude returns associated with geomagnetic activity. Both phenomena produce a blanking effect in MF PMSE, which at times can persist for hours. HF and VHF radars are less affected by absorption events, but the PMSE echoes become weaker as the radar frequency increases.

Ramos, Camilo; Kelley, Michael C.; Djuth, Frank T.; Groves, Keith M.; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Seiji; Thorsen, Denise

2009-10-01

179

Supermarine Spitfire HF VII  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supermarine Spitfire HF VII: This Supermarine Spitfire HF VII was one of high-altitude versions of the famous fighter, its normal elliptical wingtips replaced by extended 'pointed' tips for its high-altitude role. This is one of the Langley aircraft that has survived. It is in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum's collection.

1944-01-01

180

Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternative methods are disclosed for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); van Zul, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

1989-01-01

181

Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternative methods are presented for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

Zebker, Howard A. (inventor); Held, Daniel N. (inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (inventor); Norikane, Lynne (inventor)

1988-01-01

182

Superconductor Digital Electronics: -- Current Status, Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major applications of superconductor electronics: communications and supercomputing will be presented. These areas hold a significant promise of a large impact on electronics state-of-the-art for the defense and commercial markets stemming from the fundamental advantages of superconductivity: simultaneous high speed and low power, lossless interconnect, natural quantization, and high sensitivity. The availability of relatively small cryocoolers lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled superconductor electronic systems. These fundamental advantages enabled a novel Digital-RF architecture - a disruptive technological approach changing wireless communications, radar, and surveillance system architectures dramatically. Practical results were achieved for Digital-RF systems in which wide-band, multi-band radio frequency signals are directly digitized and digital domain is expanded throughout the entire system. Digital-RF systems combine digital and mixed signal integrated circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, superconductor analog filter circuits, and semiconductor post-processing circuits. The demonstrated cryocooled Digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals, enabling multi-net data links, and performing signal acquisition from HF to L-band with 30 GHz clock frequencies. In supercomputing, superconductivity leads to the highest energy efficiencies per operation. Superconductor technology based on manipulation and ballistic transfer of magnetic flux quanta provides a superior low-power alternative to CMOS and other charge-transfer based device technologies. The fundamental energy consumption in SFQ circuits defined by flux quanta energy 2x10-19 J. Recently, a novel energy-efficient zero-static-power SFQ technology, eSFQ/ERSFQ was invented, which retains all advantages of standard RSFQ circuits: high-speed, dc power, internal memory. The voltage bias regulation, determined by SFQ clock, enables the zero-power at zero-activity regimes, indispensable for sensor and quantum bit readout.

Mukhanov, Oleg

2011-03-01

183

Convergence of ESM sensors and passive covert radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the convergence of ESM sensors and passive covert radar (PCR) by presenting the results of field tests with the application of an experimental wideband digital ESM receiver as a sensor in bistatic configuration for PCR. Exploitation of an a priori unknown radar illumination gives the principal possibility of detecting moving targets. A LPI radar with FMCW signals

Dietmar Matthes

2005-01-01

184

Radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar Astronomy is a new and growing branch of Astronomy. Although it seems that radio echo studies must be confined to the solar system, they can play an important part in developing our understanding of the Sun and the planets. At the present time these objects are barely detectable by radar techniques and much of the work has been concerned

J. V. Evans

1960-01-01

185

The meteor radar as a tool for upper atmosphere research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteor radars provide measurements of the upper mesosphere-lower thermosphere neutral wind field by using the reflection of electromagnetic waves from meteor trails. These radars are relatively inexpensive and provide an excellent means of monitoring the mean winds and tides in the 80-100 km region. Recently new techniques have been developed to detect meteor echoes from other ground-based radar systems operating in the HF/VHF frequency range. The meteor echo information augments the data that is routinely collected by these radars. In this paper I will review the meteor radar technique and emphasize new methods of detection of meteor echoes on Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST/MST) radars and on the Imaging Doppler Interferometer (IDI) radar.

Avery, S. K.

186

Statistical observations of the MLT, latitude and size of pulsed ionospheric ows with the CUTLASS Finland radar  

E-print Network

Finland radar G. Provan, T. K. Yeoman Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester as detected by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar. These ¯ows have been suggested as being created scan data from the CUT- LASS Finland radar have been analysed in order to perform a statistical study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

HF broadcast transmitting antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of high-frequency (HF) broadcast transmitting antennas. For long-range broadcasting, high-power wideband directive antennas with slewing and beam shaping capabilities are needed. The design requirements, state-of-the-art, and the future trend of these antennas are discussed. Also discussed are the power-handling capability of the antenna, its mechanical requirements, and siting conditions. Currently available HF broadcast antennas are examined.

A. Paul

1988-01-01

188

Quantifying the Differences in Low Probability of Intercept Radar Waveforms Using Quadrature Mirror Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars are a class of radar systems that possess certain performance% characteristics causing them to be nearly undetectable by most modern digital intercept receivers, Consequently, LPI radar systems can operate undetected until the intercept receiver is much closer than the radar's target detector, The enemy is thus faced with a significant problem To detect these

Pedro Jarpa

2002-01-01

189

Analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Radar Signals Using Cyclostationary Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

LPI (Low Probability of Intercept) radar is a class of radar systems that possess certain performance characteristics that make them nearly undetectable by today's digital intercept receivers. This presents a significant tactical problem in the battle space. To detect these types of radar, new digital receivers that use sophisticated signal processing techniques are required This thesis investigates the use of

Antonio F. Lime Jr.

2002-01-01

190

Lightweight SAR GMTI radar technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small and lightweight dual-channel radar has been developed for SAR data collections. Using standard Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA) radar digital signal processing, SAR GMTI images have been obtained. The prototype radar weighs 5-lbs and has demonstrated the extraction of ground moving targets (GMTs) embedded in high-resolution SAR imagery data. Heretofore this type of capability has been reserved for much larger systems such as the JSTARS. Previously, small lightweight SARs featured only a single channel and only displayed SAR imagery. Now, with the advent of this new capability, SAR GMTI performance is now possible for small UAV class radars.

Kirk, John C.; Lin, Kai; Gray, Andrew; Hseih, Chung; Darden, Scott; Kwong, Winston; Majumder, Uttam; Scarborough, Steven

2013-05-01

191

Radar interferometry: limits and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of radar interferometry to the field of digital terrain modeling is important because this technique offers specific features which optical instruments cannot attain. However, the complexity of the height restitution and the accuracy of the result strongly depend on the orbital geometry at the time of the data takes. The present study aims at assessing the potential of

Didier Massonnet; Thierry Rabaute

1993-01-01

192

Longitudinal and seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation at the dip equator: A study using Trivandrum and Jicamarca Digital Ionosonde and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter radar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At night, the absence of photo ionization in combination with sustained downward plasma motion means that the F region can be severely depleted at the magnetic equator at the end of the night. As a result, there can be, at sunrise, a sudden upward jump in altitude of the F region peak which is then followed by a quick descent in association with the downward motion of the photo ionization production peak. This constitutes what has been described as the equatorial sunrise undulation. Its anecdotal existence has been reported over Jicamarca (120 S, 76.90 W, 1.70 S dip-latitude) while it has been seen repeatedly over Trivandrum (8.470 N, 76.920 E, 0.170 S dip latitude), India, particularly during equinox conditions. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation in the F-region peak height (hmF2) at two longitudinally separated geomagnetic equatorial stations, namely Jicamarca and Trivandrum are being presented. Measurements from Digital ionosondes, located at these two stations, have been used in this study. A fast descends in hmF2 after the local F region sunrise was quite visible at both the stations. The frequency of occurrence of sunrise undulation at Trivandrum, however, was high compared to the same at Jicamarca. There were noticeable differences in the seasonal occurrence of sunrise undulation at the two places. While it was observed throughout the year at Trivandrum, there was a distinct seasonal preference of occurrence at Jicamarca, at least in the year 2010, a low solar active period. Its frequency of occurrence at Jicamarca was high during winter (June) solstice, low during equinox (March) and had almost negligible occurrence during summer solstice (December). We show that (1) plasma density during sunrise at Jicamarca on average was twice as much as at Trivandrum, and (2) average height of hmF2 during night at Jicamarca was higher (~100km ) during equinox and solstice months compared to the same at Trivandrum. Our results suggest that the background density plays an important role in the observation of a sunrise undulation in the F region peak which itself is quite sensitive to the electric field seen by the plasma between sunset and sunrise. Using incoherent backscatter radar data from Jicamarca we show that the sunrise undulation can be masked when remnant plasma from the previous night does not come down to low enough altitude. We argue that this is the reason behind the lack of sunrise undulations in December at Jicamarca, given the fact that there is often very strong plasma uplift in the evening at that time of year. Thus the seasonal and longitudinal variation of sunrise ionosphere is a proxy to understand the electro-dynamical features of the night before.

Ambili, K. M.; St-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Choudhary, Raj Kumar

193

Radar Core Electronics for the European Radar SOSTAR-X - Recent Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Radar Core Electronics (CE) has been developed for the European SOSTAR-X (Stand-Off Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar) programme. Taking into account the requirements for different SAR modes, MTI modes, and simultaneous SAR\\/MTI modes, the main functions (frequency genera-tion, radar timing, waveform generation, demodulation, A\\/D-conversion, digital pre-processing and formatting) have been identified, and a modular, configurable and flexible CE has

M. Kirscht

2007-01-01

194

Magnetic zenith effect in the ionospheric modification by an X-mode HF heater wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experimental results aimed at an investigation of the magnetic zenith effect in the high latitude ionosphere F region from ionospheric modification by powerful HF heater wave with X-polarization. The ionospheric modification was produced by the HF heating facility at Troms (Norway) using the phased array with a narrow beam with of 6 degrees. Effective radiated power was varied between 450 and 1000 MW. The HF pump wave radiated in different directions relative to the magnetic field from 90 degrees (vertical) to 78 degrees (magnetic zenith) at frequencies near or above the ordinary-mode critical frequency. The response of the ionosphere plasma to the HF pump wave impact was checked by the UHF incoherent scatter radar located in the immediate vicinity of the HF heater. UHF radar was probing the plasma parameters, such as electron density and temperature (Ne and Te), HF-induced plasma and ion lines in the altitude range from 90 to 600 km. It was running in a scanning mode when UHF radar look angles were changed from 74 to 90 degrees by 1 or 2 degree step. It was clearly demonstrated that the strongest heater-induced effects took place in the magnetic field-aligned direction when HF pointing was also to the magnetic zenith. It was found that strong Ne enhancement of up to 80 % along magnetic field (artificial density ducts) were excited only under HF pumping towards magnetic zenith. The width of the artificial ducts comes to only 2 degrees. The Ne increases were accompanied by the Te enhancements of up to about 50 %. Less pronounced Te increases were also observed in the directions of 84 and 90 degrees. Strong Ne enhancements can be accompanied by excitation of strong HF-induced plasma and ion lines. Thus experimental results obtained points to the strong magnetic zenith effect due to self-focusing powerful HF radio wave with X-mode polarization.

Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Haggstrom, I.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.

2013-12-01

195

The AN\\/GSC10 (KATHRYN) Variable Rate Data Modem for HF Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AN\\/GSC-10 (KATHRYN) is a new modem equipment for digital data transmission on HF radio circuits. Its unique modulation technique provides a wide range of signal redundancy and data rate to allow optimum performance over the correspondingly wide range of propagation conditions characteristic of HF radio. Efficient detection is achieved at all levels of redundancy by utilizing a fully coherent

M. Zimmerman; A. Kirsch

1967-01-01

196

Imaging the Antarctic Ice Sheet Subsurface with the HF GPR TAPIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HF impulse polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) operating at very low frequencies (ranging from ~2 to 8MHz) has been developed in the frame of the NetLander mission. This instrument, named TAPIR (Terrestrial And Planetary Investigation by Radar), was designed to probe the Martian subsurface down to kilometric depth and search for potential water reservoirs. Although the NetLander mission was

A. Le Gall; V. Ciarletti; J. Berthelier; A. Reineix; R. Ney; S. Bonaim; C. Corbel

2006-01-01

197

Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves.

Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.

1987-12-01

198

Digital communications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

Boorstyn, R. R.

1973-01-01

199

Integrated photonic analog-to-digital converters  

E-print Network

Accurate conversion of wideband multi-GHz analog signals into the digital domain has long been a target of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) developers, driven by applications in radar systems, software radio, medical ...

Khilo, Anatol (Anatol M.)

2011-01-01

200

Optimal Pollution Mitigation in Monterey Bay Based on Coastal Radar Data and Nonlinear  

E-print Network

Optimal Pollution Mitigation in Monterey Bay Based on Coastal Radar Data and Nonlinear Dynamics run-off which is a typical source of pollution in the bay. We show that a HF radar-based pollution release scheme using this flow structure reduces the impact of pollution on the coastal envi- ronment

Marsden, Jerrold

201

High frequency radar and its application to fresh water Lorelle A. Meadows a,  

E-print Network

with wavelengths on the order of one half the radar wavelength. These findings indicated that radio waves reflected order, the strong HF echo arises from a Bragg scattering interaction with ocean waves traveling radially gravity waves traveling radially toward or away from the radar. The presence of near-surface currents

Ruf, Christopher

202

Measurement of ocean wave spectra using narrow-beam HE radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data interpretation algorithm is developed to extract ocean wave information from HF radar backscatter observed by a narrow-beam antenna system. The basis of this measurement is the inversion of the integral equation representing the second-order radar cross section of the ocean surface. This equation is numerically inverted by approximating it as a matrix equation and pseudoinverting the kernel matrix

Randy Howell; John Walsh

1993-01-01

203

A realistic radar data simulator for the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a chain of HF radars for monitoring plasma flows in the high and middle latitude E and F regions of the ionosphere. The targets of SuperDARN radars are plasma irregularities which can flow up to several kilometers per second and can be detected out to ranges of several thousand kilometers. We have developed a simulator which is able to model SuperDARN data realistically. The simulation system comprises four separate parts: model scatterers, model collective properties, a model radar, and post-processing. Importantly, the simulator is designed using the collective scatter approach which accurately captures the expected statistical fluctuations of the radar echoes. The output of the program can represent either receiver voltages or autocorrelation functions (ACFs) in standard SuperDARN file formats. The simulator is useful for testing and implementation of SuperDARN data processing software and for investigation of how radar data and performance change when the nature of the irregularities or radar operation varies. The companion paper demonstrates the application of simulated data to evaluate the performance of different ACF fitting algorithms. The data simulator is applicable to other ionospheric radar systems.

Ribeiro, A. J.; Ponomarenko, P. V.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Larquier, S.

2013-05-01

204

Using radar image simulation to assess relative geometric distortions inherent in radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique method for observing the relative contributions of backscatter and propagation effects is afforded by radar image simulation. Digital terrain data are used in modeling radar image formation. Backscatter and propagation effects are modeled separately. These are incorporated serially and the image expression of each is noted. Sequences of images are presented illustrating these effects over a range of slopes and angles of incidence. The conclusions reached are that at angles of incidence that are smaller than the average slope of the terrain in a region, propagation phenomena predominate. As the angle of incidence increases beyond this, the radar image portrays an increasingly faithful representation of the backscatter from the ground. It is also demonstrated that digital simulation affords an important tool for evaluating complex interactions between the ground and radar, for training users in radar image interpretation, and for selecting optimum sensor parameters for particular applications.

Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

1981-01-01

205

Use of the Hualien, Taiwan, dynasonde for surveillance of HF environmental radio and positioning of transmitting stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2010, a 2nd generation NOAA HF radars, also referred as dynasonde, has been built at Hualien (23.89 N, 121.55 E), Taiwan. The Hualien dynasonde has a new design of ionospheric radar of fully digitizing the complex signal records and using multiple parallel receiver channels for simultaneous measurements of signals from multiple spaced receiving antennas. The Hualien dynasonde utilizes interferometric sounding pulse patterns and a receiving antenna array (including eight receivers connected to different spaced dipole antennas) to receive not only ionospherical echoes but also environmental radio signals. We have applied the Hermite normal form method to solve the phase-measurement aliasing and least squares problem and improve measurements of radio angles of arrival (AOA). The further ray-tracing experiments can be used for the study of radio wave propagation in the ionosphere. In this study we present a numerical and step by step ray-tracing method on a phenomenological ionospheric electron density model, the TaiWan Ionospheric Model (TWIM), which is constructed from the FormoSat3 / Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (FS3/COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data and global ionosonde foF2 data. The three-dimensional TWIM consists of vertically-fitted ?-Chapman-type layers, with distinct F2, F1, E, and D layers, for which the layer parameters such as peak density, peak density height, and scale height are represented by surface spherical harmonics. This way the continuity of Ne and its derivatives is maintained. The methodology is successfully applied to a practical HF transmitter for oblique incidence ray tracing. Then, the AOA data will be used for backward ray tracing in the TWIM model and be used to determine ground-based transmitting station position.

Tsai, L.-C.; Chen, G. H.; Tian, M. H.; Zhang, Y.

2012-04-01

206

Solar Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar echoes from the Sun were first detected in 1959 at 25 MHz and an extensive set of measurements was made at 38 MHz between 1960 and 1969. The results were unexpected and could not be explained at the time. Interest in the technique waned and radar astronomy evolved to the use of higher frequencies so it became impossible to repeat the measurements. The early observations can be explained in the light of our present understanding of the corona. New radar observations, with correlative optical, UV, and soft X-ray observations, would be very useful in probing the corona near the origin of the solar wind. Radar measures the range to the reflection point and the plasma velocity at the reflection point. Reflection occurs where the dielectric constant goes to zero, which is polarization dependent. Thus dual polarization observations provide estimates of the electron density, magnetic field, and velocity at the reflection point. Solar echoes can be observed at frequencies between 18 MHz and 100 MHz, corresponding to reflection heights between (roughly) 1.8 Rs and 1.15 Rs. It may be possible to operate up to 200 MHz and probe to the edge of the transition region. Here we will review the early observations; explain their basic features; outline existing and potential opportunities for new observations; and speculate on the future development of the technique.

Coles, W. A.

2002-12-01

207

Muti-Channel Digital LPI Signal Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of LPI radar signal interception is introduced and a method using multi-channel digital deramping is discussed in detail for FMCW signals. Many simulation experiments on the method have been done in several possible situations, and on the basis of them, the influences of mismatch factor and unsynchronized phase on the detection performance of the digital LPI radar detector

Song Jie; Tang Xiao-ming; He You

2006-01-01

208

Analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some problems faced in applications of radar measurements in hydrology are: (1) adequate calibration of the radar systems and direct digital data will be required in order that repeatable data can be acquired for hydrologic applications; (2) quantitative hydrologic research on a large scale will be prohibitive with aircraft mounted synthetic aperture radar systems due to the system geometry; (3) spacecraft platforms appear to be the best platforms for radar systems when conducting research over watersheds larger than a few square kilometers; (4) experimental radar systems should be designed to avoid use of radomes; and (5) cross polarized X and L band data seem to discriminate between good and poor hydrologic cover better than like polarized data.

Blanchard, B. J.

1977-01-01

209

Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations  

DOEpatents

A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-02-01

210

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 22, 2000 Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution, most complete digital topographic map of Earth ever made. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land surface between about 60 deg north and 56 deg south latitude. When completed, the DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical accuracy. Two orthorectified image mosaics (one from the ascending passes with illumination from the southeast and one from descending passes with illumination from the southwest) will also be produced.

Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

2000-01-01

211

Highly Integrated Radar Sensor-on-Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly integrated 24 GHz radar sensor is presented, based on a Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) which was specifically developed for a Frequency Modulated Shift Keying (FMSK) based Radar system design. Antenna, waveform, the Radio Frequency (RF) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) module, the software design, cost and performance aspects will be described. The significant technical and economical advantages of the implemented Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) transceiver are demonstrated. Some automotive and other applications based on this technology and new radar system design will be explained.

Mende, Ralph

2012-05-01

212

Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

2003-01-01

213

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

COMET

2012-03-21

214

Countering stealth with passive, multi-static, low frequency radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of passive, multi-static radars as covert sensors for the detection of low flying, stealth air targets are illustrated by multi-static RCS analysis, coverage simulations for low flight levels and measurement results obtained with an experimental passive radar using digital audio broadcast signals (DAB). The measurement sensor is described and future perspectives are pointed out.

H. Kuschel; J. Heckenbach; S. Mu?ller; R. Appel

2010-01-01

215

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: Introduction to Special Session  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60^o north and 56^o

T. G. Farr; M. Werner; M. Kobrick

2003-01-01

216

INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR  

EPA Science Inventory

Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

217

Metrology, attitude, and orbit determination for spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), scheduled for an 11 day Space Shuttle flight in 1999, will use an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. SRTM will achieve the required interferometric baseline by extending a receive-only radar antenna

Riley M. Duren; Ed Wong; Bill Breckenridge; Scott Shaffer; Courtney Duncan; Eldred F. Tubbs; Phil M. Salomon

1998-01-01

218

A DDS and PLL-based X-band FMCW Radar System  

E-print Network

the quality of the received IF signals. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) commonly used in FMCW radar-band FMCW radar system whose VCO nonlinearity is controlled by a digitally generated reference signalA DDS and PLL-based X-band FMCW Radar System Yun-Taek Im, Jee-Hoon Lee, and Seong-Ook Park

Park, Seong-Ook

219

High-resolution noise radar using slow ADC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional digital signal processing scheme in noise radars has some limitations related to combination of high resolution and high dynamic range. Those limitations are caused by a tradeoff in performance of currently available ADCs: the faster is ADC the smaller is its depth (number of bits) available. Depth of the ADC determines relation between the smallest and highest observable signals and thus limits its dynamic range. In noise radar with conventional processing the sounding and reference signals are to be digitized at intermediate frequency band and to be processed digitally. The power spectrum bandwidth of noise signal which can be digitized with ADC depends on its sampling rate. The bandwidth of radar signal defines range resolution of any radar: the wider the spectrum the better the resolution. Actually this is the main bottleneck of high resolution Noise Radars: conventional processing doesn't enable to get both high range resolution and high dynamic range. In the paper we present a way to go around this drawback by changing signal processing ideology in noise radar. We present results of our consideration and design of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs. The design is based upon generation of both probing and reference signals digitally and realization of their cross-correlation in an analog correlator. The output of the correlator is a narrowband signal that requires rather slow ADC to be sampled which nowadays may give up to 130 dB dynamic range.

Lukin, Konstantin; Vyplavin, Pavlo; Zemlyanyi, Oleg; Lukin, Sergiy; Palamarchuk, Volodymyr

2011-06-01

220

Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances  

E-print Network

Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf/La) = -0.13 +/- 0.02 (sigma = 0.06) and log epsilon (Hf/Eu) = +0.04 +/- 0.02 (sigma = 0.06). The observed average stellar abundance ratio of Hf/Eu and La/Eu is larger than previous estimates of the solar system r-process-only value, suggesting a somewhat larger contribution from the r-process to the production of Hf and La. The newly determined Hf values could be employed as part of the chronometer pair, Th/Hf, to determine radioactive stellar ages.

J. E. Lawler; E. A. Den Hartog; Z. E. Labby; C. Sneden; J. J. Cowan; I. I. Ivans

2006-11-01

221

Multipolarization Radar Images for Geologic Mapping and Vegetation Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA\\/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar system produces radar image data simultaneously in four linear polarizations (HH, VV, VH, HV) at 24.6-cm wavelength (L-band), with 10-m resolution, across a swath width of approximately 10 km. The signal data are recorded optically and digitally and annotated in each of the channels to facilitate a completely automated digital correlation. Both standard amplitude,

Diane Evans; Tom Farr; J. P. Ford; Thomas Thompson; C. L. Werner

1986-01-01

222

Signal Processing for Passive Radar Using OFDM Waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive radar is a concept where illuminators of opportunity are used in a multistatic radar setup. New digital signals, like digital audio\\/video broadcast (DAB\\/DVB), are excellent candidates for this scheme, as they are widely available, can be easily decoded to acquire the noise-free signal, and employ orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM). Multicarrier transmission schemes like OFDM use block channel equalization

Christian R. Berger; Bruno Demissie; Jrg Heckenbach; Peter Willett; Shengli Zhou

2010-01-01

223

Radar image processing module development program, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using charge coupled devices in an IPM for processing synthetic aperture radar signals onboard the NASA Convair 990 (CV990) aircraft was demonstrated. Radar data onboard the aircraft was recorded and processed using a CCD sampler and digital tape recorder. A description of equipment and testing was provided. The derivation of the digital presum filter was documented. Photographs of the sampler/tape recorder, real time display and circuit boards in the IPM were also included.

1977-01-01

224

Selected tendencies of modern radars and radar systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modern radars and radar systems problems caused by troubles and dangers connected with actual battlefield conditions. The usefulness of the phased array radar (PAR), low probability of intercept (LPI) radar and the multi-junction radar (MFR) has been described from the point of view of the single radar using. Moreover chosen aspects of the modem radar systems development,

J. F. Pietrasinski; T. W. Brenner; C. J. Lesnik

1998-01-01

225

Radar echo processing with partitioned de-ramp  

DOEpatents

The spurious-free dynamic range of a wideband radar system is increased by apportioning de-ramp processing across analog and digital processing domains. A chirp rate offset is applied between the received waveform and the reference waveform that is used for downconversion to the intermediate frequency (IF) range. The chirp rate offset results in a residual chirp in the IF signal prior to digitization. After digitization, the residual IF chirp is removed with digital signal processing.

Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

2013-03-19

226

Netted radar sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future radar applications are beginning to stretch monostatic radar systems beyond their fundamental sensitivity and information limits. Networks of smaller radar systems can offer a route to overcome these limitations; for example, networks of radar sensors can counter stealth technology whilst simultaneously providing additional information for improved target classification. More generally, multiple independent sensors can provide an energetically more efficient

C. J. Baker; A. L. Hume

2003-01-01

227

Wind shear radar simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

Britt, Charles L.

1988-01-01

228

Method for orthorectification of terrestrial radar maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vehicle-based PELICAN radar system is used in the context of mobile mapping. The R-SLAM algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of the vehicle trajectory and of the map of the environment. As the purpose of PELICAN is to provide a means for gathering spatial information, the impact of distortion caused by the topography is not negligible. This article proposes an orthorectification process to correct panoramic radar images and the consequent R-SLAM trajectory and radar map. The a priori knowledge of the area topography is provided by a digital elevation model. By applying the method to the data obtained from a path with large variations in altitude it is shown that the corrected panoramic radar images are contracted by the orthorectification process. The efficiency of the orthorectification process is assessed firstly by comparing R-SLAM trajectories to a GPS trajectory and secondly by comparing the position of Ground Control Points on the radar map with their GPS position. The RMS positioning error moves from 5.56 m for the raw radar map to 0.75 m for the orthorectified radar map.

Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphal; Faure, Patrice; Moiroux-Arvis, Laure; Monod, Marie-Odile

2014-11-01

229

Shuttle imaging radar-C science plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire images at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as images of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into images using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and radar stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of radar penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to radar backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization imaging capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.

1986-01-01

230

Radar observations of F region equatorial irregularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results obtained with the Jicamarca radar and a new digital processing system during spread F conditions are presented. The data consist of two-dimensional maps showing backscatter power and samples of frequency spectra of the backscatter signals as a function of altitude and time. Almost simultaneous spread F backscatter power and incoherent scatter observations of electron density and vertical drifts

Ronald F. Woodman; Csar La Hoz

1976-01-01

231

Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

Lybanon, M.

1973-01-01

232

Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon,

G. Bishop; D. Decker; C. Baker

2006-01-01

233

Signature of 3-4 day planetary waves in the equatorial ionospheric F layer height and medium frequency radar winds over Tirunelveli (8.7oN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature of 3-4 day planetary waves in the equatorial ionospheric F layer height and medium frequency radar winds over Tirunelveli (8.7oN) S. Sathishkumar1, R. Dhanya1, K. Emperumal1, D. Tiwari2, S. Gurubaran1 and A. Bhattacharyya2 1. Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Tirunelveli, India 2. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai, India Email: sathishmaths@gmail.com Abstract The equatorial atmosphere-ionosphere system has been studied theoretically and observationally in the past. In the equatorial atmosphere, oscillations with periods of 3-4 days are often observed in the medium frequency (MF) radar over Tirunelveli (8.7oN, 77.8oE, 1.34oN geomag. lat.). Earlier observations show the clear evidence that these waves can propagate from the stratosphere to ionosphere. A digital ionosonde has been providing useful information on several ionospheric parameters from the same site. Simultaneous observations of mesospheric winds using medium frequency radar and F-layer height (h'F) from ionosonde reveal that the 3-4 day wave was evident in both the component during the 01 June 2007 and 31 July 2007. The 3-4 day wave could have an important role in the day to day variability of the equatorial ionosphere evening uplift. Results from an extensive analysis that is being carried out in the direction of 3-4 day wave present in the ionosphere will be presented.

Sundararaman, Sathishkumar

234

Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)  

MedlinePLUS

... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

235

Space shuttle synthetic aperture radar. [using real time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility study to investigate a digital signal processor for real-time operation with a synthetic aperture radar system aboard the space shuttle are presented. Pertinent digital processing theory, a description of the proposed system, and size, weight, power, scheduling, and development estimates are included.

1975-01-01

236

Radar tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental researches on radar sounding of non-uniform mediums and objects with use as multi frequency scanning in a UWB strip (from 0.5 up to 17 GHz), and sub nanosecond impulses are considered. It is shown, that addition of measurements by angular and spatial scanning with SAR technologies to realize 3-D tomography inhomogeneous with the spatial resolutions about 1 cm at the physical models of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with substance in which dominating mechanisms are allocated lay. It allows to simplify essentially the decision of inverse problems and to use fast algorithms of their realization. Focusing of radiation is carried out with use of mirrors, lenses, and also methods of 3-D coordinated filtrations with regularization. The examples confirming working capacity of a method for without contact tomography of structure of a forest, detection and visualization landmines hidden under a rough surface of sand are resulted. The description of the developed experimental installations is given. It is shown, that using of UWB radiation allows raising considerably accuracy of measurements at preservation of a real time scale of data processing.

Yakubov, V. P.; Telpuchovski, E. D.; Zepelev, G. M.; Klokov, A. V.; Moiseenko, N. A.; Novik, S. N.; Suhanov, D. Ya.; Yakubova, O. V.

2006-11-01

237

HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors report on recent radar measurements taken during the month of October 1994 with the LDG HF radar in the Ivory Coast, Africa as part of the International Equatorial Electrojet Year. The purpose of this experimental effort in part was to study the effects of thunderstorms on the ionosphere. At the same time, the authors decided to carry out a set of experiments of an exploratory nature to look for echoes that could potentially arise from ionization produced in the mesosphere. The two leading candidates for producing transient ionization in the mesosphere are meteors and high-altitude discharges. Each is discussed in the context of these measurements.

Roussel-Dupre, R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Symbalisty, E. [and others

1997-04-01

238

Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression technique could bring significant impact on future radar development. The novel feature of this innovation is the non-linear FM (NLFM) waveform design. The traditional linear FM has the limit (-20 log BT -3 dB) for achieving ultra-low-range sidelobe in pulse compression. For this study, a different combination of 20- or 40-microsecond chirp pulse width and 2- or 4-MHz chirp bandwidth was used. These are typical operational parameters for airborne or spaceborne weather radars. The NLFM waveform design was then implemented on a FPGA board to generate a real chirp signal, which was then sent to the radar transceiver simulator. The final results have shown significant improvement on sidelobe performance compared to that obtained using a traditional linear FM chirp.

Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

2013-01-01

239

Radar images analysis for scattering surfaces characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the different problems and techniques related to the detection and recognition of airplanes and vehicles moving on the Airport surface, the present work mainly deals with the processing of images gathered by a high-resolution radar sensor. The radar images used to test the investigated algorithms are relative to sequence of images obtained in some field experiments carried out by the Electronic Engineering Department of the University of Florence. The radar is the Ka band radar operating in the'Leonardo da Vinci' Airport in Fiumicino (Rome). The images obtained from the radar scan converter are digitized and putted in x, y, (pixel) co- ordinates. For a correct matching of the images, these are corrected in true geometrical co-ordinates (meters) on the basis of fixed points on an airport map. Correlating the airplane 2-D multipoint template with actual radar images, the value of the signal in the points involved in the template can be extracted. Results for a lot of observation show a typical response for the main section of the fuselage and the wings. For the fuselage, the back-scattered echo is low at the prow, became larger near the center on the aircraft and than it decrease again toward the tail. For the wings the signal is growing with a pretty regular slope from the fuselage to the tips, where the signal is the strongest.

Piazza, Enrico

1998-10-01

240

Amplitude calibration of spaceborne synthetic aperture radars. [Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems encountered during attempts to calibrate SAR imagery, recent successful experiments conducted with SEASAT SAR data, and a proposed program for the calibration and validation of the radar imagery from the forthcoming SIR-B SAR are discussed. The SEASAT SAR data for 10 passes over Death Valley, California, were processed with a modified digital correlator. The procedure included a preliminary screening of the data to check for raw data saturation, compensation of waveforms and estimation of the amplitude of the pilot tone. All data was normalized to this pilot tone signal to reduce the effects of variable gains in the data links and ground receivers. The digital correlation algorithm generated image data. Evaluation of 6 passes results in a maximum pass to pass gain variation of only 1.1 dB and a standard deviation amongst the passes of 0.35 dB. previously announced in STAR as N83-26215

Held, D. N.

1983-01-01

241

Current Structure Variations Detected by High-Frequency Radar and Vector-Measuring Current Meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean surface current measurements from high-frequency (HF) radar are assessed by comparing these data to near-surface current observations from 1 to 30 October 1994 at two moored subsurface current meter arrays (20 and 25 m) instrumented with vector-measuring current meters (VMCMs) and Seacat sensors during the Duck94 experiment. A dual-station ocean surface current radar (OSCR) mapped the current fields at

Lynn K. Shay; Steven J. Lentz; Hans C. Graber; Brian K. Haus

1998-01-01

242

Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1999-01-01

243

Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 37.4 degrees north latitude and 118.3 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1999-01-01

244

Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

1993-06-01

245

Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

Farr, Tom G.

1996-01-01

246

High-resolution studies of the HF ionospheric modification interaction region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the pulse edge analysis technique to explain ionospheric modifications caused by high-power HF radio waves is discussed. The technique, implemented at the Arecibo Observatory, uses long radar pulses and very rapid data sampling. A comparison of the pulse leading and trailing edge characteristics is obtained and the comparison is used to estimate the relative changes in the interaction region height and layer width; an example utilizing this technique is provided. Main plasma line overshoot and miniovershoot were studied from the pulse edge observations; the observations at various HF pulsings and radar resolutions are graphically presented. From the pulse edge data the development and the occurrence of main plasma line overshoot and miniovershoot are explained. The theories of soliton formation and collapse, wave ducting, profile modification, and parametric instabilities are examined as a means of explaining main plasma line overshoots and miniovershoots.

Duncan, L. M.; Sheerin, J. P.

1985-01-01

247

Remorque RADAR Description technique  

E-print Network

ANNEXE: Remorque RADAR Description technique Le but de la remorque est de transporter un RADAR et pour héberger l'électronique radar et son opérateur. Caractéristiques générales de la remorque : · PTC'un côté, une baie de l'autre. Un hublot sur le toit et une baie donnant sur la partie RADAR. Un plafonnier

Heurteaux, Yanick

248

The MU radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle atmosphere (stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere) is now being studied intensively. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars are playing a vital role in observing middle atmospheric motions. These radars receive very weak echoes caused by scattering from atmospheric density fluctuations that are produced by clear air turbulence. These irregularities move with the local wind so that the Doppler shift of the radar echo power spectrum gives the component of the local wind along the line of sight of the radar beam.

Kato, S.

249

Role of oxygen vacancies in HfO2-based gate stack breakdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of multiple oxygen vacancy traps in the percolated dielectric on the postbreakdown random telegraph noise (RTN) digital fluctuations in HfO2-based metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. Our electrical characterization results indicate that these digital fluctuations are triggered only beyond a certain gate stress voltage. First-principles calculations suggest the oxygen vacancies to be responsible for the formation of a subband in the forbidden band gap region, which affects the triggering voltage (VTRIG) for the RTN fluctuations and leads to a shrinkage of the HfO2 band gap.

Wu, X.; Migas, D. B.; Li, X.; Bosman, M.; Raghavan, N.; Borisenko, V. E.; Pey, K. L.

2010-04-01

250

Lunar radar backscatter studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

Thompson, T. W.

1979-01-01

251

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristic of the surface. By exploiting the phase of the coherent radar signal, interferometry has transformed radar remote sensing from a largely interpretive science to a quantitative tool, with applications in cartography, geodesy, land cover

PAUL A. ROSEN; SCOTT HENSLEY; IAN R. JOUGHIN; FUK K. LI; SREN N. MADSEN; ERNESTO RODRGUEZ; RICHARD M. GOLDSTEIN

2000-01-01

252

Radar hydrology: rainfall estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar observations of rainfall and their use in hydrologic research provide the focus for the paper. Radar-rainfall products are crucial for input to runoff and flood prediction models, validation of satellite remote sensing algorithms, and for statistical characterization of extreme rainfall frequency. In this context we discuss the issues of radar-rainfall product development, and the theoretical and practical requirements of

W. F. Krajewski; J. A. Smith

2002-01-01

253

Netted radar sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a number of aspects illustrating how networks of radar sensor systems (rather than a single monostatic radar) can offer a counter to stealth technology whilst simultaneously providing more detailed information for improved target detection, classification and location. The netted radar equation is developed, coverage, detection and location performance are quantified, and the potential utility of

A. L. Hume; C. J. Baker

2001-01-01

254

Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

1985-06-01

255

Predictions of HF system performance for propagation through disturbed ionospheres measured using low-Earth-orbit satellite radio beacon tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CERTO radio beacon on the C/NOFS satellite sends VHF/UHF radio signals at 150 and 400 MHz to provide measurements of integrated electron density or Total Electron Content (TEC) by an east-west chain of ground receivers in Peru. Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT) is used to convert the TEC data into two-dimensional images of electron densities with maximum 5 5 km resolution in Longitude-Altitude space. These images are updated every 95 min as the C/NOFS satellite passes over the receiver network in its low-latitude orbit with an inclination of 12. The 2-D, high-resolution images of the ionosphere are used to predict the impact of equatorial plasma structures on HF propagation of radar and radio signals. Electron density measurements from the NRL radio tomography chain across Peru are used for simulations of the performance by HF one-way links. HF rays from transmitter to receiver are traced through the electron density images produced by radio beacon tomography. Eight separate paths are found between a transmitter and ground receiver separated by 2000 km. A total of 36 backscatter echoes are found with unique group delay, Doppler frequency shift, phase delay, and echo amplitude. This multipath effect explains the range and Doppler spreading of observations for HF monostatic radar propagation through F layer irregularities. This type of analysis is useful for prediction and interpretation of range and Doppler observations from HF systems including over-the-horizon and SuperDARN radars, HF Geolocation Arrays, and HF communications networks.

Bernhardt, Paul A.; Hei, Matthew A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Wilkens, Matthew R.

2014-07-01

256

Radar Meteorology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brian McNoldy at Multi-community Environmental Storm Observatory (MESO) educates the public about the use of radar in meteorology in this pdf document. After reading about the history of radar, visitors can find out how radar can detect storms by transmitting a high-power beam of radiation. Students can learn how scatter, absorption, frequencies, scan angles, and moments impact the radar display. With the help of many example images, the author also discusses how to interpret the images collected. At the end of the online document, visitors can learn about the characteristics and capabilities of NEXRAD WSR-88D, the radar used throughout the United States.

McNoldy, Brian

257

Simulated and measured X-band radar reflectivity of land in mountainous terrain using a fan-beam antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program for meteorological radar siting, previously developed for pencil?beam antenna, long?range, C?band radars, has been adapted for fan?beam antenna, short?range, X?band radars. The simulator uses topographic information in the form of a raster digital elevation model and a surface backscattering cross?section per unit area at grazing angles derived from the literature. It is independent of specific radar sites

Marco Gabella; Riccardo Notarpietro; Stefano Turso; Giovanni Perona

2008-01-01

258

Software defined noise radar with low sampling rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of our investigations of Software Defined Noise Radar are presented; namely, results on the design and implementation of FPGA-based Noise Radar with digital generation of random signal and coherent reception of radar returns. Parallelization of computations in FPGA enabled realization of algorithm in time domain for evaluation of the cross-correlations, comparable with the frequency-domain algorithm in efficiency. Moreover, implementation of relay-type correlator algorithm enabled realizing of the cross-correlation algorithm which might operate much faster. We present comparison of performance and limitations of different considered designs. Digital correlator has been implemented in the Altera/Stratix evaluation board having 1 million gates and up to 300 MHz clock frequency. We also realized a software defined CW noise radar on the basis of RVI Development Board from ICTP M-LAB.

Lukin, K.; Vyplavin, P.; Savkovich, Elena; Lukin, S.

2011-10-01

259

space Radar Image of Long Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

260

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Hu, L.Z. (New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States)); Ramaswamy, M. (Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)); Sexton, B.G. (Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

261

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hu, L.Z. [New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Ramaswamy, M. [Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States); Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1992-10-01

262

Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 interferometric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also

Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley

1994-01-01

263

Signal processing techniques for surveillance radar - An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is concerned with a survey of the signal processing techniques presently employed in modern air defense and surveillance radars and those techniques likely to be applied in the future. Attention is given to the requirements for enhancing performance in surveillance radar, current processing techniques, advanced techniques, low probability of intercept (LPI) and anti-ARM (anti-radiation missile), anti-stealth, digital

A. Farina; G. Galati

1985-01-01

264

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

265

HF propagation at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of problems associated with HF propagation at high latitudes is presented. Disturbances and electron densities are greater in the ionosphere in the auroral oval than in other parts of the polar ionosphere. The high latitude ionosphere is characterized by a marked absorption of radio waves traveling through the region, particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. In a high latitude

T. B. Jones

1987-01-01

266

Magnetic tunnel junctions with Hf oxide and modified Hf oxide tunnel barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's) with Hf oxide and modified Hf oxide barriers were fabricated by ozone oxidation. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio in Hf oxide junction was 13% at room temperature and 21% at 77 K. In order to understand the low TMR ratio in MTJ's with Hf oxides compared to those with Al oxides, tunnel barriers were modified by

B. G. Park; T. D. Lee; T. H. Lee; C. G. Kim; C. O. Kim

2003-01-01

267

IEEE National Radar Conference, 3rd, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, Apr. 20, 21, 1988, Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference discusses topics in radar systems and subsystems, radar techniques, radar signal processing, and radar phenomenology. Attention is given to mm-wave radar system tradeoffs, polarimetric X/L/C-band SAR, a VHF radar for tropical jungle terrain elevation modeling, low probability of intercept techniques and implementations, target tracking in maneuver-centered coordinates, advanced techniques for extension of SAR depth-of-focus under arbitrary aircraft maneuvers, and iterative noncoherent angular superresolution. Also discussed are the effect of codebook size on the vector quantization of SAR data, the application of knowledge-based systems to surveillance, digital filters for SAR, novel radar pulse compression waveforms, the theory and application of SAR oceanography, autoregressive modeling of radar data with application to target identification, and a coherent model of radar weather clutter.

268

Do you have a radar bill in your pocket?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to radar bills (currency that has serial numbers that read the same forward and backward) and challenges them to estimate how frequently radar bills occur. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, explains how symmetry and repeating patterns are important to mathematicians, scientists, and artists. The Hint tells students that our currency has eight-digit serial numbers, and the solution provides a table that shows the relationship between the number of digits in a serial number and the number of radar bills. Related questions ask students to solve similar problems with serial numbers that contain different numbers of digits. Answers to all questions and links to additional resources are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

269

High-frequency Doppler radar measurements of the Florida current in Summer 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oceanographic evaluation is carried out here of high-frequency (HF) Doppler radar measurements of surface currents made by the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory June 26 to August 4, 1983, at the western side of the Florida Straits in the area between Jupiter and West Palm Beach in the context of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies. These current measurements are compared

F. Schott; K. Leaman; G. Samuels; A. S. Frisch; I. Popa Fontino

1985-01-01

270

Element-space spatially waveform diverse FMCW radar distributed on naval formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large antenna arrays are very costly and, in particular in the case of shipborne platforms, array dimensions are limited. In order to overcome these constraints for the naval application of a High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HF SWR) we propose to make use of multiple ships sailing together within a naval formation. This distributed array will be sparse and we apply

Thomas Fickenscher; Anshu Gupta

2011-01-01

271

Simultaneous Multi-angle Radar Observations of Langmuir Turbulence Excited by RF Ionospheric Interactions at HAARP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. Among the effects observed and studied are: SLT spectra including cascade, collapse, and co-existence spectra and an outshifted plasma line under certain ionospheric conditions. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Bursty turbulence is observed in the collapse and cascade lines. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

Sheerin, J. P.; Watanabe, N.; Rayyan, N.; Spry, D.; Adham, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Spaleta, J.; Bernhardt, P. A.

2012-12-01

272

Correlation detection filter for imaging laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar can simultaneously produce the intensity and range images, and the space resolution is high, so the recognition performance is well, and it can choose the aim point of target. Laser radar is applied to many fields, such as guidance, navigation, and becomes the research hot point in recent years. In the vertical detection of laser radar, the algorithm is required not only solving in-plane rotation-invariant problem, also the distortion-invariant problem, and it must satisfied the real-time. Correlation algorithm is a parallel processing procedure, detecting many targets at one time, and its design can be implemented on the high speed digital signal processor. In the paper, a new filter named CHF-MACH filter is presented, which combine multiple circular harmonic expansions into one filter through MACH criteria. Because of the filter having the characters of the two filters, it can solve the problems of in-plane rotation-invariance and distortion-invariance simultaneously, and meet the real-time requirement. The simulated range image of laser radar is regarded as research target, and computing the PSR (peak to sidelobe ratio) values of correlation output of the different objects, and plotting the PSR curves of the different angles. Simulating the scene of laser radar which includes multiple objects, CHF-MACH filter performance is validated through testing with the different angles for the objects, and the non-training images can obtain the well correlation output.

Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Qi; Lu, Wei; Wang, Qi

2007-01-01

273

Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.

Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard

1991-01-01

274

30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

275

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

276

A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.  

PubMed

The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system. PMID:24646997

Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

2014-03-20

277

Planetary radar studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

1981-01-01

278

Laser radar in robotics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-02-01

279

MIMO radar, SIMO radar, and IFIR radar: a P. P. Vaidyanathan and Piya Pal  

E-print Network

MIMO radar, SIMO radar, and IFIR radar: a comparison P. P. Vaidyanathan and Piya Pal Dept and SIMO radar systems for the case where the transmitter and receiver are collocated. The simplicity of the application allows one to see clearly where the advantages of MIMO radar come from, and what the tradeoffs are

Vaidyanathan, P. P.

280

The CRRES AA 2 release: HF wave-plasma interactions in a dense Ba+ cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ionospheric chemical release, designated AA 2, was performed on July 12, 1992, as part of the NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign. The purpose of the AA 2 experiment was to study the interaction between a powerful radio wave and a high ion mass (Ba+), ``collisionless'' plasma. Approximately 35 kg of Ba were explosively released near the center of the Arecibo high-frequency (HF) beam at 253 km altitude. This was the largest Ba release of the CRRES experiments; it yielded a distinctive ionospheric layer having a maximum plasma frequency of 11 MHz. At early times (<1 min after the release) the HF beam produced the strongest Langmuir waves ever detected with the Arecibo 430-MHz radar. Resonantly enhanced Langmuir waves were observed to be excited principally at the upshifted plasma line (i.e., near 430 MHz+fHF, where fHF is the frequency of the modifying HF wave), and only weakly excited waves were apparent at the downshifted plasma line (430 MHz-fHF). The upshifted plasma-line spectrum contained a dominant peak at the ``decay line,'' that is, at the frequency 430 MHz+fHF-?, where ? is close to the Ba+ ion-acoustic frequency (~2 kHz). Downshifted plasma-line echoes occurred at frequencies near 430 MHz-fHF and 430 MHz-fHF-1 kHz and exhibited little or no signal strength at the decay line (430 MHz-fHF+?). During an initial period of intense upshifted plasma-line excitation, the power asymmetry between the upshifted and downshifted plasma lines was of the order of 105 at the decay line. The upshifted plasma line was accompanied by strong HF-enhanced ion waves that were present only at the downshifted acoustic sideband. After geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities formed in the plasma the amplitudes of the upshifted and downshifted plasma lines equalized, and each exhibited spectra characteristic of the parametric decay instability. At early times in the Ba+ plasma the symmetry of wave excitation anticipated for a parametric instability in a stationary, homogeneous plasma was absent. The experimental results indicate that the development of the parametric decay instability needs to be reexamined for a smooth plasma having a small (~5 km) vertical scale length. Moreover, ion flow down geomagnetic field lines appears to suppress instabilities responsible for the formation of field-aligned irregularities and may also have an impact on the way parametric instabilities are excited. New theoretical approaches are needed to resolve many of the issues raised by this experiment.

Djuth, F. T.; Sulzer, M. P.; Elder, J. H.; Groves, K. M.

1995-09-01

281

1999 IEEE radar conference  

SciTech Connect

This conference addresses the stringent radar technology demands facing the next century: target detection, tracking and identification; changing target environment; increased clutter mitigation techniques; air traffic control; transportation; drug smuggling; remote sensing, and other consumer oriented applications. A timely discussion covers how to minimize costs for these emerging areas. Advanced radar technology theory and applications are also presented. Topics covered include: signal processing; space time adaptive processing/antennas; surveillance technology; radar systems; dual use; and phenomenology.

NONE

1999-07-01

282

Caribbean Radar Cases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents radar case studies taken from events in the Caribbean that highlight radar signatures of severe weather. These cases include examples of deep convection, squall lines, bow echoes, tornadoes, and heavy rain resulting in flooding. Each case study includes a discussion of the conceptual models of each type of event as a review before showing the radar signatures and allowing the learner to analyze each one.

COMET

2013-12-31

283

Silence tracking radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance linear FMCW radar sensor and its implementation as tracking radar are presented. The radar has been built with an all-solid state transmitter with 200 mw output power and two channel receivers with 9 dB noise figure. Tracking range of more than 10 km, angle error of better than 0.5 mrad and range error of better than 5

Zhang Guanjie; Guo Min; Bao Yongjie

2001-01-01

284

Aircraft radar echoes characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic wave diffraction and reflection theories enable prediction of most of the effects generated by radar echoes on aircraft. However, it is difficult to modelize some complex effects originating in canopies, radomes and cavities. In order to supplement the present theoretical knowledge by experimental results obtained on actual targets, ONERA has developed a novel analysis method allowing the generation of radar images. This method provides an efficient working tool to assist in defining radar wise discrete aerial targets.

Pouit, C.

1980-04-01

285

Integrating a Microwave Radiometer into Radar Hardware for Simultaneous Data Collection Between the Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This unintuitive step allows the digital receiver to sample both the radiometer and radar data at a rapid, synchronized data rate (greater than 1 MHz bandwidth). Once both signals are sampled by the same digital receiver, high-speed quality control can be performed on the radiometer data to allow it to take data simultaneously with the radar. The radiometer data can be blanked during radar transmit, or when the radar return is of a power level high enough to corrupt the radiometer data. Additionally, the receiver protection switches in the RF front end can double as radiometer calibration sources, the short (four-microsecond level) switching periods integrated over many seconds to estimate the radiometer offset. The major benefit of this innovation is that there is minimal impact on the radar performance due to the integration of the radiometer, and the radiometer performance is similarly minimally affected by the radar. As the radar and radiometer are able to operate simultaneously, there is no extended period of integration time loss for the radiometer (maximizing sensitivity), and the radar is able to maintain its full number of pulses (increasing sensitivity and decreasing measurement uncertainty).

McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

286

The Invisible Radar Triangle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about radar imaging and its various military and civilian applications that include recognition and detection of human-made targets, and the monitoring of space, deforestation and oil spills. They learn how the concepts of similarity and scaling are used in radar imaging to create three-dimensional models of various targets. Students apply the critical attributes of similar figures to create scale models of a radar imaging scenario using infrared range sensors (to emulate radar functions) and toy airplanes (to emulate targets). They use technology tools to measure angles and distances, and relate the concept of similar figures to real-world applications.

RET-ENET Program, Electrical Engineering Department,

287

A New Implementation of the Mellin Transform and its Application to Radar Classification of Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Mellin transform for digital implementation is developed and applied to range radar profiles of naval vessels. The scale invariance property of the Mellin transform provides a means for extracting features from the profiles which are insensitive to the aspect angle of the radar. Past implementations of the Mellin transform based on the FFT have required exponential sampling, interpolation,

Philip E. Zwicke; Imre Kiss

1983-01-01

288

Radar sensor for remote control of track occupancy and railway cars speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of development of low cost radar sensors for remote control of track occupancy and railway cars' speed over the territory of hump yards under heavy weather conditions are presented. The radar sensor feature is application of autodyne transmitting-receiving module for linear frequency modulation and digital systems for forming sounding signal and spectral processing of received signals. Sensor is

G. P. Ermak; I. V. Popov; A. V. Varavin; A. S. Vasilev

2009-01-01

289

Radar and radio data fusion platform for future intelligent transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a software-defined data fusion system which integrates both radar (sensing) function and radio (communication) function within a single transceiver platform. In the proposed architecture, the radar mode and the radio mode operate in different time slots. The required modulated waveform is generated with the help of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) that is able to control signal parameters

Liang Han; Ke Wu

2010-01-01

290

The utilization of functionally dedicated micro processors in radar video processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a digital radar video processor, for use with 2-D search radars, that employs a functionally dedicated micro processor. A micro processor can efficiently perform many of the functions previously accomplished in either hard-wired logic or in the system central processing unit (CPU). Micro instruction execution times in the order of 150 nanoseconds enable the micro processor to

H. W. Pyle; L. E. Vogel

1975-01-01

291

The Ubiquitous Nature of HF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the several molecules newly discovered, or whose lines have been observed for the first time with HIFI on the Herschel satellite, the HF (1-0) rotational transition appears to be one of the most often observed around the Galaxy. This was anticipated from the very high (>1 THz) frequency of the ground state transition indicating the strong chemical bond and high dissociation energy which implies that the HF molecule is difficult to destroy, once created. In this case it could well prove to be a good tracer for H2. Here we examine the estimated abundance as a fraction of the distance from the Galaxy center for a set of objects including Orion (OMC1), SgrB2, W49, W51, G34.3, G10.6.

Phillips, T. G.; Monje, R.; Sonnentruker, P.

2011-05-01

292

Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems  

E-print Network

Paper Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems Ivan Prudyus, Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy, Andriy- ing simulation based on radar, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometry systems are presented systems, synthetic aperture radar, spatio-temporal imaging. 1. Introduction Resolution of radar

Genève, Université de

293

AN UPDATE ON MULTICHANNEL RECEIVER DEVELOPMENT FOR THE REALIZATION MULTI-MISSION CAPABILITIES AT THE NATIONAL WEATHER RADAR TESTBED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the status of a new project that will digitize radar signals coming from eight channels on the phased array antenna at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) in Norman, Oklahoma. At the current time, a single-channel digital receiver is operational to mimic the current WSR-88D capability. The multi-channel digital data will foster a new gener- ation of

M. Yeary; J. Crain; A. Zahrai; T.-Y. Yu; R. Palmer; G. Zhang; Y. Zhang; R. Doviak; P. Chilson; M. Xue; Q. Xu

294

INTRODUCTION TO MULTICHANNEL RECEIVER DEVELOPMENT FOR THE REALIZATION MULTI-MISSION CAPABILITIES AT THE NATIONAL WEATHER RADAR TESTBED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the beginning states of a new project that will digitize radar signals coming from eight channels on the phased array antenna at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) in Norman, Oklahoma. At the current time, a single-channel digital receiver is operational to mimic the current WSR-88D capability. The multi-channel digital data will foster a new gener- ation

M. Yeary; R. Palmer; M. Xue; T.-Y. Yu; G. Zhang; A. Zahrai; J. Crain; Y. Zhang; R. Doviak; Q. Xu; P. Chilson

295

THE INCIDENCE AND CROSS METHODS FOR EFFICIENT RADAR DETECTION --BY ALEXANDER FISH AND SHAMGAR GUREVICH 1 The Incidence and Cross Methods for Efficient  

E-print Network

THE INCIDENCE AND CROSS METHODS FOR EFFICIENT RADAR DETECTION -- BY ALEXANDER FISH AND SHAMGAR GUREVICH 1 The Incidence and Cross Methods for Efficient Radar Detection Alexander Fish and Shamgar, the distances, and relative velocities, between the targets and the radar. Using standard digital-to-analog

Fish, Alexander

296

Description and availability of airborne Doppler radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.

Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.

1993-01-01

297

Radar cross calibration investigation TAMU radar polarimeter calibration measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short pulse, 20 MHz bandwidth, three frequency radar polarimeter system (RPS) operates at center frequencies of 10.003 GHz, 4.75 GHz, and 1.6 GHz and utilizes dual polarized transmit and receive antennas for each frequency. The basic lay-out of the RPS is different from other truck mounted systems in that it uses a pulse compression IF section common to all three RF heads. Separate transmit and receive antennas are used to improve the cross-polarization isolation at each particular frequency. The receive is a digitally controlled gain modulated subsystem and is interfaced directly with a microprocesser computer for control and data manipulation. Antenna focusing distance, focusing each antenna pair, rf head stability, and polarization characteristics of RPS antennas are discussed. Platform and data acquisition procedures are described.

Blanchard, A. J.; Newton, R. W.; Bong, S.; Kronke, C.; Warren, G. L.; Carey, D.

1982-01-01

298

The EISCAT Svalbard radar: A case study in modern incoherent scatter radar system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EISCAT (European incoherent scatter) Svalbard radar (ESR) was officially inaugurated on August 22, 1996. This event marked the successful completion on schedule of the first phase of the EISCAT Svalbard radar project. In contrast to previous incoherent scatter radars, the ESR system design was adapted to make use of commercial off-the-shelf TV transmitter hardware, thereby reducing design risk, lead times, and cost to a minimum. Commercial hardware is also used in the digital signal processing system. Control and monitoring are performed by distributed, networked VME systems. Thanks to modern reflector antenna design methods and extreme efforts to reduce the receiver noise contribution, the system noise temperature is only 70 K, thus making the ESR about 30% faster than the much more powerful EISCAT UHF radar in F region experiments! Once the transmitter power is increased to 1 MW, it will become about 2-3 times faster than the UHF radar. State-of-the-art exciter and receiver hardware has been developed in-house to accommodate the special requirements introduced by operating the radar at the exceptionally high duty cycle of 25%. The RF waveform is generated by a system based on four switchable direct digital synthesizers. Continuous monitoring of the transmitted RF waveform by the receiver system allows removal of klystron-induced spurious Doppler effects from the data. Intermediate-frequency sampling at 7.5 MHz is employed, followed by fully digital channel separation, signal detection, and postdetection filtering in six parallel receiver channels. Radar codes for both E and F layer observation have been designed and perfected. So far, more than 40 hours of good quality ionospheric data have been collected and analyzed in terms of plasma parameters. While the tragic loss of the Cluster mission suddenly changed the plans and dispositions of a majority of the ESR user community, the radar has still been in high demand since its inauguration. It is now being operated by EISCAT staff on a campaign basis, to provide ground-based support data for a number of other magnetospheric satellites, notably Polar and FAST, and will be opened to the EISCAT user community for special program operations later in 1997.

Wannberg, G.; Wolf, I.; Vanhainen, L.-G.; Koskenniemi, K.; RTtger, J.; Postila, M.; Markkanen, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Stenberg, A.; Larsen, R.; Eliassen, S.; Heck, S.; Huuskonen, A.

1997-11-01

299

The Cloud Radar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

2003-01-01

300

Radars for the eighties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Survivable Radar (MSR), proposed by the General Electric Company as the solution to the USAF's airborne attack radar requirements, is a flexible system with ECCM and low probability of intercept (LPI) protection capabilities. The system is built with standard modular line replaceable units (LRU) and is adaptable to a wide range of performance requirements. The structure of the

M. Shohat

1979-01-01

301

Netted radar sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how networks of radar sensors can offer a counter to stealth technology whilst simultaneously providing more detailed information for improved target classification. Specifically, it is shown how multiple independent sensors can provide an energetically more efficient collector of radar scatter. Further, the relative merits of non-coherent and coherent dependent networks are discussed particularly emphasising the balance between increased

A. L. Hume; C. J. Baker

2001-01-01

302

Aircraft radar antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance

Helmut E. Schrank

1987-01-01

303

Java Radar Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

Zaczek, Mariusz P.

2005-01-01

304

Radar illusion via metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

2011-02-01

305

Looking at Radar Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities pertain to the value of the different types of images, including a false color mosaic, a Compressed Stokes image, a vegetation map and key, and various ground photographs. Students are given specific directions on how to decide what features of a radar image indicate such structures as upland forest, clear-cut areas, and roads. In a second activity, students look at the radar images to see if they can produce a vegetation map similar to the one they have been given. The third activity introduces 15 Decade Volcanoes that pose a particular threat to humans. Using the Decade Volcanoes as examples, students view radar images of volcanoes that occur around the world. The final exercise is aimed at helping students distinguish the differences between radar image data and visible photographs. Students will look at radar data and photographs of three sites taken by the astronauts.

306

Scale model ultrawideband impulse radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transient Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory (TESL) is described which employs a unique dual-channel ultra-wideband impulsive illuminating source. This is a free-field facility where targets are suspended within an anechoic chamber. A highly coherent primal step pulse is amplified by two GaAs wideband power amplifiers having complementary passbands which feed individual wideband horn antennas. This yields an effective 1 - 12 GHz impulse bandwidth. A high speed digital processing oscilloscope samples the output of a single receiving horn. The TESL has facilitated research into radar target identification using complex natural resonances. Theory and operational characteristics of the facility are discussed and technical improvements are described which have yielded significant improvement in both the effective bandwidth and the signal-to-noise ratio of transient scattering measurements. Experimental validations are shown which illustrate the level of fidelity attainable and consideration is given to recent enhancements, including an increase of measurement bandwidth to 50 GHz.

Morgan, Michael A.

1993-05-01

307

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

308

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

309

Browse > Conferences> Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR ... INDEX TERMS  

E-print Network

Browse > Conferences> Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR ... INDEX TERMS REFERENCES CITING DOCUMENTS Force, MorphoAnalysis in Signal Process. Lab., Salon-de-Provence This paper appears in: Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR '08. IEEE Issue Date: 26-30 May 2008 On page(s): 1 - 5 Location: Rome ISSN: 1097-5659 Print

Préaux, Jean-Philippe

310

Pulse compression hardware decoding techniques for MST radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The techniques for decoding in hardware received signals transmitted by phase-coded mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars are reviewed. The designs consist of digital and analog types which resemble filters or correlators in their operation. A new analog design is presented, and a discussion of the choice between hardware and software decoding is given. The number of bits required for digital coherent integrators and decoders is discussed, and the use of fast Fourier transforms for decoding is described.

Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

1985-12-01

311

Wind turbine clutter mitigation in coastal UHF radar.  

PubMed

Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness. PMID:24550709

Yang, Jing; Pan, Chao; Wang, Caijun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wen, Biyang

2014-01-01

312

Measurement of TID and Gravity Wave Parameters Using An HF Doppler System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) in the ionosphere is called a traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). TIDs can be thought of as traveling corrugations in the ionosphere, and as such can seriously affect HF radio communications and surveillance systems. They may indirectly play a greater role in disrupting communications by triggering the growth of ionospheric instabilities, resulting in scintillation of radio signals. It is therefore of great interest to monitor TIDs on a routine basis, and to correlate their properties with other phenomena. In this paper, we present data from a unique radio technique for measuring TID properties such as their spectrum, and their spectrally resolved propagation characteristics. One of the most sensitive methods for detecting transient changes in the ionosphere is the HF Doppler technique operating in the 3-10 MHz band. HF Doppler systems have advantages over all other techniques for the measurement of TID characteristics. They are more amenable to analysis than data from ionosonde chains, and their time resolution (30 sec) is much higher than that of ionosondes . Unlike total electron content (TEC) methods, which respond to height-integrated TID effects, the HF Doppler radar responds to TIDs at the altitude of the radio reflection point. Finally, HF Doppler systems have low power consumption, so that both spatial and temporal resolution can be maintained for many days without the costs that would be associated with an incoherent-scatter radar. SwRI recently designed, built and deployed an HF Doppler sounding system in Texas, to investigate TIDs. The TIDDBIT radar consisted of three transmitters (Austin, Uvalde and St. Hedwig) and a receiver in San Antonio, Texas. Using a cross-spectral analysis technique, TID speeds and azimuths were obtained for each wave frequency. We provide a synoptic survey of the TID characteristics observed over Texas during January-March 2002. The Doppler system provides an accurate measure of both the TID and AGW periods, and the TID velocities are also an accurate estimate of the underlying gravity wave horizontal and vertical trace velocities. Such a system could be usefully deployed to monitor the properties of bottomside F-region undulations that are thought to trigger ionospheric instabilities in low latitude regions.

Wene, G. P.; Crowley, G.; Fessler, B. W.; Bronn, J. S.

2005-05-01

313

Computing Ocean Surface Currents from Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean surface currents play an important role in ocean-atmosphere interactions and global ocean circulation, and are also significant for fishing, ocean navigation, and search & rescue. Existing in-situ and remote sensing techniques for measuring ocean surface currents are limited by spatial and temporal data coverage, and thermal IR feature tracking methods are limited by clouds and weak thermal gradients. High-resolution spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offers repeatable cloud-penetrating measurements of the ocean surface. This research explores methods for ocean surface current measurement through satellite-based SAR. The major part of this research is concerned with the development and application of a semi-automated algorithm to generate ocean surface currents at 1.9 km resolution from sequential spaceborne C-band SAR intensity images using the Maximum Cross-Correlation(MCC) method. The primary geographical area of study is the coastal California Current System (CCS), and nearly two years (2008-2009) of 30-min lag data from the Envisat ASAR and ERS-2 AMI SAR sensors is analyzed. The velocity wavenumber spectrum of the derived MCC SAR currents agrees with the k-2 power law as predicted by submesoscale resolution models, and also shows seasonal mesoscale variability. The derived MCC SAR currents are validated against High frequency (HF) radar currents, and the two show some agreement in vector direction, with MCC SAR vectors oriented slightly anti-clockwise relative to HF radar vectors. The unimodal mean-symmetric residual histograms indicate that errors between the two datasets are random, except for a mean positive bias of ? 11 cm/s in MCC SAR currents relative to HF radar currents. This magnitude difference occurs primarily in the along-shore component ( ? 6 cm/s) and is negligible in the cross-shore component. Doppler Centroid Cross-Track (XT) radial currents from Envisat Wide Swath Mode (WSM) scenes are compared with HF radar radial currents, and are seen to have much larger extreme values, which is attributed to the Doppler wind correction process. Ignoring the extreme values, errors between the two datasets appear to be random, with a near-zero mean bias, and are also linked with the Doppler radial estimation errors attributed to model wind corrections. Comparison of Doppler radials with MCC SAR radials for two ? 12-hour lag cases also shows promising results. Finally, experiments conducted with TerraSAR-X experimental Dual Receive Aperture (DRA) mode Along-Track Interferometry (ATI) datasets suggest possible solutions for the absolute phase calibration problem using interferometric phase over ocean only.

Qazi, Waqas A.

314

The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal radar network represent a challenge to the nowadays definition of OGC web services: the network will suggest and test solutions.

Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

2014-05-01

315

Hf diversity in S-type granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 176Hf/177Hf composition of inherited and magmatic zircon in the 538 Ma S-type Peninsula pluton (South Africa) has been determined at different scales. In the smallest rock samples investigated (<0.5 dm3), as well as within individual thin sections, magmatic zircon crystals exhibit the same wide range in ?Hf(538) as the pluton (8? units). In addition, across a significant range of bulk-rock compositions, both the range and average of the magmatic zircon Hf isotopic composition do not vary significantly with compositional parameters that are expected to scale with the proportion of mantle-derived magma addition (e.g., Mg# and Ca). At all scales, the ?Hf variability in the magmatic zircon fraction matches well with that portrayed by the time-evolved inherited zircon population [i.e., with the ?Hf(538) range of the inherited zircon cores]. This evidence suggests that the ?Hf heterogeneity of magmatic zircon is directly inherited from the source. However, the analysis of zircon core-rim pairs reveals that the 176Hf/177Hf composition of the inherited crystals does not directly transfer to their magmatic overgrowths. Small-scale modeling of zircon dissolution and re-precipitation in a static magma generates sub-mm melt domains having variable Zr content and Hf isotope composition. The composition of these domains is controlled by the size and isotope composition of the nearest dissolving zircon crystals and the cooling rate of the magma. These results suggest that in magma systems with a substantial inherited zircon load, zircon crystals within the same rock should record variable 176Hf/177Hf in the magmatic zircon fraction.

Farina, F.; Stevens, G.; Gerdes, A.; Frei, D.

2014-10-01

316

Use and Interpretation of Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University discusses the basic principles of operation of weather radars, describes how to interpret radar mosaics, and discusses the use of radar in weather forecasting. Students learn the relationship between range and elevation and how to use radar images and mosaics in short-range forecasting.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

317

Low probability of intercept radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of LPI radars is defined and performance characteristics are examined. A performance criterion relating the range at which the LPI radar can detect a target to the range at which an intercept receiver aboard the target can detect the LPI radar is defined. The response of various operational and advanced intercept receivers to wideband LPI radar waveforms is

D. C. Schleher

1985-01-01

318

Ground-penetrating radar methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

319

Radar sensing of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar remote sensing of the ocean has been the subject of research for about 20 years. Spaceborne radar altimetry and scatterometry are approaching maturity, and synthetic-aperture radars (SAR) show great promise. The principles of radar scattering from the sea are outlined here, along with some recently discovered questions. For wind-vector scatterometry, the principle is presented, and remaining uncertainties are outlined.

RICHARD K. MOORE

1985-01-01

320

High power HF modification: Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the electric field and power density of radio frequency (RF) radiation increases continuously in a plasma, the response of the plasma to the incident energy changes discontinuously. This follows from a complex of competing physical processes, each generally with its own power dependent threshold, and plasma instabilities each with its own growth and decay rate. Nonlinear power dependencies, boundary condition dependencies on past histories of the plasma conditions, dependence on proximity to plasma resonances, and nonlinear mixing in the plasma to up and down convert with respect to resonances, all conspire to make experimental guidance invaluable to theoretical development. The experiment ahs demonstrated that with increasing HF power one passes the threshold of detectability sequentially from: passive transmission, to cross-modulation, to thermal bulk heating, to parametric and other instabilities with plasma structuring and stimulated electromagnetic radiation, to electron acceleration and airglow, to reported stimulated ionization. The RF propagation and emission environment is affected through the VLF to GHz range by lensing, scattering, modulation, and simulated emission. The optical background and emission character is affected over a very wide spectrum by electron impact and temperature enhancement altering translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures (as well as raising fine structure population distribution questions). A set of geophysical effects are address over this range, and participation is invited in anticipation of what effects lie beyond the next threshold (of ionospheric response to higher HF illumination). The exciting upgrade of the Heater at Tromso and emerging new HF modifier plans in the U.S. are partial motivation for such conjecture.

Carlson, Herbert C., Jr.

1990-10-01

321

Radar image enhancement and simulation as an aid to interpretation and training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Greatly increased activity in the field of radar image applications in the coming years demands that techniques of radar image analysis, enhancement, and simulation be developed now. Since the statistical nature of radar imagery differs from that of photographic imagery, one finds that the required digital image processing algorithms (e.g., for improved viewing and feature extraction) differ from those currently existing. This paper addresses these problems and discusses work at the Remote Sensing Laboratory in image simulation and processing, especially for systems comparable to the formerly operational SEASAT synthetic aperture radar.

Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Dellwig, L. F.; Held, D. N.

1980-01-01

322

Simulation and studies of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar image quality with reduced bit rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer simulation program that is used to study the effects of digitization in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar systems is described. An analytical study of the distortion noise introduced by the digitization process at various gain settings, sampling rates and bit error rates is presented and the results agree well with those obtained from the simulation program. The simulation program is also used to study the spatial frequency response of hard-limiting (quantizing to 1-bit) synthetic aperture radar systems. The implications of these results on synthetic aperture radar system design are discussed.

Li, F.; Held, D.; Huneycutt, B.; Zebker, H.

1981-01-01

323

A model for simulation and processing of radar images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for recording, processing, presentation, and analysis of radar images in digital form is presented. The observed image is represented as having two random components, one which models the variation due to the coherent addition of electromagnetic energy scattered from different objects in the illuminated areas. This component is referred to as fading. The other component is a representation of the terrain variation which can be described as the actual signal which the radar is attempting to measure. The combination of these two components provides a description of radar images as being the output of a linear space-variant filter operating on the product of the fading and terrain random processes. In addition, the model is applied to a digital image processing problem using the design and implementation of enhancement scene. Finally, parallel approaches are being employed as possible means of solving other processing problems such as SAR image map-matching, data compression, and pattern recognition.

Stiles, J. A.; Frost, V. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

1981-01-01

324

Dependence of spectral width of ionospheric F region HF echoes on electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) monitors plasma parameters in the ionospheric region that is frequently located near the polar cap boundary. The SuperDARN radar at Hankasalmi, Finland, detects coherent echoes from this region, and these echoes typically show increased spectral width. We consider data of joint ESR and SuperDARN observations to show that the spectral width of HF echoes tends to increase with the ionospheric electric field. This relationship is explained in terms of nonlinear evolution of the E B gradient drift instability with energy cascade from hundreds of meter wavelengths to meter wavelengths. We assume that decameter waves (seen by the Hankasalmi radar) with relatively large amplitude decay through a three-wave interaction with shorter wavelengths and estimate that the decay time of the decameter waves/irregularities is determined by the parameters of the shorter-wavelength structures. We associate the decameter wave decay time with the correlation time, and thus the spectral width, of HF echoes.

Kozlovsky, A.; Shalimov, S.; Koustov, A. V.; Lukianova, R.; Turunen, T.

2011-07-01

325

Dependence of spectral width of polar cap HF echoes upon electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) monitors plasma parameters in the ionospheric region that is frequently located near the polar cap boundary. The SuperDARN radar at Hankasalmi, Finland detects coherent echoes from this region and these echoes typically show increased spectral width. We consider data of joint ESR and SuperDARN observations to show that the spectral width of HF echoes tends to increase with the electric field. This relationship is explained in terms of non-linear evolution of the ExB gradient drift instability with energy cascade from hundred of meters wavelengths to meter wavelengths. We assume that non-linearly generated, relatively strong decameter waves (seen by the Hankasalmi radar) decay through three-wave interaction with shorter wavelengths and estimate that the decameter waves/irregularities decay time is determined by the parameters of the shorter wavelength structures. We associate the decameter wave decay time with the correlation time, and thus the spectral width, of HF echoes.

Koustov, A. V.; Shalimov, S.; Kozlovsky, A.

2010-12-01

326

Goldstone solar system radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar telescope (transmitter, receiver, antenna, computer hardware and software) as well as knowledge of how the entire system must function as a cohesive unit to meet the particular scientific objectives at hand in a given observation. Support radar data-processing facilities, currently being used for virtually all Goldstone data reduction includes: a VAX 11/780 computer system, an FPS 5210 array processor, terminals, tape drives, and image-display devices, as well as a large body of data-reduction software to accommodate the variety of data-acquisition formats and strategems. Successful 113-cm radar observation of Callisto and the near-Earth asteroid 1981 Midas and Goldstone/VLA radar observations of Saturn's rings were obtained. Quick-look verification programs from data taken with phase-coded cw (i.e., ranging) waveforms, applicable to Venus, the Moon, and small bodies were completed. Definition of scientific and engineering requirements on instrument performance, radar system configuration, and personnel, for all 1988 Goldstone radar investigations was accomplished.

Jurgens, Raymond F.

1988-01-01

327

Target Detection and Localization Using MIMO Radars and Sonars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new space-time coding configuration for target detection and localization by radar or sonar systems. In common active array systems, the transmitted signal is usually coherent between the different elements of the array. This configuration does not allow array processing in the transmit mode. However, space-time coding of the transmitted signals allows to digitally steer

Ilya Bekkerman; Joseph Tabrikian

2006-01-01

328

Discrimination of geophysical phenomena in satellite radar interferograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various geophysical phenomena are recorded in the interference patterns formed by differencing two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The fringes generated by the topographic relief can be removed using a digital elevation model (DEM). The remaining fringes map the change in satellite-to-ground range which occurred between the acquisition times of the two images. By comparing different pairs of images spanning

Didier Massonnet; Kurt L. Feigl

1995-01-01

329

Most people immediately recognize the importance of radar systems to  

E-print Network

a few. However, these 10- to 40-year- old systems are nearing the end of their designed lifespans. MIT An innovative design exploits dual polarization and digital beamforming to provide a radar solution board (PCB), a heat exchanger, and a backplane PCB that distributes DC power and control to the array

Reuter, Martin

330

Wuhan Atmosphere Radio Exploration (WARE) radar: System design and online winds measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic configuration of the Wuhan MST (mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere) radar, which was designed and constructed by the School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, is preliminarily described in this paper. The Wuhan MST radar operates at very high frequency (VHF) band (53.8 MHz) by observing the real-time characteristics of turbulence and the wind field vector in the height range of 3.5-90 km (not including 25-60 km) with high temporal and height resolutions. This all-solid-state, all-coherent pulse Doppler radar is China's first independent development of an MST radar focusing on atmospheric observation. The subsystems of the Wuhan MST radar include an antenna system, a feeder line system, all-solid-state radar transmitters, digital receivers, a beam control system, a signal processing system, a data processing system, a product generation system, and a user terminal. Advanced radar technologies are used, including highly reliable all-solid-state transmitters, low-noise large dynamic range digital receivers, an active phased array, high-speed digital signal processing, and real-time graphic terminals. This paper describes the design and implementation of the radar. Preliminary online wind measurements and results of the comparison to simultaneous observations by a GPS rawinsonde are presented as well.

Zhengyu, Zhao; Chen, Zhou; Haiyin, Qing; Guobin, Yang; Yuannong, Zhang; Gang, Chen; Yaogai, Hu

2013-05-01

331

Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

Rosen, Paul A.

2012-01-01

332

Radar investigation of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

Ostro, S. J.

1984-01-01

333

Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

1975-01-01

334

The 94 GHz MMW imaging radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.

Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon

1993-01-01

335

Portable radar simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable radar simulator, when connected to a transmitting means such as a waveguide horn antenna, provides a radar signal to test a radar receiver. The portable radar simulator comprises a tunable oscillator which generates a continuous wave signal in the microwave frequency range with the desired frequency of the signal being selected by an operator. The signal generated by the tunable oscillator is supplied to a microwave switch. The microwave switch receives a control signal provided by a pulse repetition frequency generating circuit and in response to the control signal turns the switch on or off controlling the transmission of the oscillator generated signal to the wave guide horn antenna. The pulse repetition frequency generating circuit which comprises an integrated circuit timer and a monostable multivibrator provides a variable frequency and variable pulse width control signal. The frequency and pulse width of the control signal are, in turn, set by the operator.

Aw, Kenneth

1992-09-01

336

Caribbean Radar Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides examples of radar imagery from various locations in the Caribbean to demonstrate the different types of images available. Also, examples of different meteorological and non meteorological features are presented to show features seen in island locations.

2014-09-14

337

GMTI MIMO radar  

E-print Network

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) extensions to radar systems enable a number of advantages compared to traditional approaches. These advantages include improved angle estimation and target detection. In this paper, ...

Bliss, Daniel W., Jr.

338

Imaging with Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity from NOVA features synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which uses radio waves to create high-quality images. Examine SAR images of Washington, D.C., and learn about this technology's unique advantages.

2004-01-29

339

Multi-instrument coordinated observations of auroral dynamics at EISCAT Svalbard and Sondrestrom Radar sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-instrument campaign to observe auroral dynamics was conducted during February 7-10, 2011 at the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) in Norway and the Sondrestrom radar in Greenland. This campaign involved measurements of incoherent scatter spectra from both the radars, optical observations of aurora on both sites, and auroral radio emissions measured with a spectrum analyzer and with an LF/MF/HF interferometer at Sondrestrom. In this paper, we will present data from this coordinated study, focusing on correlations of plasma line enhancements and any NEIALs events with other datasets during auroral precipitation periods and substorm onsets. We will also present a comparative analysis of the same event reflected in two radars with very different wavelengths.

Bhatt, A.; Stromme, A.; Hggstrm, I.; Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Labelle, J. W.; Broughton, M.; Lanchester, B. S.

2011-12-01

340

Sesso Temtica: Aplicaes Geolgicas e Geomorfolgicas de Anlise Digital de Terreno (Geological and Geomorphological Applications of Digital Terrain Analysis)  

E-print Network

growth in the availability of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) such as the Shuttle Radar Topography orbital imagery (ALOS, ASTER, SPOT) or from Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and laser altimetry Elevation Models and their Applications: From the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to TanDEM-X and Beyond Dr

341

Uninterrupted power supply with intermediate HF circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents This work presents an uninterrupted monophase power supply with IGBT transistors and HF intermediate circuit. Two three-phase UPS circuits with intermediate HF circuit are also presented, based on the suggested control method. All the suggested versions are characterized by small dimensions and a high fundamental content (0,995) of the alternating output voltages.

D. Alexa; M. Florea

1992-01-01

342

182Hf, a new isotope for AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron-rich isotope 182Hf with its half-life of 9+/-2 million years was alive in the early solar system and has been used to study the early development of the Earth and the Moon through isotopic anomalies of its stable decay product 182W. In addition, 182Hf may also complement a few other radionuclides in the million-year half-life range to trace relatively recent stellar events with high neutron fluxes in the vicinity of the Earth. This may be accomplished by finding measurable traces of live 182Hf in suitable terrestrial archives. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) it should be possible to detect minute amounts of 182Hf. We will show that the main interference for the detection, the stable isobar 182W, can be significantly reduced by using HfF5- ions. The AMS detection method of 182Hf and first results from Hf control rods of a recently retired research reactor are presented, which encourage us to search for naturally produced traces of 182Hf on Earth.

Vockenhuber, Christof; Bichler, Max; Golser, Robin; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan

2004-08-01

343

Calculations of Hf -electron affinity and  

E-print Network

Calculations of Hf - electron affinity and photodetachment partial cross sections Lin Pan Abstract. Relativistic configuration interaction calculations show Hf - has only one bound state, 5d2 6s2 6V (532 nm), the partial cross sections to energetically accessible neutral thresholds are calculated

Beck, Donald R.

344

Experimental Confirmation of an HF Channel Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specially designed HF ionospheric propagation measurements were made and analyzed to confirm the validity and bandwidth limitations of a proposed stationary HF ionospheric channel model. In the model, the input (transmitted) signal feeds an ideal delay line and is delivered at several taps with adjustable delays, one for each resolvable ionospheric modal component. Each delayed signal is modulated in amplitude

C. Watterson; J. Juroshek; W. Bensema

1970-01-01

345

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

Chang, Hsi-Tien

1987-09-28

346

Doppler Radar Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the function and uses of the The National Weather Service's (NWS) Weather Surveillance Doppler Radar (WSR-88D). Topics include the components of the system, an overview of the products and overlays the system creates, and some example images with captions explaining what is being shown. There are also links to radar meteorology tutorials and to information on training to use the system and interpret its imagery.

347

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

348

Adaptive MIMO radar waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) radars enhance performance by transmitting and receiving coded waveforms from multiple locations. To date, the theoretical literature on MIMO radar has focused largely on the use of ldquoorthogonal waveforms.rdquo Practical approaches to approximate orthogonality (e.g., via waveforms characterized by low cross-correlation and low autocorrelation sidelobe levels) have also started to emerge. We show, however, that such waveforms

Daniel J. Rabideau; Lexington MA

2008-01-01

349

A source mechanism producing HF-induced plasma lines (HFPLS) with up-shifted frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to a nonlinear scattering process analyzed as a source mechanism producing the frequency up-shifted HFPLs observed in the Arecibo ionospheric heating experiments. A physical picture is offered to explain how Langmuir waves with frequencies greater than the HF heater wave frequency can be produced in the heating experiments and be detected by incoherent radars as frequency up-shifted HFPLs. Since the considered scattering process occurs in a region near the reflection height, it explains why the frequency up-shifted HFPLs should originate from the altitude near the reflection height as observed. The theory also shows that the amount of frequency up-shift is inversely proportional to the frequency of the HF heater and increases linearly with the electron temperature. The quantitative analysis of the theory shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.

1992-01-01

350

Current radar responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application.

Plummer, Kenneth W.; Ormesher, Richard C.

2003-09-01

351

SPace Radar Image of Fort Irwin, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Fort Irwin in California's Mojave Desert compares interferometric radar signatures topography -- data that were obtained by multiple imaging of the same region to produce three-dimensional elevation maps -- as it was obtained on October 7-8, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Data were acquired using the L-band (24 centimeter wavelength) and C-band (6 centimeter wavelength). The image covers an area about 25 kilometers by 70 kilometers (15.5 miles by 43 miles). North is to the lower right of the image. The color contours shown are proportional to the topographic elevation. With a wavelength one-fourth that of the L-band, the results from the C-band cycle through the color contours four times faster for a given elevation change. Detailed comparisons of these multiple frequency data over different terrain types will provide insights in the future into wavelength-dependent effects of penetration and scattering on the topography measurement accuracy. Fort Irwin is an ideal site for such detailed digital elevation model comparisons because a number of high precision digital models of the area already exist from conventional measurements as well as from airborne interferometric SAR data. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

352

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: A Global DEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital topographic data are critical for a variety of civilian, commercial, and military applications. Scientists use Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to map drainage patterns and ecosystems, and to monitor land surface changes over time. The mountain-building effects of tectonics and the climatic effects of erosion can also be modeled with DEW The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling and simulation. Commercial applications include determining locations for cellular phone towers, enhanced ground proximity warning systems for aircraft, and improved maps for backpackers. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (Fig. 1), is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission is designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical errors.

Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

2000-01-01

353

Principles of digital data transmision (2nd edition)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A textbook on the principles and techniques of digital data transmission is presented. A nonmathematical survey of the properties of the voice-frequency channels formed by telephone circuits and HF radio links, and of various techniques that have been used or proposed for the transmission of digital data over these channels is given. The different techniques are compared and descriptions are

A. P. Clark

1983-01-01

354

Improved HF183 Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Characterization of Human Fecal Pollution in Ambient Surface Water Samples  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster within members of the genus Bacteroides are among the most widely used methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In this study, we show that a current TaqMan HF183 qPCR assay (HF183/BFDrev) routinely forms nonspecific amplification products and introduce a modified TaqMan assay (HF183/BacR287) that alleviates this problem. The performance of each qPCR assay was compared in head-to-head experiments investigating limits of detection, analytical precision, predicted hybridization to 16S rRNA gene sequences from a reference database, and relative marker concentrations in fecal and sewage samples. The performance of the modified HF183/BacR287 assay is equal to or improves upon that of the original HF183/BFDrev assay. In addition, a qPCR chemistry designed to combat amplification inhibition and a multiplexed internal amplification control are included. In light of the expanding use of PCR-based methods that rely on the detection of extremely low concentrations of DNA template, such as qPCR and digital PCR, the new TaqMan HF183/BacR287 assay should provide more accurate estimations of human-derived fecal contaminants in ambient surface waters. PMID:24610857

Green, Hyatt C.; Haugland, Richard A.; Varma, Manju; Millen, Hana T.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Field, Katharine G.; Walters, William A.; Knight, R.; Sivaganesan, Mano; Kelty, Catherine A.

2014-01-01

355

Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon, it is necessary to accurately model the ionosphere as the radar would observe it, down to the local horizon. To correct for spatial and temporal changes in the ionosphere the model must be able to update in near-real-time using ionospheric sensor data. Since many radars are in isolated locations, or may have requirements to operate autonomously, an additional required capability is to provide accurate ionospheric mitigation by exploiting only sensor data from the radar site. However, the model must also be able to update using additional data from other types of sensors that may be available. The original radar ionospheric mitigation approach employed the Bent climatological model. This 35-year-old technology is still the means employed in the many DoD SSRs today. One more recent approach used capabilities from the PRISM model. PRISM technology has today been surpassed by `assimilative models' which employ better physics and Kalman filtering techniques. These models are not necessarily tailored for SSR application which needs to optimize modeling of very small regions using only data from a single sensor, or very few. The goal is to develop and validate the performance of innovative and efficient ionospheric modeling approaches that are optimized for the small regions applicable to ground-based radar coverage (radius of ~2000 km at ionospheric altitudes) and somewhat beyond. These approaches must adapt a continuous modeling scheme in near-real-time to be consistent with all observational data that may become available, and degrade gracefully toward a climatological representation in the absence of data. In this presentation we will discuss the issues for improving correction of ionospheric impacts on SSRs, some of the capabilities and limitations of current models, and the requirements and goals for new modeling technologies.

Bishop, G.; Decker, D.; Baker, C.

2006-12-01

356

Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers (Ligda)  

E-print Network

Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers similar observations in the early 1940's (U.S. Air Corps meteorologists receiving "radar" training at MIT in 1943 First operational weather radar, Panama, 1943 Science of radar meteorology born from WWII research

Rutledge, Steven

357

Sporadic E ionization layers observed with radar imaging and ionospheric modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sporadic E ionization layers have been observed in the daytime subauroral ionospheric E layer by a 30 MHz radar in Alaska. The radar detects coherent backscatter from meter-scale field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The irregularities were generated by ionospheric modificationby the emission of strong HF electromagnetic waves directly beneath the layersmaking the layers visible to the radar. Aperture-synthesis methods are used to generate imagery of the layers from the radar data. The layers are patchy, with patches organized along fronts spaced by tens of kilometers and propagating slowly toward the southwest. Similar, naturally occurring layers are commonly observed at middle latitudes at night in the absence of ionospheric modification. That the patchy layers can be found at high magnetic latitudes during the day argues that they are most likely produced through the interaction of the ionospheric layer with neutral atmospheric waves and instabilities. Attenuation of the radar echoes when the HF emission frequency exceeded the third harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency was observed and is discussed.

Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; McCarrick, M.

2014-10-01

358

Design guidelines for SAR digital receiver/exciter boards.  

SciTech Connect

High resolution radar systems generally require combining fast analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters with very high performance digital signal processing logic. These mixed analog and digital printed circuit boards present special challenges with respect to electromagnetic interference. This document first describes the mechanisms of interference on such boards then follows up with a discussion of prevention techniques and finally provides a checklist for designers to help avoid common mistakes.

Dudley, Peter A.

2009-08-01

359

The Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop, November 1979.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The findings of the Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop are summarized by a series of six papers. Part I of this series briefly reviews the history of multiple Doppler experimentation, fundamental concepts of Doppler signal theory, and organization and objectives of the Workshop. Invited presentations by dynamicists and cloud physicists are also summarized.Experimental design and procedures (Part II) are shown to be of critical importance. Well-defined and limited experimental objectives are necessary in view of technological limitations. Specified radar scanning procedures that balance temporal and spatial resolution considerations are discussed in detail. Improved siting for suppression of ground clutter as well as scanning procedures to minimize errors at echo boundaries are discussed. The need for accelerated research using numerically simulated proxy data sets is emphasized.New technology to eliminate various sampling limitations is cited as an eventual solution to many current problems in Part III. Ground clutter contamination may be curtailed by means of full spectral processing, digital filters in real time, and/or variable pulse repetition frequency. Range and velocity ambiguities also may be minimized by various pulsing options as well as random phase transmission. Sidelobe contamination can be reduced through improvements in radomes, illumination patterns, and antenna feed types. Radar volume-scan time can be sharply reduced by means of wideband transmission, phased array antennas, multiple beam antennas, and frequency agility.Part IV deals with synthesis of data from several radars in the context of scientific requirements in cumulus clouds, widespread precipitation, and severe convective storms. The important temporal and spatial scales are examined together with the accuracy required for vertical air motion in each phenomenon. Factors that introduce errors in the vertical velocity field are identified and synthesis techniques are discussed separately for the dual Doppler and multiple Doppler cases. Various filters and techniques, including statistical and variational approaches, are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on the importance of experiment design and procedures, technological improvements, incorporation of all information from supporting sensors, and analysis priority for physically simple cases. Integrated reliability is proposed as an objective tool for radar siting.Verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical velocity is discussed in Part V. Three categories of verification are defined as direct, deductive, and theoretical/numerical. Direct verification consists of zenith-pointing radar measurements (from either airborne or ground-based systems), air motion sensing aircraft, instrumented towers, and tracking of radar chaff. Deductive sources include mesonetworks, aircraft (thermodynamic and microphysical) measurements, satellite observations, radar reflectivity, multiple Doppler consistency, and atmospheric soundings. Theoretical/numerical sources of verification include proxy data simulation, momentum checking, and numerical cloud models. New technology, principally in the form of wide bandwidth radars, is seen as a development that may reduce the need for extensive verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical air motions. Airborne Doppler radar is perceived as the single most important source of verification within the bounds of existing technology.Nine stages of data processing and display are identified in Part VI. The stages are identified as field checks, archival, selection, editing, coordinate transformation, synthesis of Cartesian fields, filtering, display, and physical analysis. Display of data is considered to be a problem critical to assimilation of data at all stages. Interactive computing systems and software are concluded to be very important, particularly for the editing stage. Three- and 4-dimensional displays are considered essential for data assimilation, particularly at the physical analysis stage. The concept of common data tape formats is approved both for data in radar s

Carbone, R. E.; Harris, F. I.; Hildebrand, P. H.; Kropfli, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Moninger, W.; Strauch, R. G.; Doviak, R. J.; Johnson, K. W.; Nelson, S. P.; Ray, P. S.; Gilet, M.

1980-10-01

360

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

361

On the potentials of passive, multistatic, low frequency radars to counter stealth and detect low flying targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentials of passive, multi-static radars as covert sensors for the detection of low flying, stealth air targets are illustrated by multi-static RCS analysis, coverage simulations for low flight levels and measurement results obtained with an experimental passive radar using digital audio broadcast signals (DAB). The measurement sensor is described and future perspectives are pointed out.

H. Kuschel; J. Heckenbach; S. Muller; R. Appel

2008-01-01

362

a Statistical Description of Storm Cells: Analysis of Film Records of the Binghamton, New York WSR-57 PPI Weather Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable effort has been expended recently to mathematically model convective rainstorms. Parameter estimation has lagged behind theoretical work. This investigation utilizes digitized radar imagery to estimate the duration and areal extent of convective cells. The parameters were chosen based on a mathematical model proposed by Rodriguez -Iturbe-Eagelson. Three thunderstorms in the area scanned by the Broome County, New York radar

Cynthia Brower Kirby

1991-01-01

363

Radar interferometry studies of the earth's topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital elevation models (DEMs) which have been acquired using the TOPSAR interferometric radar sensor are directly applicable to geological and geophysical studies. Attention is presently given to three illustrative examples of the use of DEMs: the correction of remote-sensing observations for local slope and topographic effects, topographic expressions of erosion and uplift in alluvial fans, and volcanology. The greatest advantages of TOPSAR over conventional photogrammetry include rapidity of data collection, high spatial and vertical resolution, and the ability to obtain contiguous data independent of cloud cover.

Evans, Diane L.; Farr, Tom G.; Zebker, Howard A.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

1992-01-01

364

Analysis of parameters for a space-based debris-tracking radar  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS FOR A SPACE-BASED DEBRIS-TRACKING RADAR A Thesis hflCHAEL ALAN POLLOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Aft hf Hniversity in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTEII OF SCIENCE... December 1987 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS FOR A SPACE-BASED DEBRIS-TRACKING RADAR A Thesis by MICHAEL ALAN POLLOCK Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Richard W. Newton (Co-Chairman of Committee) Dr. Richard E...

Pollock, Michael A

1987-01-01

365

Weather Radar and Instrumentation: Laboratory Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These 16 radar education modules, developed for the Weather Radar and Instrumentation Curriculum at the University of Oklahoma, provide hands-on instruction for beginning, intermediate, or advanced students to learn about radar systems, especially weather radar. Topics include hardware, weather radar, adaptive systems, advanced hydrometeors, applications of weather radar, and atmospheric interpretations. The modules may be downloaded.

366

33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

367

The Ponape ST radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May, 1984, a 50-MHz ST radar was installed on the island of Ponape in the western equatorial Pacific (7 deg N, 158 deg E) by the Aeronomy Laboratory of NOAA. The radar consists of a 100 m x 100 m array with a single, vertically directed, beam and is initially transmitting micro sec. (2.25 km) pulses. The radar is operating continuously, with Doppler spectra being recorded at approximately 1 1/2 minute intervals and sent to Boulder for later analysis. One of the principal goals of the radar is to measure vertical motions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at a location which is within the intertropical convergence zone during part of the year. First results, during generally fair weather conditions, show detectable echoes up to about 21 km with the tropopause at 17-18 km. Once daily balloon soundings are available locally from a NOAA Weather Service Office on the island, it is planned that this radar will be joined in the coming year by two others with oblique as well as vertical beams on two yet-to-be-selected equatorial islands as part of the TOGA (Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere) program.

Carter, D. A.; Ecklund, W. L.; Balsley, B. B.

1984-12-01

368

Common volume coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations of sporadic E layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all the available observations of quasi-periodic (QP) echoes associated with sporadic E layers have used coherent scatter radars operating in the HF or VHF range. Such radar observations have provided extensive measurements of the range rates, Doppler shifts, and apparent altitudes of the echoing regions, but the interpretation of the measurements is not always clear. During June and July 2003, a 30-MHz coherent scatter radar was operated on St. Croix in the Virgin Islands so that it had a common observing volume with the Arecibo Observatory 430-MHz incoherent scatter radar at E-region altitudes above Puerto Rico. The Arecibo radar provided high-resolution altitude profiles of the electron density structure within the regions where the coherent scatter radar detected QP echoes. Furthermore, the Arecibo radar was scanned in azimuth during some of the observation periods to map out the horizontal structure within the scattering layers. The relationship between the two sets of measurements will be discussed and data from several sample nights will be presented.

Larsen, M.; Hysell, D.; Zhou, Q.

2003-04-01

369

2-D inner-shelf current observations from a single VHF WEllen RAdar (WERA) station  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The majority of High Frequency (HF) radars used worldwide operate at medium to high frequencies (8 to 30 MHz) providing spatial resolutions ranging from 3 to 1.5 km and ranges from 150 to 50 km. This paper presents results from the deployment of a single Very High Frequency (VHF, 48 MHz) WEllen RAdar (WERA) radar with spatial resolution of 150 m and range 10-15 km, used in the nearshore off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA. It consisted of a linear array of 12 antennas operating in beam forming mode. Radial velocities were estimated from radar backscatter for a variety of wind and nearshore wave conditions. A methodology similar to that used for converting acoustically derived beam velocities to an orthogonal system is presented for obtaining 2-D current fields from a single station. The accuracy of the VHF radar-derived radial velocities is examined using a new statistical technique that evaluates the system over the range of measured velocities. The VHF radar velocities showed a bias of 3 to 7 cm/s over the experimental period explainable by the differences in radar penetration and in-situ measurement height. The 2-D current field shows good agreement with the in-situ measurements. Deviations and inaccuracies are well explained by the geometric dilution analysis. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Gurgel, K.-W.; Warner, J.C.; List, J.H.

2011-01-01

370

HF sideband observations compared to theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salient features of the sidebands generated on the HF waves in an ionospheric plasma modified by two pump frequencies are presented and compared to theories. Particular attention is focused upon the properties of the nonlinear modulation process by comparing the modulation index theory and the observations. The observations show that the amplitudes of the sidebands are related to the HF power and the difference frequency of the two pump waves. The relationships of the amplitude of the sideband with HF frequency, the scale height, and the temperature of the electrons in the ionosphere are discussed. The modulation index theory shows agreement with the observations over a range of conditions.

Huang, Z. H.; Gordon, W. E.; Noble, S. T.; Duncan, L. M.

1991-10-01

371

The CMS-HF Forward Calorimeter Commissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS HF Calorimeter was the first detector to be lowered into the cavern at UX5. It was placed in the garage position during the lowering of the rest of the big CMS pieces. The commissioning of the hardware parts is continuing, especially integrating the HF and completing the monitoring systems, such as, online laser, LED and radioactive source monitoring. Also a special monitor system for the radiation damage (raddam) of the quartz fibers is being implemented. Calibration measurements of the calorimeter had already started even before the lowering. Progress in the calibration work and current plans for the HF calorimeter during the low luminosity run will be summarized.

Glmez, E.

2008-06-01

372

HF sideband generation in the ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temporal development of sidebands excited near sunrise by two strong HF waves separated by a few hertz is presented. Sidebands are not observed before sunrise when the ionospheric critical frequency is less than the heater frequency. As the ionospheric density increases following sunrise and overdense conditions are established, strong sidebands emerge. Even though these results favor a mechanism which phase modulates the reflected HF wave over one which first downconverts the HF power to ULF before exciting sidebands, it is possible that either mechanism could at times contribute to sideband production.

Noble, S. T.; Gordon, W. E.; Duncan, L. M.; Mccoy, J. E.

1989-01-01

373

Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L. [and others

1994-12-31

374

Imaging Radar in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region has had a long history as a test bed for remote sensing techniques. Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the area since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of these technologies. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley region because it contains a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. The earliest imaging radars to be flown over the region included military tests of short-wavelength (3 cm) X-band sensors. Later, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory began its development of imaging radars with an airborne sensor, followed by the Seasat orbital radar in 1978. These systems were L-band (25 cm). Following Seasat, JPL embarked upon a series of Space Shuttle Imaging Radars: SIRA (1981), SIR-B (1984), and SIR-C (1994). The most recent in the series was the most capable radar sensor flown in space and acquired large numbers of data swaths in a variety of test areas around the world. The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region was one of those test areas, and was covered very well with 3 wavelengths, multiple polarizations, and at multiple angles. At the same time, the JPL aircraft radar program continued improving and collecting data over the Mojave Desert Death Valley region. Now called AIRSAR, the system includes 3 bands (P-band, 67 cm; L-band, 25 cm; C-band, 5 cm). Each band can collect all possible polarizations in a mode called polarimetry. In addition, AIRSAR can be operated in the TOPSAR mode wherein 2 antennas collect data interferometrically, yielding a digital elevation model (DEM). Both L-band and C-band can be operated in this way, with horizontal resolution of about 5 m and vertical errors less than 2 m. The findings and developments of these earlier investigations are discussed.

Farr, Tom G.

2001-01-01

375

Error Distribution and Diversity Performance of a Frequency-Differential PSK HF Modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4800-bit\\/s digital data modem is operated over a simulated HF channel to determine the bit-error rate and error distributions of the received serial binary data stream. The measured error distributions for multipath-limited conditions are compared with back-to-back operation and theoretically determined random distributions, and are also used to evaluate forward acting error correction assuming half-rate random error-correcting block codes.

G. Porter

1968-01-01

376

Mars 96 subsurface radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars 96 International Scientific Mission to launch an aerostat that will drift in the Martian atmosphere for ten days is described. The stabilizing element of the aerostat (guiderope) will be dragged on the Martian surface every night. A ground penetrating radar will be installed within the guiderope. Its external surface will act as a transmit and receive antenna. A full scale model was built and tested on different soils and glaciers. Further experiments will be performed to test the full specifications. Radar potential and data processing could yield a penetrating depth down to 2.5 km with 30 m resolution on Mars. The main technical features of the radar are described. Its implementation into the guiderope is discussed. Some experimental results are presented.

Barbin, Y.; Kofman, W.; Elkine, M.; Finkelstein, M.; Glotov, V.; Zolotarev, V.

1991-12-01

377

The MST Radar Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

Balsley, B. B.

1985-01-01

378

The MST radar technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

Balsley, B. B.

1985-07-01

379

Side looking radar calibration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

Edwards, W. D.

1975-01-01

380

Development of random signal radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of random signal radar (RSR) over the past 30 years is described. Conventional methods of implementing RSR are summarized such as correlation, spectrum analysis, and anticorrelation. Some typical RSR systems are introduced, for example, noise frequency modulation CW radar, random binary phase-coded CW radar, etc., and their merits and demerits are also pointed out. Finally, RSR development trends are

Guosui Liu; Hong Gu; Weimin Su

1999-01-01

381

Interception of LPI radar signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile

Jim P. Lee

1991-01-01

382

Comet Radar Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is a low cost mission that uses sounding radar to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of Jupiter-family comet (JFC) Tempel 2. Believed to originate in the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies in the inner solar system. CORE operates a 5 and 15 MHz Radar Reflection Imager from close orbit about the nucleus of Tempel 2, obtaining a dense network of echoes that are used to map its interior dielectric contrasts to high resolution (? m) and resolve the dielectric constants to ? m throughout the 16x8x9 km nucleus. The resulting clear images of internal structure and composition reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit results in an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide the surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and also the time-evolving activity, structure and composition of the inner coma. By making deep connections from interior to exterior, the data CORE provides will answer fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, and lay the foundation for a comet nucleus sample return mission. CORE is led by Prof. Erik Asphaug of the University of California, Santa Cruz and is managed by JPL. It benefits from key scientific and payload contributions by ASI and CNES. The international science team has been assembled on the basis of their key involvement in past and ongoing missions to comets, and in Mars radar missions, and for their expertise in radar data analysis.

Asphaug, Erik; CORE Science Team

2010-10-01

383

Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excited states of 163Hf were populated using the 94Zr(74Ge,5 n ) reaction and the decay ? rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five-quasiparticle configurations, two ? - vibrational bands coupled to the i13 /2 excitation were also observed. The lowest level of a newly identified, negative-parity band is proposed to be the ground state of the nucleus. A systematic delay of the high-spin proton crossing frequency with increasing quadrupole deformation from 162Hf to 172Hf was established. Extensive band searches failed to reveal a triaxial, strongly deformed structure in 163Hf similar to the one observed in several nuclei around A 165 .

Yadav, R. B.; Ma, W. C.; Marsh, J. C.; Ijaz, Q. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Kondev, F. G.; Grdal, G.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hartley, D. J.; Riedinger, L. L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

2014-11-01

384

Can HF heating generate ESF bubbles?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injection of powerful HF waves into the ionosphere can lead to strong electron heating followed by a pressure perturbation which can locally reduce the plasma density. In the postsunset equatorial ionosphere, density perturbations can provide the seed to generate equatorial spread F (ESF) bubbles. In this paper, a modified version of the SAMI3/ESF ionosphere code is used to model the density depletions created by HF heating and to determine if ESF bubbles can be artificially generated. It is found that HF heating primarily redistributes plasma along the geomagnetic field and does not significantly perturb the flux tube integrated conductivities. Thus, HF heating does not appear to be a viable method to seed or generate ESF bubbles.

Zawdie, K. A.; Huba, J. D.

2014-12-01

385

Radar Investigations of Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

Ostro, S. J.

1984-01-01

386

Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

Elachi, C.

1983-01-01

387

Stepped-frequency radar signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stepped-frequency radar is a prominent example of the class of continuous-wave radar systems. Since raw data are recorded in frequency-domain direct investigations referring to the frequency content can be done on the raw data. However, a transformation of these data is required in order to obtain a time-domain representation of the targets illuminated by the radar. In this paper we present different ways of arranging the raw data which then are processed by means of the inverse fast Fourier transform. On the basis of the time-domain result we discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of these data structures. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of phase noise on the time-domain signal by means of an appropriate model implemented in our simulation tool. We also demonstrate the effects of commonly known techniques of digital signal processing, such as windowing and zero-padding of frequency-domain data. Finally we present less commonly known methods, such as the processing gain of the (inverse) fast Fourier transform by means of which the signal to noise ratio of the time-domain signal can be increased.

Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

2015-01-01

388

An adaptive digital beamforming network for satellite communication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of adaptive digital beamforming techniques has, until recently, been largely restricted to high performance military radar systems. Recent advances in digital technology, however, have enabled the design of single chip digital beamforming networks. This, coupled with advances in digital signal processor technology, enables complete beamforming systems to be constructed at a lower cost, thus making the application of these techniques to commercial communications systems attractive. The design and development of such an adaptative digital beamforming network are described. The system is being developed as a proof of concept laboratory based demonstrator to enable the feasibility of adaptive digital beamforming techniques for communication systems to be determined. Ultimately, digital beamforming could be used in conjunction with large array antennas for communication satellite systems. This will enable the simultaneous steering of high gain antenna beams in the direction of ground based users and the nulling of unwanted interference sources, such as radar systems, to be performed.

Barrett, M.; Fernandez, J.; Lagunas, M. A.; Coromina, F.

1991-10-01

389

High-frequency Doppler radar measurements of the Florida current in Summer 1983  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An oceanographic evaluation is carried out here of high-frequency (HF) Doppler radar measurements of surface currents made by the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory June 26 to August 4, 1983, at the western side of the Florida Straits in the area between Jupiter and West Palm Beach in the context of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies. These current measurements are compared with direct current measurements made at various positions in the area covered by the radar, and investigated for their potential as transport indicator. Means and standard deviations of the downstream current component compared well with those from PEGASUS and subsurface moored current measurements carried out in the northern part of the radar current field up to 35 km distance from the coast, but there seemed to exist a bias in the southern part of the current field measured by the radar, causing significant northward mean shear about 20 km offshore. Low-frequency current fluctuations from the radar currents and near-surface moored currents were coherent for the downstream but not the small cross-stream component. Mean downstream components in a center strip of the radar current field, where data quality was found to be best, were compared with Florida Current transports as determined by cable and by moored current measurements, but transport fluctuations were small during the measurement period which fell into the summer maximum of the Florida Current. Coherence with cable transports was significant at the meander time scale of 5 days, but a longer period transport burst of 3106 m3/s occurring during the time period was not identified in the surface current measurements. In summary, the HF radar as used in this application is useful to determine near-surface patterns of eddies and meanders but doubtful for derived quantities like energy fluxes and vorticity without additional calibration.

Schott, F.; Leaman, K.; Samuels, G.; Frisch, A. S.; Fontino, I. Popa

1985-01-01

390

Advances in HF parallel tone modem technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the HF modem, which contains a 75 to 2400 bps 39-tone waveform, a robust 75-bps direct-spread waveform, and two independent 45-1200-bps binary frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) waveforms. The availability of powerful new microprocessors permits economic implementation of complex signal-processing sizes. Improved signaling techniques and potent error-correcting codes allow greatly improved performance on the HF channel. Measured performance data taken

G. J. Luhowy

1988-01-01

391

182Hf, a new isotope for AMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron-rich isotope 182Hf with its half-life of 92 million years was alive in the early solar system and has been used to study the early development of the Earth and the Moon through isotopic anomalies of its stable decay product 182W. In addition, 182Hf may also complement a few other radionuclides in the million-year half-life range to trace relatively

Christof Vockenhuber; Max Bichler; Robin Golser; Walter Kutschera; Alfred Priller; Peter Steier; Stephan Winkler

2004-01-01

392

Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

1986-01-01

393

A Modification to Goldstein's Radar Interferogram Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of SAR interferometry (InSAR) to digital elevation modeling and deformation monitoring encounters problems due to noise in the interferometric phase, caused by water vapor in the atmosphere, incoherent temporal changes of the observed terrain, and geometrical decorrelation. These factors dramatically reduce the capabilities of radar interferometry in many applications, for example compromising detection and analysis of small (spatial) scale deformations. The quality of digital elevation models and displacement maps can be improved by filtering the interferometric phase. In this paper, we present a modification to the Goldstein phase filter [1]. This filter amplifies dominant frequencies in patches of the interferogram with a factor alpha, thus not affecting noisy areas, while enhancing interferometric fringes. The filter is modified by making the factor alpha dependent on coherence ie incoherent areas are filtered more strongly than coherent areas. The proposed filter is compared with other filtering techniques in the spatial and frequency domain. The effectiveness of the different filtering algorithms is evaluated using synthetic phase patches merged with real InSAR data, thus allowing preservation of realistic noise characteristics but giving control over the extent, shape and density of the simulated interferometric fringes. Finally, results are presented from interferometry data from the West Australian outback. [1] Richard M Goldstein and Charles L Werner. Radar interferogram filtering for geophysical applications. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(21): 4035-4038, November 1998.

Baran, I.; Stewart, M. P.; Perski, Z.; Kampes, B. M.

2002-12-01

394

Advanced Digital SAR Processor (ADSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to develop the technology required to meet the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing needs for missions in the late 1980's, and to build and demonstrate a high performance engineering model flexible enough to be easily adapted to a wide variety of SAR processing tasks and capable of real-time or near real-time throughput rates. Information on the Advanced Digital SAR Processor is given in the form of outlines, carts and diagrams.

Bicknell, Tom

1985-01-01

395

Nuclear shapes of highly deformed bands in {sup 171,172}Hf and neighboring Hf isotopes  

SciTech Connect

A Gammasphere experiment was carried out to search for triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) structures in {sup 171,172}Hf and the wobbling mode, a unique signature of nuclei with stable triaxiality. Three strongly deformed bands in {sup 172}Hf and one in {sup 171}Hf were identified through {sup 48}Ca({sup 128}Te, xn) reactions. Linking transitions were established for the band in {sup 171}Hf and, consequently, its excitation energies and spins (up to 111/2({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) were firmly established. However, none of the {sup 172}Hf sequences were linked to known structures. Experimental evidence of triaxiality was not observed in these bands. The new bands are compared with other known strongly deformed bands in neighboring Hf isotopes. Theoretical investigations within various models have been performed. Cranking calculations with the Ultimate Cranker code suggest that the band in {sup 171}Hf and two previously proposed TSD candidates in {sup 170}Hf and {sup 175}Hf are built on proton (i{sub 13/2}h{sub 9/2}) configurations, associated with near-prolate shapes and deformations enhanced with respect to the normal deformed bands. Cranked relativistic mean-field calculations suggest that band 2 in {sup 175}Hf has most likely a near-prolate superdeformed shape involving the {pi}i{sub 13/2} x {nu}j{sub 15/2} high-j intruder orbitals. It is quite likely that the bands in {sup 172}Hf are similar in character to this band.

Zhang, Y. C.; Ma, W. C.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Begnaud, J.; Ngijoi-Yogo, E.; Roux, D. G.; Yadav, R. B. [Department of Physics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Hagemann, G. B. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Moore, E. F.; Zhu, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chowdhury, P. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Cullen, D. M.; Rigby, S. V.; Scholes, D. T. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Djongolov, M. K.; Riedinger, L. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)] (and others)

2007-12-15

396

Radar detection in clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clutter is defined as any unwanted radar return. The presence of clutter in a range\\/Doppler cell complicates the detection of a target return signal in that cell. In order to quantify the effect of clutter on the probability of detection, we must first specify sets of models suitable for representing the clutter and target. The simplest and most common model

D. A. Shnidman

2005-01-01

397

Radar reflectivity in snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backscattering properties of dry snowflakes at different microwave frequencies are examined. It is shown that the Rayleigh approximation does not often provide the necessary accuracy for snowflake reflectivity calculations for radar wavelengths used in meteorology; however, another simple approximation, the Rayleigh-Gans approximation, can be safely used for such calculations. Reflectivity-snowfall rate relationships are derived for different snow densities and different

S. Y. Matrosov

1992-01-01

398

Impulse radar studfinder  

DOEpatents

An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1995-10-10

399

Impulse radar studfinder  

DOEpatents

An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

400

Rain radar instrument definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

1996-12-01

401

Rain radar instrument definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of

N. Vincent; J. Chenebault; Noel Suinot; P. L. Mancini

1996-01-01

402

Frequency diverse array radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized structure for a frequency diverse array radar. In its simplest form, the frequency diverse array applies a linear phase progression across the aperture. This linear phase progression induces an electronic beam scan, as in a conventional phased array. When an additional linear frequency shift is applied across the elements, a new term is generated which

Paul Antonik; Michael C. Wicks; Hugh D. Griffiths; Christopher J. Baker

2006-01-01

403

Aircraft radar echoes characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic wave diffraction and reflection theories enable prediction of most of the effects generated by radar echoes on aircraft. However, it is difficult to modelize some complex effects originating in canopies, radomes and cavities. In order to supplement the present theoretical knowledge by experimental results obtained on actual targets, ONERA has developed a novel analysis method allowing the generation of

C. Pouit

1980-01-01

404

Radar investigation of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

Ostro, S. J.

1986-01-01

405

The Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) experiment report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.

Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie

1988-01-01

406

Preliminary science results from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of analyzing digital radar imagery data obtained by the SIR-B aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger STS 41-G are presented. The data cover 5 million square kilometers of the earth surface between 57 deg north and south latitudes. Radar imagery of the same target at different incidence angles was used to classify surfaces by their backscatter response as a function of incidence angle. The SIR-B proved to be useful for collecting multiple incidence angle data sets over a broad range of targets, providing information in the areas of geology, archeology, forestry, agriculture, oceanography, geography, and hydrology. The analysis is also used to optimize radar parameters such as look angle for future missions.

Ruzek, M.

1985-01-01

407

Assessment of forest cover changes using multidate spaceborne imaging radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained in 1978 by Seasat and in 1984 by SIR-B over a forested area in northern Florida are analyzed. The objective of the study was to determine the potential for detecting major changes in forest cover utilizing synthetic aperture radar obtained from satellite altitudes, and to define an effective methodology for processing and analyzing digital synthetic aperture radar data obtained on two different dates. It is found that multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data obtained from satellite altitudes can be used to detect major changes in forest cover conditions such as deforestation and reforestation. A suprisingly good level of detectivity was obtained for identifying areas of regrowth after they had been clearcut and replanted.

Lee, Kyu-Sung; Hoffer, Roger M.

1988-01-01

408

Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) makes available to the aviation community digital and graphical analyses, forecasts and observations of meteorological variables in the United States. Analyses, forecasts, and observations are available for turbulence, icing, convection, wind speed, and temperature. You can even select the altitude of interest. Satellite and radar images are also available. Java tools to help with the analysis of the maps provided are available for download. Developed as the data distribution component of the Aviation Gridded Forecast System (AGFS), ADDS is a joint effort of NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL), NCAR Research Applications Program (RAP), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Aviation Weather Center (AWC).

409

Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar  

DOEpatents

A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Ojai, CA); Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Lewallen, Tricia S. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1994-01-01

410

Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with

Oleg A. Mukhanov; Dmitri Kirichenko; Igor V. Vernik; Timur V. Filippov; Alexander Kirichenko; Robert Webber; Vladimir Dotsenko; Andrei Talalaevskii; Jia Cao Tang; Anubhav Sahu; Pavel Shevchenko; Robert Miller; Steven B. Kaplan; Saad Sarwana; Deepnarayan Gupta

2008-01-01

411

Digital Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;

Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

2002-01-01

412

Use of weather radar for flood forecasting in the Sieve River Basin: A sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather radar, in combination with a distributed rainfall-runoff model, promises to significantly improve real-time flood forecasting. This paper investigates the value of radar-derived precipitation in forecasting streamflow in the Sieve River basin, near Florence, Italy. The basin is modeled with a distributed rainfall-runoff model that exploits topographic information available from digital elevation maps. The sensitivity of the flood forecast to

Marcos L. Pessoa; Rafael L. Bras; Earle R. Williams

1993-01-01

413

Discrimination of geologic units in Death Valley using dual frequency and polarization imaging radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous analysis of dual frequency and dual polarization radar imagery of a portion of Death Valley, California has yielded a nearly complete discrimination of surficial geologic units. Radar imagery in like polarized L-band (i.e., 25 cm wavelength), crosspolarized L-band and like polarized X-band (i.e., 3 cm wavelength) were digitally combined and ratioed to enhance the variation in the backscatter cross-section

M. Daily; C. Elachi; T. Farr; G. Schaber

1978-01-01

414

Considerations for integration of a physiological radar monitoring system with gold standard clinical sleep monitoring systems.  

PubMed

A design for a physiological radar monitoring system (PRMS) that can be integrated with clinical sleep monitoring systems is presented. The PRMS uses two radar systems at 2.45 GHz and 24 GHz to achieve both high sensitivity and high resolution. The system can acquire data, perform digital processing and output appropriate conventional analog outputs with a latency of 130 ms, which can be recorded and displayed by a gold standard sleep monitoring system, along with other standard sensor measurements. PMID:24110139

Singh, Aditya; Baboli, Mehran; Gao, Xiaomeng; Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Soll, Bruce; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

2013-01-01

415

GeoSAR: A Radar Terrain Mapping System for the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GeoSAR Geographic Synthetic Aperture Radar) is a new 3 year effort to build a unique, dual-frequency, airborne Interferometric SAR for mapping of terrain. This is being pursued via a Consortium of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., and the California Department of Conservation. The airborne portion of this system will operate on a Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft outfitted with P- and X-band Interferometric SARs. The ground portions of this system will be a suite of Flight Planning Software, an IFSAR Processor and a Radar-GIS Workstation. The airborne P-band and X-band radars will be constructed by JPL with the goal of obtaining foliage penetration at the longer P-band wavelengths. The P-band and X-band radar will operate at frequencies of 350 Mhz and 9.71 Ghz with bandwidths of either 80 or 160 Mhz. The airborne radars will be complemented with airborne laser system for measuring antenna positions. Aircraft flight lines and radar operating instructions will be computed with the Flight Planning Software The ground processing will be a two-step step process. First, the raw radar data will be processed into radar images and interferometer derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Second, these radar images and DEMs will be processed with a Radar GIS Workstation which performs processes such as Projection Transformations, Registration, Geometric Adjustment, Mosaicking, Merging and Database Management. JPL will construct the IFSAR Processor and Calgis, Inc. will construct the Radar GIS Workstation. The GeoSAR Project was underway in November 1996 with a goal of having the radars and laser systems fully integrated onto the Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft in early 1999. Then, Engineering Checkout and Calibration-Characterization Flights will be conducted through November 1999. The system will be completed at the end of 1999 and ready for routine operations in the year 2000.

Thompson, Thomas; vanZyl, Jakob; Hensley, Scott; Reis, James; Munjy, Riadh; Burton, John; Yoha, Robert

2000-01-01

416

Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet)above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center)includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test site is covered by glaciers. Corner reflectors are set up for calibration. Five corner reflectors can be seen on the Gepatschferner and two can be seen on the Vernagtferner. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

417

HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles to derive more accurate HF electron flux spectra.

Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

2014-12-01

418

Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California was created from data taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This image was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C radar image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The interferometry data were acquired on April 13,1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR instrument. The color composite radar image was taken in October and was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is the large dark feature in the foreground. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

419

Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California - 3D view  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle and, which then, are compared to obtain elevation information. The data were acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR radar instrument. The color composite radar image was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is off the image to the left. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

420

Design of a digital Data Recording System (DRS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Data Recording System (DRS) for the Delayed Digital Side Lobe Canceler (DDSLC) radar signal processor is a 4 MByte digital data recorder capable of a 10.67 Mword/s data rate (1 word = 32 bits). The recorder may be employed to collect live digitized radar data and store it on high volume data devices such as a Bernoulli cartridge or an optical disk to make it available for future off-line processing. This paper describes the hardware design, controlling software, and implementation of the data recording system developed at NRL.

Tavik, Greory C.; Alter, James J.

1992-08-01

421

FMCW radar for the sense function of sense and avoid systems onboard UAVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockwell Collins France (RCF) radar department is currently developing, in close collaboration with TNO in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor dedicated to Obstacle Warning function and potentially to air traffic detection. The sensor combines flood light illumination and digital beam forming to accommodate demanding detection and coverage requirements. Performances have been evaluated in flight tests and results prove that such a radar sensor is a good candidate for the Sense Function of Sense and Avoid Systems onboard UAV.

Itcia, Eric; Wasselin, Jean-Philippe; Mazuel, Sbastien; Otten, Matern; Huizing, Albert

2013-10-01

422

Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

2013-01-01

423

METR 4624--Radar Meteorology SPRING 2014  

E-print Network

METR 4624--Radar Meteorology SPRING 2014 Dr. Michael I. Biggerstaff; drdoppler@ou.edu (best method Principles of weather radar and storm observations including: radar system design, em wave propagation, radar&Q, moments of the power spectrum, ground clutter, attenuation, rainfall measurements using radar reflectivity

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

424

MIMO Radar with Widely Separated Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) radar refers to an architecture that employs multiple, spatially distributed transmitters and receivers. While, in a general sense, MIMO radar can be viewed as a type of multistatic radar, the separate nomenclature suggests unique features that set MIMO radar apart from the multistatic radar literature and that have a close relation to MIMO communications. This article reviews

Alexander Haimovich; Rick Blum; Leonard Cimini

2008-01-01

425

METR 4624--Radar Meteorology SPRING 2012  

E-print Network

METR 4624--Radar Meteorology SPRING 2012 Dr. Michael I. Biggerstaff; drdoppler@ou.edu (best method Principles of weather radar and storm observations including: radar system design, em wave propagation, radar&Q, moments of the power spectrum, ground clutter, attenuation, rainfall measurements using radar reflectivity

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

426

An MSK Radar Waveform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater spectral efficiency than the MSK waveform, such as linear frequency modulation (LFM) and Costas frequency hopping, have a fixed peak sidelobe level that is therefore not configurable, and can be exceeded by high contrast targets. Furthermore, in the case of a multistatic experiment observing a target in motion, self-interference from the transmitter to the receiver is mitigated by the MSK waveform. Waveforms that have delay Doppler coupling, such as LFM, provide no such protection.

Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

2012-01-01

427

P15R.1 THE DETECTABILITY OF TORNADIC SIGNATURES WITH DOPPLER RADAR: A RADAR EMULATOR STUDY  

E-print Network

P15R.1 THE DETECTABILITY OF TORNADIC SIGNATURES WITH DOPPLER RADAR: A RADAR EMULATOR STUDY Ryan M the operation of a radar, using a software radar emulator, one can artificially generate large data sets describes a radar emulator designed to simulate the returns from a scanning Doppler radar on a pulse

Xue, Ming

428

Management and Research Applications of Long-range Surveillance Radar Data for Birds, Bats, and Flying Insects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is renewed interest in using long-range surveillance radar as a biological research tool due to substantial improvements in the network of radars within the United States. Technical improvements, the digital nature of the radar data, and the availability of computing power and geographic information systems, enable a broad range of biological applications. This publication provides a summary of long-range surveillance radar technology and applications of these data to questions about movement patterns of birds and other flying wildlife. The intended audience is potential radar-data end users, including natural-resource management and regulatory agencies, conservation organizations, and industry. This summary includes a definition of long-range surveillance radar, descriptions of its strengths and weaknesses, information on applications of the data, cost, methods of calibration, and what end users need to do, and some key references and resources.

Ruth, Janet M.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Sojda, Richard S.

2008-01-01

429

Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large array. Digital filtering also enables selection among multiple filter parameters as required for different radar operating modes. After digital filtering, data are decimated appropriately in order to minimize the data rate out of an antenna panel. The L-band transceiver (see Figure 2) includes a radio-frequency (RF)-to-baseband down-converter chain and an intermediate- frequency (IF)-to-RF up-converter chain. Transmit/receive (T/R) switches enable the use of a single feed to the antenna for both transmission and reception. The T/R switches also afford a built-in test capability by enabling injection of a calibration signal into the receiver chain. In order of decreasing priority, components of the transceiver were selected according to requirements of radiation hardness, then compactness, then low power. All of the RF components are radiation-hard. The noise figure (NF) was optimized to the extent that (1) a low-noise amplifier (LNA) (characterized by NF < 2 dB) was selected but (2) the receiver front-end T/R switches were selected for a high degree of isolation and acceptably low loss, regardless of the requirement to minimize noise.

McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy

2007-01-01

430

41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

431

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

432

Shuttle radar topography mission produces a wealth of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 22, 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution digital topographic map of Earth ever made.SRTM is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National

Tom G. Farr; Mike Kobrick

2000-01-01

433

3-D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.

Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.

1991-01-01

434

Polarization radar processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive effort involving measurements and performance evaluation for the detection of scatterers immersed in a background of natural and man-made clutter using polarization diverse waveforms is presented. The effort spans evaluation from the initial stages of theoretical formation to processor performance evaluation using real-world data. The theoretical approach consists of determining polarimetric statistical properties of the backscatter waveform and these properties to derive the optimum dual-polarized S-band radar system with selectable polarization on both transmit and receive. Several processors utilizing optimum and suboptimum algorithms were evaluated using simulated and live radar data, and performance results are compared. The processor types include fully adaptive algorithms designed to operate on polarimetric spectral spread waveforms, and several combinations of single channel and polarization diverse receivers with both single and dual transmit polarization. Results are plotted and evaluated by displaying probability of detection as a function of signal-to-noise ratio with processor type as a parameter.

Wicks, Michael C.; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Stiefvater, Kenneth C.; Brown, Russell D.

435

RADAR Reveals Titan Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

2005-01-01

436

Imaging synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

437

Shuttle imaging radar experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

1982-01-01

438

Polarization diversity in radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many polarization techniques, which have been proposed and analyzed to enhance radar performance, are reviewed in this paper in order to assess the possible improvement they can provide in the signal-to-disturbance ratio, target detectability, target discrimination and resolution, and target classification and identification. Some recent experimentally-based results relating to these applications are also presented. Those techniques are emphasized for which

D. Giuli

1986-01-01

439

SIR-B - The second Shuttle Imaging Radar experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 5, 1984, the second Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) was launched into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. SIR-B is part of an evolutionary radar program designed to progressively develop a multifrequency, multipolarization synthetic aperture radar with a variable earth-imaging geometry. The SIR-B instrument is an upgraded version of SIR-A, with the additional capability of tilting the antenna mechanically to acquire imagery at variable incidence angles ranging from 15 to 60 deg. The variable look angle capability provided a means of acquiring multiple incidence angle imagery over specific targets on successive days of the mission. These data are being used to classify surface features by their backscatter signatures as a function of incidence angle and for topographic mapping. In addition to the antenna tilt capability, a digital data-handling system was added to increase the dynamic range, the resolution was improved by a factor of two over SIR-A, and a calibration subsystem was added to improve the radiometric accuracy of the data. The mission had a number of problems, including loss of the primary digital data path between the Shuttle and the ground. In spite of these problems, approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected over the 8-day Shuttle mission corresponding to an areal coverage of about 6.4 million sq km.

Cimino, J.; Elachi, C.; Settle, M.

1986-01-01

440

Radar Imagery of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar observations of Mercury have yielded important results including the discovery of the 3:2 spin:orbit resonance [1] discovery of distinct large surface roughness features [2] measurement of the perihelion advance (as a test of general relativity) [3] ephemeris improvements [4] information on shape [5] topography [6] and more recent constraints on the spin and orbit state [7]. But perhaps the most stunning discoveries have come from mapping experiments made possible by the Goldstone/VLA radarand improvements in the Random Long Code techniques in monostatic experiments [8]. These experiments provide maps of radar reflectivity across most of the visible disk of the planet and have been used to infer the presence of polar ices and large fresh impact craters among other features [9]. We will present a summary of the knowledge gained from these radar mapping observations recent results and plans for future experiments. [1] Dyce et al. 1967. [2] Zohar & Goldstein 1974. [3] Anderson et al. 1991. [4] Jurgens et al. 1998. [5] Anderson et al. 1996. [6] Harmon et al. 1986; Slade et al. 1997. [7] Margot et al. 2002. [8] Muhleman et al. 1995; Harmon 2002. [9] Butler et al. 1993; Harmon et al. 2001; Harmon 1997.

Butler, Bryan J.; Harmon, John K.; Slade, Martin A.

441

Comet radar explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of 100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet will enjoy significant simplifying benefits compared to using the same instrument for Mars or lunar radar science: (1) The proximity of operations leads to a much higher signal to noise, as much as +30 dB. (2) The lack of an ionosphere simplifies data modeling and analysis. (3) The body is globally illuminated during every data acquisition, minimizing ambiguity or 'clutter' and allowing for tomographic reconstruction. What is novel is the data processing, where instead of a planar radargram approach we coherently process the data into an image of the deep interior. CORE thus uses a MARSIS-SHARAD heritage radar to make coherent reflection sounding measurements, a 'CAT SCAN' of a comet nucleus. What is unique about this mission compared to the Mars radars mentioned above, is that the target is a finite mass of dirty ice in free space, rather than a sheet of dirty ice draped on a planet surface. The depth of penetration (kilometers), attainable resolution (decameters), and the target materials, are more or less the same. This means that the science story is robust, and the radar implementation is robust. The target is comet 10P/Tempel 2, discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1873 and observed on most apparitions since. It has been extensively studied, in part because of interest as a CRAF target in the mid-1980s, and much is known about it. Tempel 2 is one of the largest known comet nuclei, 1688 km (about the same size as Halley) [1] and has rotation period 8.9 hours [3,5,6,7,9]. The spin state is evolving with time, spinning up by 10 sec per perihelion pass [5,7]. The comet is active, but not exceedingly so, especially given its size. The water production is measured at 4 1028 mol/sec at its peak [2], a factor of 25 lower than comet Halley, and it is active over only 2% of its surface. The dust environment is well known, producing a factor of 100 less dust than Halley. Comet References: [1] A'Hearn et al., ApJ 347, 1155, 1989 [2] Feldman and Festou, ACM 1991, p. 171, 1992 [3] Jewitt and Luu, AJ 97, 1766, 1989 [4] Lamy et al., Comets II p 223. 2009 [5] Muel

Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

442

Optimum frequency for subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar  

SciTech Connect

A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, most conventional synthetic-aperture radars operate at higher microwave frequencies which do not significantly penetrate below the soil surface. This study attempts to provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. Since the radar return from a buried object must compete with the return from surface clutter, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell`s equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Initial results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30 MHz), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper vhf through uhf spectrum ({approximately}100 MHz--1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

1993-05-01

443

Optimum frequency for subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar  

SciTech Connect

A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, most conventional synthetic-aperture radars operate at higher microwave frequencies which do not significantly penetrate below the soil surface. This study attempts to provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. Since the radar return from a buried object must compete with the return from surface clutter, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell's equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Initial results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30 MHz), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper vhf through uhf spectrum ([approximately]100 MHz--1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

1993-05-01

444

Intrapulse Radar-Embedded Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embedding of a covert communication signal amongst the ambient scattering from an incident radar pulse has previously been achieved by modulating a Doppler-like phase shift sequence over numerous pulses (i.e., on an inter-pulse basis). In contrast, this paper considers radar-embedded communications on an intrapulse basis whereby an incident radar waveform is converted into one of $K$ communication waveforms, each

Shannon D. Blunt; Padmaja Yatham; James Stiles

2010-01-01

445

RF MEMS on the radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of applications of radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology in radio detection and ranging (radar). RF MEMS components for radar include attenuators, limiters, (true-time-delay) phase shifters, transmit\\/receive (T\\/R) switches and tunable matching networks. Radar subsystems that benefit from RF MEMS technology include active electronically scanned arrays (T\\/R modules), passive electronically scanned arrays (lenses, reflect

Koen Van Caekenberghe

2009-01-01

446

Radar-aeolian roughness project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

1991-01-01

447

Radar studies of bird migration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

1974-01-01

448

HF equipment: Receivers, transmitters, synthesizers, and peripherals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although long distance communications via satellites has dominated the last two decades of radio equipment development, high frequency (HF) radio equipment is experiencing a high technology renaissance. Satellite systems now transmit quality low data rate communications and navigation aids to mobile users, but the low cost and surviability attributes of HF radio are again being recognized. Emerging new systems automate network operations while adapting to propagation conditions. However, neither new replacement radios nor new systems furnish the potential capability of state-of-the-art components. The advances in equipment, systems, and components are summarized.

Wilson, Q. C.

1983-05-01

449