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Sample records for digital hf radar

  1. HF-induced radar backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuth, F. T.

    1985-12-01

    Recent literature concerning HF ionospheric modifications, presented at the URSI Open Symposium on Active Experiments in Space Plasmas is discussed. The topics treated in these papers include: (1) HF-induced Langmuir waves generated in the auroral F-region; (2) geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities excited by HF waves in the auroral E-region and the midlatitude E- and F-region; and (3) HF-induced horizontally stratified irregularities produced in the midlatitude F-region. The observations obtained using the HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway and the HF facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are described.

  2. Beamforming and aberration correction in HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Karl J.; Lin, Wen-Tai; O'Donnell, Matthew

    A combined array beamforming and channel equalization technique for mitigating the effect of external interferences and signal phase aberrations associated with an HF radar is presented. The aberration correction scheme is a non-model-based technique which makes use of the statistical randomness in the clutter region. It is capable of correcting phase distortions due to frequency dispersion incurred in the ionospheric propagation paths. Simulation shows that with this technique the phase distorted signal can be restored to within 1 dB loss of the undistorted signal. In order to retain the possibility of correcting phase aberration at the array element level, a two-step beamforming technique has been implemented by (1) providing a spatial filter to exclude the strong RFI and jammers at the element level and (2) applying conventional beamforming on the receiver residue which contains only clutter return and local noise. The phase aberration technique is applied between the two steps after the major interferers are canceled.

  3. Application of HF radar currents to oil spill modelling.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Ana J; Castanedo, Sonia; Medina, Raul; Losada, Inigo J; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the benefits of high-frequency (HF) radar currents for oil spill modeling and trajectory analysis of floating objects are analyzed. The HF radar performance is evaluated by means of comparison between a drifter buoy trajectory and the one simulated using a Lagrangian trajectory model. A methodology to optimize the transport model performance and to calculate the search area of the predicted positions is proposed. This method is applied to data collected during the Galicia HF Radar Experience. This experiment was carried out to explore the capabilities of this technology for operational monitoring along the Spanish coast. Two long-range HF radar stations were installed and operated between November 2005 and February 2006 on the Galician coast. In addition, a drifter buoy was released inside the coverage area of the radar. The HF radar currents, as well as numerical wind data were used to simulate the buoy trajectory using the TESEO oil spill transport model. In order to evaluate the contribution of HF radar currents to trajectory analysis, two simulation alternatives were carried out. In the first one, wind data were used to simulate the motion of the buoy. In the second alternative, surface currents from the HF radar were also taken into account. For each alternative, the model was calibrated by means of the global optimization algorithm SCEM-UA (Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis) in order to obtain the probability density function of the model parameters. The buoy trajectory was computed for 24h intervals using a Monte Carlo approach based on the results provided in the calibration process. A bivariate kernel estimator was applied to determine the 95% confidence areas. The analysis performed showed that simulated trajectories integrating HF radar currents are more accurate than those obtained considering only wind numerical data. After a 24h period, the error in the final simulated position improves using HF radar currents. Averaging the information from all the simulated daily periods, the mean search and rescue area calculated using HF radar currents, is reduced by approximately a 62% in comparison with the search area calculated without these data. These results show the positive contribution of HF radar currents for trajectory analysis, and demonstrate that these data combined with atmospheric forecast models, are of value for trajectory analysis of oil spills or floating objects. PMID:18996546

  4. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  5. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Historically, joint effort has been put on observing open ocean, organizing, homogenizing, sharing and reinforcing the impact of the acquired information based on one technology: ARGO with profilers Argo floats, EuroSites, ESONET-NoE, FixO3 for deep water platforms, Ferrybox for stations in ships of opportunities, and GROOM for the more recent gliders. This kind of networking creates synergies and makes easier the implementation of this source of data in the European Data exchange services like EMODnet, ROOSs portals, or any applied services in the Blue economy. One main targeted improvement in the second phase of EMODnet projects is the assembling of data along coastline. In that sense, further coordination is recommended between platform operators around a specific technology in order to make easier the implementation of the data in the platforms (4th EuroGOOS DATAMEQ WG). HF radar is today recognized internationally as a cost-effective solution to provide high spatial and temporal resolution current maps (depending on the instrument operation frequency, covering from a few kilometres offshore up to 200 km) that are needed for many applications for issues related to ocean surface drift or sea state characterization. Significant heterogeneity still exists in Europe concerning technological configurations, data processing, quality standards and data availability. This makes more difficult the development of a significant network for achieving the needed accessibility to HF Radar data for a pan European use. EuroGOOS took the initiative to lead and coordinate activities within the various observation platforms by establishing a number of Ocean Observing Task Teams such as HF-Radars. The purpose is to coordinate and join the technological, scientific and operational HF radar communities at European level. The goal of the group is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of HFR data access and tools. In this context, a coordinated action between EuroGOOS HF Radar Task Team and EMODnet Physics has been pushed to achieve a pilot integration of the data from existing HF radar systems, with the following operational objectives: definition of needed metadata; standardization for data format and QC; recommendation for the implementation of HF radar data in Regional and European Portals. This coordinated action for organizing and creating links between operators of HF radar platforms will benefit to the implementation of this key information in the European Marine Observation Data Network.

  6. KONRAD: Wide band digital HF receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oscarsson, F.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic support measures (ESM) and spread spectrum techniques, i.e. direct sequence (DS) or frequency hopping (FH), in the HF band require a high dynamic range as well as a large instantaneous bandwidth in the receiver. This report describes an experimental digital receiver utilizing digitally implemented quadrature splitting and baseband translation. It is shown that the use of digital quadrature splitting improves the image rejection and that oversampling and digital filtering improves the dynamic range. The receiver is built of standard components which give a beneficial cost/performance ratio. The focus is on the analog hardware of the experimental digital receiver named KONRAD. The report also serves as the manual for this receiver.

  7. Noise properties of HF radar measurement of ocean surface currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    High-frequency (HF) radars are commonly used for coastal circulation monitoring. The objective of the study is to assess what is the minimum timescale of variability of the geophysical surface currents that are accessible to the radar measurement given the intrinsic noise of this measurement. Noise properties are derived from the power density spectra (PDSs) of radial current records, which are compared to a model of the PDS of idealized currents contaminated by an additive white noise. The data were collected by two radar systems operating in the Northwestern Mediterranean. Periods of 3 weeks to 7 months are considered. Most of measured currents are affected by a white noise effect. Noise properties vary in time and space and are not specific to a particular radar station or to the radar signal processing method used (beam forming or direction finding). An increase of the noise level reduces the effective temporal resolution of radar-derived currents and then increases the minimum observable timescale of variability of geophysical currents. Our results are consistent with results of comparison found in literature between in situ sensors and radar measurements as well as between two radars operating along a same base line. The study suggests a self-sufficient method, requiring no external data, to estimate the minimum sampling period to consider for getting data sets having a minimized contamination by instrumental noise. This period can also be taken for smoothing or filtering measured currents.

  8. Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Baker, K. B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods developed for mapping high-latitude plasma convection with a high-latitude HF radar are described, which utilize coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F-region altitudes to observe convective plasma motion. Several examples of two-dimensional convection-velocity maps are presented, showing instances of L-shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft.

  9. Development of HF radar inversion algorithm for spectrum estimation (HIAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaki, Yukiharu

    2015-03-01

    A method for estimating ocean wave directional spectra using an HF (high-frequency) ocean radar was developed. This method represents the development of work conducted in previous studies. In the present method, ocean wave directional spectra are estimated on polar coordinates whose center is the radar position, while spectra are estimated on regular grids. This method can be applied to both single and multiple radar cases. The area for wave estimation is more flexible than that of the previous method. As the signal to noise (SN) ratios of Doppler spectra are critical for wave estimation, we develop a method to exclude low SN ratio Doppler spectra. The validity of the method is demonstrated by comparing results with in situ observed wave data that it would be impossible to estimate by the methods of other groups.

  10. Simultaneous HF-radar and DMSP observations of the cusp

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.B.; Greenwald, R.A.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Dudeney, J.R.; Pinnock, M.; Newell, P.T.; Greenspan, M.E.; Meng, C.I.

    1990-10-01

    The Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Program is directed toward modeling the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere system. The inter-calibration of ground-based observations of the ionosphere and satellite observations has been identified as an essential step in tying together the data to produce a global picture of geospace. On October 10, 1988 the DMSP-F9 satellite passed through the southern hemisphere cusp while a coherent scatter HF-radar was observing 10-m scale irregularities present in the ionosphere. The combined data indicate that these irregularities were being generated in the cusp, and that the cusp was a region of greater than normal electric field turbulence. The radar data indicate that the cusp was co-located with the region where the ionospheric convection rotated from sunward to anti-sunward with increasing latitude. These observations provide an unambiguous case where simultaneous satellite and ground-based observations of the cusp can be compared.

  11. HF radar observations of ionospheric backscatter during geomagnetically quiet periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, T. A.; Makarevich, R. A.; Devlin, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The quiet-time coherent backscatter from the F-region observed by the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER) Bruny Island HF radar is analysed statistically in order to determine typical trends and controlling factors in the ionospheric echo occurrence. A comparison of the F-region peak density values from the IRI-2007 model and ionosonde measurements in the vicinity of the radar's footprint shows a very good agreement, particularly at subauroral and auroral latitudes, and model densities within the radar's footprint are used in the following analyses. The occurrence of F-region backscatter is shown to exhibit distinct diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations and these are compared with model trends in the F-region peak electron density and Pedersen conductance of the underlying ionosphere. The solar cycle effects in occurrence are demonstrated to be strong and more complex than a simple proportionality on a year-to-year basis. The diurnal and seasonal effects are strongly coupled to each other, with diurnal trends exhibiting a systematic gradual variation from month to month that can be explained when both electron density and conductance trends are considered. During the night, the echo occurrence is suggested to be controlled directly by the density conditions, with a direct proportionality observed between the occurrence and peak electron density. During the day, the echo occurrence appears to be controlled by both conductance and propagation conditions. It is shown that the range of echo occurrence values is smaller for larger conductances and that the electron density determines what value the echo occurrence takes in that range. These results suggest that the irregularity production rates are significantly reduced by the highly conducting E layer during the day while F-region density effects dominate during the night.

  12. Estimation of Self-Clutter of the Multiple-pulse Technique for HF Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, A. S.; Hussey, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency (HF) radars take advantage of long-distance multiple-hop propagation that is possible in the HF band. At large distances, ionospheric targets become overspread or susceptible to range-Doppler ambiguities (long range: > 1000 km and high velocity: ~1 km/s). Ionospheric radars, such as the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars employ the multiple-pulse technique to overcome these ambiguities at the expense of introducing self-clutter. The present study utilizes measurements of echo power to estimate self-clutter, which can be used to provide signal-derived estimates of the mean square error in radar observations.

  13. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  14. Results from UHF and HF Radar Studies of Ionospheric Interaction Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Ilie, R.; Roesler, E. L.; Bristow, W. A.; Watkins, B. J.; Oyama, S.

    2005-12-01

    High power HF radiowave experiments have begun at the HAARP Ionospheric Research Observatory in Gakona, Alaska. The SuperDARN HF radar station in Kodiak, Alaska is now routinely employed to monitor HF backscatter from irregularities formed in the interaction volume over HAARP. A 16-panel prototype of a new UHF incoherent scatter radar facility, AMISR, has recently become operational on the HAARP site. Complementary to these radar probe diagnostics are new stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) receivers which record the electromagnetic emissions that propagate to the ground. We report on series of experiments performed at HAARP which employ all of the new radar and SEE diagnostics. Employing HF pump pulses of varying lengths (from milliseconds to tens of seconds), we are able to reproduce, analyze, and compare prompt temporal and spectral signatures of Strong Langmuir Turbulence (SLT) measured by the HAARP AMISR UHF radar. The Kodiak HF radar measured the evolution of irregularities which may be compared with features in the UHF backscatter. These results are compared to measurements of SLT previously performed at other HF heating facilities. Duncan, L. M., and J. P. Sheerin, J. Geophys. Res., 90 (A9), 8371 (1985).

  15. Results from UHF and HF radar studies of ionospheric interaction experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J.; Bristow, W.; Watkins, B.; Oyama, S.; Heinselman, C.

    High power HF radiowave experiments have begun at the HAARP Ionospheric Research Observatory in Gakona Alaska The SuperDARN HF radar station in Kodiak Alaska is now routinely employed to monitor HF backscatter from irregularities formed in the interaction volume over HAARP A 16-panel prototype of a new UHF radar facility MUIR has recently become operational on the HAARP site Complementary to these radar probe diagnostics are new stimulated electromagnetic emissions SEE receivers which record the electromagnetic emissions that propagate to the ground Radio-induced aurora are monitored We report on series of experiments performed at HAARP which employ all of the new radar optical and SEE diagnostics Employing HF pump pulses of varying lengths from milliseconds to tens of seconds we are able to reproduce analyze and compare prompt temporal and spectral signatures of Strong Langmuir Turbulence SLT measured by the HAARP MUIR UHF radar The HF radar measures the evolution of irregularities which may be compared with features in the UHF backscatter These results are compared to measurements of SLT previously performed at other HF heating facilities

  16. Ground backscatter characteristics model for SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinats, Alexey; Nishitani, Nozomu; Ratovsky, Konstantin

    For the first time we present a model of diurnal and seasonal variations of ground backscatter signal propagation characteristics. There are minimal group range, corresponding elevation angle and other parameters. Model is developed for geographic location and specifications of SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar. The model is based on HF ground backscatter signal calculation technique developed in the framework of waveguide approach. IRI-2007 model is used for calculation of background ionosphere. The main topic is a comparison of the presented model with an extensive dataset collected by SuperDARN Hokkaido radar during the whole its operation history since the late 2006 until 2014. The model is designed for both IRI testing and improvement of SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar data interpretation. This work was done under financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 14-05-00259-а and 14-05-00588-а).

  17. Propagation and scattering in MF/HF groundwave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, E. D. R.

    1983-12-01

    The propagation, noise, and scattering mechanisms involved in sea-state and ship-tracking radar are discussed using experimental results obtained with groundwave radar. Groundwave propagation is discussed in terms of transmission loss between two vertical short dipoles over ground, propagation between whip antennas, radar backscatter from a target, the backscattering coefficient of the sea, the influence of attenuation and earth curvature, and the signal/noise performance of groundwave radar. Sea-state sensing is considered in terms of the applications of first-order Bragg scattering, the mechanism and applications of second-order scattering, and propagation and antenna considerations. Propagation limitations in ship tracking are discussed.

  18. Digital exploitation of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital processing and analysis scheme for use with digitized synthetic aperture radar data was developed. Using data from a four channel system, the imagery is preprocessed using specially designed software and then analyzed using preexisting facilities originally intended for use with MSS type data. Geometric and radiometric correction may be performed if desired, as well as classification analysis, Fast Fourier transform, filtering and level slice and display functions. The system provides low cost output in real time, permitting interactive imagery analysis. System information flow diagrams as well as sample output products are shown.

  19. Artificial Ionization and UHF Radar Response Associated with HF Frequencies near Electron Gyro-Harmonics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results from O-mode ionospheric heating experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska to demonstrate that the magnitude of artificial ionization production is critically dependent on the choice of HF frequency near gyro-harmonics. For O-mode heating in the lower F-region ionosphere, typically about 200 km altitude, artificial ionization enhancements are observed in the lower ionosphere (about 150 - 220 km) and also in the topside ionosphere above about 500 km. Lower ionosphere density enhancements are inferred from HF-enhanced ion and plasma-line signals observed with UHF radar. Upper ionospheric density enhancements have been observed with TEC (total electron content) experiments by monitoring satellite radio beacons where signal paths traverse the HF-modified ionosphere. Both density enhancements and corresponding upward plasma fluxes have also been observed in the upper ionosphere via in-situ satellite observations. The data presented focus mainly on observations near the third and fourth gyro-harmonics. The specific values of the height-dependent gyro-harmonics have been computed from a magnetic model of the field line through the HF heated volume. Experiments with several closely spaced HF frequencies around the gyro-harmonic frequency region show that the magnitude of the lower-ionosphere artificial ionization production maximizes for HF frequencies about 1.0 - 1.5 MHz above the gyro-harmonic frequency. The response is progressively larger as the HF frequency is increased in the frequency region near the gyro-harmonics. For HF frequencies that are initially greater than the gyro-harmonic value the UHF radar scattering cross-section is relatively small, and non-existent or very weak signals are observed; as the signal returns drop in altitude due to density enhancements the HF interaction region passes through lower altitudes where the HF frequency is less than the gyro-harmonic value, for these conditions the radar scattering cross-section is significantly increased and strong signals persist while the high-power HF is present . Simultaneous observations of topside TEC measurements and lower-ionosphere UHF radar observations suggest there is an optimum altitude region to heat the lower F-region in order to produce topside ionosphere density enhancements. The observations are dependent on HF power levels and we show several examples where heating results are only observed for the high-power levels attainable with the HAARP facility.

  20. Optimization of boundary conditions of a North Western Mediterranean coastal zone using HF radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmain, Julien; Molcard, Anne; Forget, Philippe; Barth, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Correction of open boundary conditions (OBC) is attempted to improve surface velocity fields by assimilating HF radar velocities in a North Western Mediterranean (NWM) coastal model nested in a large scale operational model (Mercator Ocean system PSY2) providing IC (Initial Conditions) and OBC. A method based on HF radar velocities assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to derive the optimal wind forcing had already been validated. The objective of this work is to implement this method to the OBC correction. An ensemble simulation of the NWM sea model is carried out under different OBC to estimate model error covariance and covariance between surface currents and OBC. We evaluate the ability to correct the baroclinic oceanic forcings and to improve the surface current using a distant HF radar system. First, the method is assessed using twin experiments and a NWM sea model based on a Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) configuration at 1/12. Next, the method is applied to a high resolution (1/64) NEMO-based model using a HF radar system operating in the Cote d'Azur. The method evaluation is done in both the eulerian and the lagrangian framework, based on a comprehensive data set (surface radial currents, surface drifter trajectories) obtained during the TOSCA (MedProgram) campaign. TOSCA project intends to optimize the response to marine accidents (oil spill, search and rescue) in Mediterranean sea, and the radar data assimilation may represent a great advantage to describe with more accuracy surface currents. Keywords : HF radar, data assimilation, ensemble simulation, surface meso-scale process, North Western Mediterranean sea, coastal modelling.

  1. Backtracking drifting objects using surface currents from high-frequency (HF) radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abascal, Ana Julia; Castanedo, Sonia; Fernndez, Vicente; Medina, Ral

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the benefits of high-frequency (HF) radar ocean observation technology for backtracking drifting objects are analysed. The HF radar performance is evaluated by comparison of trajectories between drifter buoys versus numerical simulations using a Lagrangian trajectory model. High-resolution currents measured by a coastal HF radar network combined with atmospheric fields provided by numerical models are used to backtrack the trajectory of two dataset of surface-drifting buoys: group I (with drogue) and group II (without drogue). A methodology based on optimization methods is applied to estimate the uncertainty in the trajectory simulations and to optimize the search area of the backtracked positions. The results show that, to backtrack the trajectory of the buoys in group II, both currents and wind fields were required. However, wind fields could be practically discarded when simulating the trajectories of group I. In this case, the optimal backtracked trajectories were obtained using only HF radar currents as forcing. Based on the radar availability data, two periods ranging between 8 and 10 h were selected to backtrack the buoy trajectories. The root mean squared error (RMSE) was found to be 1.01 km for group I and 0.82 km for group II. Taking into account these values, a search area was calculated using circles of RMSE radii, obtaining 3.2 and 2.11 km2 for groups I and II, respectively. These results show the positive contribution of HF radar currents for backtracking drifting objects and demonstrate that these data combined with atmospheric models are of value to perform backtracking analysis of drifting objects.

  2. Improving Navigation information for the Rotterdam Harbour access through a 3D Model and HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroevers, Marinus

    2015-04-01

    The Port of Rotterdam is one of the largest harbours in the world and a gateway to Europe. For the access to Rotterdam harbour, information on hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions is of vital importance for safe and swift navigation. This information focuses on the deep navigation channel in the shallow foreshore, which accommodates large seagoing vessels. Due to a large seaward extension of the Port of Rotterdam area in 2011, current patterns have changed. A re-evaluation of the information needed, showed a need for an improved accuracy of the cross channel currents and swell, and an extended forecast horizon. To obtain this, new information system was designed based on a three dimensional hydrodynamic model which produces a 72 hour forecast. Furthermore, the system will assimilate HF radars surface current to optimize the short term forecast. The project has started in 2013 by specifying data needed from the HF radar. At the same time (temporary) buoys were deployed to monitor vertical current profiles. The HF radar will be operational in July 2015, while the model development starts beginning 2015. A pre operational version of the system is presently planned for the end of 2016. A full operational version which assimilates the HF radar data is planned for 2017.

  3. The Space-Based Calibration of Optical Systems and HF Radars Using the Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P.

    The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is designed to provide a relatively simple target in space that can be used to determine the operational parameters of both ground Imaging systems and HF radars. PERCS is a 10 meter diameter wire frame in low earth orbit with corner cube reflectors placed at 60 or more vertices around the wire frame. For optical system calibration, PERCS will provide precisely spaced reflection points on the vertices of a large polyhedron. For HF radar calibration, PERCS will have a known radar cross section that is independent of observation direction within 0.5 dB. Laser satellite tracking will provide accurate orbital position and velocity of PERCS. The PERCS will orbit at 600 km altitude in a high inclination. Because of the wire frame construction, atmospheric drag will be low and the large spherical structure is expected to be available for more than five years. The PERCS satellite will be launched in a stowed configuration that has less than one meter in diameter. After launch, the PERCS will expand to a diameter of almost 10 meters. Hoberman Sphere technology will be used to produce a stable wire-frame to act as a radar scatter target. The sphere is based on a truncated icosahedron commonly known in chemistry as a "buckyball". The 60 vertices (V60) are hinged to be joined to 90 rigid segments. Each segment is hinged so that the PERCS can be folded into a compact package for launch.

  4. Digital frequency synthesizer for radar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Satorius, E.; Robinett, L.; Olson, E.

    1990-01-01

    The digital frequency synthesizer (DFS) is an integral part of the programmable local oscillator (PLO) which is being developed for the NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and radar astronomy. Here, the theory of operation and the design of the DFS are discussed, and the design parameters in application for the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) are specified. The spectral purity of the DFS is evaluated by analytically evaluating the output spectrum of the DFS. A novel architecture is proposed for the design of the DFS with a frequency resolution of 1/2(exp 48) of the clock frequency (0.35 mu Hz at 100 MHz), a phase resolution of 0.0056 degrees (16 bits), and a frequency spur attenuation of -96 dBc.

  5. Inversion and assessment of swell waveheights from HF radar spectra in the Iroise Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weili; Forget, Philippe; Guan, Changlong

    2016-03-01

    As an extension of previous work in Wang et al. (Ocean Dyn 64:1447-1456, 2014), this article presents significant waveheights of swell inverted from a 13 month dataset of two high-frequency (HF) phased array radars. As an important intermediate variable in the calculation of significant waveheights, relative swell directions obtained by two different methods from a single radar station are also presented. The impact of the inaccuracy of relative swell direction on the calculation of waveheight is investigated and an alternative way of using constant swell direction is proposed. Radar-inverted swell significant waveheights using different ranges of relative swell directions are investigated. Results are assessed by WAVEWATCH III model hind casts. Analysis of the complete database shows that radar-inverted swell significant waveheights agree reasonably well with model estimates with large scatter. Standard deviation of the difference between the two estimations increases with waveheight, whereas the relative standard deviation, normalized by waveheight, keeps nearly constant. The constant direction scheme of waveheight inversion gives good estimations except for energetic swell exceeding the small perturbation assumption. Statistical analysis suggests that radar measurement uncertainty explains a considerable part of the difference between radar and model estimates. Swell estimates from both radar stations are consistent. This enables combined use of both radar spectra at common radar cells. Use of double spectra solves the ambiguity of relative swell direction, i.e., absolute swell direction is obtained, and effectively improves the accuracy of swell direction by the least-squares method.

  6. APQ-102 imaging radar digital image quality study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A modified APQ-102 sidelooking radar collected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data which was digitized and recorded on wideband magnetic tape. These tapes were then ground processed into computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The CCT's may then be processed into high resolution radar images by software on the CYBER computer.

  7. Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicenzo, A.

    1979-01-01

    Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.

  8. HF radar observations of the F region ionospheric plasma response to Storm Sudden Commencements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, T. A.; Makarevich, R. A.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radars during geomagnetic storms is investigated by analyzing the data collected during storm events over a 5-year period. Changes in the occurrence of F region HF backscatter observed by the 6 most equatorward radars are analyzed statistically using a superposed epoch analysis method with respect to a Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC). Regular diurnal variations of the echo occurrence during geomagnetically quiet days are produced and the amount of detected backscatter during storms is adjusted using quiet time curves. All radars considered in this study show a significant decrease in the number of detected echoes approximately 24 hours following SSC. Unexpected significant changes in occurrence levels are also present within a few hours of SSC, with most radars observing an increase in the amount of backscatter detected. The typical time evolution of F region echo occurrence is highly reminiscent of that of the electron density reported previously. Also considered is the ionospheric convection response to SSC observed by the zonally looking SuperDARN Unwin radar in New Zealand. It is shown that the initial response to SSC is instantaneous within uncertainty and appears to be independent of the magnetic latitude and local time. The observed convection response timing and morphology are discussed in the context of possible ionospheric propagation mechanisms.

  9. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  10. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) Polarimetric Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Perrine, Martin; McLinden, Matthew; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art radar system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center for the development and implementation of digital beamforming radar techniques. DBSAR was recently upgraded to polarimetric operation in order to enhance its capability as a science instrument. Two polarimetric approaches were carried out which will be demonstrated in upcoming flight campaigns.

  11. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  12. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Digital image transformation and rectification can be described in three categories: (1) digital rectification of spacecraft pictures on workable stereoplotters; (2) digital correction of radar image geometry; and (3) digital reconstruction of shaded relief maps and perspective views including stereograms. Digital rectification can make high-oblique pictures workable on stereoplotters that would otherwise not accommodate such extreme tilt angles. It also enables panoramic line-scan geometry to be used to compile contour maps with photogrammetric plotters. Rectifications were digitally processed on both Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars as well as radar images taken by various radar systems. By merging digital terrain data with image data, perspective and three-dimensional views of Olympus Mons and Tithonium Chasma, also of Mars, are reconstructed through digital image processing. ?? 1985.

  13. Improving current forecasts for the German Bight using HF radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil; Staneva, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Three HF radar stations located at the islands of Wangerooge and Sylt as well as on the mainland in Büsum are operated in the German Bight as part of COSYNA system. The WERA system operates at 12.4 MHz and provides surface current measurements every 20 min. The observations are merged with numerical model data to optimise state estimates on a pre-operational basis. The presentation introduces the spatio temporal interpolation (STOI) method, which is a statistical approach to correct data from a free model run using an analysis window of typically one tidal cycle. The technique is thus able to resolve intra-tidal time scales. The scheme is based on an EOF analysis to estimate the model error background statistics and is capable of providing improved short term forecasts. Statistics of the free model run, the HF radar data and the STOI analysis are shown for several month. Both the three dimensional primitive equation model GETM and the operational BSH model are used to provide free model run data. GETM setups with boundary forcing from the MYOCEAN North West Shelf model are used. Maps of innovation and residuals are presented. Furthermore forecast errors for different forecast horizons are discussed. Results are also compared to independent measurements taken at the FINO-1 and FINO-2 platforms. The impact of the analysis is, e.g., illustrated by drifter trajectory simulations. First results are also shown regarding an extension of the STOI method, which includes a model restart to further improve the dynamical consistency of the results. Issues related to the treatment of the boundary forcing and the meteo forcing used during the forecast period are discussed. The impact of the HF radar data on water level estimates are analysed. Furthermore, some results concerning the potential impact of existing and hypothetical HF radar systems are presented, which were obtained making use of the STOI method as well as statistical OSE and OSSE techniques.

  14. New scattering modes for studying plasma instabilities with a HF radar system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanuise, C.; Crochet, M.

    1980-07-01

    Electron density irregularities and associated plasma instabilities in the equatorial electrojet are usually studied by looking at the direct backscattering signal. New scattering modes have been observed with a HF radar. In the first one, backscatter in the E layer occurs after reflection in the F layer. In the other one, it is possible to study simultaneously different irregularity wavelengths and to observe quasi-horizontal plasma irregularities.

  15. STRING: A new drifter for HF radar validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammou, Anna-Maria; Zervakis, Vassilis; Bellomo, Lucio; Kokkini, Zoi; Quentin, Celine; Mantovani, Carlo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis

    2015-04-01

    High-Frequency radars (HFR) are an effective mean of remotely monitoring sea-surface currents, based on recording the Doppler-shift of radio-waves backscattered on the sea surface. Validation of HFRs' measurements takes place via comparisons either with in-situ Eulerian velocity data (usually obtained by surface current-meters attached on moorings) or to Lagrangian velocity fields (recorded by surface drifters). The most common surface drifter used for this purpose is the CODE-type drifter (Davis, 1985), an industry-standard design to record the vertical average velocity of the upper 1 m layer of the water column. In this work we claim that the observed differences between the HFR-derived velocities and Lagrangian measurements can be attributed not just to the different spatial scales recorded by the above instruments but also due to the fact that while the HFR-derived velocity corresponds to exponentially weighted vertical average of the velocity field from the surface to 1 m depth (Stewart and Joy, 1974) the velocity estimated by the CODE drifters corresponds to boxcar-type weighted vertical average due to the orthogonal shape of the CODE drifters' sails. After analyzing the theoretical behavior of a drifter under the influence of wind and current, we proceed to propose a new design of exponentially-shaped sails for the drogues of CODE-based drifters, so that the HFR-derived velocities and the drifter-based velocities will be directly comparable, regarding the way of vertically averaging the velocity field.The new drifter, codenamed STRING, exhibits identical behavior to the classical CODE design under relatively homogeneous conditions in the upper 1 m layer, however it is expected to follow a significantly different track in conditions of high vertical shear and stratification. Thus, we suggest that the new design is the instrument of choice for validation of HFR installations, as it can be used in all conditions and behaves identically to CODEs when vertical shear is insignificant. Finally, we present results from three experiments using both drifter types in HFR-covered regions of the Eastern Mediterranean. More experiments are planned, incorporating design improvements dictated by the results of the preliminary field tests. This work was held in the framework of the project "Specifically Targeted for Radars INnovative Gauge (STRING)", funded by the Greek-French collaboration programme "Plato".

  16. Surface current patterns in the Ibiza Channel with the use of High Frequency (HF) Radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, Arancha; Fernndez, Vicente; Troupin, Charles; Pascual, Ananda; Orfila, Alejandro; Tintor, Joaqun

    2014-05-01

    The Ibiza Channel located between the East Coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and the West Coast of Ibiza, at the Balearic Islands, is a well-known biodiversity hot spot. This area is relevant due to the interaction of water masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean - ascending through the Iberian Peninsula coast - with the older Atlantic waters descending from the Gulf of Lion. In 2012, the installation of Coastal HF Radar in the area provides valuable information for the study of the surface transport along the channel. The Coastal HF Radar operates since June 2012, and provides hourly surface current maps with a spatial resolution of approximately 3 km and a range reaching up to 70 km offshore. The instrument forms part of a monitoring multi-platform system, which is completed with satellite-derived data, gliders, modelling and fixed and lagrangian buoys. All HF Radar data are processed with standard quality control methods. Drifter velocity obtained from lagrangian buoys for two oceanographic campaigns, satellite-derived data and currentmeter data from a fixed buoy in the Ibiza Channel are used to validate the HF Radar data. All surface current data are used to perform a spectrum analysis in order to show the physical processes, at the main temporal periods. The contribution of the different temporal scales to the total Kinetic Energy has been analysed for the first time at different seasonal intervals. This served to evaluate the energetic importance of the different components of the surface currents. The inertial currents have a lower contribution to the total KE during winter, compared with the summer period. Besides, the spatial distribution of the inertial component to the total KE varies seasonally, and according to the bathymetry of the area. The low-pass (sub-inertial) filtered HF Radar currents show a predominant northern current during the summer months in the channel, and a mean southern current during the winter period. These results are discussed and related with the external forcing, and bathymetry distribution, according to coastal or open ocean data.

  17. Height dependence of the observed spectrum of radar backscatter from HF-induced ionospheric Langmuir turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, J.A. ); Sulzer, M.P. ); Djuth, F.T. )

    1991-09-01

    Observations of the spectrum of 430-MHz radar backscatter from HF-induced Langmuir turbulence with height discrimination are described. During very stable ionospheric conditions under which the height of the below-threshold backscatter spectrum had changed by less than 300 m during a 7-min period, a 20-s-long temporary increase in the HF power from 3 MW ERP to 38 MW equivalent radiated HF power resulted in subsequent strong above-threshold spectra extending to heights up to 1200 m greater than the height of the below-threshold spectrum for more than a minute. The generation of irregularities in the plasma density during the 20 s of enhanced HF power is suggested as a possible cause of this persistence of strong above-threshold spectra at greater heights. The initial temporal evolution of the backscatter spectrum from Langmuir turbulence after the start of HF transmissions was observed for different heights. The observational results are compared with the predictions of existing theories of Langmuir turbulence.

  18. Chirped incoherent scatter radar observations of the HF-modified ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    High power high frequency (HF) radio wave modification experiments were conducted in the ionosphere above Arecibo in 1986, 1987, and 1988 and observed using chirped incoherent scatter radar diagnostics. The heating duty cycle was normally 30-s-on/30-s-off, although the on and off times were occasionally varied and CW was used during one experiment. The data show that the observations of Muldrew and Showen (1977) and of Birkmayer et al. (1986), which suggests that heater enhanced waxes are trapped inside plasma density depletions located near the O mode cutoff, can be readily duplicated under typical ionospheric conditions above Arecibo. High time resolution (5 ms) observations indicate that the HF line appears at the O mode cutoff within 20 ms of heater turn-on with no subsequent development in height. Simultaneous daytime chirped and unchirped observations show the existence of additional layers of excited waves located between 1 and 3 km below the usual region and normally appearing about 10 s after heater turn-on. The appearance of these new layers may be associated with the creation of a new resonance at the height where the heating frequency f{sub hf} equals the upper hybrid frequency. Nighttime observations also show several layers of enhanced plasma lines spread over a 3-km height range below the matching height. This phenomena appears to depend strongly on the incident HF heating power. Implications of these results for current theories of heating are discussed, and specific further observations are recommended.

  19. Validation of HF Radar ocean surface currents in the Ibiza Channel using lagrangian drifters, moored current meter and underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, Arancha; Fernández, Vicente; Orfila, Alejandro; Troupin, Charles; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    SOCIB High Frequency (HF) radar is one component of a multi-platform system located in the Balearic Islands and made up of Lagrangian platforms (profilers and drifting buoys), fixed stations (sea-level, weather, mooring and coastal), beach monitoring (camera), gliders, a research vessel as well as an ocean forecast system (waves and hydrodynamics). The HF radar system overlooks the Ibiza Channel, known as a 'choke point" where Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses interact and where meridional exchanges of water mass properties between the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins take place. In order to determine the reliability of surface velocity measurements in this area, a quality assessment of the HF Radar is essential. We present the results of several validation experiments performed in the Ibiza Channel in 2013 and 2014. Of particular interest is an experiment started in September 2014 when a set of 13 surface drifters with different shapes and drogue lengths were released in the area covered by the HF radar. The drifter trajectories can be examined following the SOCIB Deployment Application (DAPP): http://apps.socib.es/dapp. Additionally, a 1-year long time series of surface currents obtained from a moored surface current-meter located in the Ibiza Channel, inside the area covered by the HF radar, was also used as a useful complementary validation exercise. Direct comparison between both radial surface currents from each radar station and total derived velocities against drifters and moored current meter velocities provides an assessment of the HF radar data quality at different temporal periods and geographical areas. Statistics from these comparisons give good correlation and low root-mean-square deviation. The results will be discussed for different months, geographical areas and types of surface drifters and wind exposure. Moreover, autonomous underwater glider constitutes an additional source of information for the validation of the observed velocity structures and some statistics will be presented.

  20. HF Radar for Long-Range Monitoring of Ionospheric Irregularities in the Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. R.; Parris, R. T.; Dao, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric instabilities associated with plasma bubbles in the equatorial region are one of the major space weather impacts, creating scintillation that affects satellite communications and navigation as well as spread-F and propagation effects on lower frequency systems. Coherent scatter radars can be used to detect the presence of irregularities at a scale size corresponding to half the wavelength of the radar when the raypaths are perpendicular to the magnetic field. A number of vertical incidence radars operating in the VHF range near the magnetic equator use this effect to map out vertical irregularity structure in bubbles, while at high latitudes in both the northern and more recently southern hemisphere, HF radars in the SuperDARN network have successfully used refraction along near-horizontal paths to reach perpendicularity with the near-vertical magnetic field and map out ionospheric convection and irregularity structure over fields of view thousands of km across. In the equatorial region, perpendicularity can be obtained anywhere within a near-vertical plane even without refraction, although refraction can be used to achieve long ranges after one or more reflections from the earth's surface and bottomside ionosphere. This potentially provides a means of detecting and monitoring equatorial plasma bubbles over the oceans from long ranges using a small number of ground-based sites. We discuss the possible echoes that could be detected by such a system, the likely propagation modes and characteristics, and means of obtaining and utilizing elevation angle information to correctly locate distant plasma bubbles.

  1. Characteristics of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed near the Antarctic Peninsula by HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Hosokawa, K.; Ishida, T.; Lester, M.; Milan, S. E.; Freeman, M. P.; Sato, N.; Yukimatu, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    We present a survey of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed by a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network HF radar located in the Falkland Islands between May 2010 and April 2011. The radar has a field of view that overlooks the Antarctic Peninsula, a known hot spot of gravity wave activity. We present observations of radar ground-backscatter data, in which the signatures of MSTIDs are manifested as structured enhancements in echo power. Observed periods were in the range 30-80 min, corresponding to frequencies of 0.2-0.6 mHz. Wavelengths were generally in the range 200-800 km and phase speeds in the range 100-300 m s-1. These values are within the ranges typically associated with medium-scale gravity waves. We find a primary population of northward (equatorward) propagating MSTIDs, which demonstrate an association with enhanced solar wind-magnetosphere coupling and a smaller, westward propagating population, that could be associated with atmospheric gravity waves excited by winds over the Andean and Antarctic Peninsula mountains or by the high winds of the Antarctic Polar Vortex.

  2. Quality assurance and control issues for HF radar wave and current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    HF radars are now widely used to provide surface current measurements over wide areas of the coastal ocean for scientific and operational applications. In general data quality is acceptable for these applications but there remain issues that impact on the quantity and quality of the data. These include problems with calibration and interference which impact on both phased array (e.g. WERA, Pisces) and direction-finding (e.g. SeaSonde) radars. These same issues and others (e.g. signal-to-noise, in-cell current variability, antenna sidelobes) also impact on the quality and quantity of wave data that can be obtained. These issues will be discussed in this paper, illustrated with examples from deployments of WERA, Pisces and SeaSonde radars in the UK, Europe, USA and Australia. These issues involve both quality assurance (making sure the radars perform to spec and the software is fully operational) and in quality control (identifying problems with the data due to radar hardware or software performance issues and flagging these in the provided data streams). Recommendations for the former, and current practice (of the author and within the Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, ACORN*) for the latter, will be discussed. The quality control processes for wave measurement are not yet as well developed as those for currents and data from some deployments can be rather noisy. Some new methods, currently under development by SeaView Sensing Ltd and being tested with ACORN data, will be described and results presented. *ACORN is a facility of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System, IMOS. IMOS is a national collaborative research infrastructure, supported by Australian Government. It is led by University of Tasmania in partnership with the Australian marine and climate science community.

  3. Surface circulation patterns at the southeastern Bay of Biscay: new observations from HF radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solabarrieta, L.; Rubio, A.; Medina, R.; Paduan, J. D.; Castanedo, S.; Fontán, A.; Cook, M.; González, M.

    2012-12-01

    A CODAR Seasonde High Frequency (HF) radar network has been operational since the beginning of 2009 for the oceanic region of the Basque Country, Spain (south-eastern Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Ocean). It forms part of the Basque operational data acquisition system, established by the Directorate of Emergency Attention and Meteorology of the Basque Government. It is made up of two antennas, at the capes Higer (43d 23.554' N, 1d 47.745' W) and Matxitxako (43d 7.350' N, 2d 45.163' W), emitting at 4.525 MHz frequency and 30 kHz bandwidth. This system provides hourly surface currents with 5.12 km spatial resolution, covering 10,000 km2. Space- and time-covering measurements have been available in the study area since 2009. The data contribute considerably to the study of surface current patterns and the main physical processes in the area. Additional applications relate to security of navigation, maritime rescue, validation and improvement of numerical models, etc. For comparison with other validation studies and to obtain an estimate of the performance of the Basque system, statistical and spectral analysis of the surface currents obtained through the HF radar and different in-situ platforms have been conducted. The analyses show values of comparison between the different measuring systems consistent with those done by other authors (Paduan and Rosenfeld, 1996; Kaplan et al., 2005). The radar is able to reproduce the time evolution of the currents with a reasonable accuracy; likewise, the main three spectral peaks (inertial, semidiurnal and diurnal) are well resolved. In this context, the aim of this work is to show the HF radar ability to measure accurately the surface currents in the south-eastern Bay of Biscay and to study the ocean circulation in the area (figures 1 and 2). Surface current patterns are analysed and described for the period 2009-2011, for different timescales. A clear seasonality at a large-scale has been observed in accordance with previous work, with an intense poleward circulation over the slope during winter and weaker equatorward currents during summer. Recurrent mesoscale structures and high frequency processes (i.e. barotropic tides and inertial currents) add spatial and temporal complexity to this global scheme.;

  4. Wind-speed inversion from HF radar first-order backscatter signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Gurgel, Klaus-Werner; Voulgaris, George; Schlick, Thomas; Stammer, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Land-based high-frequency (HF) radars have the unique capability of continuously monitoring ocean surface environments at ranges up to 200 km off the coast. They provide reliable data on ocean surface currents and under slightly stricter conditions can also give information on ocean waves. Although extraction of wind direction is possible, estimation of wind speed poses a challenge. Existing methods estimate wind speed indirectly from the radar derived ocean wave spectrum, which is estimated from the second-order sidebands of the radar Doppler spectrum. The latter is extracted at shorter ranges compared with the first-order signal, thus limiting the method to short distances. Given this limitation, we explore the possibility of deriving wind speed from radar first-order backscatter signal. Two new methods are developed and presented that explore the relationship between wind speed and wave generation at the Bragg frequency matching that of the radar. One of the methods utilizes the absolute energy level of the radar first-order peaks while the second method uses the directional spreading of the wind generated waves at the Bragg frequency. For both methods, artificial neural network analysis is performed to derive the interdependence of the relevant parameters with wind speed. The first method is suitable for application only at single locations where in situ data are available and the network has been trained for while the second method can also be used outside of the training location on any point within the radar coverage area. Both methods require two or more radar sites and information on the radio beam direction. The methods are verified with data collected in Fedje, Norway, and the Ligurian Sea, Italy using beam forming HF WEllen RAdar (WERA) systems operated at 27.68 and 12.5 MHz, respectively. The results show that application of either method requires wind speeds above a minimum value (lower limit). This limit is radar frequency dependent and is 2.5 and 4.0 m/s for 27.68 and 12.5 MHz, respectively. In addition, an upper limit is identified which is caused by wave energy saturation at the Bragg wave frequency. Estimation of this limit took place through an evaluation of a year long database of ocean spectra generated by a numerical model (third generation WAM). It was found to be at 9.0 and 11.0 m/s for 27.68 and 12.5 MHz, respectively. Above this saturation limit, conventional second-order methods have to be applied, which at this range of wind speed no longer suffer from low signal-to-noise ratios. For use in operational systems, a hybrid of first- and second-order methods is recommended.

  5. Kilometric irregularities in the E and R regions of the daytime equatorial ionosphere observed by a high resolution HF radar

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, E.; Mercandalli, B.; Houngninou, E.

    1996-03-15

    The authors describe results from a vertically oriented HF radar operated in the Ivory Coast, which studied irregularities in the E and F regions of the equatorial ionosphere. The authors report on irregularity observations at heights consistent with the equatorial electrojet, and at heights above the electrojet, and into the F1 layer. They observe irregularities into the F region in this work. The radar operated in the frequency range from 1 to 8 MHz.

  6. UHF Radar observations at HAARP with HF pump frequencies near electron gyro-harmonics and associated ionospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Brenton; Fallen, Christopher; Secan, James

    Results for HF modification experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska are presented for experiments with the HF pump frequency near third and fourth electron gyro-harmonics. A UHF diagnostic radar with range resolution of 600 m was used to determine time-dependent altitudes of scattering from plasma turbulence during heating experiments. Experiments were conducted with multiple HF frequencies stepped by 20 kHz above and below the gyro-harmonic values. During times of HF heating the HAARP facility has sufficient power to enhance large-scale ionospheric densities in the lower ionosphere (about 150-200 km altitude) and also in the topside ionosphere (above about 350 km). In the lower ionosphere, time-dependent decreases of the altitude of radar scatter result from electron density enhancements. The effects are substantially different even for relatively small frequency steps of 20 kHz. In all cases the time-varying altitude decrease of radar scatter stops about 5-10 km below the gyro-harmonic altitude that is frequency dependent; we infer that electron density enhancements stop at this altitude where the radar signals stop decreasing with altitude. Experiments with corresponding total electron content (TEC) data show that for HF interaction altitudes above about 170 km there is substantial topside electron density increases due to upward electron thermal conduction. For lower altitudes of HF interaction the majority of the thermal energy is transferred to the neutral gas and no significant topside density increases are observed. By selecting an appropriate HF frequency a little greater than the gyro-harmonic value we have demonstrated that the ionospheric response to HF heating is a self-oscillating mode where the HF interaction altitude moves up and down with a period of several minutes. If the interaction region is above about 170 km this also produces a continuously enhanced topside electron density and upward plasma flux. Experiments using an FM scan with the HF frequency increasing near the gyro-harmonic value were conducted. The FM scan rate was sufficiently slow that the electron density was approximately in an equilibrium state. For these experiments the altitude of the HF interaction follows a near straight line downward parallel to the altitude-dependent gyro-harmonic level.

  7. Traveling convection vortices as seen by the SuperDARN HF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatsky, W. B.; Sofko, G. J.; Kustov, A. V.; Andr, D.; Hughes, W. J.; Murr, D.

    1999-02-01

    Two impulsive traveling convection vortex (TCV) events observed simultaneously by ground based magnetometers and the SuperDARN HF radars in the prenoon sector were studied. In both cases, disturbances traveled westward at speeds of 4-6 km/s. Convection patterns derived from magnetometer measurements and radar observations were overall in reasonable agreement; observed differences at some points might be caused by both the nonuniform ionospheric conductivity distribution and difference in the integration time of the radar and magnetometer data. For one event, the convection patterns obtained from magnetometer data and SuperDARN radar measurements were relatively simple; they can be interpreted as a result of the westward motion of a convection vortex system associated with a pair of field-aligned currents separated in azimuthal direction. This TCV event was associated with relatively low Pc5 pulsation activity, contrary to the second TCV event that was accompanied by a train of Pc5 magnetic pulsations of large amplitude. Convection patterns for the second event were complicated. A simple scenario for the interpretation of the generation of TCVs and Pc5 pulsations is suggested. A sudden impulse in the solar wind dynamic pressure produces disturbances on several boundaries of magnetospheric plasma: on the magnetopause, the LLBL inner edge, and the plasma sheet inner edge. These boundaries are elastic so that surface waves can propagate along them. The high-latitude wave is responsible mainly for TCVs, whereas the low-latitude waves may be responsible for excitation of Pc5 field line resonance pulsations. The scenario explains important features of both TCV events and Pc5 pulsations: both phenomena appear simultaneously and show westward (eastward) propagation, but the TCVs are observed at latitudes close to the LLBL inner edge, whereas the Pc5 pulsations occur at lower latitudes, close to the inner boundary of the plasma sheet.

  8. HF (HIGH FREQUENCY) RADAR MEASUREMENTS OF CIRCULATION IN THE EASTERN STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA NEAR PROTECTION ISLAND (JULY, 1979)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During July 1979 the surface currents in the Eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca were mapped with a High Frequency (HF) radar system (CODAR). These currents were measured simultaneously over several hundred square kilometers continuously for five days. The strong tidal currents and es...

  9. HF (HIGH FREQUENCY) RADAR MEASUREMENTS OF CIRCULATION IN THE EASTERN STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA (AUGUST, 1978)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During August, 1978, the surface currents in the Eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca were mapped with a High Frequency (HF) radar system (CODAR). The surface currents were measured simultaneously over several hundred square kilometers at one hour intervals continuously for five days. ...

  10. Occurrence characteristics of Mesosphere Summer Echoes observed by the SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuya, T.; Nishitani, N.; Ogawa, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yukimatu, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    At high latitudes in summer, neutral temperature of the mesopause around the 85 km altitude goes below about 150 K, heavy charged ice aerosol particles are generated, which reduce electron diffusivity. Neutral air turbulence in combination with the reduced electron diffusivity leads to the creation of structures which backscatter radio waves (Rapp and Lbken, ACP, 2004). As a result, the echoes backscattered near the mesopause are frequently observed in summer in the polar region as Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs). In recent years mesosphere echoes have been observed not only in the polar region but also at midlatitudes as Mesosphere Summer Echoes (MSEs) (Ogawa et al., JASTP, 2011). In this study, we present a statistical analysis of MSEs observed by the midlatitude SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar (geographic latitude: +43.53 N deg). We make use of the criteria for identifying MSEs adopted by Ogawa et al. (EPS, in press) who have performed an event study of MSE using the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar. As a result, MSEs are observed more frequently in the daytime (07 to 18 LT) and summer (in particular June and July) than other local times and seasons. This result is similar to the characteristics of PMSEs previously reported by Hosokawa et al. (GRL, 2005) using high latitude SuperDARN radars. MSEs are often contaminated with echoes from the Es layer. In order to identify MSEs exactly and understand the generation mechanisms of MSEs at midlatitudes, it is important to obtain neutral wind information near the mesopause because some MSE structures might be transported from higher latitudes by neutral winds (Singer et al., ASR, 2003), which affect the Doppler velocity of MSEs. If the Doppler velocity of MSEs is consistent with neutral wind velocity, it becomes credible that the echoes are MSEs. In this aspect we can set more appropriate criterion for identifying MSEs by accounting for the altitude distribution of neutral winds. We use the technique employed by Yukimatu and Tsutsumi (GRL, 2002) and Tsutsumi et al. (Radio Sci., 2009) to obtain neutral wind information from meteor echoes using SuperDARN radars. We are in the process of comparing Doppler velocity of HF echoes with neutral wind velocity and will present the results of this analysis. The altitude distribution of echoes can be obtained from interferometer array data, which is useful for distinguishing between MSEs and E region echoes. The detailed results with their interpretation will be presented.

  11. Wave parameters comparisons between High Frequency (HF) radar system and an in situ buoy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria; Alonso-Martirena, Andrés; Agostinho, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Ferrer, Macu; Fernandes, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The coastal zone is an important area for the development of maritime countries, either in terms of recreation, energy exploitation, weather forecasting or national security. Field measurements are in the basis of understanding how coastal and oceanic processes occur. Most processes occur over long timescales and over large spatial ranges, like the variation of mean sea level. These processes also involve a variety of factors such as waves, winds, tides, storm surges, currents, etc., that cause huge interference on such phenomena. Measurement of waves have been carried out using different techniques. The instruments used to measure wave parameters can be very different, i.e. buoys, ship base equipment like sonar and satellites. Each equipment has its own advantage and disadvantage depending on the study subject. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behaviour of a different technology available and presently adopted in wave measurement. In the past few years the measurement of waves using High Frequency (HF) Radars has had several developments. Such a method is already established as a powerful tool for measuring the pattern of surface current, but its use in wave measurements, especially in the dual arrangement is recent. Measurement of the backscatter of HF radar wave provides the raw dataset which is analyzed to give directional data of surface elevation at each range cell. Buoys and radars have advantages, disadvantages and its accuracy is discussed in this presentation. A major advantage with HF radar systems is that they are unaffected by weather, clouds or changing ocean conditions. The HF radar system is a very useful tool for the measurement of waves over a wide area with real-time observation, but it still lacks a method to check its accuracy. The primary goal of this study was to show how the HF radar system responds to high energetic variations when compared to wave buoy data. The bulk wave parameters used (significant wave height, period and direction) were obtained during 2013 and 2014 from one 13.5 MHz CODAR SeaSonde radar station from Hydrographic Institute, located in Espichel Cape (Portugal). These data were compared with those obtained from one wave buoy Datawell Directional Waverider, also from Hydrographic Institute, moored inbound Sines (Portugal) at 100 m depth. For this first approach, was assumed that all the waves are in a deep water situation. Results showed that during high energetic periods, the HF radar system revealed a good correlation with wave buoy data following the bulk wave parameters gradient variations.

  12. 74. Transmitter building no. 102, view of radar digital test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Transmitter building no. 102, view of radar digital test and maintenance cabinet area control panel and date storage system showing ampex tape storage devices. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. Statistical study of midlatitude E region echoes observed by the Hokkaido SuperDARN HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakymenko, K. N.; Koustov, A. V.; Nishitani, N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical characteristics of short-range coherent echoes observed by the Hokkaido Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) high-frequency (HF) radar (geographic/geomagnetic latitude = 43.5°N/37.3°N) at midlatitudes are investigated. We show that the echo occurrence is increased during nighttime and, especially strongly, during winter and summer. During summer, the occurrence rates are still large during morning-prenoon hours; for these periods, strong sporadic E layers are observed by the Wakkanai ionosonde (geographic/geomagnetic latitude = 45.2°N/39.1°N) located in the vicinity of the radar field of view. Echo occurrence rate does not increase with the planetary magnetic activity characterized by the Kp and Dst magnetic indices and, seasonally, anticorrelates with variations of the Ap index. With respect to the magnetic L shells, echoes are seen more frequently in beams oriented almost perpendicular to L shells during summer, in beams at intermediate angles during equinoxes and winter, and sometimes in beams at the smallest available angles (~45°) during winter. Midlatitude echoes are of about the same power as at high latitudes but narrower by a factor of ~5. Power and spectral width of nighttime echoes increases with Doppler velocity, consistent with high-latitude observations. The Doppler velocity shows a clear semidiurnal variation. The local time of these maxima changes with season. It is hypothesised that many Hokkaido echoes are received at high magnetic aspect angles of several degrees, and they are coming from the lower part of the E region where the irregularity phase velocity is affected by both E × B plasma drifts and neutral winds.

  14. Digital filter design for radar image formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, John W.; Nelson, Jeffrey E.; Banh, N. D.; Moncada, John J.; Bayma, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    Novel weighted-least-squares approaches to the design of digital filters for SAR applications are presented. The filters belong to three different categories according to their combinations of minimax passband, least-squares stopband, minimax stopband, and maximally-flat passband. For real-time applications, it is important to design the sets of digital filter coefficient tables in an offline environment; the appropriate precomputed filter is then selected for each SAR signal-processing function, as a function of both mode and mapping geometry during real-time processing.

  15. Observation by HF radar of the Phillips resonance mechanism for generation of wind waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizna, D. B.; Bogle, R. W.; Moore, J. C.; Howe, C. M.

    1980-09-01

    Measurements are reported of directional ocean wave spectra made over 80 of viewing angle by an HF radar, operating in the surface wave mode in an area 22.5 km north of San Clemente Island, California. Ten azimuths from 280 to 360 true bearing were simultaneously measured for 10 wave frequencies ranging from 0.14 Hz (75 m waves) to 0.35 Hz (13 m waves). A Waverider buoy was used to measure omnidirectional energy in the region, and first-order radar Bragg lines were used to determine the spreading of wave energy with angle. Data are presented in which a bimodal spectrum was present: an attenuated spectrum with wave components to 0.10 Hz from a storm at sea at 270 bearing; plus a transient local wind spectrum, stronger in amplitude at the higher frequencies, with wave cutoff near 0.14 Hz, and running from 315 bearing. Just after the onset of local winds, the westerly spectrum fitted a cosine squared spread at the lowest measured frequencies. With the development of local wind, which blew at a 12-14 kn (6-7 m s-1) speed for a period of 12 hours, the wave spectrum spread about the wind direction as cosine thirty-second at the lowest frequencies measured, 0.14 Hz, and cosine sixty-fourth at the highest frequencies measured, 0.35 Hz. For 0.28 Hz waves the Phillips resonance mechanism for wave generation is proposed to explain the twin peaks in amplitude observed, equally spaced either side of the wind direction. These were dominant for the earliest measurement period and still were major contributions for later measurement periods. This mechanism was found to contribute also at the higher wave frequencies, as predicted by theory. Coherence times are derived from the angular widths of the Phillips resonances based on predictions of Stewart and Manton and are found to agree quite well with theory.

  16. Synthetic aperture radar and digital processing: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicenzo, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented with emphasis on digital data collection and processing. Background information on waveform frequency and phase notation, mixing, Q conversion, sampling and cross correlation operations is included for clarity. The fate of a SAR signal from transmission to processed image is traced in detail, using the model of a single bright point target against a dark background. Some of the principal problems connected with SAR processing are also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of two algorithms for a network of coastal HF radars in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, Josh; Roarty, Hugh; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Glenn, Scott; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage

    2012-06-01

    The National High Frequency (HF) Surface Current Mapping Radar Network is being developed as a backbone system within the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System. This paper focuses on the application of HF radar-derived surface current maps to U.S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue operations along the Mid-Atlantic coast of the USA. In that context, we evaluated two algorithms used to combine maps of radial currents into a single map of total vector currents. In situ data provided by seven drifter deployments and four bottom-mounted current meters were used to (1) evaluate the well-established unweighted least squares (UWLS) and the more recently adapted optimal interpolation (OI) algorithms and (2) quantify the sensitivity of the OI algorithm to varying decorrelation scales and error thresholds. Results with both algorithms were shown to depend on the location within the HF radar data footprint. The comparisons near the center of the HF radar coverage showed no significant difference between the two algorithms. The most significant distinction between the two was seen in the drifter trajectories. With these simulations, the weighting of radial velocities by distance in the OI implementation was very effective at reducing both the distance between the actual drifter and the cluster of simulated particles as well as the scale of the search area that encompasses them. In this study, the OI further reduced the already improved UWLS-based search areas by an additional factor of 2. The results also indicated that the OI output was relatively insensitive to the varying decorrelation scales and error thresholds tested.

  18. Experimental investigation of the relationship between HF radar measurements of currents and the dynamical properties of the upper ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraunie, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Forget P., Barbin Y., Bellomo L., Doglioli, *Lecuyer E., Frauni P., Malengros D., Marmain J., Molcard A., Petrenko A., Quentin C., *Sentchev A. Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography-MIO UM 110 UTLN - AMU - CNRS/INSU 7294 - IRD 235 BP 20132 F-83957 La Garde cedex *Laboratoire d'Ocanologie et Gosciences CNRS UMR 8187 LOG Universit du Littoral - Cte d'Opale 32 avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux The increasing application of HF radio-oceanography for coastal circulation monitoring requires a validation of the radar derived current velocities using independent velocity estimates. Surface currents measured by radar, as they are relative to some finite patch of the sea (the radar cell), depend on the spatial distribution of the current within the radar cell, its time variability, its vertical structure near the surface and the presence of ocean waves. We present an experimental investigation conducted in the NW Mediterranean to measure radial surface currents by HF radar simultaneously to the dynamical properties of the surface ocean. These latter included high resolution current profiling by ADCP, microprofiling of temperature/salinity by SCAMP and Lagrangian velocities from surface drifting buoys. All the data were GPS geo-localized. The current profiling by towed ADCP was performed along the radar beam directions. The poster shows the first results of the experiment and presents samples of the 3D structure of the horizontal current (down to 15m and over some km2) and of the stratification. The spatial distribution of the surface currents is described from Lagrangian measurements. The radar derived surface currents are discussed on the basis of these in situ data. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the LEFE IMAGO program of CNRS -INSU, project SUBCORAD.

  19. A Cascaded Approach for Correcting Ionospheric Contamination with Large Amplitude in HF Skywave Radars

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yinsheng; Guo, Rujiang; Xu, Rongqing; Tang, Xiudong

    2014-01-01

    Ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude causes broadening sea clutter's Bragg peaks to overlap each other; the performance of traditional decontamination methods about filtering Bragg peak is poor, which greatly limits the detection performance of HF skywave radars. In view of the ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude, this paper proposes a cascaded approach based on improved S-method to correct the ionospheric phase contamination. This approach consists of two correction steps. At the first step, a time-frequency distribution method based on improved S-method is adopted and an optimal detection method is designed to obtain a coarse ionospheric modulation estimation from the time-frequency distribution. At the second correction step, based on the phase gradient algorithm (PGA) is exploited to eliminate the residual contamination. Finally, use the measured data to verify the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results show the time-frequency resolution of this method is high and is not affected by the interference of the cross term; ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude can be corrected in low signal-to-noise (SNR); such a cascade correction method has a good effect. PMID:24578656

  20. A cascaded approach for correcting ionospheric contamination with large amplitude in HF skywave radars.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajun; Wei, Yinsheng; Guo, Rujiang; Xu, Rongqing; Wang, Zhuoqun; Tang, Xiudong

    2014-01-01

    Ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude causes broadening sea clutter's Bragg peaks to overlap each other; the performance of traditional decontamination methods about filtering Bragg peak is poor, which greatly limits the detection performance of HF skywave radars. In view of the ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude, this paper proposes a cascaded approach based on improved S-method to correct the ionospheric phase contamination. This approach consists of two correction steps. At the first step, a time-frequency distribution method based on improved S-method is adopted and an optimal detection method is designed to obtain a coarse ionospheric modulation estimation from the time-frequency distribution. At the second correction step, based on the phase gradient algorithm (PGA) is exploited to eliminate the residual contamination. Finally, use the measured data to verify the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results show the time-frequency resolution of this method is high and is not affected by the interference of the cross term; ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude can be corrected in low signal-to-noise (SNR); such a cascade correction method has a good effect. PMID:24578656

  1. Comparison between real drifter's trajectories and simulated trajectories using HF radar data, in the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solabarrieta, Lohitzune; Cook, Michael; Paduan, Jeffrey; Sergey, Frolov; Rubio, Anna; Fontán, Almudena; Castanedo, Sonia; Gonzalez, Manuel; Medina, Raúl; Fernández, Vicente; Charria, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    A High Frequency (HF) radar network is operational since the beginning of 2009 for the oceanic region of the Basque Country, Spain (south-eastern part of the Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Ocean). It forms part of the Basque operational data acquisition system, established by the Directorate of Emergency Attention and Meteorology of the Basque Government. It is made up of two antennas emitting at 40 kHz broadband and 4.5 MHz frequency and covering a 150 km range with 5 km radial and 5° angular resolutions. Hourly space- and time-covering measurements are contributing considerably to the study of surface current patterns and the main physical processes in the area. Additional applications relate, for example, to security of navigation, maritime rescue, validation and improvement of numerical models and trajectories prediction. Since 2009, different drifters have been deployed in the study area. Since the radar has been proved to reproduce the time evolution of the currents through comparison with moored buoys with a reasonable accuracy, the aim of this work is to evaluate the capabilities of the system to reproduce the trajectories of a set of drifters available in the study area. To make trajectory simulations, we will use HF radar total velocities, surface velocities obtained from EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) analysis of the whole radar data set, forecast velocities for 48 hours and also OMA (Open-Boundary Modal Analysis) derived current velocities.

  2. Characterization of HF Propagation for Digital Audio Broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give a brief overview of some propagation measurements in the Short Wave (3-30 MHz) bands, made in support of a digital audio transmission system design for the Voice of America. This task is a follow on to the Digital Broadcast Satellite Radio task, during which several mitigation techniques would be applicable to digital audio in the Short Wave bands as well, in spite of the differences in propagation impairments in these two bands. Two series of propagation measurements were made to quantify the range of impairments that could be expected. An assessment of the performance of a prototype version of the receiver was also made.

  3. Observation by HF radar of the Phillips resonance mechanism for generation of wind waves

    SciTech Connect

    Trizna, D.B.; Bogle, R.W.; Moore, J.C.; Howe, C.M.

    1980-09-20

    Measurements are reported of directional ocean wave spectra made over 80/sup 0/ of viewing angle by an HF radar, operating in the surface wave mode in an area 22.5 km north of San Clemente Island, California. Ten azimuths from 280/sup 0/ to 360/sup 0/ true bearing were simultaneously measured for 10 wave frequencies ranging from 0.14 Hz (75 m waves) to 0.35 Hz (13 m waves). A Waverider buoy was used to measure omnidirectional energy in the region, and first-order radar Bragg lines were used to determine the spreading of wave energy with angle. Data are presented in which a bimodal spectrum was present: an attenuated spectrum with wave components to 0.10 Hz from a storm at sea at 270/sup 0/ bearing; plus a transient local wind spectrum, stronger in amplitude at the higher frequencies, with wave cutoff near 0.14 Hz, and running from 315/sup 0/ bearing. Just after the onset of local winds, the westerly spectrum fitted a cosine squared spread at the lowest measured frequencies. With the development of local wind, which blew at a 12--14 kn (6--7 m s/sup -1/) speed for a period of 12 hours, the wave spectrum spread about the wind direction as cosine thirty-second at the lowest frequencies measured, 0.14 Hz, and cosine sixty-fourth at the highest frequencies measured, 0.35 Hz. For 0.28 Hz waves the Phillips resonance mechanism for wave generation is proposed to explain the twin peaks in amplitude observed, equally spaced either side of the wind direction. These were dominant for the earliest measurement period and still were major contributions for later measurement periods. This mechanism was found to contribute also at the higher wave frequencies, as predicted by theory. Coherence times are derived from the angular widths of the Phillips resonances based on predictions of Stewart and Manton and are found to agree quite well with theory.

  4. Interference-Detection Module in a Digital Radar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, Mark; Berkun, Andrew; Chu, Anhua; Freedman, Adam; Jourdan, Michael; McWatters, Dalia; Paller, Mimi

    2009-01-01

    A digital receiver in a 1.26-GHz spaceborne radar scatterometer now undergoing development includes a module for detecting radio-frequency interference (RFI) that could contaminate scientific data intended to be acquired by the scatterometer. The role of the RFI-detection module is to identify time intervals during which the received signal is likely to be contaminated by RFI and thereby to enable exclusion, from further scientific data processing, of signal data acquired during those intervals. The underlying concepts of detection of RFI and rejection of RFI-contaminated signal data are also potentially applicable in advanced terrestrial radio receivers, including software-defined radio receivers in general, receivers in cellular telephones and other wireless consumer electronic devices, and receivers in automotive collision-avoidance radar systems.

  5. Development of a digital receiver for range imaging atmospheric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki K.; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah Binti; Gan, Tong; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Yu, Tian-You; Yamamoto, Mamoru

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe a new digital receiver developed for a 1.3-GHz range imaging atmospheric radar. The digital receiver comprises a general-purpose software-defined radio receiver referred to as the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2) and a commercial personal computer (PC). The receiver is designed to collect received signals at an intermediate frequency (IF) of 130 MHz with a sample rate of 10 MS s-1. The USRP2 digitizes IF received signals, produces IQ time series, and then transfers the IQ time series to the PC through Gigabit Ethernet. The PC receives the IQ time series, performs range sampling, carries out filtering in the range direction, decodes the phase-modulated received signals, integrates the received signals in time, and finally saves the processed data to the hard disk drive (HDD). Because only sequential data transfer from the USRP2 to the PC is available, the range sampling is triggered by transmitted pulses leaked to the receiver. For range imaging, the digital receiver performs real-time signal processing for each of the time series collected at different frequencies. Further, the receiver is able to decode phase-modulated oversampled signals. Because the program code for real-time signal processing is written in a popular programming language (C++) and widely used libraries, the signal processing is easy to implement, reconfigure, and reuse. From radar experiments using a 1-?s subpulse width and 1-MHz frequency span (i.e., 2-MHz frequency bandwidth), we demonstrate that range imaging in combination with oversampling, which was implemented for the first time by the digital receiver, is able to resolve the fine-scale structure of turbulence with a vertical scale as small as 100 m or finer.

  6. Validation of Orthorectified Interferometric Radar Imagery and Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    This work was performed under NASA's Verification and Validation (V&V) Program as an independent check of data supplied by EarthWatch, Incorporated, through the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) Program. This document serves as the basis of reporting results associated with validation of orthorectified interferometric interferometric radar imagery and digital elevation models (DEM). This validation covers all datasets provided under the first campaign (Central America & Virginia Beach) plus three earlier missions (Indonesia, Red River: and Denver) for a total of 13 missions.

  7. An interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for compositing digital radar data and GOES satellite data for meteorological analysis. The processing is performed on a user-oriented image processing system, and is designed to be used in the research mode. It has a capability to construct PPIs and three-dimensional CAPPIs using conventional as well as Doppler data, and to composite other types of data. In the remapping of radar data to satellite coordinates, two steps are necessary. First, PPI or CAPPI images are remapped onto a latitude-longitude projection. Then, the radar data are projected into satellite coordinates. The exact spherical trigonometric equations, and the approximations derived for simplifying the computations are given. The use of these approximations appears justified for most meteorological applications. The largest errors in the remapping procedure result from the satellite viewing angle parallax, which varies according to the cloud top height. The horizontal positional error due to this is of the order of the error in the assumed cloud height in mid-latitudes. Examples of PPI and CAPPI data composited with satellite data are given for Hurricane Frederic on 13 September 1979 and for a squall line on 2 May 1979 in Oklahoma.

  8. Elliptical storm cell modeling of digital radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    A model for spatial distributions of reflectivity in storm cells was fitted to digital radar data. The data were taken with a modified WSR-57 weather radar with 2.6-km resolution. The data consisted of modified B-scan records on magnetic tape of storm cells tracked at 0 deg elevation for several hours. The MIT L-band radar with 0.8-km resolution produced cross-section data on several cells at 1/2 deg elevation intervals. The model developed uses ellipses for contours of constant effective-reflectivity factor Z with constant orientation and eccentricity within a horizontal cell cross section at a given time and elevation. The centers of the ellipses are assumed to be uniformly spaced on a straight line, with areas linearly related to log Z. All cross sections are similar at different heights (except for cell tops, bottoms, and splitting cells), especially for the highest reflectivities; wind shear causes some translation and rotation between levels. Goodness-of-fit measures and parameters of interest for 204 ellipses are considered.

  9. Digital Radar-Signal Processors Implemented in FPGAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkun, Andrew; Andraka, Ray

    2004-01-01

    High-performance digital electronic circuits for onboard processing of return signals in an airborne precipitation- measuring radar system have been implemented in commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Previously, it was standard practice to downlink the radar-return data to a ground station for postprocessing a costly practice that prevents the nearly-real-time use of the data for automated targeting. In principle, the onboard processing could be performed by a system of about 20 personal- computer-type microprocessors; relative to such a system, the present FPGA-based processor is much smaller and consumes much less power. Alternatively, the onboard processing could be performed by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), but in comparison with an ASIC implementation, the present FPGA implementation offers the advantages of (1) greater flexibility for research applications like the present one and (2) lower cost in the small production volumes typical of research applications. The generation and processing of signals in the airborne precipitation measuring radar system in question involves the following especially notable steps: The system utilizes a total of four channels two carrier frequencies and two polarizations at each frequency. The system uses pulse compression: that is, the transmitted pulse is spread out in time and the received echo of the pulse is processed with a matched filter to despread it. The return signal is band-limited and digitally demodulated to a complex baseband signal that, for each pulse, comprises a large number of samples. Each complex pair of samples (denoted a range gate in radar terminology) is associated with a numerical index that corresponds to a specific time offset from the beginning of the radar pulse, so that each such pair represents the energy reflected from a specific range. This energy and the average echo power are computed. The phase of each range bin is compared to the previous echo by complex conjugate multiplication to obtain the mean Doppler shift (and hence the mean and variance of the velocity of precipitation) of the echo at that range.

  10. Assessing SARAL/AltiKa delayed-time Ssalto/Duacs data in the coastal zone: comparisons with HF radar observations in the Ibiza Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Ananda; Lana, Arancha; Troupin, Charles; Ruiz, Simón; Faugère, Yannice; Escudier, Romain; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    We present an initial assessment of SARAL/AltiKa Ssalto/Duacs data in the coastal band. The study focuses on the Ibiza Channel where the north-south water exchanges play a key role in controlling the circulation variability in the Western Mediterranean at a wide range of scales. In this area, the track 16 of SARAL/AltiKa intercepts the domain covered by a coastal high-frequency (HF) radar system, which provides hourly surface currents, with a range up to 60 km. We evaluate the performance of the new altimeter when compared to the HF radar surface velocity fields. The Ssalto/Duacs delayed-time along-track products evidence the emerging capabilities of SARAL/AltiKa in the coastal zone: data are retrieved at a distance of only 7 km from the coast. Additionally, SARAL/AltiKa derived velocities reveal coherent mesoscale features among the different cycles and with reasonable agreement with HF radar fields (significant correlations of 0.54). Root mean square (rms) differences between the estimated SARAL and the HF radar velocities are of about 13 cm/s, which the same magnitude of the altimetric rms (14 cm/s) and slightly larger than HF radar (10 cm/s). These results are consistent with recent studies in other parts of the ocean applying similar approaches to Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions and using dedicated coastal-oriented altimeter corrections.

  11. Advanced ground-penetrating radar for digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Jadoon, K. Z.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-04-01

    Sustainable and optimal agricultural and environmental management of water and land resources particularly relies on the description and understanding of soil water distribution and dynamics at different scales. We present an advanced ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for mapping the shallow soil water content and unsaturated hydraulic properties at the field scale. The radar system is based on vector network analyzer technology, for which calibration is simple and constitutes an international standard. A directive horn antenna is used as both transmitter and receiver and operates off the ground. A full-waveform model describes accurately the radar signal, and is based on a linear system of complex transfer functions for efficiently describing electromagnetic phenomena within the antenna and its interaction with soil, and a specific solution of the three-dimensional Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in multilayered media. The soil electromagnetic properties and their vertical distribution are estimated by resorting to full-waveform inverse modeling using iterative global optimization methods. The proposed methodology has been validated for a series of model configurations of increasing complexity. The method is now routinely used for real-time mapping of soil surface water content and reconstruct a few number of shallow soil layers. For more complex configurations, it is necessary to regularize the inverse problem. We have shown that constraining radar data inversion using soil hydrodynamic modeling has the potential to reconstruct time-lapse, continuously variable, vertical soil water content profiles and identify the shallow unsaturated hydraulic properties. The proposed approach shows great promise for quantitative imaging of the soil properties at the field scale. The technique will be combined with electromagnetic induction in a mechanistic data fusion framework to further extend its capabilities in a digital soil mapping context.

  12. Improvement of HF coherent radar line-of-sight velocities by estimating the refractive index in the scattering volume using radar frequency shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Hussey, G. C.; Sofko, G. J.; Ponomarenko, P. V.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of ionospheric drift velocities using HF coherent scatter radars, such as SuperDARN, are generally underestimated because the refractive index in the scattering volume has not been taken into account. Refractive index values evaluated from electron density measurements, international reference ionosphere predictions, or elevation angle measurements have been applied to SuperDARN velocities in past studies. However, the SuperDARN velocities so obtained were, on average, statistically lower than velocities measured by other instruments. One possible explanation for this underestimation is that HF coherent scatter preferentially occurs in regions of the ionosphere where the scattering cross section is largest, and such regions are characterized by small-scale structures which have higher-than-average electron densities. This was not accounted for in past studies because the refractive index estimates used were from large scale and therefore smoothed estimates of electron density. In this paper, a new method of estimating the actual electron density (or plasma frequency) at the location of SuperDARN scatter (instead of the larger-scale background electron density) is presented. This method takes advantage of the frequency shifts which occur in normal SuperDARN operations. If it is assumed that, on average, the actual ionospheric drift velocity and plasma frequency are roughly constant before and after a shift in frequency, any change in measured velocity as SuperDARN changes frequency is due to a change in refractive index. An analysis of the change in the measured velocity resulting from each shift in frequency gives an experimentally based estimate of the electron density in the scattering volume. A statistical analysis of essentially all frequency shifts by SuperDARN and the estimated electron densities in the scattering volume has been performed. The resulting electron densities are appreciably higher than previous methods to estimate electron density predict. Application of this new method to velocity comparisons between SuperDARN and other instruments results in agreement between the HF radar and non-HF radar velocities for the first time. This new method allows for the first direct measurements of electron densities in the exact locations where the cross section for SuperDARN scatter maximizes.

  13. Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany) derived from high resolution current mapping by HF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Barbin, Yves; Marié, Louis; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    The use of high frequency radar (HFR) systems for near-real-time coastal ocean monitoring necessities that short time scale motions of the radar-derived velocities are better understood. While the ocean radar systems are able to describe coastal flow patterns with unprecedented details, the data they produce are often too sparse or gappy for applications such as the identification of coherent structures and fronts or understanding transport and mixing processes. In this study, we address two challenges. First, we report results from the HF radar system (WERA) which is routinely operating since 2006 on the western Brittany coast to monitor surface circulation in the Iroise Sea, over an area extending up to 100 km offshore. To obtain more reliable records of vector current fields at high space and time resolution, the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) direction finding algorithm is employed in conjunction with the variational interpolation (2dVar) of radar-derived velocities. This provides surface current maps at 1 km spacing and time resolution of 20 min. Removing the influence of the sea state on radar-derived current measurements is discussed and performed on some data sequences. Second, we examine in deep continuous 2d velocity records for a number of periods, exploring the different modes of variability of surface currents in the region. Given the extent, duration, and resolution of surface current velocity measurements, new quantitative insights from various time series and spatial analysis on higher frequency kinematics will be discussed. By better characterizing the full spectrum of flow regimes that contribute to the surface currents and their shears, a more complete picture of the circulation in the Iroise Sea can be obtained.

  14. Surface current patterns observed by HF radar: methodology and analysis of currents to the north of the Yaeyama Islands, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaki, Yukiharu; Kashima, Motohiko; Kojima, Shoichiro

    2016-03-01

    A new method was developed to compare the classifications of different kind of data maps based on the self-organizing map (SOM) analysis. The surface current maps of the northern coast of Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands, East China Sea, observed by high-frequency (HF) radar were classified by SOM. Winds, sea surface temperatures (SST), and reanalysis data were also classified by SOM. The optimum area for classification was determined objectively by the new method, which relates these patterns to HF radar current patterns. We found two typical surface patterns: the first was that northeastward flows are dominant in the observation area and the second was that a clockwise eddy was also dominant in this area. The southwestward wind pattern was strongly related to the dominant clockwise eddy pattern of the HF radar current field.

  15. Characteristics of daytime mid-latitude travelling ionospheric disturbances observed over the Antarctic peninsular with HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Hosokawa, K.; Ishida, T.; Lester, M.; Milan, S. E.; Sato, N.; Yukimatu, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a survey of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) observed by an HF radar located in the Falkland Islands between March 2010 and September 2011. The radar has a field of view that overlooks the Antarctic peninsular, a known hotspot of gravity wave activity. We present observations of radar ground backscatter data, in which the signatures of TIDs are manifest as structured enhancements in received backscattered power. Often, multiple TID signals are observed during an interval of observations and we discuss a new approach to their interpretation. Observed periods were in the range 30 - 60 minutes, corresponding to frequencies of 0.3 - 0.6 mHz. Wavelengths were generally in the range 250 - 400 km and phase speeds in the range 50 - 200 m/s. These values are within the ranges typically associated with medium-scale gravity waves. We discuss these results in terms of seasonal and diurnal variations, as well as in terms of their relationship to the local topography and large-scale geomagnetic activity.

  16. Perturbed Angular Correlation of the stretched cascade in the decay of 180mHf using a digital spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jger, Markus; Butz, Tilman

    2012-05-01

    We report on the measurement of the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) at Hf sites using the nuclear probe 180mHf in HfF4HF2H2O at 300 K by exploiting all possible start quanta in the stretched cascade with a digital Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer. With conventional spectrometers, multiple prompt start signals would paralyze the router. The gain in coincidence rate is about a factor of 5 compared to a conventional spectrometer using a single start only. With multiple starts 180mHf is a promising new isomeric nuclear probe in TDPAC experiments. As an additional feature we implemented the possibility to measure up to four cascades simultaneously in order to save data collection time or to measure isobaric contaminations like 111mCd and 111In.

  17. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and those measured by the closest radar grid point. A thorough analysis of the temporal evolution of the aforementioned parameters allows to define the standard thresholds for each site within which they are considered to be running optimally. In contrast, a site performance could be categorized as sub-optimal if an erratic and/or anomalous behavior is persistently detected in radial parameters values, related to a significant discrepancy from the mean and clearly outside the limits defined by the associated standard deviations. Consequently, a three colored-based alert system is activated according to each site's current status: green (OK), yellow (acceptable, but issue detected) and red (KO). Since this approach is constrained by the fact that it can not state the intrinsic quality of surface current data, a complementary validation analysis is required: HF radar-derived radial and total vectors are compared with observations from a current meter installed in Tarragona buoy. This validation, conducted for the entire 2014, aims to complete the proposed methodology through the exploration of the existence of bearing errors and the evaluation of intrinsic uncertainties related to HF radar technology by means of objective quality indicators.

  18. 38. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #414, digital/electrical repair shop; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #414, digital/electrical repair shop; showing work areas available for maintenance and equipment repair - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. Analysis of post-sunset F-region vertical plasma drifts during Counter Electrojet days using multi frequency HF Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simi, K. G.; Vineeth, C.; Pant, T. K.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, through a case study, an attempt has been made to bring out the relationship between post noon E-region electric field and post sunset F-region vertical plasma drift on quiet time Counter Electrojet (CEJ) days. Study carried out using the data from a multi frequency HF Doppler Radar and Digital Ionosonde located over Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; 0.5° N dip lat.) a geomagnetic dip equatorial station in India during quite time CEJ days of the years 2004 and 2006, revealed some interesting aspects of the E region electrodynamics and post sunset F region electrodynamics. It has been observed that, in contrast to the normal electrojet (EEJ) days, the Pre-Reversal Enhancement (PRE) is either weakened or inhibited on CEJ days and the field reversal takes place much earlier than that on a normal day. It is suggested that even after the effects of the field reversal ceases to show up in the ground magnetic data, the reversed field may persist and shows up as a decrease in the PRE experienced by the F-region. In other words, the study indicates that the EEJ associated electrodynamics have a significant role in controlling the PRE.

  20. Observations of the temporal and spatial development of induced and natural plasma lines during HF modification experiments at Arecibo using chirped incoherent scatter radar

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, B.; Hagfors, T.

    1993-08-01

    The authors report on high frequency (HF) heating experiments carried out from Arecibo during 1987 and 1988, where a chirped incoherent scatter radar was used to study ionospheric effects of the heating. The authors observe frequency shifts in the high frequency plasma line (HFPL) excited by the HF power relative to the plasma line excited by photoelectron-enhanced effects (PEPL), even at the same heights. The regions emitting HFPL were seen to shift, and/or spread on scales of km, after the HF power was on for several seconds, dependent upon whether heating was in daytime or nighttime. In addition, frequency shifts of the PEPL were observed due to the presence of HF heating.

  1. Separation of multiple echoes using a high-resolution spectral analysis for SuperDARN HF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthes, L.; André, R.; Cerisier, J.-C.; Villain, J.-P.

    1998-07-01

    Data obtained with coherent HF backscatter radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) are routinely analyzed with a standard algorithm based upon the simplifying assumption that the backscattered signal consists of a single source, characterized by its Doppler velocity and spectral width. More complex situations are often encountered where the signal includes several sources, either due to the additional existence of ground scatter or due to multiple ionospheric lines, related to a strongly inhomogeneous velocity field. We analyze the response of the standard algorithm to such signals and we propose to use high-resolution spectral analysis methods, namely, the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method, to separate multiple echoes with different velocity and spectral width. We analyze theoretically the autocorrelation function of the received signal, and we show that its structure satisfies the criteria for processing by the MUSIC algorithm. A statistical numerical simulation of SuperDARN data processing by the MUSIC method allows us to evaluate the performances and the limits of applicability of the method. We show and illustrate with examples taken from experimental data that the main improvements are (1) the correct separation of mixed echoes from ground and ionosphere, which enhances the quality of ionospheric convection measurements, and (2) the capability to resolve multiple ionospheric sources which appear in regions of inhomogeneous convection. These multiple sources can be used to resolve small-scale structures in the velocity field.

  2. Plasma wave activity in the polar E-region: New insights from HF radar observations in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma structuring at small scales (decameter wavelengths and below) in the high-latitude E-region is normally attributed to plasma instability processes under conditions of strong electric fields and/or favorable plasma density gradients. Establishing the electric field dependence of the wave activity in particular is both fundamentally important and experimentally challenging. In this report, we present direct observations of the polar E-region wave activity in conjunction with the electric field measurements with the recently-deployed SuperDARN South Pole (SPS) and McMurdo (MCM) HF radars. The ability of all Antarctic SuperDARN radars to observe E-region plasma waves is assessed first by modeling their magnetic aspect angle conditions. The diurnal variation of E region echo occurrence is analyzed and shown to be distinctly different between SPS and MCM. It is demonstrated that E-region echo occurrence is largely controlled by the electric field strength which behaves differently at SPS and MCM. The contribution of the E-region plasma waves of different spectral properties and physical origins to the SPS and MCM datasets and their electric field control are also investigated. The results suggest that the electric field control of E-region wave activity is present but perhaps indirect. One possible scenario is a two-step process in which primary waves are generated under strong electric field conditions and create strong polarization electric fields that in turn are responsible for secondary wave generation. The new radar observations in Antarctica suggest that such a process is perhaps more common than previously thought and may be responsible for generation of the large majority of small-scale waves in the polar E-region.

  3. Development of a ground signal processor for digital synthetic array radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A modified APQ-102 sidelooking array radar (SLAR) in a B-57 aircraft test bed is used, with other optical and infrared sensors, in remote sensing of Earth surface features for various users at NASA Johnson Space Center. The video from the radar is normally recorded on photographic film and subsequently processed photographically into high resolution radar images. Using a high speed sampling (digitizing) system, the two receiver channels of cross-and co-polarized video are recorded on wideband magnetic tape along with radar and platform parameters. These data are subsequently reformatted and processed into digital synthetic aperture radar images with the image data available on magnetic tape for subsequent analysis by investigators. The system design and results obtained are described.

  4. Complexity in the high latitude HF radar spectral width boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, M. L.; Hannah, K. M.; Dyson, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    SuperDARN radars are sensitive to the collective Doppler characteristics of decametre-scale irregularities in the high latitude ionosphere. The radars routinely observe a distinct transition from large spectral width (>100 m s-1) located at higher latitudes to low spectral width (<50 m s-1) located at lower latitudes. Because of its equatorward location, the TIGER Tasmanian radar is very sensitive to the detection of the spectral width boundary (SWB) in the nightside auroral ionosphere. An analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and 2-D beam-swinging vectors suggests the meso-scale (~100 km) convection is more erratic in the high spectral width region, but slower and more homogeneous in the low spectral width region. The radar autocorrelation functions are better modelled using Lorentzian Doppler spectra in the high spectral width region, and Gaussian Doppler spectra in the low spectral width region. However, paradoxically, Gaussian Doppler spectra are associated with the largest spectral widths. Application of the Burg maximum entropy method suggests the occurrence of double-peaked Doppler spectra is greater in the high spectral width region, implying the small-scale (~10 km) velocity fluctuations are more intense above the SWB. These observations combined with collective wave scattering theory imply there is a transition from a fast flowing, turbulent plasma with a correlation length of velocity fluctuations less than the scattering wavelength, to a slower moving plasma with a correlation length greater than the scattering wavelength. Peak scaling and structure function analysis of fluctuations in the SWB itself reveals approximately scale-free behaviour across temporal scales of ~10 s to ~34 min. Preliminary scaling exponents for these fluctuations, ?GSF=0.180.02 and ?GSF=0.090.01, are even smaller than that expected for MHD turbulence.

  5. Assimilation of HF radar data in a regional model of the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbulcke, Luc; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2015-04-01

    An ensemble of ROMS models with 1/60 degree resolution, covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars run by the NATO Undersea Research Center (now CMRE). The following perturbations are applied to the members of the ensemble: the wind forcing field, the open sea boundary conditions, and a supplementary term in the momentum equation. An ensemble Kalman (EnKF) filter is then used to assimilate hourly-averaged radial currents into the model. A observation operator extracts the corresponding model radial currents from the model currents, then smooths them in the azimuthal direction as a function of distance to the radar. The observations are spatially dense, and not uncorrelated to one another, which is approximated in our experiment by increasing the observation error variance. Different cases are run, with the estimation vector containing the model state (in which case it is called the state vector) or multiple model states at different time steps. In the latter case, the filter is closely related to the Ensemble Smoother and the Asynchronous EnKF. The impact of different parameters is studied: the correlation length of the localization function, the (experimentally determined) total observational error, the stochastic perturbation in the momentum equation, the assimilation window length, etc. The update vector generated by the data assimilation scheme is analyzed to examine whether inertial oscillations are present and corrected. The model surface temperature is also compared with satellite images in order to assess the impact of assimilating one variable (surface currents) on another one (surface temperature).

  6. Water Import of East China Sea through Taiwan Strait as Measured by ADCP on a Ferry and by HF Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cho-Teng; Matsuno, Takeshi; Chen, Hsien-Wen; Yang, Wen Chang; Ichikawa, Kaoru; Tsai, Wei-Teng; Lee, Chang-Wei

    2013-04-01

    East China Sea is surrounded by countries that contains one fourth of the world population. To understand the marine environment and marine ecosystem, one has to know the balance of water transport in and out of East China Sea. Half of the influx to East China Sea is through Taiwan Strait. Unfortunately, the heavy fishing activity resulted the longest current measurement with bottom-mount ADCP across Taiwan Strait is only 2.5 months long. The current in Taiwan Strait were survey with an ADCP installed at the bottom of a ferry boat which provides about 1000 transects in 2009-2011 across Taiwan Strait. The measurement of volume transport Q from Taiwan Strait to East China Sea shows clearly that the variation of Q is mostly by the local wind, Q (Sv) = 0.279 Wa10 + 2.12, where Wa10 is the along strait wind component at 10 m height. This is verified with HF radar measurement from Taiwan.

  7. Spurious effects of analog-to-digital conversion nonlinearities on radar range-Doppler maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.; Dubbert, D. F.; Tise, B. L.

    2015-05-01

    High-performance radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. System nonlinearities generate harmonic spurs that at best degrade, and at worst generate false target detections. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this paper the relationship of INL to radar performance; in particular its manifestation in a range-Doppler map or image.

  8. Wind influence on surface current variability in the Ibiza Channel from HF Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, Arancha; Marmain, Julien; Fernández, Vicente; Tintoré, Joaquin; Orfila, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Surface current variability is investigated using 2.5 years of continuous velocity measurements from an high frequency radar (HFR) located in the Ibiza Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea). The Ibiza Channel is identified as a key geographical feature for the exchange of water masses but still poorly documented. Operational, quality controlled, HFR derived velocities are provided by the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB). They are assessed by performing statistical comparisons with current-meter, ADCP, and surface lagrangian drifters. HFR system does not show significant bias, and its accuracy is in accordance with previous studies performed in other areas. The main surface circulation patterns are deduced from an EOF analysis. The first three modes represent almost 70 % of the total variability. A cross-correlation analysis between zonal and meridional wind components and the temporal amplitudes of the first three modes reveal that the first two modes are mainly driven by local winds, with immediate effects of wind forcing and veering following Ekman effect. The first mode (37 % of total variability) is the response of meridional wind while the second mode (24 % of total variability) is linked primarily with zonal winds. The third and higher order modes are related to mesoscale circulation features. HFR derived surface transport presents a markedly seasonal variability being mostly southwards. Its comparison with Ekman-induced transport shows that wind contribution to the total surface transport is on average around 65 %.

  9. Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (W. Brittany) from high resolution HF radar mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Barbin, Yves; Yaremchuk, Max

    2013-01-01

    The data from two high-frequency radars (HFR) operating in the Iroise Sea are re-processed by applying an improved version of the direction finding algorithm, removing wave-induced surface currents and the variational interpolation on a regular grid. Combining these processing techniques allowed reconstruction of the surface currents at a level of details that was not previously available. Refined resolution enabled to identify fine-scale structures of surface circulation, to quantify the variability of tidal currents and the residual (time averaged) velocity field, and to explain spatial intermittence in polarization of the tidal current ellipses. The analyzed data span two month-long periods in spring and late summer of 2007. The major findings include (a) a dipole structure in the vorticity field characterized by two oppositely rotating eddies, generated on the leeward side of the Ushant Island at flood (negative polarity) and at ebb (positive polarity); (b) an extremely strong fortnightly variability of tidal currents northwest of the Ushant Island with the highest velocity magnitude of 3.9 m/s caused by the interference of the major semi-diurnal tidal constituents; (c) a significant contribution of the higher order nonlinear tidal harmonics to the surface currents in the Fromveur strait, which maintains strong tidal currents and affects the shape of their fortnightly modulation. The residual circulation is characterized by two distinct zones approximately separated by the 100 m isobath: in the offshore zone the residual currents have a significant contribution of the wind-driven component, whereas the nearshore zone is characterized by extremely strong (up to 0.4 m/s) time-independent residual circulation featuring two permanent anticyclonic eddies: north of the western extremity of the Sein archipelago, and north the Ushant Island. The acquired data and the presented results could be useful for regional model validation and studies of the local eddy dynamics, tidal fronts, and passive tracer transport in the region.

  10. Geometric rectification of radar imagery using digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W.; Daily, M.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic analysis of radar imagery requires accurate spatial rectification to allow rock type discrimination and meaningful exploitation of multisensor data files. A procedure is described which removes distortions produced by most sources including the heretofore elusive problem of terrain induced effects. Rectified imagery is presented which displays geologic features not apparent in the distorted data.

  11. Design and implementation of a digital impulse generator for a 24GHz UWB radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Dong; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a digital impulse generator using a DCM block and an OSERDES block for a 24GHz UWB impulse-Doppler radar. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has confirmed the spectrum from 22 to 29GHz for UWB radar with a limit power of -41.3dBm/MHz. UWB signal possesses an absolute bandwidth larger than 500MHz or a relative bandwidth up to 20%. The vehicle radar is the key technology with the inherent advantage detected the distance and the velocity regardless of weather. Radar has a role to measure the distance and the velocity of long-distance vehicle. But, the radar with 1m resolution is difficult to satisfy the detection performance in the blind spot zone because the blind spot zone needs high resolution. So, UWB impulse-Doppler radar with 30cm resolution is suitable for the blind spot zone. The designed impulse generator has a 2ns pulse width and 100us PRI. We perform simulations through Xilinx ISE; experiments use a spectrum analyzer and a digital oscilloscope. For UWB radar, we use an AD9779 DAC module with a 1Gsps maximum sampling rate. For equipment, we use a TDS5104B oscilloscope of Tektronix with 3dB bandwidth at 1GHz for the analysis of the time domain and an E4448A spectrum analyzer of Agilent with a 50GHz spectrum for the analysis of the frequency domain. The results of the digital impulse measurement show a 2ns pulse width in the time domain, a 500MHz bandwidth, and a 10KHz spectrum peak in the frequency domain.

  12. An atlas of November 1978 synthetic aperture radar digitized imagery for oil spill studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E.; Oderman, W.; Crosswell, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A data set is described which consists of digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery plus correlative data and some preliminary analysis results. This data set should be of value to experimenters who are interested in the SAR instrument and its application to the detection and monitoring of oil on water and other distributed targets.

  13. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar and the Data Collection System Digital Terrain Elevation Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidelbach, Robert; Bolus, R.; Chadwick, J.

    1994-08-01

    Digital Terrain Elevations (DTE) that can be rapidly generated, and that have better fidelity and accuracy than Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Levels 1 or 2, would be extremely beneficial to Department of Defense (DOD) military operations, civil works programs, and various commercial applications. As a result, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), along with the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center (TEC), are developing an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) elevation mapping capability. This system, the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar for Digital Radar Elevations (IFSARE), is capable of collecting and providing data in all weather (reasonable), in day or night scenarios, and where obscurants are present. The IFSARE, which is currently undergoing Integration and Test, will allow for rapid on-line automatic processing of the collected digital radar data into DTE and high quality imagery. The prime contractor is the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM). This paper addresses the proof of concept for civil works applications by analyzing a data set taken by the Wright Labs/ERIM Data Collection System (DCS). The objective was to demonstrate the capability of an IFSAR system to provide high fidelity, fine resolution DTE that can be employed in hydraulic models of the Mississippi River watershed. The demonstration was sponsored by ARPA and TEC.

  14. The application of digital signal processing techniques to a teleoperator radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujol, A.

    1982-01-01

    A digital signal processing system was studied for the determination of the spectral frequency distribution of echo signals from a teleoperator radar system. The system consisted of a sample and hold circuit, an analog to digital converter, a digital filter, and a Fast Fourier Transform. The system is interfaced to a 16 bit microprocessor. The microprocessor is programmed to control the complete digital signal processing. The digital filtering and Fast Fourier Transform functions are implemented by a S2815 digital filter/utility peripheral chip and a S2814A Fast Fourier Transform chip. The S2815 initially simulates a low-pass Butterworth filter with later expansion to complete filter circuit (bandpass and highpass) synthesizing.

  15. On the spatiotemporal evolution of the ionospheric backscatter during magnetically disturbed periods as observed by the TIGER Bruny Island HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V. V.; Makarevich, R. A.; Kane, T. A.; Ye, H.; Devlin, J. C.; Dyson, P. L.

    2011-08-01

    The Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA) method is used to examine a 4-year database (2000-2003) of the TIGER Bruny Island radar (MLON=226.78E, MLAT=55.06S) measurements to determine typical patterns of the spatiotemporal evolution of ionospheric backscatter during geomagnetically disturbed periods. SEA is performed separately for three disturbance categories: short-, medium-, and long-duration magnetic disturbances, based on the Dst index variation. Prior to SEA, the diurnal, seasonal, and solar cycle effects have been accounted for by subtracting the nominal quiet-time values. It is found that the occurrence of ionospheric HF backscatter exhibited strongest enhancements near t=0 h between 65S and 70S MLAT (range of 800-2500 km) during short-duration magnetic disturbance. In contrast, a reduction in echo occurrence first occurred near t=0 h at higher ranges (r?2500 km) and expanded equatorwards during the recovery phase of the magnetic disturbances. This reduction in occurrence became progressively stronger and prolonged for medium- and long-duration magnetic disturbances. These categories also showed clear enhancements in the E-region backscatter (r<765 km) commencing from t=0 h. These observations can be explained by three main factors: (1) an enhancement in the E-region densities due to high-energy particle precipitation during magnetically disturbed periods causing the HF radar waves to refract from smaller altitudes and closer ranges, (2) a variability in the F-region densities associated with magnetic disturbances also affecting the propagation of the HF radar waves, and (3) a short-lived strong enhancement in growth rate of decametre-scale ionospheric irregularities when IMF turned southwards causing the highest echo occurrence near t=0 h during SEA.

  16. A novel digital receiver concept for ISRO's future remote sensing radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Nilesh; Vachhani, J. G.; Soin, Sumit; Agrawal, Rinku; Rao, C. V. N.; Gujraty, Virendra; Rana, Surindersingh

    2006-12-01

    Technology development related to digital, antenna and RF subsystems for Microwave Radar Sensors like Synthetic Aperture Radar, Scatterometer, Altimeter and Radiometer is one of the major activities under ISRO's microwave remote sensing programme, since 1980s. These technologies are now being gainfully utilized for building ISRO's operational Earth Observation missions involving microwave sensors like Radar Imaging Satellite, RISAT SAR, Oceansat-2 Scatterometer, Megha-Tropiques, MADRAS and Airborne SAR for Disaster Management, DMSAR. Concurrently, advanced technology developments in these fields are underway to meet the major technological challenges of building ISRO's proposed advanced microwave missions like ultra-high resolution SAR's, Synthetic Aperture Radiometer (SARAD), Milli-meter and sub-millimeter wave sounders and SAR Constellations for Disaster management as well as Interferometric, Polarmetric and polarmetric interferometry applications. Also, these hardware are being designed with core radar electronics concept, in which the same RF and digital hardware sub-units / modules will be utilized to build different microwave radar sensors. One of the major and common requirements for all these active and passive microwave sensors is the moderate to highspeed data acquisition and signal processing system. Traditionally, the Data acquisition units for all these radar sensors are implemented as stand-alone units, following the radar receivers. For ISRO's C-band airborne SAR (ASAR) and RISAT high resolution SAR, we have designed and developed High Speed 8-bit ADC based I/Q Digitisers, operating at 30.814 MHz and 250 MHz sampling rates, respectively. With the increasing demand of wide bandwidth and ultra-high resolution in imaging and non-imaging radar systems, the technology trend worldwide is towards a digital receiver, involving bandpass or IF sampling, thus eliminating the need for RF down converters and analog IQ demodulators. In order to evolve a generic configuration for all the microwave sensors, we have initiated design and development of a generic L-band digital receiver, consisting of receiver elements (LNA, digital attenuator and Bandpass filter) followed by Analog-to-Digital Converter. The digitised data can then be output in parallel or serial format. Additionally, a digital signal processor performing tasks like data compression, convolution or correlation and formatting can also be integrated with this generic digital receiver. The front end of the receiver is wide-band, catering to bandwidths of upto 2 GHz while the digitisation rates are also of the order of 1-2 GHz. It is proposed to standardize the design and use this generic receiver for front end data acquisition of all the future microwave sensors. It will meet the digitisation requirements of 500 MHz to 1 GHz for ultra-high resolution (0.25-0.5 meter) SAR as well as direct sampling of the signal around 1.4GHz for L-band Synthetic Aperture Radiometer. After initial prototyping using discrete receiver elements and ultra-high speed 8-bit ADC, it will be taken up as a custom ASIC or multi-chip module consisting of RF MMIC's and a mixed signal ADC ASIC. These designs will be fabricated using InP, GaAs or SiGe process technologies at competent foundries like GATEC, SCL, Infineon/Germany, X-Fab/Germany and Ommic-Philips/France. This novel digital receiver will offer several advantages like flexibility, stability, reduced RF hardware and miniaturisation. This paper describes the ultra-high speed design requirements, configuration details and target specifications and salient features of this generic L-band digital receiver for ISRO's future spaceborne and airborne radar missions. It also addresses the associated signal integrity, EMI/EMC and thermal issues.

  17. Drift Velocity of Small-Scale Artificial Ionospheric Irregularities According to Multifrequency HF Doppler Radar. I. Method of Calculation and Its Hardware Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.; Kubatko, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The method of calculating the total drift velocity vector of small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities as measured by the effective Doppler frequency shift of aspect-scattered signals from several diagnostic illumination transmitters operated at different frequencies is discussed. The technique of adaptive simulation of decameter radio waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetized ionosphere with allowance for the aspect scattering effects due to small-scale field-aligned irregularities is developed. A multifrequency HF Doppler radar for simultaneous measurement of the Doppler spectra of radio signals at a set of frequencies is described.

  18. MF and HF radar techniques for investigating the dynamics and structure of the 50 to 110 km height region: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Iain Murray

    2015-12-01

    The application of medium-frequency (MF) and high-frequency (HF) partial reflection radar to investigate the neutral upper atmosphere is one of the oldest such techniques still regularly in use. The techniques have been continuously improved and remain a robust and reliable method of obtaining wind velocities, turbulence intensities, electron densities, and measurements of atmospheric structure in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region (50 to 110 km). In this paper, we review recent developments, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the technique, and consider possible improvements.

  19. Drift Velocity of Small-Scale Artificial Ionospheric Irregularities According to a Multifrequency HF Doppler Radar. II. Observation and Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.; Kubatko, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of observations of the Doppler frequency shift for the radar radio signals of broadcast and exact-time RWM stations, which are scattered by small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities. By the method described in our previous paper [1] and using the multifrequency HF Doppler radar, estimates were made for a three-dimensional vector of the drift velocity of irregularities. It is shown that the drift velocity of irregularities can vary considerably both in magnitude and direction for short periods of time. The velocity lies in a wide range of values, 20-270 m/s, but sometimes it exceeds 500-700 m/s. The most probable drift velocity ranges from 40 to 70 m/s.

  20. Near-Subsurface Science from a Digital Beamforming Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Rincon, R. F.

    2015-10-01

    Many important questions in planetary science depends on our ability to detect and map surface and subsurface layers of planetary bodies. We are developing a P-band (435 MHz, 70 cm wavelength) digital beamforming radar, called Space Exploration SAR (SESAR), capable of providing the measurement flexibility needed to address multiple types of science goals. SESAR will provide high spatial resolution imaging, full polarimetry, multibeam scatterometry and altimetry of planetary targets such as the Moon and Mars by using beamforming technology that can adjust the radar experiment to meet the specific science goals of each target.

  1. MAS2-8 radar and digital control unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, J. M.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The design of the MAS 2-8 (2 to 8 GHz microwave-active spectrometer), a ground-based sensor system, is presented. A major modification in 1974 to the MAS 2-8, that of a control subsystem to automate the data-taking operation, is the prime focus. The digital control unit automatically changes all system parameters except FM rate and records the return signal on paper tape. The overall system operation and a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the digital control unit are presented.

  2. Global search and rescue - A new concept. [orbital digital radar system with passive reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A new terrestrial search and rescue concept is defined embodying the use of simple passive radiofreqeuncy reflectors in conjunction with a low earth-orbiting, all-weather, synthetic aperture radar to detect, identify, and position locate earth-bound users in distress. Users include ships, aircraft, small boats, explorers, hikers, etc. Airborne radar tests were conducted to evaluate the basic concept. Both X-band and L-band, dual polarization radars were operated simultaneously. Simple, relatively small, corner-reflector targets were successfully imaged and digital data processing approaches were investigated. Study of the basic concept and evaluation of results obtained from aircraft flight tests indicate an all-weather, day or night, global search and rescue system is feasible.

  3. Spectral analysis, digital integration, and measurement of low backscatter in coherent laser radar.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J M; Callan, R D; Bowdle, D A; Rothermel, J

    1989-08-01

    The operation of a surface acoustic wave spectrum analyser and digital integrator is reviewed. Expressions are derived for signal to noise ratio in the measured voltage spectrum with an approximation for the general case and rigorous treatment for the low signal case. A previous calibration study is re-evaluated to provide a final calibration for the atmospheric backscatter data accumulated by the airborne LATAS (laser true airspeed) coherent laser radar system. PMID:20555643

  4. A digital system to produce imagery from SAR data. [Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a digital processing algorithm and its associated system design for producing images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The proposed system uses the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach to perform the two-dimensional correlation process. The range migration problem, which is often a major obstacle to efficient processing, can be alleviated by approximating the locus of echoes from a point target by several linear segments. SAR data corresponding to each segment is correlated separately, and the results are coherently summed to produce full-resolution images. This processing approach exhibits greatly improved computation efficiency relative to conventional digital processing methods.

  5. Digital radar-gram processing for water pipelines leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Mrquez, Jorge; Flores, Ricardo; Valdivia, Ricardo; Carren, Dora; Malacara, Zacaras; Camposeco, Arturo

    2006-02-01

    Ground penetrating radars (GPR) are useful underground exploration devices. Applications are found in archaeology, mine detection, pavement evaluation, among others. Here we use a GPR to detect by an indirect way, the anomalies caused by the presence of water in the neighborhood of an underground water pipeline. By Fourier transforming a GPR profile map we interpret the signal as spatial frequencies, instead of the temporal frequencies, that composes the profile map. This allows differentiating between signals returning from a standard subsoil feature from those coming back from anomalous zones. Facilities in Mexican cities are commonly buried up to 2.5 m. Their constituent materials are PVC, concrete or metal, typically steel. GPRs are ultra-wide band devices; leak detection must be an indirect process since echoes due to the presence of underground zones with high moisture levels are masked by dense reflections (clutter). In radargrams the presence of water is visualized as anomalies in the neighborhood of the facility. Enhancement of these anomalies will give us the information required to detect leaks.

  6. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  7. Ionospheric Pc5 plasma oscillations observed by the King Salmon HF radar and their comparison with geomagnetic pulsations on the ground and in geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ogawa, T.; Obara, T.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2012-03-01

    We analyzed Pc5 (1.7-6.7 mHz) oscillations of ionospheric Doppler plasma velocity observed on a westward pointing beam 3 of the SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar in Alaska during the solar maximum in 2002 and the minimum in 2007. Local time distributions of the ionospheric Pc5 oscillations showed peculiar asymmetric characteristics in both years; that is, the occurrence probability had a maximum around the magnetic midnight, whereas backscatter echoes exhibited almost no oscillation on the dayside. We compared these ionospheric Pc5 events with magnetic field variations on the ground under the radar beam at Pebek and King Salmon and the geostationary ETS-8 satellite at almost conjugate longitude. We found only a few nightside events where both the radar and magnetometers detected similar sinusoidal oscillations. On the other hand, from statistical spectral analyses we found that there were positive correlations between the integrated Pc5 range spectral power of velocity oscillations and the geomagnetic pulsations both on the ground and in geostationary orbit although the pulsation powers were quite low. For these ionospheric Pc5 events, we found that both solar wind bulk flow speed and dynamic pressure showed no correlation with the spectral power and more than half of the Pc5 events were observed when the geomagnetic activities were low as inferred from the AE and Dst indices. These results indicate that the azimuthal Pc5 oscillation in the ionospheric plasma flow does not represent well-known characteristics of Pc5 pulsations driven by solar wind changes. We consider that the nightside occurrence peak of the ionospheric Pc5 oscillation might be related to diurnal changes in the ionospheric conductivity, which controls the amplitude of wave electric fields in the ionosphere. Therefore, the Pc5 wave power distributions obtained by radar observations provide features different from those obtained from magnetic field observations.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Digital Elevation Model of Kuwait Desert - Analysis of Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassar, H. K. Al; Rao, K. S.

    2012-07-01

    Using different combinations of 29 Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images, 43 Digital Elevations Models (DEM) were generated adopting SAR Interferometry (InSAR) technique. Due to sand movement in desert terrain, there is a poor phase correlation between different SAR images. Therefore, suitable methodology for generating DEMs of Kuwait desert terrain using InSAR technique were worked out. Time series analysis was adopted to derive the best DEM out of 43 DEMs. The problems related to phase de-correlation over desert terrain are discussed. Various errors associated with the DEM generation are discussed which include atmospheric effects, penetration into soil medium, sand movement. The DEM of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is used as a reference. The noise levels of DEM of SRTM are presented.

  9. Occurrence characteristics of subauroral westward plasma flows and lowest speed threshold of SAPS observed by the SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, H.; Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.

    2014-12-01

    Westward rapid plasma flows in the ionosphere at subauroral latitudes are called "Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) [Foster and Burke, 2002]". SAPS is a manifestation of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) coupling. Therefore, it is important to know occurrence characteristics of SAPS in order to understand the details of M-I coupling system. As a result of the present analysis of SAPS using the SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar, Kataoka et al. [2009] reported that positions of SAPS shifts toward lower latitude with decreasing Dst index. We investigate the characteristics of SAPS, with focus on the relationship between occurrence characteristics of SAPS and a variety of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters, using the SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar with a field of view covering Far East Russia, which has been in operation since 2006. In particular, we identify the lowest limit of SAPS speed, which has not been discussed in the previous literatures. This is to examine the lowest threshold of electric field to generate SAPS as a result of M-I coupling. In order to investigate SAPS occurrence characteristics comprehensively, we analyzed events with wider ranges of velocity and MLAT than those in the previous studies. As a result of statistical analysis, we found two categories of westward flows that were reasonably separated with a speed threshold of ~150-200 m/s. For the faster flows above the threshold there is a clear correlation between MLAT and Dst index, whereas for the slower flows there is no such correlation. Similar correlation is found for MLT and AL index as well. The faster flows are considered to be SAPS, whereas the slower flows are probably associated with midlatitude F-region ionospheric irregularities not directly related to storms / substorms.

  10. Applications of high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, J. M.; Thomason, J. F.

    1998-07-01

    Efforts to extend radar range by an order of magnitude with use of the ionosphere as a virtual mirror started after the end of World War II. A number of HF radar programs were pursued, with long-range nuclear burst and missile launch detection demonstrated by 1956. Successful east coast radar aircraft detect and track tests extending across the Atlantic were conducted by 1961. The major obstacles to success, the large target-to-clutter ratio and low signal-to-noise ratio, were overcome with matched filter Doppler processing. To search the areas that a 2000 nautical mile (3700 km) radar can reach, very complex and high dynamic range processing is required. The spectacular advances in digital processing technology have made truly wide-area surveillance possible. Use of the surface attached wave over the oceans can enable HF radar to obtain modest extension of range beyond the horizon. The decameter wavelengths used by both skywave and surface wave radars require large physical antenna apertures, but they have unique capabilities for air and surface targets, many of which are of resonant scattering dimensions. Resonant scattering from the ocean permits sea state and direction estimation. Military and commercial applications of HF radar are in their infancy.

  11. Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

  12. Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

  13. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcast Interference Suppression in Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.

  15. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR): Performance Analysis During the Eco-3D 2011 and Summer 2012 Flight Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.

  16. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 543 (WRC-03), provided that the interleaved emission is not to the same geographical area as either of... require that the digital spectral power density (and total power) be lower by several dB than is currently... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal...

  17. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 543 (WRC-03), provided that the interleaved emission is not to the same geographical area as either of... require that the digital spectral power density (and total power) be lower by several dB than is currently... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal...

  18. Simultaneous ground-based optical and HF radar observations of the ionospheric footprint of the open/closed field line boundary along the geomagnetic meridian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.-C.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Moen, J. I.; Oksavik, K.; Baddeley, L. J.

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that the equatorward boundaries of OI 630.0 nm auroral emissions and broad Doppler spectral widths in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data, the so-called spectral width boundary (SWB), are good empirical proxies for the dayside open/closed field line boundary (OCB) in the ionosphere. However, both observational techniques are associated with mapping errors. SuperDARN uses a virtual height model for mapping, but it is not well known how the mapping error responds to a changing background ionosphere or transient reconnection events. Optical instruments, such as the meridian-scanning photometers, have high spatial resolution near zenith, where the mapping error due to the assumed OI 630.0 nm auroral emission height becomes small by comparison. In this work, an adjusted method is introduced to identify the SWB, which does not require temporal smoothing across several scans. The difference in latitude between the SWB, as identified using this method, and the simultaneously observed OI 630.0 nm auroral emission boundary along a common line of sight is compared. Utilizing the OI 630.0 nm boundary as a reference location, we present two case studies observed at different levels of solar activity. In both instances the latitude offset of SWB from the reference location is discussed in relation to the background ionospheric electron density. The compared results indicate that the intake of high-density solar extreme ultraviolet ionized plasma from subauroral latitudes causes a refraction of the HF radar beam path, which results in an overestimation of range mapping. The adjusted method would thus be a useful tool for identifying the OCB under changing ionospheric conditions in the cusp region.

  19. New evidences of ocean surface current processes in the SE Bay of Biscay, using HF radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solabarrieta, Lohitzune; Rubio, Anna; Cardenas, Mar; Méndez, Fernando J.; Esnaola, Ganix; Castanedo, Sonia; Ferrer, Luis; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    High Frequency Radar (HFR) data in the south-eastern Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) offer, since 2009, a new approach to the temporal and spatial variability of the ocean surface processes in the area. Past studies have already described the main characteristics of the surface and subsurface water circulation over the shelf and slope. As they were mainly based upon punctual in time or in space in-situ measurements, the 5 year-long hourly HFR-derived velocity fields analyzed here, contribute considerably to the understanding of surface current patterns in the HFR footprint area. New evidence is given, over different time-scales, on the main ocean surface processes, in an area where surface currents show marked temporal and spatial variability. With cyclonic (anticyclonic) patterns during winter (summer) months, the analysis of lowpass ?ltered currents shows that a key component of this seasonal variability is associated with the surface signature of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC). Clearly intensi?ed over the upper part of the slope, this current circulates eastward off the Spanish coast and northward over the French shelves and slopes in winter. In order to complete the previous descriptions, a K-means clustering technique, has been applied to HFR and wind data (from the Weather Research and Forecasting model). The results of the K-means analysis offer a deeper insight into the surface circulation patterns together with the wind patterns, after analyzing the occurrence probabilities of the radar current groups into the wind groups. In addition, a composite analysis based on a daily-scale winter-time series of the IPC for the 2009-2012 period deduced from satellite SST data and the low-passed surface currents, allows to identify the surface currents residuals related to the IPC. This HFR network offers data operationally, being, nowadays a key component of the Basque Ocean Observing System, and highly valuable for operational purposes.

  20. Integration of radar altimeter, precision navigation, and digital terrain data for low-altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Avionic systems that depend on digitized terrain elevation data for guidance generation or navigational reference require accurate absolute and relative distance measurements to the terrain, especially as they approach lower altitudes. This is particularly exacting in low-altitude helicopter missions, where aggressive terrain hugging maneuvers create minimal horizontal and vertical clearances and demand precise terrain positioning. Sole reliance on airborne precision navigation and stored terrain elevation data for above-ground-level (AGL) positioning severely limits the operational altitude of such systems. A Kalman filter is presented which blends radar altimeter returns, precision navigation, and stored terrain elevation data for AGL positioning. The filter is evaluated using low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain. The proposed Kalman filter is found to remove large disparities in predicted AGL altitude (i.e., from airborne navigation and terrain elevation data) in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Previous work suggested a minimum clearance altitude of 220 ft AGL for a near-terrain guidance system; integration of a radar altimeter allows for operation of that system below 50 ft, subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations.

  1. Digital processing considerations for extraction of ocean wave image spectra from raw synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahaie, I. J.; Dias, A. R.; Darling, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The digital processing requirements of several algorithms for extracting the spectrum of a detected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image from the raw SAR data are described and compared. The most efficient algorithms for image spectrum extraction from raw SAR data appear to be those containing an intermediate image formation step. It is shown that a recently developed compact formulation of the image spectrum in terms of the raw data is computationally inefficient when evaluated directly, in comparison with the classical method where matched-filter image formation is an intermediate result. It is also shown that a proposed indirect procedure for digitally implementing the same compact formulation is somewhat more efficient than the classical matched-filtering approach. However, this indirect procedure includes the image formation process as part of the total algorithm. Indeed, the computational savings afforded by the indirect implementation are identical to those obtained in SAR image formation processing when the matched-filtering algorithm is replaced by the well-known 'dechirp-Fourier transform' technique. Furthermore, corrections to account for slant-to-ground range conversion, spherical earth, etc., are often best implemented in the image domain, making intermediate image formation a valuable processing feature.

  2. A West Florida Shelf ROMS Nested into HYCOM: Ensemble-based Assimilation of HF-Radar Surface Currents and a 2005 Red Tide Case Study with Simulated Drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2007-05-01

    A West Florida Shelf (WFS) model is constructed by nesting the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) in the Atlantic Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to include both local and deep-ocean forcing, particularly the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC). Hindcast experiments from 2004 to 2006 are presented and compared to observed temperature (moorings and BSOP profiling floats), ADCP velocity time series and HF-Radar surface currents. Two different mixing schemes (Mellor Yamada level 2.5 and K-Profile Parameterization, KPP) are tested and the importance of the vertical resolution for mixing is addressed. The model results of those different configurations are compared to temperature observations on the shelf. Results obtained with the Mellor Yamada scheme are closer to observations during winter (negative buoyancy flux and strong winds) while in summer (positive buoyancy flux and in general weaker wind) the KPP scheme produces more realistic results. Given the present HYCOM configuration we assessed the benefit of nesting ROMS in HYCOM compared to nesting ROMS in climatology. The model solutions on the shelf were compared to various in situ data. The model performed best when using the HYCOM boundary values. Simulated trajectories for drifters deployed off Tampa Bay and Sarasota were used to address the evolution of Karenia brevis concentrations during the 2005 red tide. Near surface drifters were advected offshore, whereas drifters deployed in the bottom Ekman layer matched the subsequently observed Karenia brevis distributions, showing the importance of the 3D structure of coastal ocean currents for red tide on the WFS. As a first attempt at assimilating CODAR surface currents we used an ensemble simulation carried out under different wind forcings to estimate the error covariance of the model state vector and the covariance between the ocean currents and the wind. Improvements were obtained for the modeled currents, not only at the surface, but also at depth.

  3. Refining low-quality digital elevation models using synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Michael Shawn

    Two-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) is a technique for processing the phase difference between coincident SAR images to obtain the range difference from the two radars to a common point on the earth's surface. The accuracy of the range difference measurement is in the order of one millimeter, and this range information can be processed to obtain digital elevation models (DEMs) of the surface topography. The objective of this thesis is to use supplemental information in the form of a coarse DEM to make the InSAR processing more accurate and more automatic. We achieve this objective by developing a new algorithm which incorporates the coarse DEM directly into the processing stream, with the result that phase unwrapping and geometry estimation are performed accurately and reliably. While the accuracy of each input DEM point is not very high, the large number of them provide adequate geometric accuracy, particularly as an automatic algorithm can register them directly to the radar data. There are two key steps in the new algorithm. First of all, the satellite geometry is estimated from the DEM and interferometric phase. This is done with a non-linear, iterative optimization algorithm without having to unwrap the phase. Second, the input DEM along with the refined satellite geometry are used to create a model of the unwrapped interferogram phase that should be received from the two satellite passes. When this phase is wrapped, and compared with the measured phase, a differential interferogram is obtained which represents the difference between the coarse input DEM and the topography as measured by the satellite. The information in the unwrapped interferogram is used to refine the grid spacing and vertical accuracy of the coarse DEM. We have used mathematical analysis and simulation to develop the algorithm, to obtain statistical quality measures and to understand what system parameters affect the accuracy of the DEM results. We find that the main factors affecting accuracy are the interferometer's sensitivity of phase to height and the number of available DEM points, including the size and variability of the input DEMs' errors. We have successfully applied the DEM refinement algorithm to ERS Tandem Mission and RADARSAT-1 data. The generated InSAR DEMs had standard deviations of 12 to 20 meters compared to a control DEM with approximately 3 meters standard deviation. The output InSAR-enhanced DEMs had two to four times improvement in height accuracy compared with the input DEMs. We have demonstrated that one can generate reliable estimates of topography for standard SAR scenes without having access to precision orbit data. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.E.; Robinson, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The derivation of a sub-canopy digital terrain model of a flooded forest using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc Lee; Gesch, Dean B.

    1990-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar data from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B Mission were combined with the tide surface information to create a digital terrain model for a 70-km by 40-km section of the Mouths of the Ganges forests in southern Bangladesh. The dominance of the interaction phenomenon (canopy to surface or surface to canopy reflection) in flooded forests was exploited to create sub-canopy flood boundary maps for two different tide times. The boundary maps were digitally combined in x, y, z space with tide elevation models created from tide gauge data gridding the survey site and used as input to interpolation routines to create a terrain model. The end product represents a significant step in our ability to characterize the topography and hydrology of wetland ecosystems. The model derived here can be used for simulating tidal flow and nutrient transport from the forest to the marine habitat.

  6. Digitally Calibrated TR Modules Enabling Real-Time Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures for DESDynI-Class Radar Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Peral, Eva; Veilluex, Louise; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable SweepSAR architectures such as that of the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI). SweepSAR promises significant increases in instrument capability for solid earth and biomass remote sensing, while reducing mission mass and cost. This new instrument concept requires new methods for calibrating the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time. We are developing new methods for digitally calibrating digital beamforming arrays to reduce development time, risk and cost of precision calibrated TR modules for array architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop Digital Calibration, thus tracking systematic changes regardless of temperature

  7. A model for radar images and its application to adaptive digital filtering of multiplicative noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image is corrupted by multiplicative noise. The model leads to the functional form of an optimum (minimum MSE) filter for smoothing radar images. By using locally estimated parameter values the filter is made adaptive so that it provides minimum MSE estimates inside homogeneous areas of an image while preserving the edge structure. It is shown that the filter can be easily implemented in the spatial domain and is computationally efficient. The performance of the adaptive filter is compared (qualitatively and quantitatively) with several standard filters using real and simulated radar images.

  8. Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W.; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.

    1991-08-01

    Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

  9. Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W.; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlates lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model image. Due to their topographic expression and associated deformation, the Yakima folds are detected by nearly all of the studies. Other features that do not correspond to known structures are detected in a number of the above data types and so are likely to have a strong structural control. Previously mapped small faults that obliquely cross the Yakima folds were identified a multiple number of times. These structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our unique Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM. Valley vectors which are coplanar may be controlled by a planar geologic structure whose three-dimensional orientation can be calculated by GSA routines. 58 refs., 7 figs.

  10. A digital beamforming processor for the joint DoD/NASA space based radar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, Mark A.; Le, Charles; Rosen, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2x50 m L-band radar system for both Earth science and intelligence related observations.

  11. Comparison of airborne and orbital radar imagery and its digital processing for geologic exploration and development

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Orbital and airborne imaging radar systems each have characteristic parameters, including wavelength, terrain penetration, resolution, precision, illumination, and coverage. They even have separate economic factors. Two image sets, each consisting of an orbital- and an airborne-acquired radar image, have been compared. One set is for an arid region, the other for a humid tropic region. A salient fact arising from the comparison is that each type system can produce a unique image content. This is primarily a function of the radar equipment characteristic of each of the two involved vehicle types, rather than the data acquisition modes. Both the longer wavelength airborne radar types have their distinct utility, it is concluded, so that the use of both their data in a complementary manner promises best results for geologists.

  12. A digital elevation model of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined laser and radar altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Smith, Ben; Srensen, Louise S.; Forsberg, Ren

    2014-05-01

    When estimating elevation changes of ice-covered surfaces from radar altimetry, it is important to correct for slope-induced errors. They cause the reflecting point of the pulse to move up-slope and thus return estimates in the wrong coordinates. Slope-induced errors can be corrected for by introducing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this work, such a DEM is developed for the Greenland Ice Sheet using a combination of Envisat radar and ICESat laser altimetry. If time permits, CryoSat radar altimetry will be included as well. The reference year is 2010 and the spatial resolution 2.5 x 2.5 km. This is in accordance with the results obtained in the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project showing that a 5 x 5 km grid spacing is reasonable for ice sheet-wide change detection (Levinsen et al., 2013). Separate DEMs will be created for the given data sets, and the geostatistical spatial interpolation method collocation will be used to merge them, thus adjusting for potential inter-satellite biases. The final DEM is validated with temporally and spatially agreeing airborne lidar data acquired in the NASA IceBridge and ESA CryoVex campaigns. The motivation for developing a new DEM is based on 1) large surface changes presently being observed, and mainly in margin regions, hence necessitating updated topography maps for accurately deriving and correcting surface elevation changes, and 2) although radar altimetry is subject to surface penetration of the signal into the snowpack, data is acquired continuously in time. This is not the case with e.g. ICESat, where laser altimetry data were obtained in periods of active lasers, i.e. three times a year with a 35-day repeat track. Previous DEMs e.g. have 2007 as the nominal reference year, or they are built merely from ICESat data. These have elevation errors as small as 10 cm, which is lower than for Envisat and CryoSat. The advantage of an updated DEM consisting of combined radar and laser altimetry therefore is the possibility of achieving a high spatial and temporal coverage, as well as the opportunity to continuously map surface changes relative to an updated topography and slopes. References: Levinsen, J. F., Khvorostovsky, K., Ticconi, F., Shepherd, A., Forsberg, R., Srensen, L. S., Muir, A., Pie, N., Felikson, D., Flament, T., Hurkmans, R., Moholdt, G., Gunter, B., Lindenbergh, R. C., and Kleinherenbrink, M.: ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbr, Greenland - Round Robin results, The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 5433-5460, 2013.

  13. Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.

  14. Detection of Digital Elevation Model Errors Using X-band Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; deHaag, Maatren Uijt

    2007-01-01

    Flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions requires pilots to manipulate flight controls while referring to a Primary Flight Display. The Primary Flight Display indicates aircraft attitude along with, in some cases, many other state variables such as altitude, speed, and guidance cues. Synthetic Vision Systems have been proposed that overlay the traditional information provided on Primary Flight Displays onto a scene depicting the location of terrain and other geo-spatial features.Terrain models used by these displays must have sufficient quality to avoid providing misleading information. This paper describes how X-band radar measurements can be used as part of a monitor, and/or maintenance system, to quantify the integrity of terrain models that are used by systems such as Synthetic Vision. Terrain shadowing effects, as seen by the radar, are compared in a statistical manner against estimated shadow feature elements extracted from the stored terrain model from the perspective of the airborne observer. A test statistic is defined that enables detection of errors as small as the range resolution of the radar. Experimental results obtained from two aircraft platforms hosting certified commercial-off-the-shelf X-band radars test the premise and illustrate its potential.

  15. High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

  16. Ka-band Digitally Beamformed Airborne Radar Using SweepSAR Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory A.; Chuang, Chung-Lun; Ghaemi, Hirad; Heavey, Brandon A.; Lin, Lung-Sheng S.; Quaddus, Momin

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes a frequency-scaled SweepSAR demonstration that operates at Ka-Band (35.6 GHz), and closely approximates the DESDynl mission antenna geometry, scaled by 28. The concept relies on the SweepSAR measurement technique. An array of digital receivers captures waveforms from a multiplicity of elements. These are combined using digital beamforming in elevation and SAR processing to produce imagery. Ka-band (35.6 GHz) airborne SweepSAR using array-fed reflector and digital beamforming features eight simultaneous receive beams generated by a 40-cm offset-fed reflector and eight-element active array feed, and eight digital receiver channels with all raw data recorded and later used for beamforming. Illumination of the swath is accomplished using a slotted-waveguide antenna radiating 250 W peak power. This experiment has been used to demonstrate digital beamforming SweepSAR systems.

  17. Using X-band Weather Radar Measurements to Monitor the Integrity of Digital Elevation Models for Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steve; UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Sayre, Jonathon

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with displays of stored geo-spatial data representing terrain, obstacles, and cultural features. As comprehensive validation is impractical, these databases typically have no quantifiable level of integrity. Further, updates to the databases may not be provided as changes occur. These issues limit the certification level and constrain the operational context of SVS for civil aviation. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of using a realtime monitor to bound the integrity of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) by using radar altimeter measurements during flight. This paper describes an extension of this concept to include X-band Weather Radar (WxR) measurements. This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats. Feature extraction techniques are used along with a statistical assessment of similarity measures between the sensed and stored features that are detected. Recent flight-testing in the area around the Juneau, Alaska Airport (JNU) has resulted in a comprehensive set of sensor data that is being used to assess the feasibility of the proposed monitor technology. Initial results of this assessment are presented.

  18. Monthly and seasonal occurrences of potential flash flood-producing rains determined from Manually Digitized Radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of a small 4-year climatological data base of Manually Digitized Radar (MDR) data to infer the monthly and seasonal distributions of the relative frequency of occurrence of potential flash flood-producing rains over the Central and Eastern U.S. Some possible meteorological mechanisms for producing potential flash flooding rains are discussed in terms of the relative maxima and minima in the monthly and seasonal frequency distributions over the MDR network. Frequencies were found to be generally higher in more southern locations and lower farther north in all months and seasons. However, most locations experienced an annual cycle in the frequency of occurrence with maxima in summer and minima in winter. In given seasons and months, local areas of maximum and minimum occurrences may be related to quasi-stationary meteorological processes that trigger and organize intense convection over a common area.

  19. Channel calibration for digital array radar in the presence of amplitude-phase and mutual coupling errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixing; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Jianzhi; Chen, Zengping

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-phase errors and mutual coupling errors among multi-channels in digital array radar (DAR) will seriously deteriorate the performance of signal processing such as digital beam-forming (DBF) and high resolution direction finding. In this paper, a combined algorithm for error calibration in DAR has been demonstrated. The algorithm firstly estimates the amplitude-phase errors of each channel using interior calibration sources with the help of the calibration network. Then the signals from far field are received and the amplitude-phase errors are compensated. According to the subspace theories, the relationship between the principle eigenvectors and distorted steering vectors is expressed, and the cost function containing the mutual coupling matrix (MCM) and incident directions is established. Making use of the properties of MCM of uniform linear array, Gauss-Newton method is implied to iteratively compute the MCM and the direction of arrival (DOA). Simulation results have shown the effectiveness and performance of proposed algorithm. Based on an 8-elements DAR test-bed, experiments are carried out in anechoic chamber. The results illustrate that the algorithm is feasible in actual systems.

  20. Atmospheric gravity waves/traveling ionospheric disturbances study with digital ionosondes and incoherent scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paznukhov, Vadym Volodymyrovych

    The problem of radiowave propagation in the ionosphere in the presence of a wavelike disturbance has been solved in a generalized formulation using the model of a perfectly reflecting surface. The solution obtained has made it possible to develop a remote sensing technique for studying the ionosphere irregular wavelike phenomena, namely, traveling ionospheric disturbances, which are a manifestation of neutral atmosphere phenomena, atmospheric gravity waves. Implementation of this technique in the Digisonde Portable Sounder of the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Center for Atmospheric Research allowed development of a dedicated data acquisition system for ionospheric disturbance diagnostics. The experimental validation of the developed method has been obtained by comparison of the results of simultaneous disturbance diagnostics made with the Digisonde Portable Sounder and the Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar. Differences in disturbance parameters measured by the two techniques was no greater than 15%. The link between the atmospheric gravity waves and the moving solar terminator has been experimentally investigated using the Digisonde Portable Sounder and Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar and evidence of solar terminator generated disturbances has been demonstrated.

  1. A Digital Elevation Model of the Greenland Ice Sheet based on Envisat and CryoSat-2 Radar Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Smith, B. E.; Sandberg Srensen, L.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Forsberg, R.

    2014-12-01

    With the launch of the first radar altimeter by ESA in 1992, more than two decades of radar altimetry data are now available. Therefore, one goal of ESA's Ice Sheet Climate Change Initiative is the estimation of surface elevation changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) based on ERS-1, -2, Envisat, CryoSat-2, and, in the longer term, Sentinel-3 data. This will create a data record from 1992 until present date. In addition to elevation-change records, such data can be processed to produce digital elevation models, or DEMs, of the ice sheets. The DEMs can be used to correct radar altimetry data for slope-induced errors resulting from the large footprint (e.g. 2-10 km for Envisat vs. 60 m for ICESat laser altimetry) or to correct for the underlying surface topography when applying the repeat-track method. DEMs also provide key information in e.g. SAR remote sensing of ice velocities to remove the interferograms' topographic signal or in regional climate modeling. This work focuses on the development of a GrIS DEM from Envisat and CryoSat-2 altimetry, corrected with temporally and spatially coincident NASA ICESat, ATM, and LVIS laser data. The spatial resolution is 2 x 2 km and the reference year 2010. It is based on 2009 and 2010 data, the 2009 data adjusted to 2010 by accounting for the intermediate elevation changes. This increases the spatial data coverage and reduces data errors. The GIMP DEM has been corrected for negative elevations and errors in the north, and used to constrain the final DEM. The recently acquired observations and increased data coverage give a strong advantage to this DEM relative to previous models, based on lower-resolution, more temporally scattered data (e.g. a decade of observations or only ICESat data, limited to three annual 35-day acquisition periods). Furthermore, as surface changes occur continuously, an up-to-date DEM is necessary to correctly constrain the observations, thereby ensuring an accurate change detection or modeling process.

  2. Simultaneous observation of HF-enhanced plasma waves and HF-wave self-focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, A.; Duncan, L.M.

    1984-07-01

    Intense HF-radiowaves of the ordinary mode transmitted from the ground enhance plasma waves near the reflection height. These have been extensively studied in the past by the use of Incohernt-Scatter-Radars. Intense HF-radiowaves propagating in the ionosphere also produce electron density irregularities with scale sizes much larger than the HF wavelength of approx.60 m. These have been observed by radio star intensity scintillations. For the past 2 years a new method was used at Arecibo, P.R. which allows radar- and scintillation-measurements at 430 MHz to be performed simultaneously along the same line of sight. The scale sizes deduced from the scintillation measurements are shorter than the scale sizes observed with the radar and are inconsistent with the HF-power density thresholds predicted by existing theories.

  3. Monitoring of Ground Movement and Generation of Digital Elevation Models Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has the potential for measuring deformation of the earth's surface with very high accuracy and for the development of digital elevation models. Both capabilities are of high relevance for ground movement assessment. In addition, when archived raw data is available (post 1992), recent historic movement may be quantifiable. InSAR utilizes satellite-based data acquired at two different times along orbits of a similar trajectory to detect changes in the ground surface elevation. This technique can be used to monitor ground movement for rectangular areas as large as 100 kilometers on a side. Knowledge of topography, geology, trends and mechanics of existing ground movement is required for successful interpretation of InSAR data. The detection of ground surface deformation in terrain of high slope relief terrain is difficult. For ground deformation mapping by means of InSAR it is necessary to separate the motion-related and the topographic phase contributions. This is achieved by using a low resolution digital elevation model (DEM) during the processing of InSAR data. The application of InSAR technology to mining areas provides monitoring of not only the active mine areas but also the adjacent regions that has been affected by mining. Thus InSAR technique proves to be an essential ground monitoring methods in future for mining areas. The results from the InSAR analysis are compared with data from a ground-based monitoring system comprised of measured survey prisms for an open pit mine in Canada. InSAR analysis provided the location of the stable site for relocating the crusher which was affected by movement of pit slope. The presentation will show the application of InSAR technology to various mines in USA and Canada. Besides subsidence evaluation, InSAR data is also used to generate digital elevation models (DEM) and digital terrain models (DTM). The DEM and DTM derived from InSAR data for a mine in Canada is compared with the survey and LIDAR data to demonstrate the applicability of InSAR data to model surface topography.

  4. Simulation of post-ADC digital beamforming for large aperture array radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, G.; Borg, J.; Johansson, J.; Lundberg Nordenvaad, M.; Wannberg, G.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents simulations and methods developed to investigate the feasibility of using a Fractional-Sample-Delay (FSD) system in the planned EISCAT_3D incoherent scatter radar. Key requirements include a frequency-independent beam direction over a 30 MHz band centered around 220 MHz, with correct reconstruction of pulse lengths down to 200 ns. The clock jitter from sample to sample must be extremely low for the integer sample delays. The FSD must also be able to delay the 30 MHz wide signal band by 1/1024th of a sample without introducing phase shifts, and it must operate entirely in baseband. An extensive simulation system based on mathematical models has been developed, with inclusion of performance-degrading aspects such as noise, timing error, and bandwidth. Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters in the baseband of a band-pass-sampled signal have been used to apply true time delay beamforming. It has been confirmed that such use is both possible and well behaved. The target beam-pointing accuracy of 0.06 is achievable using optimized FIR filters with lengths of 36 taps and an 18 bit coefficient resolution. Even though the minimum fractional delay step necessary for beamforming is 13.1 ps, the maximum sampling timing error allowed in the array is found to be ? ? 120 ps if the errors are close to statistically independent.

  5. A new 1 km Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Derived From Combined Satellite Radar and Laser Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, J. A.; Bamber, J. L.; Gomez-Dans, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of Antarctica have been derived, previously, from satellite radar altimetry (SRA) and limited terrestrial data. Near the ice sheet margins and in areas of steep relief the SRA data tend to have relatively poor coverage and accuracy. To remedy this and to extend the coverage beyond the latitudinal limit of the SRA missions (81.5° S) we have combined laser altimeter measurements from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat with SRA data from the geodetic phase of ERS-1. The former provide decimetre vertical accuracy but poor spatial coverage. The latter have excellent spatial coverage but poorer vertical accuracy. By combining the radar and laser data using an optimal approach we have maximised the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the DEM and minimised the number of grid cells with an interpolated elevation estimate. We assessed the optimum resolution for producing a DEM which was found to be 1 km. This resulted in just under 35% of grid cells having an interpolated value. The accuracy of the final DEM was assessed using a suite of independent airborne altimeter data. The RMS error in the new DEM was found to be roughly half that of the best previous 5 km resolution, SRA-derived DEM, with marked improvements in the steeper marginal and mountainous areas and between 81.5 and 86° S. RMS differences varied from 4.84 m over the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica to 29.28 m when compared to a more limited dataset over the Antarctic Peninsula. The airborne data sets were used to produce an error map for the DEM by developing a multiple linear regression model based on the variables known to influence errors in the DEM. Errors were found to correlate highly with surface slope, roughness and density of satellite data points. Errors ranged from typically sim1 m over the ice shelves to about 4-10 m for the majority of the grounded ice sheet. In the steeply sloping margins and mountain ranges the estimated error is several 10's m. Slightly less than 7% of the area covered by the satellite data had an estimated random error greater than 20 m.

  6. Digital ionosonde observations during equatorial spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, P. E.; Kelley, M. C.

    1986-05-01

    Equatorial spread F data taken with a digital ionosonde/HF radar located at Huancayo, Peru, are presented and discussed. A modified phenomenology is developed which used the system's ability to do echo location. The onset of irregularities is seen to occur in the east and to move westward, while inside this large-scale structure the plasma is found to drift eastward. A very curious difference has been identified between spread F observations with the ionosonde and with the VHF radar at Jicamarca. At VHF, spread F onset often occurs when the ionosphere is rising, whereas in all five examples presented the digital ionosonde detected onset when the apparent ionosphere motion was downward. The result even held on the one night of common data taking. The effect could be instrumental, but maybe related to the considerable orographic differences in the two sites. During one night, data were obtained simultaneously with the HF radar, a rocket, and the Jicamarca VHF radar; comparisons of these data are discussed in detail. Additional evidence is presented that acoustic gravity waves play a role in the development of equatorial spread F and in the formation of detached plumes. To be self-consistent, the gravity waves must come from nearby sources such as the tropical rain forest to the east of Jicamarca.

  7. A new digital elevation model of the Antarctic derived from combined satellite radar altimter and GLAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Gomez-Dans, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of Antarctica have been derived, previously, from satellite radar altimetry (SRA) and limited terrestrial data of relatively poor vertical accuracy. Near the ice sheet margins and in other areas of steep relief the SRA data tend to have both poor coverage and accuracy. To remedy this and to extend the coverage south of the latitudinal limit of the SRA missions (81.5° S) we have combined laser altimeter measurements from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat with SRA data from the geodetic phase of the ERS-1 satellite mission. The former provide decimetre vertical accuracy but with poor spatial coverage: they have, for example, an across-track spacing of about 20 km at 70° S. The latter have excellent spatial coverage away from steep relief (across-track spacing by contrast is 2.8 km at 70° S) but a poorer vertical accuracy. By combining the radar and laser data using an optimal approach we have maximised the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the DEM and minimised the number of grid cells with an interpolated elevation estimate. A slope-dependent bias, however, exists between the laser and radar altimeter height estimates due to the different footprint sizes of the two instruments and the way the SRA data were processed. We have calculated and removed the bias (which was found to be a function of surface slope) from the SRA data and merged them with the laser data by weighting them as a function of their RMS error. We assessed the optimum resolution for producing a DEM based on a trade-off between increased resolution and increased interpolation of grid cells. The optimum resolution was found to be 2 km, which resulted in less than 40% of cells being interpolated (i.e. cells where no measurements exist). At resolutions smaller than this the percentage of interpolated cells rapidly increases. The resolution is also a trade-off between the along and across-track spacing of the data, which varies with latitude. It reflects the spatial resolution justified by the global data coverage. Thus, close to the latitudinal limit of ICESat (86° S) a higher resolution could be justified. The accuracy of the final DEM was assessed using independent airborne laser altimeter data for a high relief region of West Antarctica. The DEM contains a wealth of information related to ice flow. This is particularly apparent for the two largest ice shelves-the Filchner-Ronne and Ross-where the effect of flow of ice streams and outlet glaciers can be traced as far as the calving fronts. Rifts are clearly visible as are the surface expression of subglacial lakes and other basal features. At this resolution, surface roughness, related to subglacial topography, is also discernable.

  8. Geophysical phenomena in the ionosphere-magnetosphere system intiated by powerful HF ratio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N.; Borisova, T.; Kornienko, V.; Rietveld, M.; Thide, B.; Kosch, M.

    Geophysical phenomena in the near Earth space environment initiated by the controlled injection of strong HF radio waves into nightside auroral ionosphere along magnetic field-aligned direction are considered. HF pumping experiments were carried out by using the Tromso HF heating facility in the northern Norway. A bistatic HF Doppler radio scattering setup has been used in conjuction with the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar, the DASI digital all-sky imager, and the IMAGE magnetometer network in Scandinavia to find an evidence that effects due to HF pump wave produce the modification of the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling which can lead to triggering of the auroral activations above Tromso. One can distinguish the following features related to auroral activations in course of the Tromso HF pumping experiments: distinctive features and generation of spectral broadening components in dynamic HF radio scatter Doppler spectra; increase of the local ionospheric electric field; modification of the auroral arc and its break-up above Tromso; abrupt increase of the electron density; strong enhancements (in 2-3 times) of the electron and ion temperatures in a wide altitude range from 200 to 600 km; the generation of ion outflows at heights above 350 km; auroral activations above Tromso. Background geophysical conditions, including the orientation of the ionospheric electric field, behavior of the interplanetary magnetic field, AE-index and Dst variation were taken into consideration.The possible mechanisms for these activations through the parallel electric field generation, the excitation of the current-driven instabilities and formation of the pump-induced low - altitude (350 - 1000 km) acceleration region are discussed.

  9. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-12-01

    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  10. Interface and post-processing requirements to insert an acousto-optic range-Doppler processor into an advanced radar digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrett, Rodney A.; Dean, R.; McCarthy, Daniel F.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Caraway, Willie

    1995-06-01

    The interfacing and post-processing requirements for the development and insertion of an acousto-optic (AO), range-Doppler processor will be described. This system has been configured to operate as an integral part of the signal processing chain of an advanced spread- spectrum radar developed by the US Army Missile Command (MICOM). This MICOM radar transmits a continuous repeated, biphase-coded waveform and processes a block of received data to detect and track targets i range and Doppler in the presence of severe ground clutter. Multiple code rates are processed to extend the range window through application of residue number techniques. Range and Doppler processing are achieved in the AO processor using an additive triple-product processor architecture that coherently detects the range-Doppler information on a high-speed, custom 3D CCD detector array developed by the Army Research Laboratory. We present the interfaces to the radar and the post-processing of the data produced by the AO range-Doppler processor into the format required by the MICOM signal processor. The interfaces comprise the extraction of digital in-phase and quadrature data, the condition of this data for the AO range-Doppler processor, and the insertion of the post- processed optical data into the radar signal processor. Timing and latency issues are critical to real-time operation (creating range-Doppler images at approximately 1600 Hz frames rates) within the MICOM radar. The post-processing section cover optical processor architecture/post-processing tradeoffs, focusing on requirements, algorithms, and hardware implementation.

  11. A new digital all-sky imager experiment for optical auroral studies in conjunction with the Scandinavian twin auroral radar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Hagfors, T.; Nielsen, E.

    1998-02-01

    Studies of the relationship between the optical aurorae and the ionospheric electric fields, as observed by the bi-static Scandinavian twin auroral coherent backscatter radar experiment (STARE) and the tri-static European incoherent backscatter radar facility (EISCAT), are to be undertaken in Scandinavia. For this purpose, an unmanned and fully automatic low-light-level television camera system, coupled to an all-sky lens, has been constructed. A personal computer controls all aspects of the instrument, operating it for all dark and moon-free periods. Monochrome optical data, usually at 557.7 nm, are pre-processed in real time at the recording site. The transformed images are stored digitally to magneto-optical disk with a temporal and spatial resolution directly compatible with the STARE radar data, thus making comparisons easy. Simultaneous TV recordings to tape may be made on a campaign basis. The camera has been calibrated for all gain settings, thereby permitting auroral images to be recalled in any sequence with the same absolute intensity scale. Modem communication permits remote control, trouble shooting and quick-look data transfers.

  12. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  13. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Rosen, Paul A.; Caro, Edward; Crippen, Robert; Duren, Riley; Hensley, Scott; Kobrick, Michael; Paller, Mimi; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Roth, Ladislav; Seal, David; Shaffer, Scott; Shimada, Joanne; Umland, Jeffrey; Werner, Marian; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Alsdorf, Douglas

    2007-06-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set.

  14. Artificial Aurora and Irregularity Generation at Low- and Mid-Latitude HF Heating Facilities: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    From the 1970's to the present, artificial aurora and field aligned irregularities have been produced at the mid-latitude HF facilities in Platteville, Colorado; Arecibo, Puerto Rico; and SURA, Russia. The artificial optical displays were produced by high power HF radio waves with effective radiated powers in the 80 to 250 Megawatt range. The high power electromagnetic waves excite Langmuir cavitons near the HF wave reflection altitude. Suprathermal electrons are released during the caviton collapse and collisions with atomic oxygen and other neutral atoms produce the artificial aurora. Ground based images of the optical emissions have been used to (1) show artificial and natural irregularities in the E- and F-region, (2) provide remote sensing of neutral winds and plasma drifts, and (3) yield estimates of the composition of the upper atmosphere in the HF interaction region. Currently, the Arecibo HF facility which was destroyed in 1999 by Hurricane Floyd is being reconstituted over the Arecibo dish using crossed-dipoles coupled to a secondary reflector. This new facility should be completed by 2011 for operation near 5 and 8 MHz. In addition, the feasibility of putting a heating facility near the equator is being studied. Numerical simulations using high power electromagnetic waves coupled to the NRL SAMI3 physics based ionosphere model is providing insight to use of these new facilities. Using the Arecibo HF facility, the geomagnetic conjugate region in Argentina should be able to measure artificial aurora as well as both electron density and electron temperature perturbations. A suite of ionospheric sensors comprised of a low-light-level imager, an incoherent scatter radar, and a digital ionosonde would be needed for these observations. An equatorial HF facility would be able to produce symmetric patches of artificial aurora as well as trigger equatorial bubbles by seeding localized density reductions in the plasma.

  15. Radar-82; Proceedings of the International Conference, London, England, October 18-20, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics related to radar systems are considered, taking into account intrapulse polarization agile radar, search strategies of phased array radars, design and performance considerations in modern phased array radar, a new generation airborne synthetic aperture radar system, results from a new dual band radar for sea surface and aircraft search, modular survivable radar for battlefield surveillance applications, and the Dolphin naval surveillance radar. Other subjects explored are concerned with sequential detection and MTI, adaptive processing techniques, HF/VHF radar, coherent radar processing, multisite radar operation, radar sea clutter, air traffic control, simulation and data processing, aspects of target recognition, low probability of intercept radar and passive operation, signal processing, low sidelobe antennas, and radar returns from weather and land. Attention is also given to beam forming with phased array antennas, optical fiber networks for signal distribution and control in phased array radars, and radar tracking systems. For individual items see A84-10752 to A84-10841

  16. Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhanov, Oleg A.; Kirichenko, Dmitri; Vernik, Igor V.; Filippov, Timur V.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Webber, Robert; Dotsenko, Vladimir; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Tang, Jia Cao; Sahu, Anubhav; Shevchenko, Pavel; Miller, Robert; Kaplan, Steven B.; Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan

    Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with direct digitization of wide band, high frequency radio frequency (RF) signals. At the same time the availability of relatively small 4K cryocoolers has lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled digital electronic systems. Recently, we have achieved a major breakthrough in the development, demonstration, and successful delivery of the cryocooled superconductor digital-RF receivers directly digitizing signals in a broad range from kilohertz to gigahertz. These essentially hybrid-technology systems combine a variety of superconductor and semiconductor technologies packaged with two-stage commercial cryocoolers: cryogenic Nb mixed-signal and digital circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, room-temperature amplifiers, FPGA processing and control circuitry. The demonstrated cryocooled digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals in X-band and performing signal acquisition in HF to L-band at 30GHz clock frequencies.

  17. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  18. Large phased-array radars

    SciTech Connect

    Brookner, D.E.

    1988-12-15

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  19. Micropower impulse radar

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.; McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s Laser Directorate stem from Nova`s transient digitizer. The MIR`s extraordinary range of applications include security, search and rescue, life support, nondestructive evaluation, and transportation.

  20. Investigation and Development of Data-Driven D-Region Model for HF Systems Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Space Environment Corporation (SEC) and RP Consultants (RPC) are to develop and validate a weather-capable D region model for making High Frequency (HF) absorption predictions in support of the HF communications and radar communities. The weather-capable model will assimilate solar and earth space observations from NASA satellites. The model will account for solar-induced impacts on HF absorption, including X-rays, Solar Proton Events (SPE's), and auroral precipitation. The work plan includes: I . Optimize D-region model to quickly obtain ion and electron densities for proper HF absorption calculations. 2. Develop indices-driven modules for D-region ionization sources for low, mid, & high latitudes including X-rays, cosmic rays, auroral precipitation, & solar protons. (Note: solar spectrum & auroral modules already exist). 3. Setup low-cost monitors of existing HF beacons and add one single-frequency beacon. 4. Use PENEX HF-link database with HF monitor data to validate D-region/HF absorption model using climatological ionization drivers. 5. Develop algorithms to assimilate NASA satellite data of solar, interplanetary, and auroral observations into ionization source modules. 6. Use PENEX HF-link & HF-beacon data for skill score comparison of assimilation versus climatological D-region/HF absorption model. Only some satellites are available for the PENEX time period, thus, HF-beacon data is necessary. 7. Use HF beacon monitors to develop HF-link data assimilation algorithms for regional improvement to the D-region/HF absorption model.

  1. Bistatic radar sea state monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruck, G. T.; Barrick, D. E.; Kaliszewski, T.

    1972-01-01

    Bistatic radar techniques were examined for remote measurement of the two-dimensional surface wave height spectrum of the ocean. One technique operates at high frequencies (HF), 3-30 MHz, and the other at ultrahigh frequencies (UHF), approximately 1 GHz. Only a preliminary theoretical examination of the UHF technique was performed; however the principle underlying the HF technique was demonstrated experimentally with results indicating that an HF bistatic system using a surface transmitter and an orbital receiver would be capable of measuring the two-dimensional wave height spectrum in the vicinity of the transmitter. An HF bistatic system could also be used with an airborne receiver for ground truth ocean wave spectrum measurements. Preliminary system requirements and hardware configurations are discussed for both an orbital system and an aircraft verification experiment.

  2. SMAP's Radar OBP Algorithm Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Charles; Spencer, Michael W.; Veilleux, Louise; Chan, Samuel; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason; Nguyen, Kayla

    2009-01-01

    An approach for algorithm specifications and development is described for SMAP's radar onboard processor with multi-stage demodulation and decimation bandpass digital filter. Point target simulation is used to verify and validate the filter design with the usual radar performance parameters. Preliminary FPGA implementation is also discussed.

  3. A new 1 km digital elevation model of the Antarctic derived from combined satellite radar and laser data Part 1: Data and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Gomez-Dans, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of Antarctica have been derived, previously, from satellite radar altimetry (SRA) and limited terrestrial data. Near the ice sheet margins and in other areas of steep relief the SRA data tend to have relatively poor coverage and accuracy. To remedy this and to extend the coverage beyond the latitudinal limit of the SRA missions (81.5° S) we have combined laser altimeter measurements from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat with SRA data from the geodetic phase of the ERS-1 satellite mission. The former provide decimetre vertical accuracy but with poor spatial coverage. The latter have excellent spatial coverage but a poorer vertical accuracy. By combining the radar and laser data using an optimal approach we have maximised the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the DEM and minimised the number of grid cells with an interpolated elevation estimate. We assessed the optimum resolution for producing a DEM based on a trade-off between resolution and interpolated cells, which was found to be 1 km. This resulted in just under 35% of grid cells having an interpolated value. The accuracy of the final DEM was assessed using a suite of independent airborne altimeter data and used to produce an error map. The RMS error in the new DEM was found to be roughly half that of the best previous 5 km resolution, SRA-derived DEM, with marked improvements in the steeper marginal and mountainous areas and between 81.5 and 86° S. The DEM contains a wealth of information related to ice flow. This is particularly apparent for the two largest ice shelves the Filchner-Ronne and Ross where the surface expression of flow of ice streams and outlet glaciers can be traced from the grounding line to the calving front. The surface expression of subglacial lakes and other basal features are also illustrated. We also use the DEM to derive new estimates of balance velocities and ice divide locations.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing of Landscape Freeze/Thaw State Dynamics for Complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using Multi-Sensor Radar and SRTM Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K.; Kimball, J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    The annual freeze/thaw cycle drives the length of the growing season in the boreal forest, and is a major factor determining annual productivity and associated exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Variations in freeze/thaw processes are spatially and temporally complex in boreal environments, particularly in areas of complex topography and in fire disturbance regimes. We investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of seasonal freeze/thaw dynamics in complex boreal landscapes, as derived from radar backscatter measured with ERS (C-band, VV polarization, 200m resolution) and JERS-1 (L-band, HH polarization, 100m resolution) Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), and with the SeaWinds scatterometer (Ku-band, 25km resolution). C- and L-band backscatter are applied to characterize freeze/thaw transitions for a chronosequence of recovering burn sites near Delta Junction, Alaska, and for a region of complex topography on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freeze/thaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields. A temporal change discriminator is applied to classify time series radar imagery to classify the landscape freeze-thaw state. We apply a 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to orthorectify the time series SAR imagery over the complex terrain site. This DEM was integrated with the SAR imagery to examine elevation and slope aspect effects on freeze/thaw transitions. Scaling assessments of the relationship between SAR and SeaWinds backscatter provide a means for determining sub-grid spatial variability in land cover, terrain and freeze/thaw processes, based on semi-variogram analyses. Results show that the high-resolution SARs may be applied to map freeze/thaw transitions in complex landscapes. In regions of complex terrain, dynamics related to elevation and slope aspect are delineated. Fusion with accurate DEM information as provided by SRTM facilitates orthorectification and analysis of terrain effects. The SARs also observe distinguishable differences in backscatter amplitude response and in the timing of freeze/thaw transitions associated with varying disturbance regimes driven by forest fire. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering landscape heterogeneity for development of remote sensing techniques for monitoring phenological processes across complex, heterogeneous landscapes in boreal ecosystems. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and the University of Montana under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. High-frequency radar observations of ocean surface currents.

    PubMed

    Paduan, Jeffrey D; Washburn, Libe

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the discovery, development, and use of high-frequency (HF) radio wave backscatter in oceanography. HF radars, as the instruments are commonly called, remotely measure ocean surface currents by exploiting a Bragg resonant backscatter phenomenon. Electromagnetic waves in the HF band (3-30 MHz) have wavelengths that are commensurate with wind-driven gravity waves on the ocean surface; the ocean waves whose wavelengths are exactly half as long as those of the broadcast radio waves are responsible for the resonant backscatter. Networks of HF radar systems are capable of mapping surface currents hourly out to ranges approaching 200 km with a horizontal resolution of a few kilometers. Such information has many uses, including search and rescue support and oil-spill mitigation in real time and larval population connectivity assessment when viewed over many years. Today, HF radar networks form the backbone of many ocean observing systems, and the data are assimilated into ocean circulation models. PMID:22809196

  6. In-flight detection of errors for enhanced aircraft flight safety and vertical accuracy improvement using digital terrain elevation data with an inertial navigation system, global positioning system and radar altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Robert Anthony

    This dissertation discusses integration architectures using digital terrain elevation data (DTED) with an inertial navigation system (INS), a global positioning system (GPS) and a radar altimeter. Two integration architectures are considered: DTED with INS, GPS and radar altimeter for aircraft vertical accuracy improvement during the final approach; and DTED with kinematic GPS (KGPS) and a radar altimeter for enhanced aircraft flight safety. Error models were generated and verified with flight-test data. High-fidelity simulation was used to investigate vertical accuracy improvement. Improvement was found to be 1.2 meters, a reduction of 28.6% in the vertical error. Flight testing was performed to assess the feasibility of enhanced flight safety. Reasons for enhanced flight safety are twofold: (1) the ad-hoc integration of terrain elevation data into the cockpit conceivably may create scenarios which lead to accidents because the cockpit display is quite realistic, and (2) reduction of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). The radar altimeter is the principle sensor used to compare navigation outputs with publicly available DTED. Results show that it is feasible to define an operationally useful probability of agreement, Pa, among KGPS, DTED and the radar altimeter, by using a mean-square-difference test statistic. This probability of agreement can be used to warn the pilot if the terrain depiction does not agree with the navigation solution provided by KGPS, thus enhancing flight safety.

  7. Aircraft radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Helmut E.

    1987-04-01

    Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

  8. First 100 ms of HF modification at Troms, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuth, F. T.; Isham, B.; Rietveld, M. T.; Hagfors, T.; La Hoz, C.

    2004-11-01

    Experiments were performed with the high-power, high-frequency (HF) facility at Troms, Norway to test theoretical predictions for the excitation of ion and Langmuir oscillations in the ionosphere. The principal diagnostic of wave-plasma interactions was the VHF radar at the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility. This radar is collocated with the HF facility. High-resolution radar techniques were used to monitor the temporal development of the ion and Langmuir oscillations. HF pulses 100 ms in duration were periodically transmitted into a smooth background F region plasma. Measurements of the radar backscatter spectra show that all key spectral features predicted by strong Langmuir turbulence theory are simultaneously present in the plasma and that their evolution is in agreement with theoretical expectations. However, several new features have been observed that are not anticipated by current theory. The experimental results reinforce the notion that new theoretical developments are needed to accommodate the large HF electric fields produced at Troms and treat the electron acceleration process in a self-consistent fashion.

  9. Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents examples of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from two study sites in southeastern Florida where karstic Pleistocene platform carbonates that comprise the unconfined Biscayne aquifer were imaged. Important features shown on resultant GPR profiles include: (1) upward and lateral qualitative interpretative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity; (2) paleotopographic relief on karstic subaerial exposure surfaces; and (3) vertical stacking of chronostratigraphic high-frequency cycles (HFCs). These characteristics were verified by comparison to rock properties observed and measured in core samples, and identified in digital optical borehole images. Results demonstrate that an empirical relation exists between measured whole-core porosity and hydraulic conductivity, observed porosity on digital optical borehole images, formation conductivity, and GPR reflection amplitudes-as porosity and hydraulic conductivity determined from core and borehole images increases, formation conductivity increases, and GPR reflection amplitude decreases. This relation allows for qualitative interpretation of the vertical and lateral distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs. Two subtidal HFCs in the uppermost Biscayne aquifer have significantly unique populations of whole-core porosity values and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Porosity measurements from one cycle has a median value about two to three times greater than the values from the other HFC, and median values of vertical hydraulic-conductivity about three orders of magnitude higher than the other HFC. The HFC with the higher porosity and hydraulic conductivity values is shown as a discrete package of relatively low-amplitude reflections, whereas the HFC characterized by lower porosity and hydraulic-conductivity measurements is expressed by higher amplitude reflections. Porosity and hydraulic-conductivity values measured from whole-core samples, and vuggy porosity identified on digital borehole images from shallowing-upward, peritidal HFCs show that the highest porosity occurs at the base of the cycles, moderate porosity at the middle of the cycles, and lowest porosity occurs at the top of cycles. Hydraulic conductivity is also highest at the base of the peritidal cycles and lowest in the middle to upper parts of cycles. This change in porosity and hydraulic conductivity from bottom to top is visible as an upward variation in reflection amplitude on GPR profiles-lowest amplitudes at the base and highest at the cycle tops. This study demonstrates that GPR can be used to show the qualitative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within a cycle-stratigraphic framework composed of carbonate HFCs. The distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs is related to depositional textures. The upward and lateral patterns of the rock facies within the HFCs can be translated to geophysical-log properties and radar facies configurations that could aid in interpretation and prediction of ground-water flow through a carbonate aquifer. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. HiCIRF: A high-fidelity HF channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickisch, L. J.; St. John, Gavin; Fridman, Sergey V.; Hausman, Mark A.; Coleman, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    A high-fidelity HF channel simulation has been developed that is suitable for Over-the-Horizon Radar (OTHR) and HF communication system design studies and test planning. The simulation capability is called HiCIRF, for High-frequency Channel Impulse Response Function. HiCIRF provides simulated HF signals corresponding to transmissions from individual transmitter array elements to individual receiver array elements for propagation through the naturally disturbed or undisturbed ionospheric channel. Both one-way link geometries and two-way radar geometries can be simulated. HiCIRF incorporates numerical ray tracing and stochastic signal structure computations to realistically simulate signal scatter by small-scale ionization structure. Stochastic signal generation is employed to generate signal realizations that can be used for OTHR array design and advanced signal processing studies.

  11. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  12. A new 1 km digital elevation model of the Antarctic derived from combined satellite radar and laser data - Part 1: Data and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Gomez-Dans, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the whole of Antarctica have been derived, previously, from satellite radar altimetry (SRA) and limited terrestrial data. Near the ice sheet margins and in other areas of steep relief the SRA data tend to have relatively poor coverage and accuracy. To remedy this and to extend the coverage beyond the latitudinal limit of the SRA missions (81.5° S) we have combined laser altimeter measurements from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat with SRA data from the geodetic phase of the ERS-1 satellite mission. The former provide decimetre vertical accuracy but with poor spatial coverage. The latter have excellent spatial coverage but a poorer vertical accuracy. By combining the radar and laser data using an optimal approach we have maximised the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the DEM and minimised the number of grid cells with an interpolated elevation estimate. We assessed the optimum resolution for producing a DEM based on a trade-off between resolution and interpolated cells, which was found to be 1 km. This resulted in just under 32% of grid cells having an interpolated value. The accuracy of the final DEM was assessed using a suite of independent airborne altimeter data and used to produce an error map. The RMS error in the new DEM was found to be roughly half that of the best previous 5 km resolution, SRA-derived DEM, with marked improvements in the steeper marginal and mountainous areas and between 81.5 and 86° S. The DEM contains a wealth of information related to ice flow. This is particularly apparent for the two largest ice shelves - the Filchner-Ronne and Ross - where the surface expression of flow of ice streams and outlet glaciers can be traced from the grounding line to the calving front. The surface expression of subglacial lakes and other basal features are also illustrated. We also use the DEM to derive new estimates of balance velocities and ice divide locations.

  13. MESAR - An advanced experimental phased array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billam, E. R.; Harvey, D. H.

    MESAR (Multifunction Electronically Scanned Adaptive Radar) is an experimental phase array radar which exploits recent advances in technology to reduce cost and realize the potential of phased array radar to a far greater extent than has so far been achieved. It employs a solid state active array, has a digital beamformer, and features programmable waveform generation and signal processing. In this paper, the MESAR array, transmit-receive module, digital beamforming, digital waveform generator, digital pulse compressor, and programmable signal processor are described. The system aspects of reliability, duty factor, power, and cost are addressed.

  14. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    A digital base band converter (DBBC) system has been developed by the Istituto di Radioastronomia (Noto, Italy) for increasing the sensitivity of European VLBI Network (EVN) by expanding the full observed bandwidth using numerical methods. The output data rate of this VLBI-backend is raised from 1 to 4 Gbps for each radiotelescope. All operations related to the signal processing (frequency translation, amplification, frequency generation with local oscillators, etc.) are transferred to the digital domain, which allows - in addition to well-known advantages coming from digital technologies - achieving better repeatability, precision, simplicity, etc. The maximum input band of DBBC system is 3.5 GHz, and the instantaneous bandwidth is up to 1 GHz for each radio frequency/intermediate frequency (RF/IF) out of the eight possible. This backend is a highly powerful platform for other radioastronomy applications, and a number of additional so-called personalities have been developed and used. This includes PFB (polyphase filter bank) receivers and Spectra for high resolution spectroscopy. An additional new development with the same aim - to use the DBBC system as a multi-purpose backend - is related to the bi-static radar observations including Radar VLBI. In such observations it is possible to study the population of space debris, with detection of even centimetre class fragments. A powerful transmitter is used to illuminate the sky region to be analyzed, and the echoes coming from known or unknown objects are reflected to one or more groundbased telescopes thus producing a single-dish or interferometric detection. The DBBC Radar VLBI personality is able to realize a high-resolution spectrum analysis, maintaining in the central area the echo signal at the expected frequency including the Doppler shift of frequency. For extremely weak signals a very large integration time is needed, so for this personality different input parameters are provided. The realtime information can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sistēma izstrādāta Noto Radioastronomijas institūtā. Sistēmas galvenaisuzdevums - palielināt visa Eiropas VLBI tīkla jutību - realizēts, palielinotvisas novērojamās joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu signālu apstrādes metodes.Izejas datu plūsma palielināta no 1 līdz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoperācijas, kas saistītas ar signālu apstrādi (frekvences pārveidošana, pastiprinājums,iekšējie ģeneratori, utt.), realizētas digitālā formā, kas ļauj iegūt nozīmīgusuzlabojumus atkārtojamībā, precizitātē, vienkāršībā, nemaz neminot vispārzināmāspriekšrocības, ko nodrošina digitālo tehnoloģiju izmantošana. Maksimālā ieejassignāla frekvenču josla ir 3.5 GHz, un momentānais joslas platums ir līdz 1 GHz uzkatru no astoņiem iespējamajiem RF/IF kanāliem. Šī datu reģistrācijas sistēma irļoti veiktspējīga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet arī citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstrādāta vesela virkne programmatūras pakotņu, kasvēl vairāk paplašina sistēmas funkcionalitāti. Tas ietver PFB (Polifāzes FiltruBanka) uztvērējus "Spectra”, kas piemēroti augstas izšķirtspējas spektroskopijasvajadzībām. Papildus realizēts jaunas programmatūras risinājums, ar mērķiizmantot DBBC sistēmu kā daudzfunkcionālu datu ciparošanas iekārtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara novērojumiem, tai skaitā arī radara VLBInovērojumiem. Šāda veida novērojumos tiek pētīta kosmisko atlūzu populācija,nodrošinot iespēju detektēt pat centimetra izmēru objektus. Debess apgabalaapstarošanai tiek izmantots jaudīgs raidītājs, un tiek analizēts atbalss signāls, kasatstarojas no zināmiem vai nezināmiem objektiem un tiek uztverts ar vienu vaivairākiem teleskopiem uz Zemes, tādējādi realizējot vienas antenas vai interferometrisku signāla detektēšanu. DBBC sistēma ar radara VLBI programmatūruspēj realizēt augstas izšķirtspējas spektra analīzi, saglabājot atbalss signālu arsagaidāmo frekvenci centrālajā zonā un ieskaitot nepieciešamās Doplera frekvencesnobīdes korekcijas. Tālāk, izmantojot dažādus ievadparametrus, iespējamspielietot ļoti ilgu integrācijas laiku ārkārtīgi vāju signālu detektēšanai. Izmantojotreālā laika informāciju, turpmāk ir iespējams viegli analizēt nepieciešamo apgabaluun detektēt nezināmus objektus vai objektus ar neprecīzi zināmiem orbītu parametriem.Rakstā izklāstītas paredzamās minētās programmatūras funkcijas un tāsizmantošanas plāni pirmajos novērojumos.

  15. Error analysis in the digital elevation model of Kuwait desert derived from repeat pass synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kota S.; Al Jassar, Hala K.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the errors in the Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived through repeat pass SAR interferometry (InSAR). Out of 29 ASAR images available to us, 8 are selected for this study which has unique data set forming 7 InSAR pairs with single master image. The perpendicular component of baseline (B highmod) varies between 200 to 400 m to generate good quality DEMs. The Temporal baseline (T) varies from 35 days to 525 days to see the effect of temporal decorrelation. It is expected that all the DEMs be similar to each other spatially with in the noise limits. However, they differ very much with one another. The 7 DEMs are compared with the DEM of SRTM for the estimation of errors. The spatial and temporal distribution of errors in the DEM is analyzed by considering several case studies. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitable water vapour is analysed. Precipitable water vapour (PWV) corrections to the DEMs are implemented and found to have no significant effect. The reasons are explained. Temporal decorrelation of phases and soil moisture variations seem to have influence on the accuracy of the derived DEM. It is suggested that installing a number of corner reflectors (CRs) and the use of Permanent Scatter approach may improve the accuracy of the results in desert test sites.

  16. Temporal evolution of HF-enhanced plasma lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Ho, A. Y.; Lee, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is conducted of the temporal evolution of HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs). An extended theoretical model is presented which was originally intended to explain the intensity overshoot of the high frequency enhanced plasma line (HFPL). The extension takes into consideration the fact that nonresistant heating of plasma electrons by the parametrically excited Langmuir waves can yield an apparent increment in electron temperature. It is pointed out that the HFPLs refer to the radar echoes at frequencies near the sum and difference of the radar frequency and the HF heater wave frequency. It is suggested that backscatter of radar signals from plasma waves having a wavenumber of 18/m cause the enhanced spectral lines.

  17. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  18. A theoretical model for the temporal evolution of HF-enhanced plasma lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Ho, A. Y.; Lee, M. C.; Djuth, F. T.

    1990-01-01

    The HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) observed in the Arecibo heating experiments refer to the radar returns at frequencies near the sum and difference of the radar frequency and the HF-heatear frequency. Those enhanced spectral lines are caused by backscatter of radar signals from parametrically excited plasma waves having a wavenumber of 18 n. A nonlinear theory was developed to describe the temporal evolution of those specified plasma waves and their originating altitude interval of HFPLs observed at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are explained. The theoretical resultsagree well with the observation (Djuth and Sulzer, 1989).

  19. The potential of flood forecasting using a variable-resolution global Digital Terrain Model and flood extents from Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, David; Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Cloke, Hannah; Dance, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    A basic data requirement of a river flood inundation model is a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the reach being studied. The scale at which modeling is required determines the accuracy required of the DTM. For modeling floods in urban areas, a high resolution DTM such as that produced by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) is most useful, and large parts of many developed countries have now been mapped using LiDAR. In remoter areas, it is possible to model flooding on a larger scale using a lower resolution DTM, and in the near future the DTM of choice is likely to be that derived from the TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A variable-resolution global DTM obtained by combining existing high and low resolution data sets would be useful for modeling flood water dynamics globally, at high resolution wherever possible and at lower resolution over larger rivers in remote areas. A further important data resource used in flood modeling is the flood extent, commonly derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Flood extents become more useful if they are intersected with the DTM, when water level observations (WLOs) at the flood boundary can be estimated at various points along the river reach. To illustrate the utility of such a global DTM, two examples of recent research involving WLOs at opposite ends of the spatial scale are discussed. The first requires high resolution spatial data, and involves the assimilation of WLOs from a real sequence of high resolution SAR images into a flood model to update the model state with observations over time, and to estimate river discharge and model parameters, including river bathymetry and friction. The results indicate the feasibility of such an Earth Observation-based flood forecasting system. The second example is at a larger scale, and uses SAR-derived WLOs to improve the lower-resolution TanDEM-X DEM in the area covered by the flood extents. The resulting reduction in random height error is significant.

  20. Simultaneous measurements of HF-enhanced plasma waves and artificial field-aligned irregularities at Arecibo

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, S.T. ); Djuth, F.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Two radar systems with beams intersecting in the HF-modified F region were used to simultaneously measure HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) and artificial geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs). The Arecibo 430-MHz radar was used for the HFPL observations, and a portable 49.92-MHz backscatter radar was deployed on the island of Guadeloupe to monitor the AFAIs. The experiment was desgined to examine the degree to which HF-induced plasma turbulence influences the development of AFAIs. When the HF beam is stepped up in power, sustained HFPLs and AFAIs are first observed at the same HF power level, indicating that ponderomotively driven instabilities may be involved in the early time development of AFAIs. As the HF power is increased, the HFPL backscatter power begins to saturate at {approximately}70 MW effective radiated power (ERP). However, the backscatter from AFAIs is linearly dependent on HF power, even at the highest (120 MW ERP) HF power levels available at Arecibo. This suggests that additional processes may contribute to the development of AFAIs. For example, ponderomotively driven instabilities may give rise to weak geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities that are subsequently driven unstable by processes excited near the upper hybrid resonance. It is also likely that AFAIs greatly impact the development of HF-induced plasma turbulence at late times (>1 s) following HF turn-on. Once the ionosphere is preconditioned by high-power HF modifications, AFAIs and HFPLs can be simultaneously sustained at a much lower HF power level than that needed to originally excite them. The nature of the preconditioning process is currently not well understood. New theoretical initiatives are clearly needed to guide future experimental activity in this area.

  1. Improved techniques for monitoring the HF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, James E.; Clarke, Russell; Abbott, Derek

    2004-03-01

    A critical review of contemporary papers on modulation recognition, signal separation, and Single Station Location (SSL) is described in the context of High-Frequency (HF) radio-communications. High-frequency communications is undergoing resurgence despite advances in long-range satellite communication systems. Defense agencies are using the HF spectrum for backup communications as well as for spectrum surveillance applications. Spectrum management organizations are monitoring the HF spectrum to control and enforce licensing. This type of activity usually requires a system that is able to determine the location of a source of transmissions, separate valid signals from interferers and noise, and characterize signals-of-interest (SOI). The immediate aim is to show that commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment can be used to locate HF transmission sources, enhance SOIs and reject interference, and recognize signal types. The described work on single-station-location (SSL), signal separation, and modulation recognition is contributing to these goals. This paper describes the overall objectives and some of the disadvantages and benefits of various schemes for single-station-location (SSL), signal separation, and modulation recognition. It also proposes new approaches that may relieve shortcomings of existing methods -- including selection of benchmarks or modulations for various transmission scenarios and propagation modes, and use of multiple digital receivers or compression techniques to improve modulation recognition, signal separation, and location of HF emitters.

  2. Radar image registration and rectification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.

  3. Decorrelation in interferometric radar echoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Villasensor, John

    1992-01-01

    A radar interferometric technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high resolution, globally consistent approach to generation of digital elevation models. One implementation approach, that of utilizing a single SAR system in a nearly repeating orbit, is attractive not only for cost and complexity reasons but also in that it permits inference of changes in the surface over the orbit repeat cycle from the correlation properties of the radar echoes. The various sources contributing to the echo correlation statistics are characterized, and the term which most closely describes surficial change is isolated. There is decorrelation increasing with time, but digital terrain model generation remains feasible.

  4. Temporal Development of HF-Excited Langmuir and Ion Turbulence at Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuth, F. T.; DuBois, D. F.

    2015-10-01

    The Arecibo high-power, high-frequency (HF) facility and 430 MHz radar are used to examine the temporal development of the HF-induced Langmuir and ion turbulences from 1 ms to many minutes after the turn-on of the HF beam in the F region. All HF observations begin in a smooth, stratified, stable plasma. "Cold start" HF transmissions are employed to avoid remnant irregularities from prior HF transmissions. HF-excited plasma line (HFPL) and ion line echoes are used to monitor the evolution of the turbulence. In the evening/nighttime the HFPL develops in three reproducible stages. Over time scales of 0 to 10-20 ms (possibly 40 ms), the smooth plasma conditions are maintained, and the results are consistent with theoretical models of the excitation of strong Langmuir turbulence near HF reflection. This entails the initiation of the so-called "caviton production cycle." The turbulence from the parametric decay instability is detected at lower altitudes where the radar wave vector matches those of the HF-enhanced waves. The data suggests that the two processes coexist in the region in between. After ~40 ms the "overshoot process" begins and consists of a downward extension of the HFPL from the HF reflection region to heights ~1.1 km below followed by a retreat back to the reflection region. The whole overshoot process takes place over a time scale of ~3 s. Thereafter the echo remains near HF reflection for 20-90 s after HF turn-on. The HFPL echo subsequently breaks up into patches because of the formation of large-scale electron density structures in the plasma. New kinetic models indicate that suprathermal electrons excited in the plasma by, for example, caviton burn-out serve to regulate plasma turbulence in the modified ionospheric volume.

  5. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  6. Magnetic zenith effect in the ionospheric modification by an X-mode HF heater wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Haggstrom, I.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    We report experimental results aimed at an investigation of the magnetic zenith effect in the high latitude ionosphere F region from ionospheric modification by powerful HF heater wave with X-polarization. The ionospheric modification was produced by the HF heating facility at Troms (Norway) using the phased array with a narrow beam with of 6 degrees. Effective radiated power was varied between 450 and 1000 MW. The HF pump wave radiated in different directions relative to the magnetic field from 90 degrees (vertical) to 78 degrees (magnetic zenith) at frequencies near or above the ordinary-mode critical frequency. The response of the ionosphere plasma to the HF pump wave impact was checked by the UHF incoherent scatter radar located in the immediate vicinity of the HF heater. UHF radar was probing the plasma parameters, such as electron density and temperature (Ne and Te), HF-induced plasma and ion lines in the altitude range from 90 to 600 km. It was running in a scanning mode when UHF radar look angles were changed from 74 to 90 degrees by 1 or 2 degree step. It was clearly demonstrated that the strongest heater-induced effects took place in the magnetic field-aligned direction when HF pointing was also to the magnetic zenith. It was found that strong Ne enhancement of up to 80 % along magnetic field (artificial density ducts) were excited only under HF pumping towards magnetic zenith. The width of the artificial ducts comes to only 2 degrees. The Ne increases were accompanied by the Te enhancements of up to about 50 %. Less pronounced Te increases were also observed in the directions of 84 and 90 degrees. Strong Ne enhancements can be accompanied by excitation of strong HF-induced plasma and ion lines. Thus experimental results obtained points to the strong magnetic zenith effect due to self-focusing powerful HF radio wave with X-mode polarization.

  7. Superconductor Digital Electronics: -- Current Status, Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhanov, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Two major applications of superconductor electronics: communications and supercomputing will be presented. These areas hold a significant promise of a large impact on electronics state-of-the-art for the defense and commercial markets stemming from the fundamental advantages of superconductivity: simultaneous high speed and low power, lossless interconnect, natural quantization, and high sensitivity. The availability of relatively small cryocoolers lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled superconductor electronic systems. These fundamental advantages enabled a novel Digital-RF architecture - a disruptive technological approach changing wireless communications, radar, and surveillance system architectures dramatically. Practical results were achieved for Digital-RF systems in which wide-band, multi-band radio frequency signals are directly digitized and digital domain is expanded throughout the entire system. Digital-RF systems combine digital and mixed signal integrated circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, superconductor analog filter circuits, and semiconductor post-processing circuits. The demonstrated cryocooled Digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals, enabling multi-net data links, and performing signal acquisition from HF to L-band with 30 GHz clock frequencies. In supercomputing, superconductivity leads to the highest energy efficiencies per operation. Superconductor technology based on manipulation and ballistic transfer of magnetic flux quanta provides a superior low-power alternative to CMOS and other charge-transfer based device technologies. The fundamental energy consumption in SFQ circuits defined by flux quanta energy 2 x 10-19 J. Recently, a novel energy-efficient zero-static-power SFQ technology, eSFQ/ERSFQ was invented, which retains all advantages of standard RSFQ circuits: high-speed, dc power, internal memory. The voltage bias regulation, determined by SFQ clock, enables the zero-power at zero-activity regimes, indispensable for sensor and quantum bit readout.

  8. Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); van Zul, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods are disclosed for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

  9. Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Two alternative methods are presented for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

  10. Application of ground scatter returns for calibration of HF interferometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Pavlo; Nishitani, Nozomu; Oinats, Alexey V.; Tsuya, Taishi; St.-Maurice, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Information on the vertical angle of arrival (elevation) is crucial in determining propagation modes of high-frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) radio waves travelling through the ionosphere. The most advanced network of ionospheric HF radars, SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network), relies on interferometry to measure elevation, but this information is rarely used due to intrinsic difficulties with phase calibration as well as with the physical interpretation of the measured elevation patterns. In this work, we propose an empirical method of calibration for SuperDARN interferometry. The method utilises a well-defined dependence of elevation on range of ground scatter returns. "Fine tuning" of the phase is achieved based on a detailed analysis of phase fluctuation effects at very low elevation angles. The proposed technique has been successfully applied to data from the mid-latitude Hokkaido East SuperDARN radar. It can also be used at any other installation that utilises HF interferometry.

  11. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain) high frequency radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-08-01

    Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58-0.83 and 4.02-18.31 cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  12. Illumination of the Air Environment Using Radiation of HF Broadcast Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, V. I.; Lutsenko, I. V.; Popov, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the possibility of using illumination of the HF broadcast stations for location of air objects. The relationships for estimation of the detection range are obtained and requirements for the degree of suppression of a direct signal from the broadcast station are determined. Spectral characteristics of the signals from HF broadcast stations are studied experimentally for different polarizations of the received radiation. The possibility of air object detection using the Doppler effect is shown. Theoretical estimates of the radar cross section of air objects for different polarizations of the incident radiation are given. It is found experimentally that the radar cross section is about the same for the vertical and horizontal polarizations.

  13. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Planetary radar astronomy is the study of solar system entities (the moon, asteroids, and comets, as well as the major planets and their satellites and ring systems) by transmitting radio signals towards a target and receiving and analyzing the echoes.

  14. The Patriot radar in tactical air defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, David R.; Evans, William

    1988-05-01

    The Patriot radar is a C-band, phased-array, multifunction radar that, under the control of the weapon control computer in the engagement control station, performs target search and track; missile search, track, and communications during midcourse guidance; and target-via-missile terminal guidance. This paper describes the functions the radar performs and provides descriptions of the subsystems. The use of a multichannel, multifunction receiver and digital signal processor is emphasized to demonstrate the control and processing for multiple radar actions required to support the tactical air defense mission. A summary of results of an extensive test program at the White Sands Missile Range is presented.

  15. A MIMO FMCW radar approach to HFSWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, J. O.; Zlzer, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we propose one possible approach how to apply the concept of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) to monostatic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) in a maritime environment. Common tasks for a HFSWR are sea-state monitoring and ship detection, where our focus is on ship detection. A limiting factor in HFSWR is the available bandwidth, which is inversely proportional to the range resolution capability of the radar and typical below 100 kHz. The question is how to extend or combine a conventional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) FMCW phased-array type radar with stretch processing and the colocated MIMO concept to "reuse" the very limited HF radar band resources. Another important question to answer is how MIMO FMCW waveforms can be separated at the receiver.

  16. Cascade spectrum of HF enhanced plasma lines generated in HF heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Analyzed in this paper is the cascade spectrum of Langmuir waves, which are the high-frequency sideband of the parametric decay instability or oscillating two-stream instability excited by an O mode HF heating wave. It involves the decay of a Langmuir pump wave into a Langmuir sideband and an ion acoustic wave, which is heavily damped by ion Landau damping. Both resonant and nonresonant cascade processes are considered. The nonresonant cascade of Langmuir waves proceeds at the same location and is severely hampered by the frequency mismatch effect, because the decay wave is a driven ion mode oscillating at considerably lower frequency than that of the ion acoustic wave. In contrast, the resonant cascade, which takes place at different resonant locations to minimize the frequency mismatch effect, has to overcome the propagation loss of the mother Langmuir wave in each cascade step. The resonant cascade has a lower threshold, but the cascade lines spread over a range of altitude. The dominant factors, which determine the number of cascade lines in the radar-detected spectrum of HF enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs), include the ion to electron temperature ratio, Ti/Te, the background plasma inhomogeneity scale length, and the heating wave field intensity. The proposed process can be a reasonable basis for explaining the radar-measured cascade spectrum of Langmuir waves (i.e., HFPLs) in Arecibo and Tromso heating experiments.

  17. High-frequency radar measurements of coastal ocean surface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    Long-term, high-frequency (HF) radar measurements of coastal ocean surface currents allow observation of large-scale coastal circulation events with a temporal and spatial resolution not readily available with conventional instrumentation. Additionally, HF radar is capable of measuring the directional distribution of ocean waves at a {open_quotes}resonant{close_quotes} frequency. These and other measurements using inversion techniques provide information useful for estimating a variety of wave and wind information. HF radar is thus a useful remote sensing tool for coastal oceanography. HF radar measurements gathered during extended portions of the period from April, 1990 until July, 1992 on the California coast, about 15 miles south of Monterey, exhibit features of tidal and wind-driven ocean circulation. The effects of the tidal current ellipse are apparent in these radial measurements of the coastal currents. Additionally, correlation of the radar measurements with local sea surface temperature and winds indicates that the important features of coastal upwelling and relaxation are also evident within the radar data. The long period of observation has allowed a glimpse at seasonal and interannual variability in the coastal currents. By comparing radar measurements of radially approaching and radially receding ocean waves, the authors see evidence of the effect of the wind on the phase speed of ocean waves. Until now, this was an unexplored effect partly due to the difficulty of its measurement. Measurements of surface currents at two frequencies in the HF band make possible an estimate of the vector current shear (or the variation of the current speed and direction as a function of depth) in the uppermost layer of the ocean. They observed a clockwise rotation in current direction and a decrease in current magnitude with depth.

  18. Adaptive filtering for clutter suppression in high frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rafaat H.

    High frequency (HF) radar has the unique potential for over the horizon detection of ocean surface targets. However, ocean waves are also strong reflectors for HF radar and this high clutter level has limited its application for target detection. New results from the time domain analysis of ocean clutter show that it can be modelled as two angle modulated signals. This may be used to selectively suppress the clutter component and enhance the target detection performance. The practical implementation of clutter suppression, based upon this model, involves tracking of multiple time-varying sinusoids. An adaptive filtering technique to track time-varying sinusoids is discussed and initial results are presented.

  19. HF induced airglow: Double patches!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Rietveld, M. T.; Steen, .; Hagfors, T.

    HF induced airglow has been observed at high latitudes on 21 February 1999 during a geomagnetically quiet period (Kp=1). This observation is unique because two patches were generated simultaneously on one occasion. The EISCAT Heating experiment (69.59 N, 19.23 E) was operated at 4.04 MHz (O-mode) in the local zenith from 16:48 to 18:28 UT using a 4-min. on and 4-min. off duty cycle. Simultaneously, the dynasonde measured the reflection height which increased from ?200 to ?290 km during the experiment. The Digital All-Sky Imager (DASI) was recording at 630 nm from Skibotn (69.35 N, 20.36 E), about 50 km east of Heating. Whilst viewing in the local zenith with ?116 field of view, the development and fading of an airglow patch(es) corresponding to the Heater on and off times, respectively, could be clearly observed with an intensity of up to ?100 Rayleighs. Sometimes a diffuse airglow would appear approximately within the Heater beam and sometimes a brighter and smaller airglow patch would develop near the magnetic field aligned position, which is ?13 south of vertical. For the latter direction, it is estimated that the Heater power was 10 dB down from the maximum in the vertical. After 18:12 UT, the ionospheric critical frequency dropped below 4.04 MHz and no further airglow was observed.

  20. Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results

    SciTech Connect

    Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.

    1987-12-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves.

  1. Requirements for space shuttle scatter radar experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of carrying out scatter radar experiments on the space shuttle was analyzed. Design criteria considered were the required average transmitter power, frequency resolution, spatial resolution, and statistical accuracy. Experiments analyzed were measurement of the naturally enhanced plasma line and the ion component of the incoherent scatter spectrum, and the plasma line artificially enhanced by an intense HF radio wave. The ion component measurement does not appear feasible, while the other two appear reasonable for short ranges only.

  2. Precise Radar Range Measurements with Digisondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Bodo W.; Paznukhov, Vadym V.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Altadill, David; McElroy, Jonathan

    2008-02-01

    A digisonde phase-difference technique measures precise radar ranges of echoes reflected from the ionosphere. The technique, which analyzes the phase differences between signals at slightly different frequencies, allows measuring the reflection range, i.e., the virtual height h'(f) for vertical sounding, with accuracies of better than one kilometer. First results of measurements carried out at Millstone Hill demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the developed technique, and show the potential of the method for routine application.

  3. Digital communications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorstyn, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

  4. Empirical Study of the Multiaxial, Thermomechanical Behavior of NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Dhwanil; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner Aaron P.

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to characterize the multiaxial, thermomechanical responses of new high temperature NiTiHf alloys. The experimentation included loading thin walled tube Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 29.7)Hf(sub 20) alloy samples along both proportional and nonproportional axial-torsion paths at different temperatures while measuring surface strains using stereo digital image correlation. A Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 33.7)Hf(sub 16) alloy was also studied in tension and compression to document the effect of slightly depleting the Hf content on the constitutive responses of NiTiHf alloys. Samples of both alloys were made from nearly texture free polycrystalline material processed by hot extrusion. Analysis of the data shows that very small changes in composition significantly alter NiTiHf alloy properties, as the austenite finish (Af) temperature of the 16-at Hf alloy was found to be approximately 60 C less than the 20-at Hf alloy (approximately 120 C vs. 180 C). In addition, the 16-at Hf alloy exhibited smaller compressive transformation strains (2 vs. 2.5 percent). Multi-axial characterization of the 20-at % Hf alloy showed that while the random polycrystal transformation strains in tension (4 percent) and compression (2.5 percent) are modest in comparison with binary NiTi (6 percent, 4 percent), the torsion performance is superior (7 vs. 4 shear strain width to the pseudoelastic plateau).

  5. Using radar image simulation to assess relative geometric distortions inherent in radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    A unique method for observing the relative contributions of backscatter and propagation effects is afforded by radar image simulation. Digital terrain data are used in modeling radar image formation. Backscatter and propagation effects are modeled separately. These are incorporated serially and the image expression of each is noted. Sequences of images are presented illustrating these effects over a range of slopes and angles of incidence. The conclusions reached are that at angles of incidence that are smaller than the average slope of the terrain in a region, propagation phenomena predominate. As the angle of incidence increases beyond this, the radar image portrays an increasingly faithful representation of the backscatter from the ground. It is also demonstrated that digital simulation affords an important tool for evaluating complex interactions between the ground and radar, for training users in radar image interpretation, and for selecting optimum sensor parameters for particular applications.

  6. HF mitigation via the Texaco-UOP HF additive technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sheckler, J.C.; Hammershaimb, H.U. ); Ross, L.J. ); Comey, K.R. III . Research and Development)

    1994-01-01

    Alkylation is one of the key processes used by refiners to produce high-octane gasoline. In the alkylation process, light olefins and isobutane are converted to alkylate, a high-octane, low-vapor-pressure, paraffinic gasoline-blending component. Because of its clean burning characteristics and ability to contribute to lower emissions, alkylate is a highly valued component in premium and reformulated gasolines. Alkylation process technology using hydrogen fluoride (HF) as a catalyst has been widely used for many years. Since the mid-1980s, a primary concern has been the tendency of HF to form an aerosol when HF is released to the atmosphere. Much effort has gone into the development of measures to ensure the safe handling of HF in the refinery environment. Texaco and UOP have under development an HF additive technology. The key to this technology is the discovery of a class of additives that form a complex with HF to significantly reduce the aerosol-forming tendency of the catalyst system and still maintain acceptable catalytic performance and product quality. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the development status of the Texaco-UOP HF additive technology. Aerosol reduction has been demonstrated in small-scale laboratory release tests as well as in larger scale wind tunnel release tests. The catalytic performance of the HF additive has been demonstrated in laboratory alkylation facilities and in a short-term experimental trial in a full-scale refinery unit. On the basis of the positive results obtained in the test program, a project is under way to implement the HF additive technology on a continuous basis in an existing Texaco alkylation unit by the third quarter of 1994.

  7. Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

    2003-01-01

    We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

  8. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  9. Analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems faced in applications of radar measurements in hydrology are: (1) adequate calibration of the radar systems and direct digital data will be required in order that repeatable data can be acquired for hydrologic applications; (2) quantitative hydrologic research on a large scale will be prohibitive with aircraft mounted synthetic aperture radar systems due to the system geometry; (3) spacecraft platforms appear to be the best platforms for radar systems when conducting research over watersheds larger than a few square kilometers; (4) experimental radar systems should be designed to avoid use of radomes; and (5) cross polarized X and L band data seem to discriminate between good and poor hydrologic cover better than like polarized data.

  10. Model for artificial ionospheric duct formation due to HF heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Demekhov, A. G.; Papadopoulos, K.; Vartanyan, A.; Huba, J. D.; Joyce, G.

    2010-04-01

    Strong electron heating by the injection of highly powerful HF waves can lead to the formation of ionospheric plasma density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field lines. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for guiding natural and artificial ELF/VLF waves. This paper presents a theoretical model of duct formation due to HF heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with two well documented experiments. One experiment, conducted at the SURA heating facility, used the low orbit satellite DEMETER as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the overflying satellite orbit close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. The second experiment, conducted at the EISCAT HF facility and diagnosed by the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar, measured the vertical profiles of the electron and ion temperature between 150-600 km. The model agrees well with the observations, and provides a new understanding of the processes during ionospheric modification.

  11. UAS-Based Radar Sounding of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. D.; Keshmiri, S.; Leuschen, C.; Ewing, M.; Yan, J. B.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Kansas Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets developed two Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) to support polar research. We developed a mid-range UAS, called the Meridian, for operating a radar depth sounder/imager at 195 MHz with an eight-element antenna array. The Meridian weighs 1,100 lbs, has a 26-foot wingspan, and a range of 950 nm at its full payload capacity of 120 lbs. Ice-penetrating radar performance drove the configuration design, though additional payloads and sensors were considered to ensure adaptation to multi-mission science payloads. We also developed a short range UAS called the G1X for operating a low-frequency radar sounder that operates at 14 and 35 MHz. The G1X weighs 85 lbs, has a 17-foot wingspan, and a range of about 60 nm per gallon of fuel. The dual-frequency HF/VHF radar depth sounder transmits at 100 W peak power at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 KHz and weighs approximately 4.5 lbs. We conducted flight tests of the G1X integrated with the radar at the Sub-glacial Lake Whillans ice stream and the WISSARD drill site. The tests included pilot-controlled and fully autonomous flights to collect data over closely-spaced lines to synthesize a 2-D aperture. We obtained clear bed echoes with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 50 dB at this location. These are the first-ever successful soundings of glacial ice with a UAS-based radar. Although ice attenuation losses in this location are low in comparison to more challenging targets, in-field performance improvements to the UAS and HF/VHF radar system enabled significant gains in the signal-to-noise ratio, such that the system can now be demonstrated on more challenging outlet glaciers. We are upgrading the G1X UAS and radar system for further tests and data collection in Greenland. We are reducing the weight and volume of the radar, which, when coupled with further reductions in airframe and avionics weight and a larger fuel bladder, will offer extended range. Finally, we are increasing the radar transmit peak power to about 250-500 W using high-efficiency power amplifiers and hardening the aircraft actuators for potential electromagnetic interference. The main focus of the Spring 2015 deployment is to collect fine-resolution data near the outlet and grounding lines of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) glacier in Greenland.

  12. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

    2000-01-01

    On February 22, 2000 Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution, most complete digital topographic map of Earth ever made. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land surface between about 60 deg north and 56 deg south latitude. When completed, the DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical accuracy. Two orthorectified image mosaics (one from the ascending passes with illumination from the southeast and one from descending passes with illumination from the southwest) will also be produced.

  13. Analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Average radar response for L-band like polarized system appeared to be related to the watershed runoff coefficients when the viewing angle was approximately 42 deg off nadir. Four requirements for radar systems used to verify applications of active microwave for water resources were identified: (1) first generation digital data will be required; (2) radar should be calibrated both internally and externally; (3) new systems should avoid radom use; and (4) images should be geometrically rectified prior to delivery to the user.

  14. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  15. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2011-02-01

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  16. Digital correlation of DDRS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of digital SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data to radar images for use in remote sensing applications was investigated. The critical software operations are discussed in detail, and suggestions and recommendations are made for improving the algorithms currently being used.

  17. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  18. Phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere induced by an X-mode HF heater wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.; Rietveld, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    New experimental results are presented from high power ionospheric modification experiments with the EISCAT/Heating HF facility at Troms, Norway. The experiments were conducted in the course of Russian EISCAT HF heating campaigns in 2009 - 2011 using the following diagnostic tools: the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar at Troms, the CUTLASS (SuperDARN) HF coherent radar, bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter and the EISCAT ionosonde (dynasonde). The effects on the high-latitude F region of the ionosphere by X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith (MZ) are analysed. We present the first experimental evidence for strong plasma modifications induced by the X-mode powerful HF radio waves. The distinctive feature of modification experiments is that the heater frequency is choosen by a special way, namely, it is above the ordinary-mode critical frequency but comparable with the extraordinary-mode critical frequency. The results show that the X-mode HF pump wave can generate very strong small-scale artificial field aligned irregularities (AFAIs) in the F-region of the high-latitude ionosphere. These irregularities, with spatial scales across the geomagnetic field of the order of 8 - 15 m, appeared 10 s - 4 min after the heater is turned on. They had the unusually long decay time which varied in a wide range between 3 and 30 min. The generation of the X-mode AFAIs was accompanied by electron temperature (Te) enhancements up to 50 % above the background level and an increase in the electron density (Ne) by up to 30 %. Such electron density enhancements can be attributed to HF-induced ionization production rather than the change of the density distribution due to the thermal diffusion. The analysis of the incoherent backscatter spectra obtained with the EISCAT UHF radar during X-mode HF pumping demonstrated the strongly enhanced ion line shoulders (upshifted and downshifted spectral peaks) observed during the whole 10 min heater-on period, which are unusual for X-mode heating. The possible mechanisms for plasma modifications induced by the X-mode powerful HF radio wave are discussed.

  19. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

  20. Wind shear radar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

  1. Radar studies related to the earth resources program. [remote sensing programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, J.

    1972-01-01

    The radar systems research discussed is directed toward achieving successful application of radar to remote sensing problems in such areas as geology, hydrology, agriculture, geography, forestry, and oceanography. Topics discussed include imaging radar and evaluation of its modification, study of digital processing for synthetic aperture system, digital simulation of synthetic aperture system, averaging techniques studies, ultrasonic modeling of panchromatic system, panchromatic radar/radar spectrometer development, measuring octave-bandwidth response of selected targets, scatterometer system analysis, and a model Fresnel-zone processor for synthetic aperture imagery.

  2. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Radar echo processing with partitioned de-ramp

    DOEpatents

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2013-03-19

    The spurious-free dynamic range of a wideband radar system is increased by apportioning de-ramp processing across analog and digital processing domains. A chirp rate offset is applied between the received waveform and the reference waveform that is used for downconversion to the intermediate frequency (IF) range. The chirp rate offset results in a residual chirp in the IF signal prior to digitization. After digitization, the residual IF chirp is removed with digital signal processing.

  4. Observation and theory of the radar aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Sahr, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma density irregularities occurring near the Aurora Borealis cause scattering of HF, VHF, and UHF radio waves. Analysis of the resulting radar signal provides great detail about the spatial and temporal characteristics of these auroral E region irregularities. Observations are presented of the radar aurora from recent campaigns in northern Sweden. After reviewing the basic theory and observations of auroral electrojet irregularities, a simple nonlinear fluid theory of electrojet ion-acoustic waves is introduced, and reduced to a form of the three-wave interaction equations. This theory provides a simple mechanism for excitation of linearly stable waves at large aspect and flow angles, as well as a prediction of the power spectra that a coherent scatter radar should observe. In addition, this theory may be able to account for type 3 waves without resorting to ion gyro modes, such as the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave. During the course of the research a simple new radar transmitting mode and signal processing algorithm was generated which very simply solves a frequency aliasing problem that often occurs in CUPRI auroral radar studies. Several new radar data analysis routines were developed, including the principally cross-beam image and scatter plots of the second versus first moments of the power spectrum of the irregularities. Analysis of vertical interferometer data shows that type 3 waves originate at ordinary electrojet altitudes, not in the upper E region, from which it is concluded that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron mode does not generate type 3 waves. The measured height of type 3 waves and other spectral analyses provide support for the pure ion-acoustic theory of type 3 waves. Suggestions are offered for hardware improvements to the CUPRI radar, new experiments to test new and existing theories.

  5. Solid-state Ku-band radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechi, F. N.; Johnson, H. C.; Brown, J. E.; Marx, R. E.; Rauchwerk, M. D.

    1981-12-01

    The development of RF and IF components for a Ku-band pulsed radar as well as the construction and tests of this radar, are described. The developed components include an FET oscillator, FET power amplifiers, a biphase modulator, a low-noise amplifier, and charge-coupled (CCD) correlators. The radar transmits a 32-bit biphase coded pulse at a power of 350 mW. The receiver uses a 3-stage, 27-dB-gain amplifier chain with a 6.9-dB overall noise figure. The compact binary-analog signal correlators use 64-stage charge-coupled devices to process receiver I and Q channels. The radar gave excellent performance during ranging tests using a Doppler simulator and digital FFT processor.

  6. Constraining energetic slope currents through assimilation of high-frequency radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperrevik, A. K.; Christensen, K. H.; Rhrs, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assimilation of high-frequency (HF) radar current observations and CTD hydrography is performed with the 4D-Var analysis scheme implemented in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). We consider both an idealized case, with a baroclinic slope current in a periodic channel, and a realistic case for the coast of Vesterlen in northern Norway. In the realistic case, the results of the data assimilation are compared with independent data from acoustic profilers and surface drifters. Best results are obtained when background error correlation scales are small (10 km or less) and when the data assimilation window is short, i.e. about 1 day. Furthermore, we find that the impact of assimilating HF radar currents is generally larger than the impact of CTD hydrography. However, combining the HF radar currents with a few hydrographic profiles gives significantly better results, which demonstrates the importance of complementing surface observations with observations of the vertical structure of the ocean.

  7. Production and modification of ionospheric irregularities by powerful h-f radio transmissions. Final report, 1 Aug 86-31 Jul 89

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, J.A.

    1990-09-11

    Several types of active experiments have been performed with the high power HF heater near Arecibo, Puerto Rico. The temporal behavior of suprathermal electron fluxes was studied by observing the 430 MHz radar backscatter from ionospheric Langmuir waves that were Cerenkov-emitted by the suprathermal electrons during pulse operation of the HF heater. Coded radar pulse techniques were used to study the height dependence of radar backscatter from Langmuir turbulence for both CW and pulsed HF heating. Observations with the 430 MHz radar of the power backscattered from HF induced Langmuir turbulence with a temporal resolution of 1 ms sometimes showed almost periodic short bursts of power at time intervals of 20 - 50 ms. The observational limitations on the role of strong Langmuir caviton turbulence have been pointed out and the important role of field-aligned depletions of the plasma density have been stressed in accounting for the observed height dependence of the 430 MHz radar backscatter and for nature of the observed 46.8 MHz radar backscatter. (rh)

  8. Modeling of HF propagation and heating in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.M.; Shoucri, M.M.; Wagner, T.M.

    1990-10-01

    A comprehensive numerical implementation of plasma geometric optics is being enhanced and adapted to the problem of self-consistent ionospheric propagation of high power, high frequency (HF) radar signals. The emphasis in this work is on realistic and rigorous description of the propagating waves so that geometric and spectral characteristics of nonlinear ionospheric effects can be predicted in detail. When improvements are complete, a plasma geometric optics code will be used in conjunction with an ionospheric transport code to determine self-consistently the HF radiation field and quasilinear modifications of ionospheric plasma properties due to ohmic dissipation of the HF radiation. This allows detailed study of nonlinear phenomena such as beam self-focusing, formation of large-scale density cavities and striations, and induced wave ducting. An overview of the theory underlying the modeling of radiation propagation and ohmic power deposition is given, and current results from the plasma geometric optics code together with associated ionospheric power deposition profiles are presented. Detailed structure of ordinary and extraordinary mode caustics formed in a manner consistent with a realistic antenna pattern and birefringence upon entrance into the ionosphere are evident.

  9. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  10. Method for orthorectification of terrestrial radar maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphal; Faure, Patrice; Moiroux-Arvis, Laure; Monod, Marie-Odile

    2014-11-01

    The vehicle-based PELICAN radar system is used in the context of mobile mapping. The R-SLAM algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of the vehicle trajectory and of the map of the environment. As the purpose of PELICAN is to provide a means for gathering spatial information, the impact of distortion caused by the topography is not negligible. This article proposes an orthorectification process to correct panoramic radar images and the consequent R-SLAM trajectory and radar map. The a priori knowledge of the area topography is provided by a digital elevation model. By applying the method to the data obtained from a path with large variations in altitude it is shown that the corrected panoramic radar images are contracted by the orthorectification process. The efficiency of the orthorectification process is assessed firstly by comparing R-SLAM trajectories to a GPS trajectory and secondly by comparing the position of Ground Control Points on the radar map with their GPS position. The RMS positioning error moves from 5.56 m for the raw radar map to 0.75 m for the orthorectified radar map.

  11. Shuttle imaging radar-C science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire images at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as images of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into images using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and radar stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of radar penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to radar backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization imaging capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.

  12. Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lybanon, M.

    1973-01-01

    The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

  13. Auxiliary signal processing system for a multiparameter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Gray, G. R.; Caylor, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    The design of an auxiliary signal processor for a multiparameter radar is described with emphasis on low cost, quick development, and minimum disruption of radar operations. The processor is based around a low-cost digital signal processor card and personal computer controller. With the use of such a concept, an auxiliary processor was implemented for the NCAR CP-2 radar during a 1991 summer field campaign and allowed measurement of additional polarimetric parameters, namely, the differential phase and the copolar cross correlation. Sample data are presented from both the auxiliary and existing radar signal processors.

  14. HF ground scatter from the polar cap: Ionospheric propagation and ground surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, P. V.; St. Maurice, J.-P.; Hussey, G. C.; Koustov, A. V.

    2010-10-01

    In addition to being scattered by the ionospheric field-aligned irregularities, HF radar signals can be reflected by the ionosphere toward the Earth and then scattered back to the radar by the rugged ground surface. These ground scatter (GS) echoes are responsible for a substantial part of the returns observed by HF radars making up the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). While a GS component is conventionally used in studying ionosphere dynamics (e.g., traveling ionospheric disturbances, ULF waves), its potential in monitoring the state of the scattering surface remains largely unexploited. To fill this gap, we investigated diurnal and seasonal variation of the ground echo occurrence and location from a poleward-looking SuperDARN radar at Rankin Inlet, Canada. Using colocated ionosonde information, we have shown that seasonal and diurnal changes in the high-latitude ionosphere periodically modulate the overall echo occurrence rate and spatial coverage. In addition, characteristics of GS from a particular geographic location are strongly affected by the state of the underlying ground surface. We have shown that (1) ice sheets rarely produce detectable backscatter, (2) mountain ranges are the major source of GS as they can produce echoes at all seasons of the year, and (3) sea surface becomes a significant source of GS once the Arctic sea ice has melted away. Finally, we discuss how the obtained results can expand SuperDARN abilities in monitoring both the ionosphere and ground surface.

  15. Estimation of planetary surface roughness by HF sounder observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ono, T.

    Japanese Martian exploration project "Nozomi" was to carry out several science missions. Plasma Wave Sounder, one of those onboard missions, was an HF sounder to study Martian plasma environment, and Martian surface with the altimetry mode (Oya and Ono, 1998) as well. The altimetry mode observation was studied by means of computer simulations utilizing the KiSS code which had been originally designed to simulate the SELENE Lunar Radar Sounder, a spaceborne HF GPR, based on Kirchhoff approximation theory (Kobayashi, Oya and Ono, 2002). We found an empirical power law for the standard deviation of observed altitudes over Gaussian random rough surfaces: it varies in proportion to the square of the RMS gradient of the surface √{2} hRMS{λ_0, where hRMS and λ_0 are the RMS height of the surface and the correlation distance of the surface, respectively. We applied Geometrical optics to understand this empirical power law, and derived a square power law for the standard deviation of the observed altitude. Our Geometrical optics model assumed the followings: 1) the observed surface is a Gaussian random rough surface, 2) the mean surface is a flat horizontal plane, 3) the observed surface echo is the back scattering echoes, 4) the observed altitude is the mean value of the apparent range of those back scattering echoes. These results imply that HF sounder may be utilized to measure the surface roughness of planetary bodies in terms of the RMS gradient of the surface. Refrence: H. Oya and T. Ono, A new altimeter for Mars land shape observations utilizing the ionospheric sounder system onboard the Planet-B spacecraft, Earth Planets Space, Vol. 50, pp.229-234, 1998 T. Kobayashi, H. Oya, and T. Ono, A-scope analysis of subsurface radar sounding of lunar mare region, Earth Planets Space, Vol. 54, pp.973-982, 2002

  16. HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Symbalisty, E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors report on recent radar measurements taken during the month of October 1994 with the LDG HF radar in the Ivory Coast, Africa as part of the International Equatorial Electrojet Year. The purpose of this experimental effort in part was to study the effects of thunderstorms on the ionosphere. At the same time, the authors decided to carry out a set of experiments of an exploratory nature to look for echoes that could potentially arise from ionization produced in the mesosphere. The two leading candidates for producing transient ionization in the mesosphere are meteors and high-altitude discharges. Each is discussed in the context of these measurements.

  17. NASA experimental airborne doppler radar and real time processor for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip H.; Richards, Mark A.; Jones, William R.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: experimental radar system capabilities; an experimental radar system block diagram; wind shear radar signal and data processor (WRSDP); WRSDP hardware architecture; WRSDP system design goals; DSP software development tools; OS-9 software development tools; WRSDP digital signal processing; WRSDP display operational modes; WRSDP division of functions; structure of WRSDP signal and data processing algorithms; and the wind shear radar flight experiment.

  18. Signature of 3-4 day planetary waves in the equatorial ionospheric F layer height and medium frequency radar winds over Tirunelveli (8.7oN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Sathishkumar

    Signature of 3-4 day planetary waves in the equatorial ionospheric F layer height and medium frequency radar winds over Tirunelveli (8.7oN) S. Sathishkumar1, R. Dhanya1, K. Emperumal1, D. Tiwari2, S. Gurubaran1 and A. Bhattacharyya2 1. Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Tirunelveli, India 2. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai, India Email: sathishmaths@gmail.com Abstract The equatorial atmosphere-ionosphere system has been studied theoretically and observationally in the past. In the equatorial atmosphere, oscillations with periods of 3-4 days are often observed in the medium frequency (MF) radar over Tirunelveli (8.7oN, 77.8oE, 1.34oN geomag. lat.). Earlier observations show the clear evidence that these waves can propagate from the stratosphere to ionosphere. A digital ionosonde has been providing useful information on several ionospheric parameters from the same site. Simultaneous observations of mesospheric winds using medium frequency radar and F-layer height (h'F) from ionosonde reveal that the 3-4 day wave was evident in both the component during the 01 June 2007 and 31 July 2007. The 3-4 day wave could have an important role in the day to day variability of the equatorial ionosphere evening uplift. Results from an extensive analysis that is being carried out in the direction of 3-4 day wave present in the ionosphere will be presented.

  19. Fifty years of radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, M. I.

    1985-02-01

    A development history of radar technology is presented, with attention to the driving of radar system design advances by the emergence of such weapon systems as long range aircraft and cruise missiles in World War II and the range of current applications for state-of-the-art radar techniques. The applications noted encompass over-the-horizon backscatter radars for aircraft detection at 500-1800 nmi ranges, ultralow sidelobe antenna military radars, a long range, frequency scanning three-dimensional S-band radar, a shipborne phased array radar for the collection of exoatmospheric and endoatmospheric data on ballistic missile reentry vehicles, multimission/multimode X-band fighter aircraft radars, and phased array air defense radars.

  20. A directional HF noise model: Calibration and validation in the Australian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederick, L. H.; Cervera, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of systems using HF (high frequency) radio waves, such as over-the-horizon radars, is strongly dependent on the external noise environment. However, this environment has complex behavior and is known to vary with location, time, season, sunspot number, and radio frequency. It is also highly anisotropic, with the directional variation of noise being very important for the design and development of next generation over-the-horizon radar. By combining global maps of lightning occurrence, raytracing propagation, a model background ionosphere and ionospheric absorption, the behavior of noise at HF may be modeled. This article outlines the principles, techniques, and current progress of the model and calibrates it against a 5 year data set of background noise measurements. The calibrated model is then compared with data at a second site.

  1. Short--time-scale evidence for strong Langmuir turbulence during hf heating of the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, P. Y.; Wong, A. Y.; Tanikawa, T.; Santoru, J.; DuBois, D. F.; Rose, H. A.; Russell, D.

    1989-06-05

    Results of short-pulse, low--duty-cycle hf-heating experiments areshown to agree with predictions of a model of correlated, localized cavitonswhich undergo cycles of nucleation, collapse, and burnout. Predicted''free-mode'' spectral features associated with the radiation of Langmuir wavesfrom collapsing cavitons are observed. Single radar pulse data provide evidencethat temporal correlations between caviton events are present at early timesfollowing the onset of heating.

  2. Radar observations of wave transformations in the vicinity of islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Teague, C. C.; Hsiao, S. V.; Shemdin, O. H.; Pawka, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing by ground-based HF radar and airborne synthetic aperture radar and in situ wave measurements performed on March 25, 1977 during the West Coast Experiment have made it possible to form an overall picture of the 7-sec-period wave climate over a 35,000 sq km region off the southern California coast. The picture which emerges from these measurements shows a broad deep-ocean directional distribution arriving from the west and being significantly modified as it travels coastward passing San Clemente and Santa Catalina islands.

  3. Thermal response of the F region ionosphere in artificial modification experiments by HF radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantas, G. P.; Lahoz, C. H.; Carlson, H. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal response of the nighttime F region ionosphere to local heating by HF radio waves has been observed with the incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. The observations consist of high-resolution space and time variation of the electron temperature as a high-power HF transmitter is switched on and off with a period 240 s. As soon as the HF transmitter is turned on, the electron temperature begins to rise rapidly in a narrow altitude region near 300 km, below the F2 layer peak. The electron temperature perturbation subsequently spreads over a broader altitude region. The observations are compared with the anticipated thermal response of the ionosphere based on numerical solutions of the coupled time-dependent heat conduction equations for the electron and composite ion gases and are found to be in good agreement over the entire altitude region covered by the observations.

  4. Radar interferometry: Limits and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Massonnet, D.; Rabaute, T. )

    1993-03-01

    The contribution of radar interferometry to the field of digital terrain modeling is important because this technique offers specific features which optical instruments cannot attain. However, the complexity of the height restitution and the accuracy of the result strongly depend on the orbital geometry at the time of the data takes. This paper aims at assessing the potential of a given image pair with regard to interferometry and at automatically reducing the phase ambiguity intrinsic to such processing. Particular applications of differential interferometry are also discussed in order to estimate their requirements and prepare future experiments.

  5. Space shuttle synthetic aperture radar. [using real time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of a feasibility study to investigate a digital signal processor for real-time operation with a synthetic aperture radar system aboard the space shuttle are presented. Pertinent digital processing theory, a description of the proposed system, and size, weight, power, scheduling, and development estimates are included.

  6. Study of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Sources of geometric and radiometric fidelity errors in AN/APQ-102A radar imagery are discussed, along with a digital computer program to correct the distortions. The major effort, a computer program which will process digitalized recorded AN/APQ-102A phase histories into imagery, is described. All computer programs are listed.

  7. KAGUYA Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) observation of lunar surface echo and its calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Ryeol Lee, Seung

    2015-04-01

    Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) is an HF radar of which the center frequency of transmitted pulse is 5 MHz. LRS was installed to KAGUYA which flew to the Moon in 2007. During the operation period of 19 months, LRS performed radar sounding observation from the orbit at the nominal altitude of 100 km to cover whole surface of the Moon with its foot print. The total number of LRS observations (pulse transmissions) exceeded 10^8. We extracted the nadir surface echo out of each observation which made a surface echo map of the Moon, i.e. a mosaic image of the Moon of an HF frequency (5 MHz). The observed surface echoes carry information regarding lunar surface and that of shallow subsurface (near-surface) whose depth scale is smaller than the range resolution of the LRS (~ 150 m in vacuum). An inversion algorithm is applied to extract such information. However, inversion algorithms often assume a simple model of Fresnel reflection. One should remove the effect of surface roughness from the LRS data before practicing inversion. For this purpose, we carried out simulation of LRS observation to evaluate the surface roughness effect on the LRS data quantitatively. The simulation is based on Kirchhoff approximation theory. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of KAGUYA Terrain Camera (TC) mission was used in the simulation to simulate the actual lunar terrain. LRS observation simulation was performed in the range from -90 to 70 degrees in longitude and in the range from -30 to 70 degrees in latitude at every 0.1 degree interval in both directions. The simulation revealed 1) LRS surface echo observation is sensible to the surface terrain: even wrinkle ridges and small craters are well recognized in the mosaic image of simulation surface echo map. 2) Little difference was found in the mosaic image of an old mare surface and a young mare surface. 3) However, apparent difference was found in the shape of the distribution functions of echo intensity of an old mare surface and a young mare surface. We used the simulation result to remove the surface roughness effect on the LRS data to obtain the plane surface echo intensity. The resultant data revealed 1) Highland surface presents weak echo intensity than mare surface. 2) Young mare surface presents more intense echo than old mare surface. 3) Some areas in maria presents significantly weak echo than surrounding mare surface. These findings are attributed to the property of near-surface subsurface. Our inversion found that the young mare surface material has larger permittivity than the old mare surface material.

  8. Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

  9. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  10. Beijing MST radar: Overview and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Daren; Chen, Zeyu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Wenxing; Duan, Shu

    2012-07-01

    As one of the main facilities of so-called China Meridian Project which is focusing on the monitoring solar-terrestrial link and space weather, as well as sun-earth climate connection study, Beijing MST radar has been completed in the middle of 2011 and started its quasi-continuous operational observation since the end of 2011. Beijing MST radar is located in IAP's field observatory (39.4 N,117.0 E) which is a large scale full coherent VHF Doppler radar, with antenna area 9,110 m^2, power-aperture product 3.1108 W.m^2. It's antenna array is consisted of 2424 three element YAGI antenna with square digital active phased array, with beam width equal to or less than 4.5 degree and active five antenna beam azimuth directions and zenith angle ranging from zenith to 20 degree with 1 degree steps. Also the radar uses direct digital receivers and high speed signal processing system. The expected observation altitude is 3-25 km and 60-90 km, for which low, middle and high observation modes can be selected with different vertical resolutions. Same as other MST radars worldwide, Beijing MST radar may observe the 3D wind, backscattering power, and signal noise ratio, for different altitude ranges. Based on preliminary observation in certain time periods, results have been shown that both wind profiling from 3-25 km and 60-90 km are observed. Preliminary results show that the present radar can observe the altitude of lower thermosphere, at least in 90-100 km, even to 110 km. Further results will be given.

  11. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  12. Radar images analysis for scattering surfaces characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Enrico

    1998-10-01

    According to the different problems and techniques related to the detection and recognition of airplanes and vehicles moving on the Airport surface, the present work mainly deals with the processing of images gathered by a high-resolution radar sensor. The radar images used to test the investigated algorithms are relative to sequence of images obtained in some field experiments carried out by the Electronic Engineering Department of the University of Florence. The radar is the Ka band radar operating in the'Leonardo da Vinci' Airport in Fiumicino (Rome). The images obtained from the radar scan converter are digitized and putted in x, y, (pixel) co- ordinates. For a correct matching of the images, these are corrected in true geometrical co-ordinates (meters) on the basis of fixed points on an airport map. Correlating the airplane 2-D multipoint template with actual radar images, the value of the signal in the points involved in the template can be extracted. Results for a lot of observation show a typical response for the main section of the fuselage and the wings. For the fuselage, the back-scattered echo is low at the prow, became larger near the center on the aircraft and than it decrease again toward the tail. For the wings the signal is growing with a pretty regular slope from the fuselage to the tips, where the signal is the strongest.

  13. Radar/radiometer facilities for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.; Taylor, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The OSU ElectroScience Laboratory Radar/Radiometer Facilities are described. This instrumentation includes a high-resolution radar/radiometer system, a fully automated low-resolution radar system, and a small surveillance radar system. The high-resolution radar/radiometer system operates at 3, 9, and 15 GHz using two 9.1 m and one 4.6 m parabolic antennas, respectively. The low-resolution and surveillance radars operate at 9 and 15 GHz, respectively. Both the high- and low-resolution systems are interfaced to real-time digital processing and recording systems. This capability was developed for the measurement of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation in conjunction with millimeter wavelength propagation studies utilizing the Advanced Technology Satellites. Precipitation characteristics derived from these measurements could also be of direct benefit in such diverse areas as: the atmospheric sciences, meteorology, water resources, flood control and warning, severe storm warning, agricultural crop studies, and urban and regional planning.

  14. HF Channel Availability under Ionospheric Disturbances: Model, Method and Measurements as Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulunay, E.; Senalp, E. T.; Tulunay, Y.; Warrington, E. M.; Sari, M. O.

    2009-04-01

    A small group at METU has been developing data driven models in order to forecast some critical parameters, which affect the communication and navigation systems, since 1990. The background on the subjects supports new achievements in terms of theoretical and experimental basis contributing the COST 296 WG2 activities. This work mentions the representative contributions. (i) A method has been proposed for the assessment of HF Channel Availability under ionospheric disturbances. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Doppler Spread and Modified Power Delay Spread were considered. The study relates the modem performance to ionospheric disturbances. Ionospheric disturbance was characterised by Disturbance Storm Type (DST) index. Radar data including Effective Multipath Spread, Composite Doppler Spread and SNR values were obtained from the experiment conducted between Leicester UK (52.63° N; 1.08° W) and Uppsala, Sweden (59.92° N; 17.63° E) in the year 2001. First, joint probability density function (PDF) of SNR, Doppler Spread, and Effective Multipath Spread versus DST were considered. It was demonstrated by determining the conditional PDFs, and by using Bayes' Theorem, that there were dependencies between DST and the above mentioned parameters [Sari, 2006]. Thus, it is concluded that the availability of the HF channel is a function of DST. As examples of modem characterizations, Military Standards were considered. Given a magnetic condition, the modem availability was calculated. The model developed represents the ionospheric HF channel, and it is based on a stochastic approach. Depending on the new experimental data, the conditional PDFs could be updated continuously. The HF channel availability under various ionospheric Space Weather (SW) conditions can be determined using the model. The proposed method is general and can include other indices as well. The method can also be applied to a variety of other processes. (ii) The effects of space weather conditions on the variation of group range and line-of-sight Doppler velocity of the HF Radar echo signal were investigated. HF radar system under ionospheric disturbances has been identified globally and some operational suggestions have been presented. It is possible for the HF radar operator to estimate the possible skip distance and possible single hop group ranges for the given frequencies of 11 MHz and 14 MHz [Buyukpabuscu, 2007]. (iii) The measurements over the HF band during the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse in Antalya (36° N; 30° E) Turkey was conducted from the channel occupancy and atmospheric noise points of view. The whole HF band ranging from 1 to 30 MHz has been swept using 10 kHz peak and 200 Hz average detectors of a certified EMI receiver equipped with a calibrated active monopole antenna. The changes in the atmospheric noise during the eclipse were reported [Tulunay, 2006]. The model based, theoretical and experimental works mentioned are promising and have potential for future research and developments. References Buyukpabuscu S.O. (2007), System Identification with Particular Interest On The High Frequency Radar Under Ionospheric Disturbances, MS Thesis, Electrical and Electronics Eng., Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara, Turkey, February 2007. Sari M.O. (2006), A New Approach For The Assessment Of Hf Channel Availability Under Ionospheric Disturbances, MS Thesis, Electrical and Electronics Eng., Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara, Turkey, September 2006. Tulunay E., E. M. Warrington, Y. Tulunay, Y. Bahadırlar, A.S. Türk, R. Çaputçu, T. Yapıcı , E.T. Şenalp (2006), Propagation Related Measurements during Three Solar Eclipses in Turkey, IET 10th International Conference on Ionospheric Radio Systems & Techniques, IRST 2006, 18-21 July 2006, London, UK.

  15. Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression technique could bring significant impact on future radar development. The novel feature of this innovation is the non-linear FM (NLFM) waveform design. The traditional linear FM has the limit (-20 log BT -3 dB) for achieving ultra-low-range sidelobe in pulse compression. For this study, a different combination of 20- or 40-microsecond chirp pulse width and 2- or 4-MHz chirp bandwidth was used. These are typical operational parameters for airborne or spaceborne weather radars. The NLFM waveform design was then implemented on a FPGA board to generate a real chirp signal, which was then sent to the radar transceiver simulator. The final results have shown significant improvement on sidelobe performance compared to that obtained using a traditional linear FM chirp.

  16. Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 37.4 degrees north latitude and 118.3 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  17. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. Modification of the high latitude F region of the ionosphere by X-mode powerful HF radio waves: Experimental results from multi-instrument diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly; Rietveld, Michael; Haggstrom, Ingemar; Borisova, Tatiana; Yeoman, Tim

    We present the experimental results for strong plasma modifications induced by the X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. A large number of experiments in the course of Russian EISCAT heating campaigns were conducted in 2009 - 2013 under different background conditions in a wide heater frequency range from 4 to 8 MHz. The EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar at Troms, the CUTLASS (SuperDARN) HF coherent radar in Finland, SEE receiver at Troms, the HF Doppler equipment near St. Petersburg, and the EISCAT ionosonde (dynasonde) were used as diagnostic instruments. The results show that the X-mode HF pump wave can generate: (1) strong small-scale artificial field aligned irregularities (AFAIs); (2) HF-induced plasma and HF-enhanced ion lines (HFPLs and HFILs) from UHF radar spectra; (3) strong electron density enhancements along magnetic field line in a wide altitude range; (4) spectral components (few tens of Hz) in the Doppler spectra of the heater signal measured at a distance of 1200 km from the Troms HF heating facility. The experimental results obtained points to the strong magnetic zenith effect due to self-focusing powerful HF radio wave with X-mode polarization. For heater frequencies in the range of about 4 - 6 MHz the mentioned above phenomena are generated when the heater frequency is equal or above the ordinary-mode critical frequency (foF2). Under high background electron density and the heater frequencies used of 6.5 - 8.0 MHz, the strong X-mode HF-induced phenomena were observed both when the heater frequency is equal or above the foF2 and the heater frequency is below the foF2.

  19. Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1996-01-01

    Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

  20. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

  1. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. a Study of Large-Scale Hf-Induced Thermal Self - Density Striations in the Ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, John Michael

    The thermal self-focusing instability, which manifests itself in the formation of density striations in the ionosphere, is studied. Two separate ionospheric modification experiments were conducted at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) in Arecibo, P.R. for the purpose of discerning the spatial dependence of the striations on incident HF power flux and angle between vec k_{HF} and vec B. Both experiments made use of the HF heating facility in Islote, P.R., which operated at 5.1 MHz in the O-mode. The ionosphere was overdense to 5.1 MHz in both experiments. The orientation of the striations with respect to the HF heater beam and the earth's magnetic field is also considered. The first experiment was a two part campaign in which maps of the HF heated volume electric field intensity were made. The HF beam was vertical for the first part and tilted 12^circ to the north for the second part, which allowed for the experimental variation of theta (the angle between vec k_ {HF} and vec B). The second experiment was the AA-3A rocket of the CRRES campaign. This rocket injected three clouds of barium into the heated ionosphere, each 20 km apart in altitude, centered on the middle of the HF heated volume. Incoherent Scatter Radar plasma line data and CCD optical data was taken to study the geometry of the evolution of the striations. Ray tracing, ionization modeling, and thermal self-focusing theoretical and computer simulation results were compared to experimental data. Conclusions were made that suggest that the striations are aligned with the HF beam below the HF reflection height and are vec B field aligned above reflection due to thermal conduction. The experimental data supports Perkins & Valeo's and Cragin & Fejer's theories which both state that minimum striation width decreases with increasing incident power flux. It is also concluded that the barium cloud acts as a divergent lens which focuses HF energy away from the area centered above the cloud.

  3. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) With Applications for Laser Imaging and Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P.; Nicholas, A.; Thomas, L.; Davis, M.; Hoberman, C.; Davis, M.

    The Naval Research Laboratory will provide an orbiting calibration sphere to be used with ground-based laser imaging telescopes and HF radio systems. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is a practical, reliable, high-performance HF calibration sphere and laser imaging target to orbit at about 600 km altitude. The sphere will be made of a spherical wire frame with aspect independent radar cross section in the 3 to 35 MHz frequency range. The necessary launch vehicle to place the PERCS in orbit will be provided by the Department of Defense Space Test Program. The expandable calibration target has a stowed diameter of 1 meter and a fully deployed diameter of 10.2 meters. A separate deployment mechanism is provided for the sphere. After deployment, the Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) with 180 vertices will be in a high inclination orbit to scatter radio pulses from a number of ground systems, including (1) over-the-horizon (OTH) radars operated by the United States and Australia; (2) high power HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high latitude SuperDARN radars used for auroral region mapping; and (4) HF direction finding for Navy ships. With the PERCS satellite, the accuracy of HF radars can be periodically checked for range, elevation, and azimuth errors. In addition, each of the 360 vertices on the PERCS sphere will support an optical retro-reflector for operations with ground laser facilities used to track satellites. The ground laser systems will be used to measure the precise location of the sphere within one cm accuracy and will provide the spatial orientation of the sphere as well as the rotation rate. The Department of Defense facilities that can use the corner-cube reflectors on the PERCS include (1) the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), (2) the Starfire Optical Range (SOR), and (3) the NRL Optical Test Facility (OTF).

  4. Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Gregory J.

    2002-12-01

    Radar is a powerful tool for studying the Solar System, with its reach limited in theory only by the transmitter power available. It has been used to observe targets ranging in size from the rings of Saturn down to house-sized asteroids. An observer has control of the illumination source, so a radar experiment provides information not available from passive observing methods. On centimeter to meter scales it is a sensitive probe of surface characteristics such as dielectric constant and roughness, and on larger scales can map topography and determine shapes of irregular objects at resolutions finer than other ground-based methods. This lecture will cover the basic techniques of planetary radar astronomy, give an overview of the scientific questions that can be addressed, and survey some recent results. Key points of the lecture will be: what can be learned from radar experiments; types of radar experiments; observable quantities; the radar equation; and an outline of current radar systems.

  5. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific aims, theoretical principles, techniques and instrumentation, and future potential of radar observations of solar-system objects are discussed in a general overview. Topics examined include the history of radar technology, echo detectability, the Arecibo and Goldstone radar observatories, echo time delay and Doppler shift, radar waveforms, albedo and polarization ratio, measurement of dynamical properties, and the dispersion of echo power. Consideration is given to angular scattering laws; the radar signatures of the moon and inner planets, Mars, and asteroids; topographic relief; delay-Doppler radar maps and their physical interpretation; and radar observations of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter, comets, and the rings of Saturn. Diagrams, drawings, photographs, and sample maps and images are provided.

  6. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    The scientific aims, theoretical principles, techniques and instrumentation, and future potential of radar observations of solar-system objects are discussed in a general overview. Topics examined include the history of radar technology, echo detectability, the Arecibo and Goldstone radar observatories, echo time delay and Doppler shift, radar waveforms, albedo and polarization ratio, measurement of dynamical properties, and the dispersion of echo power. Consideration is given to angular scattering laws; the radar signatures of the moon and inner planets, Mars, and asteroids; topographic relief; delay-Doppler radar maps and their physical interpretation; and radar observations of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter, comets, and the rings of Saturn. Diagrams, drawings, photographs, and sample maps and images are provided.

  7. A Comparative Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation Study of the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction in HfF4HF2H2O Using 180mHf and 181Hf(?-)181Ta as Nuclear Probes: Is Ta an Innocent Spy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Tilman; Das, Satyendra K.; Manzhur, Yurij

    2009-02-01

    We report on a comparative study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of the nuclear probes 180mHf and 181Hf(? -)181Ta in HfF4?HF?2H2O using time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) at 300 K. For the first probe, assuming a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we obtained ?Q= 103(4) Mrad/s, an asymmetry parameter ? = 0.68(3), a linewidth ? = 7.3(3.9)%, and full anisotropy within experimental accuracy. For the second probe, assuming a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we obtained three fractions: (1) with 56.5(7)%, ?Q= 126.64(4) Mrad/s and ? = 0.9241(4) with a rather small distribution ? = 0.40(8)% which is attributed to HfF4?HF?2H2O; (2) with 4.6(4)%, ?Q = 161.7(3) Mrad/s and ? = 0.761(4) assuming no line broadening which is tentatively attributed to a small admixture of Hf2OF6?H2O; (3) the remainder of 39.0(7)% accounts for a rapid loss of anisotropy and is modelled by a perturbation function with a sharp frequency multiplied by an exponential factor exp(-? t) with ? = 0.55(2) ns-1. Whereas the small admixture of Hf2OF6?H2O escapes detection by the 180mHf probe, there is no rapid loss of roughly half the anisotropy as is the case with 181Hf(? -)181Ta. This loss could in principle be due to fluctuating electric field gradients originating from movements of nearest neighbour HF adducts and/or H2O molecules after nuclear transmutation to the foreign atom Ta which are absent for the isomeric probe. Alternatively, paramagnetic Ta ions could lead to fluctuating magnetic dipole fields which, when combined with fluctuating electric field gradients, could also lead to a rapid loss of anisotropy. In any case, Ta is not an "innocent spy" in this compound. Although 180mHf is not a convenient probe for conventional spectrometers, the use of fast digitizers and software coincidences would allow to use all ? -quanta in the stretched cascade which would greatly improve the efficiency of the spectrometer. 180mHf could also serve as a Pu analogue in toxicity studies.

  8. Topography from single radar images.

    PubMed

    Wildey, R L

    1984-04-13

    A mathematical theory and a corresponding numerical procedure have been developed to produce digital topography from radar images as digital photometric arrays. Thus, as radargrammetry is to photogrammetry, so radarclinometry is to photoclinometry. Photoclinometry encompasses a fundamental indeterminacy principle even for terrain that is homogeneous in normal albedo, because the surface normal consistent with a given reflected specific intensity is not unique. A geometric locus of such normal directions is implied, which generates a surface. For microwave backscatter, in specific application to radarclinometry, this surface is a cone whose half-angle is the incidence angle, whose axis contains the radar, and whose apex coincides with the terrain point. Although the indeterminacy can be removed if a properly directed profile of ground truth is available as a constraint, such is seldom the case. In its absence, an auxiliary assumption, such as that the strike line runs perpendicular to the illumination line, is needed. If metric integrity is a goal, then this is an absurd assumption. Herein, "the hypothesis of local cylindricity" has been assumed, a premise regarding the nature of topographic curvature that seems more realistic and that makes possible the production of topography as a set of parallel line integrals. PMID:17744680

  9. High-resolution studies of the HF ionospheric modification interaction region

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.; Sheerin, J.P.

    1985-09-01

    Incoherent backscatter radar studies were conducted of the HF ionospheric modification interaction region using the facilities of the Arecibo Observatory. Very high relative spatial and temporal resolutions were achieved. These measurements resolve the miniovershoot (2-10 ms after HF on) and main overshoot (20-40 ms after HF on) plasma wave excitation features. The main overshoot phenomenon is observed to develop very reproducibly with enhancements of a factor of 10 greater than the steady state HF-enhanced plasma line intensity. However, this main overshoot effect is strongly suppressed for HF off times of less than 100 ms. In general, the miniovershoot excitation is found to occur 800-1000 m below the main overshoot excitation height. In addition, in one case, a small plasma line enhancement is detected at very early times (< 1 ms) distinct from the miniovershoot and originating at a greater height. The main overshoot and the steady state enhanced plasma line both develop at essentially the same altitude. However, the interaction layer is observed to broaden by several hundred meters during the main overshoot relaxation. Possible explanations for these effects are proposed using a combination of the theories of soliton formation and collapse, wave ducting, profile modification, parametric instabilities, and other interactive processes. 25 references, 6 figures.

  10. Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, D. E.; Hu, L. Z.; Ramaswamy, M.; Sexton, B. G.

    High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

  11. Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E. ); Hu, L.Z. ); Ramaswamy, M. ); Sexton, B.G. )

    1992-01-01

    High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

  12. Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Hu, L.Z.; Ramaswamy, M.; Sexton, B.G.

    1992-10-01

    High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

  13. A transceiver module of the Mu radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.; Ogawa, T.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kimura, I.; Fukao, S.

    1983-01-01

    The transceiver (TR) module of a middle and upper atmospheric radar is described. The TR module used in the radar is mainly composed of two units: a mixer (MIX unit) and a power amplifier (PA unit). The former generates the RF wave for transmission and converts the received echo to the IF signal. A 41.5-MHz local signal fed to mixers passes through a digitally controlled 8-bit phase shifter which can change its value up to 1,000 times in a second, so that the MU radar has the ability to steer its antenna direction quickly and flexibly. The MIX unit also contains a buffer amplifier and a gate for the transmitting signal and preamplifier for the received one whose noise figure is less than 5 dB. The PA unit amplifies the RF signal supplied from the MIX unit up to 63.7 dBm (2350 W), and feeds it to the crossed Yagi antenna.

  14. Radar image analysis utilizing junctive image metamorphosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Peter G.; Gouge, Sally B.; Gouge, Jim O.

    1998-09-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to investigate the ability of algorithms developed for medical sonogram image analysis, to be trained for extraction of cartographic information from synthetic aperture radar imagery. BioComputer Research Inc. has applied proprietary `junctive image metamorphosis' algorithms to cancer cell recognition and identification in ultrasound prostate images. These algorithms have been shown to support automatic radar image feature detection and identification. Training set images were used to develop determinants for representative point, line and area features, which were used on test images to identify and localize the features of interest. The software is computationally conservative; operating on a PC platform in real time. The algorithms are robust; having applicability to be trained for feature recognition on any digital imagery, not just those formed from reflected energy, such as sonograms and radar images. Applications include land mass characterization, feature identification, target recognition, and change detection.

  15. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  16. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  17. Lunar Exploration By Selene Lunar Radar Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ono, T.; Oya, H.

    SELENE Lunar Radar Sounder SELENE Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) is a space borne HF sounder experiment which is one of fourteen science missions onboard SELENE orbiter that is to be launched in 2005. LRS is an FMCW radar with transmission power of 800W and of which transmission pulse frequency is linearly swept from 4 to 6 MHz in 200 microseconds. A crossed pair of dipole antennas of tip-to-tip 30m long are installed as transmission and receiving antennas. The primary objective of LRS is boundary interface of lunar subsurface structure and its spatial extent. Simulation of LRS observation The whole sequence of an LRS observation, from radar pulse transmission to data analysis, has been simulated to establish the data analysis technique. The core of the simulation code is a subroutine program which treats re- flection/refraction of electromagnetic fields of radar pulse on boundary interfaces. The subroutine was designed based on Kirchhoff theory. Data analysis Four data analysis methodologies have been established for LRS: (1) B-scan analysis to investigate nadir subsurface boundary interface, (2) SAR analy- sis to investigate lunar surface crater population distribution as well as to distinguish confusing surface echoes from subsurface echoes, (3) InSAR analysis to investigate surface topography, and (4) 2D-SAR analysis to image lunar polar region surface, to investigate its surface topography, and to investigate state of surface roughness with Pol-SAR technique. Those methodologies are expected not only to be practiced in SE- LENE LRS mission but also to be applied to future planetary missions as a powerful remote sensing tool.

  18. Surface current observations using high frequency radar and its assimilation into the New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    A surface current observation system based on high-frequency (HF) radar (CODAR) has been constructed for Raritan Bay, NJ; and the New York Bight (NYB) Apex. The availability of surface current data measured using HF radar in real-time over a synoptic scale makes it appropriate for data assimilation (DA). The present work is an attempt to validate HF radar data in the NYB Apex and to develop a practical, but still nearly optimal, method to assimilate HF radar data into an estuarine and coastal ocean circulation model in a tidally-dominated region of NY/NJ Harbor Estuary and the NYB Apex. This model, forced by an extensive real-time observational network, is called the New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System (NYHOPS). A nudging or Newtonian damping scheme is developed to assimilate HF radar data. A nudging parameter is introduced into the equations of motion which affects the model dynamics. The data is imparted to neighboring (three-dimensional) grid points via model dynamics. The effectiveness of HF radar DA is studied by computing the DA skill based on mean square error. A positive DA skill (0 -- 100%) represents an improvement in the model performance by HF radar DA. The HF radar data validation study showed a reasonable comparison between HF radar surface currents and near-surface in-situ currents obtained from one out of the two moorings. HF radar DA experiments focused on both the hindcasting as well as forecast capabilities of the NYHOPS model with respect to three regions; inner-shelf region (0 -- 30 m), mid-shelf (30 -- 90m), and outer-shelf (90 -- 120 m). For the inner-NJ shelf region, based on NYHOPS model hindcasts, a 40 day long DA study using HF radar data in Raritan Bay and the NYB Apex region yielded a DA skill of +22% for near-surface currents (with respect to mooring data), and +53% and +38% for near-surface temperature and salinity (with respect to Glider/fixed sensor data). Based on NYHOPS model forecasts, for the inner-NJ shelf region, another 120 days long DA study using HF radar data in the NYB region yielded a DA skill of +11% for near-surface currents (with respect to mooring data), and +10% and +16% for near-surface temperature and salinity (with respect to Glider/fixed sensor data). The DA skill for temperature and salinity is higher in the inner-NJ shelf (0 -- 30m) region and decreases steadily towards mid-NJ shelf (30 -- 90m) and outer-NJ shelf (90 -- 120m) regions. The nudging scheme is found to be robust and efficient for the NYHOPS model with minimum computational burden.

  19. Simultaneous Multi-angle Radar Observations of Langmuir Turbulence Excited by RF Ionospheric Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watanabe, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2013-10-01

    The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. Among the effects observed and studied are: SLT spectra including cascade, collapse, and co-existence spectra and an outshifted plasma line under certain ionospheric conditions. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Bursty turbulence is observed in the collapse and cascade lines. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  20. Simultaneous Multi-angle Radar Observations of Langmuir Turbulence Excited by RF Ionospheric Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Watanabe, N.; Rayyan, N.; Spry, D.; Adham, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Spaleta, J.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. Among the effects observed and studied are: SLT spectra including cascade, collapse, and co-existence spectra and an outshifted plasma line under certain ionospheric conditions. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Bursty turbulence is observed in the collapse and cascade lines. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  1. High power HF modification: Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C., Jr.

    1990-10-01

    As the electric field and power density of radio frequency (RF) radiation increases continuously in a plasma, the response of the plasma to the incident energy changes discontinuously. This follows from a complex of competing physical processes, each generally with its own power dependent threshold, and plasma instabilities each with its own growth and decay rate. Nonlinear power dependencies, boundary condition dependencies on past histories of the plasma conditions, dependence on proximity to plasma resonances, and nonlinear mixing in the plasma to up and down convert with respect to resonances, all conspire to make experimental guidance invaluable to theoretical development. The experiment ahs demonstrated that with increasing HF power one passes the threshold of detectability sequentially from: passive transmission, to cross-modulation, to thermal bulk heating, to parametric and other instabilities with plasma structuring and stimulated electromagnetic radiation, to electron acceleration and airglow, to reported stimulated ionization. The RF propagation and emission environment is affected through the VLF to GHz range by lensing, scattering, modulation, and simulated emission. The optical background and emission character is affected over a very wide spectrum by electron impact and temperature enhancement altering translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures (as well as raising fine structure population distribution questions). A set of geophysical effects are address over this range, and participation is invited in anticipation of what effects lie beyond the next threshold (of ionospheric response to higher HF illumination). The exciting upgrade of the Heater at Tromso and emerging new HF modifier plans in the U.S. are partial motivation for such conjecture.

  2. Radar image preprocessing. [of SEASAT-A SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Held, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    Standard image processing techniques are not applicable to radar images because of the coherent nature of the sensor. Therefore there is a need to develop preprocessing techniques for radar images which will then allow these standard methods to be applied. A random field model for radar image data is developed. This model describes the image data as the result of a multiplicative-convolved process. Standard techniques, those based on additive noise and homomorphic processing are not directly applicable to this class of sensor data. Therefore, a minimum mean square error (MMSE) filter was designed to treat this class of sensor data. The resulting filter was implemented in an adaptive format to account for changes in local statistics and edges. A radar image processing technique which provides the MMSE estimate inside homogeneous areas and tends to preserve edge structure was the result of this study. Digitally correlated Seasat-A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was used to test the technique.

  3. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  6. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  7. Experimental phased array radar ELRA with extended flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, I.; Sander, W.; Wirth, W.-D.

    1990-11-01

    An update of a phased array radar research project with the experimental system ELRA (electronic steerable radar) is given with respect to the extended and improved possibilities for performing measurements and evaluations for different types of radar operation. The variability of waveforms for solid-state transmitters is described. Flexible control of multifunction operation with various search and localization tasks is achieved with a network of microcomputers. Different means of signal processing are used for target detection and estimation. The active receiving array is divided into subarrays, and offers digital beamforming for pattern shaping and adaptive jammer suppression. Experimental results are presented.

  8. Radar observations of wave transformations in the vicinity of islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Hsiao, S. V.; Teague, C. C.; Shemdin, O. H.; Pawka, S. S.

    1980-09-01

    During the West Coast Experiment both in situ measurements (by wave buoys and by pressure arrays) and remote observations (by ground based high-frequency (HF) radar and by airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR)) were made to study the effects of offshore islands on the near-shore wave climate. The radar results reported here concern March 25, 1977, a day of moderate winds blowing out of the west at 7 m s-1. The Torrey Pines near-shore pressure array indicated that the dominant wave period was 7 s arriving with a bimodal directional distribution centered approximately on west and northwest. The overall picture, which emerges from these observations of 7 s period waves, shows a broad, deep-ocean directional distribution arriving out of the west, being significantly modified as it propagates coastward passing San Clemente and Santa Catalina islands. The salient features introduced by the islands are a window between the islands, where an enhanced wave energy level is observed traveling eastward toward the southern California coast and a large shadow region extending some 50 km east of San Clemente Island in which eastward propagating wave energy is reduced by a factor of about 3. Although reduced in energy level, there are in fact eastward propagating waves in the shadow region where one would expect no eastward traveling waves at all based on geometric arguments. We have made estimates of the eastward moving wave energy introduced into the shadow region by reflection, refraction, diffraction, and wind generation processes, and we find that none of these mechanisms can account for the observed wave energy. SAR observations reveal a significant directional component traveling approximately transverse to the shadow region (parallel to the long dimension of the island). It is possible that nonlinear wave transfer driven by this directional component is the mechanism which produced the aforementioned eastward traveling waves in the shadow region. Further computation, beyond the scope of this paper, is required to evaluate this possibility. Intercomparisons between HF and SAR measurements as well as between radar and in situ observations confirm the current methods used to interpret the radar data. Although this confirmation is reassuring and this study demonstrates the efficacy of SAR and HF wave sensing techniques, research is needed to exploit SAR and HF radars fully as remote sensing tools in physical oceanography.

  9. Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.

  10. Ground penetrating radar for asparagus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a promising technique for detection of buried objects. Recently, radar has more and more been identified to provide benefits for a plurality of applications, where it can increase efficiency of operation. One of these fields is the industrial automatic harvesting process of asparagus, which is performed so far by cutting the soil ridge at a certain height including all the asparagus spears and subsequently sieving the latter out of the soil. However, the height where the soil is cut is a critical parameter, since a wrong value leads to either damage of the roots of the asparagus plants or to a reduced crop yield as a consequence of too much biomass remaining in the soil. In this paper we present a new approach which utilizes ground penetrating radar for non-invasive sensing in order to obtain information on the optimal height for cutting the soil. Hence, asparagus spears of maximal length can be obtained, while keeping the roots at the same time undamaged. We describe our radar system as well as the subsequent digital signal processing steps utilized for extracting the information required from the recorded radar data, which then can be fed into some harvesting unit for setting up the optimal cutting height.

  11. 1999 IEEE radar conference

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This conference addresses the stringent radar technology demands facing the next century: target detection, tracking and identification; changing target environment; increased clutter mitigation techniques; air traffic control; transportation; drug smuggling; remote sensing, and other consumer oriented applications. A timely discussion covers how to minimize costs for these emerging areas. Advanced radar technology theory and applications are also presented. Topics covered include: signal processing; space time adaptive processing/antennas; surveillance technology; radar systems; dual use; and phenomenology.

  12. Bistatic-radar investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T.; Tyler, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A bistatic-radar study during the Apollo 15 flight is reviewed, with the orbiting command module as one terminal. Bistatic-radar slopes are compared to geological maps of Copernicus and Riphaeus mountain regions and Kepler region. Basic theory is discussed, including the radar echoes composed of the sum of the reflections from the moon area that is mutually visible from the spacecraft and earth. A signal receiving system and data processing system are outlined schematically.

  13. Radar Technology Development at NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar at JPL and worldwide is enjoying a period of unprecedented development. JPL's science-driven program focuses on exploiting commercially available components to build new technologies to meet NASA's science goals. Investments in onboard-processing, advanced digital systems, and efficient high-power devices, point to a new generation of high-performance scientific SAR systems in the US. Partnerships are a key strategy for US missions in the coming decade

  14. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with planetary radar research reported during the time from 1979 to 1982. A brief synopsis of radar definitions and technical terminology is also provided. In connection with the proximity of the moon to earth, lunar radar studies have been performed over a wider range of wavelengths than radar investigations of other planetary targets. The most recent study of lunar quasispecular scattering is due to Simpson and Tyler (1982). The latest efforts to interpret the lunar radar maps focus on maria-highlands regolith differences and models of crater ejecta evolution. The highly successful Pioneer Venus Radar Mapper experiment has provided a first look at Venus' global distributions of topography, lambda 17-cm radar reflectivity, and rms surface slopes. Attention is given to recent comparisons of Viking Orbiter images of Mars to groundbased radar altimetry of the planet, the icy Galilean satellites, radar observations of asteroids and comets, and lambda 4-cm and lambda 13-cm observations of Saturn's rings.

  15. Equatorial radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rukao, S.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kato, S.

    1989-01-01

    A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of more than 5 x 10(9) sq. Wm (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with sensitivity more than 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 25 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of sophisticated operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

  16. Digital signal processing - 84; Proceedings of the International Conference, Florence, Italy, September 5-8, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, V.; Constantinides, A. G.

    1984-09-01

    Various papers on digital signal processing are presented. The general topics addressed include: 1-D digital filters and design methods, 2-D and M-D digital filters and design methods, digital transformations, spectral estimation, adaptive processing, implementation techniques and architectures, special devices and dedicated realizations, and VLSI processors. Other general subjects include: digital signal processing techniques, speech processing, digital image processing, digital signal processing and communications, radar applications, remote sensing, digital processing of biomedical signals and images, and pattern recognition and robotics.

  17. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  18. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system. PMID:24646997

  19. HF Radio Wave Propagation in the Ionosphere Observed with the ePOP RRI (Radio Receiver Instrument) -- SuperDARN Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G. C.; Gillies, R. G.; Ridley, C. G.; Yau, A. W.; McWilliams, K. A.; Sofko, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) scientific payload of the recently launched CSA (Canadian Space Agency) CASSIOPE (Cascade Demonstrator Small-Sat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer) satellite mission and the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) of HF radars have successfully executed a number of experiments since the launch of ePOP in late September, 2013. This presentation investigates the propagation delays and timing associated with HF radio waves transversing the plasma in the terrestrial ionosphere. Both the relative and absolute timing of the co-ordinated SuperDARN-RRI experiments will be presented. This knowledge is essential for interpreting HF radio wave propagation effects such as range accuracy, mode-splitting and timing, Doppler shift, and delayed 'echo' signatures, for example.

  20. The Cyclone meteor radar system for routine wind measurements in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysenko, I. A.; Mikhailiek, P. P.; Petrov, B. I.

    1987-01-01

    A new meteor wind radar system called Cyclone was devised to extend and update the meteor radar network and for unattended operation. The Cyclone meteor radar system obtains information from four directions simultaneously. To automate data processing a special digital device was developed. An algorithm used to determine the Doppler shifts was adopted, which makes it possible to eliminate selectivity with respect to slow velocity meteor drifts. The operation of the Cyclone system is described.

  1. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is moved to a workstand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, workers watch as an overhead crane is lowered for lifting the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from the transporter it is resting on. The SRTM is being moved to a workstand. The primary payload on mission STS-99, the SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for launch in September 1999. The objective of this radar system is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth. It will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. SRTM will be making use of a technique called radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation, or change. To get two radar images taken from different locations, the SRTM hardware will consist of one radar antenna in the shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) out from the shuttle.

  2. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is moved to a workstand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After being lifted off the transporter (lower right) in the Space Station Processing Facility, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) moves across the floor toward a workstand. The SRTM, which is the primary payload on mission STS-99, consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for launch in September 1999. The objective of this radar system is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth. It will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. SRTM will be making use of a technique called radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation, or change. To get two radar images taken from different locations, the SRTM hardware will consist of one radar antenna in the shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) out from the shuttle.

  3. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is moved to a workstand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The move of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is nearly complete as it is lowered onto the workstand in the Space Station Processing Facility. The SRTM, which is the primary payload on mission STS-99, consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for launch in September 1999. The objective of this radar system is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth. It will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. SRTM will be making use of a technique called radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation, or change. To get two radar images taken from different locations, the SRTM hardware will consist of one radar antenna in the shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) out from the shuttle.

  4. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is moved to a workstand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, workers at each end of a workstand watch as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) begins its descent onto it. The SRTM, which is the primary payload on mission STS-99, consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for launch in September 1999. The objective of this radar system is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth. It will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. SRTM will be making use of a technique called radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation, or change. To get two radar images taken from different locations, the SRTM hardware will consist of one radar antenna in the shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) out from the shuttle.

  5. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is moved to a workstand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is maneuvered by an overhead crane toward a workstand below. The SRTM, which is the primary payload on mission STS-99, consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for launch in September 1999. The objective of this radar system is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth. It will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. SRTM will be making use of a technique called radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation, or change. To get two radar images taken from different locations, the SRTM hardware will consist of one radar antenna in the shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) out from the shuttle.

  6. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is moved to a workstand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers inside the Space Station Processing Facility keep watch as an overhead crane begins lifting the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from the transporter below. The SRTM is being moved to a workstand. The primary payload on mission STS-99, the SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for launch in September 1999. The objective of this radar system is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth. It will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. SRTM will be making use of a technique called radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation, or change. To get two radar images taken from different locations, the SRTM hardware will consist of one radar antenna in the shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) out from the shuttle.

  7. Subsurface "radar" camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1977-01-01

    Long-wave length multiple-frequency radar is used for imaging and determining depth of subsurface stratified layers. Very-low frequency radar signals pinpoint below-ground strata via direct imagery techniques. Variation of frequency and scanning angle adjusts image depth and width.

  8. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  9. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  10. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  11. The Cloud Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

  12. Integrating a Microwave Radiometer into Radar Hardware for Simultaneous Data Collection Between the Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This unintuitive step allows the digital receiver to sample both the radiometer and radar data at a rapid, synchronized data rate (greater than 1 MHz bandwidth). Once both signals are sampled by the same digital receiver, high-speed quality control can be performed on the radiometer data to allow it to take data simultaneously with the radar. The radiometer data can be blanked during radar transmit, or when the radar return is of a power level high enough to corrupt the radiometer data. Additionally, the receiver protection switches in the RF front end can double as radiometer calibration sources, the short (four-microsecond level) switching periods integrated over many seconds to estimate the radiometer offset. The major benefit of this innovation is that there is minimal impact on the radar performance due to the integration of the radiometer, and the radiometer performance is similarly minimally affected by the radar. As the radar and radiometer are able to operate simultaneously, there is no extended period of integration time loss for the radiometer (maximizing sensitivity), and the radar is able to maintain its full number of pulses (increasing sensitivity and decreasing measurement uncertainty).

  13. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system" for Master Plan 2014 of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ). We show the EMU project and its science in the presentation.

  14. Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles; Im, Eastwood; Roth, Ladislav E.; Werner, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is a multimode radar instrument designed to probe the optically inaccessible surface of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. The instrument is to be included in the payload of the Cassini Saturn Mission, scheduled for launch in 1995. The individual modes of Cassini Radar Mapper will allow topographic mapping and surface imaging at few hundred meters resolution. The requirements that lay behind the design are briefly discussed, and the configuration and capability of the instrument are described. The present limited knowledge of Titan's surface and the measurement requirements imposed on the radar instrument are addressed. Also discussed are the Cassini mission and the projected orbits, which imposed another set of design constraints that led to the multitude of modes and to an unconventional antenna configuration. The antenna configuration and the different radar modes are described.

  15. Intelligent radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  16. Meteorological radar calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    A meteorological radar calibration technique is developed. It is found that the integrated, range corrected, received power saturates under intense rain conditions in a manner analogous to that encountered for the radiometric path temperature. Furthermore, it is found that this saturation condition establishes a bound which may be used to determine an absolution radar calibration for the case of radars operating at attenuating wavelengths. In the case of less intense rainfall or for radars at nonattenuating wavelengths, the relationship for direct calibration in terms of an independent measurement of radiometric path temperature is developed. This approach offers the advantage that the calibration is in terms of an independent measurement of the rainfall through the same elevated region as that viewed by the radar.

  17. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  18. Optical and ionospheric phenomena at EISCAT under continuous X-mode HF pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kosch, M.; Sergienko, T.; Brndstrm, U.; Yeoman, T. K.; Hggstrm, I.

    2014-12-01

    We present experimental results from multiinstrument observations in the high-latitude ionospheric F2 layer at the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) heating facility. The results come from a set of experiments, when an X-polarized HF pump wave at high heater frequencies (fH > 6.0 MHz) was injected into the F region of the ionosphere toward the magnetic zenith. Experiments were carried out under quiet magnetic conditions with an effective radiated power of 458-548 MW. HF pumping was produced at different heater frequencies, away from electron gyroharmonic frequencies, and different durations of heater pulses. We show the first experimental evidence of the excitation of artificial optical emissions at red (630 nm) and green (557.7 nm) lines in the high-latitude ionospheric F2 layer induced by an X-polarized HF pump wave. Intensities at red and green lines varied in the range 110-950 R and 50-350 R, respectively, with a ratio of green to red line of 0.35-0.5. The results of optical observations are compared with behaviors of the HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines from EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar data and small-scale field-aligned artificial irregularities from Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System observations. It was found that the X-mode radio-induced optical emissions coexisted with HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines and strong artificial field-aligned irregularities throughout the whole heater pulse. It is indicative that parametric decay or oscillating two-stream instabilities were not quenched by fully established small-scale field-aligned artificial irregularities excited by an X-mode HF pump wave.

  19. Description and availability of airborne Doppler radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.

  20. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  1. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  2. Digital-Difference Processing For Collision Avoidance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, Paul; Lichtenberg, Chris; Kobayashi, Herbert S.; Cunningham, Allen R.

    1988-01-01

    Digital system for automotive crash avoidance measures and displays difference in frequency between two sinusoidal input signals of slightly different frequencies. Designed for use with Doppler radars. Characterized as digital mixer coupled to frequency counter measuring difference frequency in mixer output. Technique determines target path mathematically. Used for tracking cars, missiles, bullets, baseballs, and other fast-moving objects.

  3. Computing Ocean Surface Currents from Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Waqas A.

    Ocean surface currents play an important role in ocean-atmosphere interactions and global ocean circulation, and are also significant for fishing, ocean navigation, and search & rescue. Existing in-situ and remote sensing techniques for measuring ocean surface currents are limited by spatial and temporal data coverage, and thermal IR feature tracking methods are limited by clouds and weak thermal gradients. High-resolution spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offers repeatable cloud-penetrating measurements of the ocean surface. This research explores methods for ocean surface current measurement through satellite-based SAR. The major part of this research is concerned with the development and application of a semi-automated algorithm to generate ocean surface currents at 1.9 km resolution from sequential spaceborne C-band SAR intensity images using the Maximum Cross-Correlation(MCC) method. The primary geographical area of study is the coastal California Current System (CCS), and nearly two years (2008-2009) of 30-min lag data from the Envisat ASAR and ERS-2 AMI SAR sensors is analyzed. The velocity wavenumber spectrum of the derived MCC SAR currents agrees with the k-2 power law as predicted by submesoscale resolution models, and also shows seasonal mesoscale variability. The derived MCC SAR currents are validated against High frequency (HF) radar currents, and the two show some agreement in vector direction, with MCC SAR vectors oriented slightly anti-clockwise relative to HF radar vectors. The unimodal mean-symmetric residual histograms indicate that errors between the two datasets are random, except for a mean positive bias of ? 11 cm/s in MCC SAR currents relative to HF radar currents. This magnitude difference occurs primarily in the along-shore component ( ? 6 cm/s) and is negligible in the cross-shore component. Doppler Centroid Cross-Track (XT) radial currents from Envisat Wide Swath Mode (WSM) scenes are compared with HF radar radial currents, and are seen to have much larger extreme values, which is attributed to the Doppler wind correction process. Ignoring the extreme values, errors between the two datasets appear to be random, with a near-zero mean bias, and are also linked with the Doppler radial estimation errors attributed to model wind corrections. Comparison of Doppler radials with MCC SAR radials for two ? 12-hour lag cases also shows promising results. Finally, experiments conducted with TerraSAR-X experimental Dual Receive Aperture (DRA) mode Along-Track Interferometry (ATI) datasets suggest possible solutions for the absolute phase calibration problem using interferometric phase over ocean only.

  4. Wind Turbine Clutter Mitigation in Coastal UHF Radar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caijun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wen, Biyang

    2014-01-01

    Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness. PMID:24550709

  5. Wind turbine clutter mitigation in coastal UHF radar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Pan, Chao; Wang, Caijun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wen, Biyang

    2014-01-01

    Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness. PMID:24550709

  6. A source mechanism producing HF-induced plasma lines (HFPLS) with up-shifted frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a nonlinear scattering process analyzed as a source mechanism producing the frequency up-shifted HFPLs observed in the Arecibo ionospheric heating experiments. A physical picture is offered to explain how Langmuir waves with frequencies greater than the HF heater wave frequency can be produced in the heating experiments and be detected by incoherent radars as frequency up-shifted HFPLs. Since the considered scattering process occurs in a region near the reflection height, it explains why the frequency up-shifted HFPLs should originate from the altitude near the reflection height as observed. The theory also shows that the amount of frequency up-shift is inversely proportional to the frequency of the HF heater and increases linearly with the electron temperature. The quantitative analysis of the theory shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Generation of Artificial Acoustic-Gravity Waves and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances in HF Heating Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, R.; Lee, M. C.; Cohen, J. A.; Watkins, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of our ionospheric HF heating experiments to generate artificial acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID), which were conducted at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in Gakona, Alaska. Based on the data from UHF radar, GPS total electron content, and ionosonde measurements, we found that artificial AGW/TID can be generated in ionospheric modification experiments by sinusoidally modulating the power envelope of the transmitted O-mode HF heater waves. In this case, the modulation frequency needs to be set below the characteristic Brunt-Vaisala frequency at the relevant altitudes. We avoided potential contamination from naturally-occurring AGW/TID of auroral origin by conducting the experiments during geomagnetically quiet time period. We determine that these artificial AGW/TID propagate away from the edge of the heated region with a horizontal speed of approximately 160 m/s.

  8. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1988-01-01

    Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar telescope (transmitter, receiver, antenna, computer hardware and software) as well as knowledge of how the entire system must function as a cohesive unit to meet the particular scientific objectives at hand in a given observation. Support radar data-processing facilities, currently being used for virtually all Goldstone data reduction includes: a VAX 11/780 computer system, an FPS 5210 array processor, terminals, tape drives, and image-display devices, as well as a large body of data-reduction software to accommodate the variety of data-acquisition formats and strategems. Successful 113-cm radar observation of Callisto and the near-Earth asteroid 1981 Midas and Goldstone/VLA radar observations of Saturn's rings were obtained. Quick-look verification programs from data taken with phase-coded cw (i.e., ranging) waveforms, applicable to Venus, the Moon, and small bodies were completed. Definition of scientific and engineering requirements on instrument performance, radar system configuration, and personnel, for all 1988 Goldstone radar investigations was accomplished.

  9. The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal radar network represent a challenge to the nowadays definition of OGC web services: the network will suggest and test solutions.

  10. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  11. Radar Imaging of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M.; Harmon, J.

    2004-11-01

    Radar images of the entire Mercurian surface have been created using the Arecibo S-band radar (wavelength 12.6cm) and the long code delay-Doppler method. We have mapped the locations of midlatitude radar-bright craters across all longitudes, and in the Mariner-10 imaged hemisphere we find several disagreements between the features that appear freshest in the unpolarized radar images and those that have been classified as most recent in the USGS geologic maps. All USGS c5 craters correspond to bright features in our same-circular polarized radar images; however, several c1 and c2 craters have radar-bright deposits as well. In our radar maps of the Skinakas Basin region of the Mariner-10 unimaged hemisphere, we find little agreement between the proposed basin rim locations and the radar features. We have mapped the south polar region using new data from April 2004 with a sub-Earth latitude of 4.5S, this being our first chance to view the south pole since the Arecibo telescope upgrade. We confirm the locations of features seen in the pre-upgrade maps and we identify 15 new "ice" features extending to latitudes as low as 73S. All south polar features have circular polarization inversions (average SC/OC=1.38) that are consistent with volume scattering off cold-trapped volatiles. We also present a preliminary analysis of our August 2004 observations, including new radar images of "Feature C" (the strongest echo feature in the Mariner-10 unimaged hemisphere) and of the north polar region. This research was funded by the NSF as part of the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program.

  12. Improved HF183 Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Characterization of Human Fecal Pollution in Ambient Surface Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Green, Hyatt C.; Haugland, Richard A.; Varma, Manju; Millen, Hana T.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Field, Katharine G.; Walters, William A.; Knight, R.; Sivaganesan, Mano; Kelty, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster within members of the genus Bacteroides are among the most widely used methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In this study, we show that a current TaqMan HF183 qPCR assay (HF183/BFDrev) routinely forms nonspecific amplification products and introduce a modified TaqMan assay (HF183/BacR287) that alleviates this problem. The performance of each qPCR assay was compared in head-to-head experiments investigating limits of detection, analytical precision, predicted hybridization to 16S rRNA gene sequences from a reference database, and relative marker concentrations in fecal and sewage samples. The performance of the modified HF183/BacR287 assay is equal to or improves upon that of the original HF183/BFDrev assay. In addition, a qPCR chemistry designed to combat amplification inhibition and a multiplexed internal amplification control are included. In light of the expanding use of PCR-based methods that rely on the detection of extremely low concentrations of DNA template, such as qPCR and digital PCR, the new TaqMan HF183/BacR287 assay should provide more accurate estimations of human-derived fecal contaminants in ambient surface waters. PMID:24610857

  13. The Cassini Radar Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini/Huygens Mission is a nineteen-year multinational project to design, construct and execute an investigation of the Saturn system, with emphasis on its largest moon, Titan. Titan's atmosphere is nearly opaque at optical wavelengths, so a Ku-band radar imaging system was required to map its surface. In this paper we describe the radar instrument, discuss some of the challenges to its design, and review its operating modes. We briefly summarize the surprises that the radar instrument has revealed while investigating Titan.

  14. Asteroid radar astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rosema, K. D.; Winkler, R.; Yeomans, D. K.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hine, A. A.; Velez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of time delay and Doppler frequency are reported for asteroid-radar echoes obtained at Arecibo and Goldstone during 1980-1990. Radar astrometry is presented for 23 near-earth asteroids and three mainbelt asteroids. These measurements, which are orthogonal to optical, angular-position measurements, and typically have a fractional precision between 10 to the -5th and 10 to the -8th, permit significant improvement in estimates of orbits and hence in the accuracy of prediction ephemerides. Estimates are also reported of radar cross-section and circular polarization ratio for all asteroids observed astrometrically during 1980-1990.

  15. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-05-01

    Efforts were focused on: (1) acquisition of radar data at Arecibo; (2) examination of raw data; (3) reduction of the unmodulated data to background-free, calibrated spectra; (4) integration and coherent analyses of the phase-coded data; and (5) calculation of Doppler shifts and preliminary values for echo limb-to-limb bandwidths, radar cross sections, and circular polarization ratios. Asteroids observed to data have radar properties distinct from those of the rocky terrestrial planets and those of the icy Galilean satellites.

  16. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  17. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-07-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  18. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  19. Spaceborne laser radar.

    PubMed

    Flom, T

    1972-02-01

    Laser radar systems are being developed to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. To search effectively for and locate a target using a narrow laser beam, a scanning system is needed. This paper describes a scan technique whereby a narrow laser beam is synchronously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described. PMID:20111497

  20. Multitone harmonic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Martone, Anthony F.

    2013-05-01

    Nonlinear radar exploits the electronic response from a target whose reflected frequencies are different from those transmitted. Reception of frequencies that are not part of the transmitted probe distinguishes the received signal from a linear return produced by clutter and indicates the presence of electronics. Presented in this paper is a type of nonlinear radar that transmits multiple frequencies and listens for a harmonic of these frequencies as well as other frequencies near that harmonic. A laboratory test-bed has been constructed to demonstrate the multitone radar concept. Measurements of nonlinear responses from RF devices probed by multiple tones are reported.

  1. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  2. Evaluating the surface circulation in the Ebro delta (northeastern Spain) with quality-controlled high-frequency radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-11-01

    The Ebro River delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three-site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde high-frequency (HF) radar was deployed in December 2013. The main goal of this work is to explore basic features of the sea surface circulation in the Ebro deltaic region as derived from reliable HF radar surface current measurements. For this aim, a combined quality control methodology was applied: firstly, 1-year long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters was conducted to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. The signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution, although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be sporadic episodes since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) values emerged in the ranges [0.58-0.83] and [4.02-18.31] cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely, the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of the Ebro delta mouth, or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. The EOF analysis related the flow response to local wind forcing and confirmed that the surface current field evolved in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability.

  3. A radar array to locate buried landmines using the radar/acoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemeyer, B.; Wright, V.; Shipley, C. A.

    2005-06-01

    An array of compact, inexpensive radars has been developed that utilizes commercial Doppler radar transceivers and box horn array antennas operating in the near field. The 25 x 25 radar unit array acts as a set of vibrometers that detect the acoustic mechanical resonances of buried land mines by sensing the ground motion above them. Operating with the antenna apertures 35 cm above the ground, spatial resolution, grid spacing, and location accuracy are 10 cm. The outputs of each radar unit, voltages directly proportional to the amplitude of the ground vibration displacement, include in-phase and quadrature components that are digitized to 18 bits resolution. A portable PC based LabVIEW program serves as the data processor to provide 25 simultaneous DFT spectra that isolate the mine resonances. Tests showed that the radar derived spectra are clearly discernible but, to some extent, subject to fluctuations due to coherent scattering from features on rough ground surface. One partially successful attempt to ameliorate these fluctuations is discussed.

  4. The US open skies synthetic aperture radar (SAROS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, K.R.; Hezeltine, P.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the Synthetic Aperture Radar for Open Skies (SAROS), an airborne side-looking synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system installed on the U.S. OC-135B Open Skies Observation Aircraft. The paper discusses in detail how the SAROS is designed to meet the performance requirements and limits of the Treaty on Open Skies. The SAROS is based on the U.S. AN/APD-12 analog radar system which has been modified to digitally record radar, motion, and annotation data on magnetic tape and has been designated as the AN/APD-14. The theoretical performance of the AN/APD-12 SAR exceeds the three meter range and azimuth resolution allowed by the Treaty. The SAROS design will limit the performance of the SAR to no better than three meter`s through reduction in transmitted frequency bandwidth, reduction in azimuth bandwidth, and decimation of azimuth sampling prior to recording of the phase history data. 5 figs.

  5. Model for optimal parallax in stereo radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaruck, M. A.; Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Simulated stereo radar imagery is used to investigate parameters for a spaceborne imaging radar. Incidence angles ranging from small to intermediate to large are used with three digital terrain model areas which are representative of relatively flat, moderately rough, and mountaneous terrain. The simulated radar imagery was evaluated by interpreters for ease of stereo perception and information content, and rank ordered within each class of terrain. The interpreter's results are analyzed for trends between the height of a feature and either parallax or vertical exaggeration for a stereo pair. A model is developed which predicts the amount of parallax (or vertical exaggeration) an interpreter would desire for best stereo perception of a feature of a specific height. Results indicate the selection of angle of incidence and stereo intersection angle depend upon the relief of the terrain. Examples of the simulated stereo imagery are presented for a candidate spaceborne imaging radar having four selectable angles of incidence.

  6. Time-frequency analysis of synthetic aperture radar signals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, B.

    1996-08-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become an important tool for remote sensing of the environment. SAR is a set of digital signal processing algorithms that are used to focus the signal returned to the radar because radar systems in themselves cannot produce the high resolution images required in remote sensing applications. To reconstruct an image, several parameters must be estimated and the quality of output image depends on the degree of accuracy of these parameters. In this thesis, we derive the fundamental SAR algorithms and concentrate on the estimation of one of its critical parameters. We show that the common technique for estimating this particular parameter can sometimes lead to erroneous results and reduced quality images. We also employ time-frequency analysis techniques to examine variations in the radar signals caused by platform motion and show how these results can be used to improve output image quality.

  7. A model for simulation and processing of radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.; Frost, V. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    A model for recording, processing, presentation, and analysis of radar images in digital form is presented. The observed image is represented as having two random components, one which models the variation due to the coherent addition of electromagnetic energy scattered from different objects in the illuminated areas. This component is referred to as fading. The other component is a representation of the terrain variation which can be described as the actual signal which the radar is attempting to measure. The combination of these two components provides a description of radar images as being the output of a linear space-variant filter operating on the product of the fading and terrain random processes. In addition, the model is applied to a digital image processing problem using the design and implementation of enhancement scene. Finally, parallel approaches are being employed as possible means of solving other processing problems such as SAR image map-matching, data compression, and pattern recognition.

  8. Can HF heating generate ESF bubbles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawdie, K. A.; Huba, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The injection of powerful HF waves into the ionosphere can lead to strong electron heating followed by a pressure perturbation which can locally reduce the plasma density. In the postsunset equatorial ionosphere, density perturbations can provide the seed to generate equatorial spread F (ESF) bubbles. In this paper, a modified version of the SAMI3/ESF ionosphere code is used to model the density depletions created by HF heating and to determine if ESF bubbles can be artificially generated. It is found that HF heating primarily redistributes plasma along the geomagnetic field and does not significantly perturb the flux tube integrated conductivities. Thus, HF heating does not appear to be a viable method to seed or generate ESF bubbles.

  9. Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. B.; Ma, W. C.; Marsh, J. C.; Ijaz, Q. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Kondev, F. G.; Grdal, G.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hartley, D. J.; Riedinger, L. L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-11-01

    Excited states of 163Hf were populated using the 94Zr(74Ge,5 n ) reaction and the decay ? rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five-quasiparticle configurations, two ? - vibrational bands coupled to the i13 /2 excitation were also observed. The lowest level of a newly identified, negative-parity band is proposed to be the ground state of the nucleus. A systematic delay of the high-spin proton crossing frequency with increasing quadrupole deformation from 162Hf to 172Hf was established. Extensive band searches failed to reveal a triaxial, strongly deformed structure in 163Hf similar to the one observed in several nuclei around A 165 .

  10. RADAR performance experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroux, C.; Bertin, F.; Mounir, H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical studies and experimental results obtained at Coulommiers airport showed the capability of Proust radar to detect wind shears, in clear air condition as well as in presence of clouds or rain. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown. A comparison of 30 cm clear air radar Proust and 5 cm weather Doppler radar Ronsard will allow to select the best candidate for wind shear detection, taking into account the low sensibility to ground clutter of Ronsard radar.

  11. Radar - The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, G.

    1985-02-01

    Progress in civil and military radar units since the invention of radar in 1935 is summarized, noting the trend to multipurpose units. The earliest systems functioned at 10 cm, then 3 cm after development of a cavity magnetron to provide power for shorter wavelengths. Military needs are driving improvements in three-dimensional scanning capabilities, Primarily to locate aircraft in the presence of ground clutter and sea surface scattering. Autonomous, separate transmitter and receiver units are being tested. Lengthening ground-based radar wavelengths to tens of meters will permit over-the-horizon sensing with backscattering, ionospheric bounce, or induction of a potential in the sea surface as the possible techniques. Mode S monopulse radars will permit transponder queries between small and large aircraft. Finally, pulse Doppler SAR systems may afford terrain recognition with no corroborating data except an expert systems data base.

  12. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  13. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  14. The Newest Oldest Data From Seasat's Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Tom; Holt, Ben; Drew, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    A new suite of digital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, featuring historic views of Earth's oceans, sea ice, volcanoes, forests, glaciers, and more, was made available in its entirety for the first time by the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) in midsummer 2013.

  15. Space Radar Image of Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Great Falls, Montana. The image was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful to scientists because they show the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking south-southeast. Along the right edge of the image is the valley of the north fork of the Sun River. The western edge of the Great Plains appears on the left side. The valleys in the lower center, running off into the plains on the left, are branches of the Teton River. The highest mountains are at elevations of 2,860 meters (9,390 feet), and the plains are about 1,400 meters (4,500 feet) above sea level. The dark brown areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown, orange and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are the differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 47.7 degrees north latitude and 112.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's program entitled Mission to Planet Earth.

  16. Radar image enhancement and simulation as an aid to interpretation and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Dellwig, L. F.; Held, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    Greatly increased activity in the field of radar image applications in the coming years demands that techniques of radar image analysis, enhancement, and simulation be developed now. Since the statistical nature of radar imagery differs from that of photographic imagery, one finds that the required digital image processing algorithms (e.g., for improved viewing and feature extraction) differ from those currently existing. This paper addresses these problems and discusses work at the Remote Sensing Laboratory in image simulation and processing, especially for systems comparable to the formerly operational SEASAT synthetic aperture radar.

  17. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory`s continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site.

  18. Simulation and studies of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar image quality with reduced bit rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, F.; Held, D.; Huneycutt, B.; Zebker, H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer simulation program that is used to study the effects of digitization in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar systems is described. An analytical study of the distortion noise introduced by the digitization process at various gain settings, sampling rates and bit error rates is presented and the results agree well with those obtained from the simulation program. The simulation program is also used to study the spatial frequency response of hard-limiting (quantizing to 1-bit) synthetic aperture radar systems. The implications of these results on synthetic aperture radar system design are discussed.

  19. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  20. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  1. A study of large-scale HF-induced thermal self-focused density striations in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    The thermal self-focusing instability, which manifests itself in the formation of density striations in the ionosphere, is studied. Two separate ionospheric modification experiments were conducted at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) in Arecibo, P.R. for the purpose of discerning the spatial dependence of the striations on incident HF power flux and angle between k{sub HF} and B. Both experiments made use of the HF heating facility in Islote, P.R., which operated at 5.1 MHz in the O-mode. The ionosphere was overdense to 5.1 MHz in both experiments. The orientation of the striations with respect to the HF heater beam and the earth`s magnetic field is also considered. The first experiment was a two part campaign in which maps of the HF heated volume electric field intensity were made. The HF beam was vertical for the first part and tilted 12{degrees} to the north for the second part, which allowed for the experimental variation of {theta} (the angle between k{sub HF} and B). The second experiment was the AA-3A rocket of the CR-RES campaign. This rocket injected three clouds of barium into the heated ionosphere, each 20 km apart in altitude, centered on the middle of the HF heated volume. Incoherent Scatter Radar plasma line data and CCD optical data was taken to study the geometry of the evolution of the striations. Ray tracing, ionization modeling, and thermal self-experimental data. Conclusions were made that suggest that the striations are aligned with the HF beam below the HF reflection height and are B field aligned above reflection due to thermal conduction. The experimental data supports Perkins & Valeo`s and Cragin & Fejer`s theories which both state that minimum striation width decreases with increasing incident power flux. It is also concluded that the barium cloud acts as a divergent lens which focuses HF energy away from the area centered above the cloud.

  2. The 94 GHz MMW imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon

    1993-01-01

    The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.

  3. Spectrum sensing techniques for nonlinear radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Mazzaro, Gregory; McNamara, David; Silvious, Jerry; Sherbondy, Kelly; Gallagher, Kyle; Narayanan, Ram

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, spectrum sensing techniques are explored for nonlinear radar. These techniques use energy detection to identify an unoccupied receive frequency for nonlinear radar. A frequency is considered unoccupied if it satisfies the following criteria: 1) for a given frequency of interest, its energy must be below a predetermined threshold; 2) the surrounding energy of this frequency must also be below a predetermined threshold. Two energy detection techniques are used to select an unoccupied frequency. The first technique requires the fast Fourier transform and a weighting function to test the energy in neighboring frequency bins; both of these procedures may require a high degree of computational resources. The second technique uses multirate digital signal processing and the fast binary search techniques to lower the overall computational complexity while satisfying the requirements for an unoccupied frequency.

  4. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  5. 47 CFR 73.757 - System specifications for single-sideband (SSB) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System specifications for single-sideband (SSB... Stations § 73.757 System specifications for single-sideband (SSB) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service. (a) System parameters—(1) Channel spacing. In a mixed DSB, SSB and digital...

  6. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska: radar observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Mann, Drte; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Meyer, David

    2000-01-01

    ERS-1/ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometry was used to study the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano in Alaska. First, we derived an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) using a tandem ERS-1/ERS-2 image pair and the preexisting DEM. Second, by studying changes in interferometric coherence we found that the newly erupted lava lost radar coherence for 5-17 months after the eruption. This suggests changes in the surface backscattering characteristics and was probably related to cooling and compaction processes. Third, the atmospheric delay anomalies in the deformation interferograms were quantitatively assessed. Atmospheric delay anomalies in some of the interferograms were significant and consistently smaller than one to two fringes in magnitude. For this reason, repeat observations are important to confidently interpret small geophysical signals related to volcanic activities. Finally, using two-pass differential interferometry, we analyzed the preemptive inflation, coeruptive deflation, and posteruptive inflation and confirmed the observations using independent image pairs. We observed more than 140 cm of subsidence associated with the 1997 eruption. This subsidence occurred between 16 months before the eruption and 5 months after the eruption, was preceded by ?18 cm of uplift between 1992 and 1995 centered in the same location, and was followed by ?10 cm of uplift between September 1997 and 1998. The best fitting model suggests the magma reservoir resided at 2.7 km depth beneath the center of the caldera, which was ?5 km from the eruptive vent. We estimated the volume of the erupted material to be 0.055 km3 and the average thickness of the erupted lava to be ?7.4 m. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. SPace Radar Image of Fort Irwin, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of Fort Irwin in California's Mojave Desert compares interferometric radar signatures topography -- data that were obtained by multiple imaging of the same region to produce three-dimensional elevation maps -- as it was obtained on October 7-8, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Data were acquired using the L-band (24 centimeter wavelength) and C-band (6 centimeter wavelength). The image covers an area about 25 kilometers by 70 kilometers (15.5 miles by 43 miles). North is to the lower right of the image. The color contours shown are proportional to the topographic elevation. With a wavelength one-fourth that of the L-band, the results from the C-band cycle through the color contours four times faster for a given elevation change. Detailed comparisons of these multiple frequency data over different terrain types will provide insights in the future into wavelength-dependent effects of penetration and scattering on the topography measurement accuracy. Fort Irwin is an ideal site for such detailed digital elevation model comparisons because a number of high precision digital models of the area already exist from conventional measurements as well as from airborne interferometric SAR data. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Triangulation using synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.

    1991-01-01

    For the extraction of topographic information about Venus from stereoradar images obtained from the Magellan Mission, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) compilation system was developed on analytical stereoplotters. The system software was extensively tested by using stereoradar images from various spacecraft and airborne radar systems, including Seasat, SIR-B, ERIM XCL, and STAR-1. Stereomodeling from radar images was proven feasible, and development is on a correct approach. During testing, the software was enhanced and modified to obtain more flexibility and better precision. Triangulation software for establishing control points by using SAR images was also developed through a joint effort with the Defense Mapping Agency. The SAR triangulation system comprises four main programs, TRIDATA, MODDATA, TRISAR, and SHEAR. The first two programs are used to sort and update the data; the third program, the main one, performs iterative statistical adjustment; and the fourth program analyzes the results. Also, input are flight data and data from the Global Positioning System and Inertial System (navigation information). The SAR triangulation system was tested with six strips of STAR-1 radar images on a VAX-750 computer. Each strip contains images of 10 minutes flight time (equivalent to a ground distance of 73.5 km); the images cover a ground width of 22.5 km. All images were collected from the same side. With an input of 44 primary control points, 441 ground control points were produced. The adjustment process converged after eight iterations. With a 6-m/pixel resolution of the radar images, the triangulation adjustment has an average standard elevation error of 81 m. Development of Magellan radargrammetry will be continued to convert both SAR compilation and triangulation systems into digital form.

  9. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles to derive more accurate HF electron flux spectra.

  10. Current radar responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Kenneth W.; Ormesher, Richard C.

    2003-09-01

    Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application.

  11. The Hf isotopic composition of ferromanganese nodules and crusts and hydrothermal manganese deposits: Implications for seawater Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, L. V.; Lee, D.-C.; Sangrey, W. F.; Halliday, A. N.; Salters, V. J. M.; Hein, J. R.; White, W. M.

    1997-09-01

    We present Hf and Pb isotopic data, and chemical compositions of the outermost layers of marine ferromanganese deposits of different types (hydrogenous and hydrothermal) with a worldwide distribution. The Hf isotopic compositions display a broad range and refine previously reported regional differences as follows: Atlantic Ocean ? Hf = -4to+2, Indian Ocean ? Hf = +2to+4, Pacific Ocean ? Hf = +3to+10. The most radiogenic Hf isotopic compositions in the Pacific samples are for hydrothermal manganese deposits that also have low 207Pb 204Pb, demonstrating that this signature reflects a contribution from hydrothermal venting of Hf leached from oceanic volcanic rocks rather than from riverine inputs, volcanic ash, or eolian dust. Hafnium concentrations in the deposits increase from 20 ppb to 20 ppm with decreasing ? Hf, The Hf and Pb isotopic compositions for ferromanganese crusts define an apparent mixing trend between literature values of average continental crust and MORB. The range in ? Hf for ferromanganese crusts is narrower than it is for 206Pb 204Pb compared to the differences in isotopic composition of the sources of Hf and Pb. This is consistent with Hf having a longer residence time than Pb. The concentration of Hf in ferromanganese crusts has been found to co-vary with growth rate, and inversely correlates with Hf isotopic compositions. Hf isotope ratios may be used to determine not only the source of Hf, but possibly the source of Fe and Mn. Measurements of ? Hf and Hf concentrations in nodule tops, bottoms and associated sediments show that the ? Hf of nodules is sensitive to sedimentary oxic and sub-oxic diagenetic processes and thus most nodules may not reliably reflect the isotopic composition of Hf in seawater.

  12. Soil moisture detection from radar imagery of the Phoenix, Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.; Mueller, R.

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) dual-polarization X and L band radar was flown to acquire radar imagery over the Phoenix (Arizona) test site. The site was covered by a north-south pass and an east-west pass. Radar response to soil moisture was investigated. Since the ERIM radar does not have accurately measured antenna patterns, analysis of the L band data was performed separately for each of several strips along the flight line, each corresponding to a narrow angle of incidence. For the NS pass, good correlation between the radar return and mositure content was observed for each of the two nearest (to nadir) angular ranges. At higher angular ranges, no correlation was observed. The above procedure was not applied to the EW pass due to flight path misalignments. The results obtained stress the importance of radar calibration, the digitization process, and the angle of incidence.

  13. 66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: A Global DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Digital topographic data are critical for a variety of civilian, commercial, and military applications. Scientists use Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to map drainage patterns and ecosystems, and to monitor land surface changes over time. The mountain-building effects of tectonics and the climatic effects of erosion can also be modeled with DEW The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling and simulation. Commercial applications include determining locations for cellular phone towers, enhanced ground proximity warning systems for aircraft, and improved maps for backpackers. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (Fig. 1), is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission is designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical errors.

  15. A barrier radar concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  16. Enhanced Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Anderson, F. S.; Slade, M. A.

    2000-10-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. GSSR radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 as well as the Mars Pathfinder landing sites. A reprocessing to common format of the last ten years worth of GSSR Mars delay-Doppler sub-Earth radar track profiles was recently completed in aid of landing site characterization. The radar data obtained since 1988 by the GSSR comprise some 73 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Sixteen of those tracks also have interferometric radar data, which has never been processed, because the signal to noise is insufficient to constrain both the phases and the radar scattering parameters. The new topographic data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft offer the best means to finally make radar maps that extend the radar properties coverage some 3 to 4 degrees beyond the sub-Earth radar track. This would be a significant expansion of the dataset, and is all the more warranted as the radar spatial resolution improves away from the sub-Earth track. At the outer edges the radar resolution cell is of the same order of size as the landing site ellipses for future mission (approximately 20 km diameter). Initial results of processing the interferometric data will be presented at the meeting. The 2001 Mars opposition offers an opportunity to fill in some areas where radar data are lacking in the current dataset. We are planning 18 radar experiments from May through July of 2001. The goal of the observations will be to provide new, interferometric, improved-spatial-resolution radar data over the equatorial regions (latitudes -2 to +7) of Mars, in particular over the so-called Hematite Site in Sinus Meridiani. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, with funding from the Mars Data Analysis Program of NASA OSS.

  17. The Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop, November 1979.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, R. E.; Harris, F. I.; Hildebrand, P. H.; Kropfli, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Moninger, W.; Strauch, R. G.; Doviak, R. J.; Johnson, K. W.; Nelson, S. P.; Ray, P. S.; Gilet, M.

    1980-10-01

    The findings of the Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop are summarized by a series of six papers. Part I of this series briefly reviews the history of multiple Doppler experimentation, fundamental concepts of Doppler signal theory, and organization and objectives of the Workshop. Invited presentations by dynamicists and cloud physicists are also summarized.Experimental design and procedures (Part II) are shown to be of critical importance. Well-defined and limited experimental objectives are necessary in view of technological limitations. Specified radar scanning procedures that balance temporal and spatial resolution considerations are discussed in detail. Improved siting for suppression of ground clutter as well as scanning procedures to minimize errors at echo boundaries are discussed. The need for accelerated research using numerically simulated proxy data sets is emphasized.New technology to eliminate various sampling limitations is cited as an eventual solution to many current problems in Part III. Ground clutter contamination may be curtailed by means of full spectral processing, digital filters in real time, and/or variable pulse repetition frequency. Range and velocity ambiguities also may be minimized by various pulsing options as well as random phase transmission. Sidelobe contamination can be reduced through improvements in radomes, illumination patterns, and antenna feed types. Radar volume-scan time can be sharply reduced by means of wideband transmission, phased array antennas, multiple beam antennas, and frequency agility.Part IV deals with synthesis of data from several radars in the context of scientific requirements in cumulus clouds, widespread precipitation, and severe convective storms. The important temporal and spatial scales are examined together with the accuracy required for vertical air motion in each phenomenon. Factors that introduce errors in the vertical velocity field are identified and synthesis techniques are discussed separately for the dual Doppler and multiple Doppler cases. Various filters and techniques, including statistical and variational approaches, are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on the importance of experiment design and procedures, technological improvements, incorporation of all information from supporting sensors, and analysis priority for physically simple cases. Integrated reliability is proposed as an objective tool for radar siting.Verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical velocity is discussed in Part V. Three categories of verification are defined as direct, deductive, and theoretical/numerical. Direct verification consists of zenith-pointing radar measurements (from either airborne or ground-based systems), air motion sensing aircraft, instrumented towers, and tracking of radar chaff. Deductive sources include mesonetworks, aircraft (thermodynamic and microphysical) measurements, satellite observations, radar reflectivity, multiple Doppler consistency, and atmospheric soundings. Theoretical/numerical sources of verification include proxy data simulation, momentum checking, and numerical cloud models. New technology, principally in the form of wide bandwidth radars, is seen as a development that may reduce the need for extensive verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical air motions. Airborne Doppler radar is perceived as the single most important source of verification within the bounds of existing technology.Nine stages of data processing and display are identified in Part VI. The stages are identified as field checks, archival, selection, editing, coordinate transformation, synthesis of Cartesian fields, filtering, display, and physical analysis. Display of data is considered to be a problem critical to assimilation of data at all stages. Interactive computing systems and software are concluded to be very important, particularly for the editing stage. Three- and 4-dimensional displays are considered essential for data assimilation, particularly at the physical analysis stage. The concept of common data tape formats is approved both for data in radar s

  18. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. Effects in the ionosphere and HF radio-wave propagation during an intense substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Borisova, T. D.; Rogov, D. D.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of combined radiophysical studies during the period of an intense magnetospheric substorm which occurred from 00:00 to 02:00 UT in April 12, 1999. Measurements of the ionospheric parameters by a chain of European ionosondes for this period were compared with the variations in ionospheric parameters averaged over more than 70 substorms. The latter variations were obtained by data from the ionosondes of Europe, Central Siberia, and North America in 1993-1999. Data from the CUTLASS radar as well as the DMSP and POES satellites were used for the analysis of the April 11-12 substorm. Numerical calculations of HF radio-wave propagation on the St. PetersburgLongyearbyen (Svalbard) high-latitude path were carried out by the ray tracing technique. Two simultaneous effects have been revealed in the ionosphere. One occurs immediately during the substorm and another is associated with the end of the magnetic storm in April 10, 1999. According to the CUTLASS radar data, the number of backscattering irregularities in the ionospheric F layer notably decreased during the substorm expansion phase. Satellite data showed an increase in the soft (hundreds of eV) particle precipitation before and after the substorm. Numerical calculations of HF radio-wave propagation on the St. PetersburgLongyearbyen path have demonstrated an essential change of propagation mechanisms during the substorm and a tangible change in the wave arrival angles before and after the substorm.

  20. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  1. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  2. An active radar calibration target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunfeldt, D. R.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1982-01-01

    An active radar calibrator (ARC), consisting of a receive antenna and a transmit antenna with an RF amplifier in between, is proposed as a tool for conducting high-precision calibration measurements of radar systems. The ARC can be designed to have a large radar cross-section with a broad pattern. Its major advantages over passive reflectors are its small physical size and its suitability for calibrating radars operating in a cross-polarized antenna configuration.

  3. 2-D inner-shelf current observations from a single VHF WEllen RAdar (WERA) station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Gurgel, K.-W.; Warner, J.C.; List, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of High Frequency (HF) radars used worldwide operate at medium to high frequencies (8 to 30 MHz) providing spatial resolutions ranging from 3 to 1.5 km and ranges from 150 to 50 km. This paper presents results from the deployment of a single Very High Frequency (VHF, 48 MHz) WEllen RAdar (WERA) radar with spatial resolution of 150 m and range 10-15 km, used in the nearshore off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA. It consisted of a linear array of 12 antennas operating in beam forming mode. Radial velocities were estimated from radar backscatter for a variety of wind and nearshore wave conditions. A methodology similar to that used for converting acoustically derived beam velocities to an orthogonal system is presented for obtaining 2-D current fields from a single station. The accuracy of the VHF radar-derived radial velocities is examined using a new statistical technique that evaluates the system over the range of measured velocities. The VHF radar velocities showed a bias of 3 to 7 cm/s over the experimental period explainable by the differences in radar penetration and in-situ measurement height. The 2-D current field shows good agreement with the in-situ measurements. Deviations and inaccuracies are well explained by the geometric dilution analysis. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  4. Radar detection of phobos.

    PubMed

    Ostro, S J; Jurgens, R F; Yeomans, D K; Standish, E M; Greiner, W

    1989-03-24

    Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20% of 2.0 g cm(-3). The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, Earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (>/=100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids. PMID:17847261

  5. Radar detection of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Yeomans, D. K.; Standish, E. M.; Greiner, W.

    1989-01-01

    Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20 percent of 2.0 g/cu cm. The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (greater than 100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids.

  6. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  7. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  8. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  9. The ADMX-HF (High Frequency) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    For many years, the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) has searched for dark-matter axions by their resonant conversion to photons in a high-Q microwave cavity embedded in a strong magnetic field; to date focusing on the 1 GHz range, or ma few micro-eV. A second platform, ADMX-HF is now being constructed at Yale University which will focus on technology development and a first look at data in the 10 GHz range. Consisting of a 9T superconducting magnet (40 cm long x 14 cm diameter), a dilution refrigerator and a quantum-limited receiver based on Josephson Parametric Amplifiers (JPA) ADMX-HF is projected to achieve sensitivity within the axion model band, despite its smaller volume than ADMX. ADMX-HF is a collaboration of Yale, JILA/Colorado, UC Berkeley and LLNL, and by agreement will create a unified data set with ADMX.

  10. HF Radio Wave Production of Artificial Ionospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert

    In 1993 it was predicted that artificial ionospheres would be produced by high power HF radio waves, once HF transmitters approached a GWatt ERP. When that threshold was very recently achieved, such production was indeed detected and published at two high latitude high power HF facilities. Here we review: the first-principles logic behind that prediction, which aspects of such production are critically dependent on magnetic latitude, and which aspects of such production depend only on physical parameters independent of latitude. These distinctions follow directly from decomposition of the problem of ionization production into its components of: radio-wave propagation, wave-particle interactions, electron transport, and quantitative elastic/inelastic cross-sections. We outline this analysis to show that, within the context of early observations, the production of ionization is inevitable, and only a question of competing instability thresholds, and scale of ionization production. This illustrates complimentary aeronomy and plasma physics to advance understanding of both.

  11. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  12. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  13. Generation and detection of super small striations by F region HF heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Milikh, G.; Secan, J.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M.; Bernhardt, P.; Briczinski, S.; Siefring, C.; Chang, C. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-07-01

    Recent theoretical models and preliminary observations indicate that super small striations (SSS) in the plasma density with scale size of 10 cm can be excited by F region HF heating at frequencies close to multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We present here new experimental results using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ionospheric heater at a frequency close to the fourth electron gyroharmonic with simultaneous GPS, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission, ionosonde, and occasional Incoherent Radar Scattering diagnostics. Differential phase measurements of GPS signals through the heated region indicated the presence of SSS with extremely high amplitude (?n/n = 0.2-0.3) at scale size comparable to the electron gyroradius. The highest amplitude of GPS scintillations coincide with the highest level of the Broad Upshifted Maximum (BUM) and occurred when the HF frequency is slightly above the fourth harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. Frequency sweeps indicate that the scintillation amplitude exhibits hysteresis similar to that observed for the BUM amplitude when the HF frequency is cycled about the fourth harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The results favor a four wave parametric process as the physical mechanism of the SSS. Additional experiments allowed the determination of the excitation and decay rates of the SSS.

  14. HF Propagation Effects Caused by an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.; McNeil, W. J.; Caton, R. G.; Parris, R. T.; Pedersen, T. R.; Cannon, P. S.; Angling, M. J.; Jackson-Booth, N. K.

    2014-12-01

    In a campaign carried out by the NASA sounding rocket team, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma and measure the effects on high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud that persisted for tens of minutes to hours in the post-sunset period. Data from the experiments has been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on HF radio wave propagation. Swept frequency HF links transiting the artificial ionization region were employed to produce oblique ionograms that clearly showed the effects of the samarium cloud. Ray tracing has been used to successfully model the effects of the ionized cloud. Comparisons between observations and modeled results will be presented, including model output using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) and PIM constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar at Kwajalein. Observations and modeling confirm that the cloud acted as a divergent lens refracting energy away from direct propagation paths and scattering energy at large angles relative to the initial propagation direction. The results confirm that even small amounts of ionized material injected in the upper atmosphere can result in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  15. Design guidelines for SAR digital receiver/exciter boards.

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, Peter A.

    2009-08-01

    High resolution radar systems generally require combining fast analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters with very high performance digital signal processing logic. These mixed analog and digital printed circuit boards present special challenges with respect to electromagnetic interference. This document first describes the mechanisms of interference on such boards then follows up with a discussion of prevention techniques and finally provides a checklist for designers to help avoid common mistakes.

  16. Nonlinear synthetic aperture radar imaging using a harmonic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Nguyen, Lam H.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of linear and nonlinear targets. Data are collected using a linear/nonlinear step frequency radar. We show that it is indeed possible to produce SAR images using a nonlinear radar. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlinear radar is able to reduce linear clutter by at least 80 dB compared to a linear radar. The nonlinear SAR images also show the system's ability to detect small electronic devices in the presence of large linear clutter. The system presented here has the ability to completely ignore a 20-inch trihedral corner reflector while detecting a RF mixer with a dipole antenna attached.

  17. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  18. Imaging Radar in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.

    2001-01-01

    The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region has had a long history as a test bed for remote sensing techniques. Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the area since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of these technologies. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley region because it contains a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. The earliest imaging radars to be flown over the region included military tests of short-wavelength (3 cm) X-band sensors. Later, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory began its development of imaging radars with an airborne sensor, followed by the Seasat orbital radar in 1978. These systems were L-band (25 cm). Following Seasat, JPL embarked upon a series of Space Shuttle Imaging Radars: SIRA (1981), SIR-B (1984), and SIR-C (1994). The most recent in the series was the most capable radar sensor flown in space and acquired large numbers of data swaths in a variety of test areas around the world. The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region was one of those test areas, and was covered very well with 3 wavelengths, multiple polarizations, and at multiple angles. At the same time, the JPL aircraft radar program continued improving and collecting data over the Mojave Desert Death Valley region. Now called AIRSAR, the system includes 3 bands (P-band, 67 cm; L-band, 25 cm; C-band, 5 cm). Each band can collect all possible polarizations in a mode called polarimetry. In addition, AIRSAR can be operated in the TOPSAR mode wherein 2 antennas collect data interferometrically, yielding a digital elevation model (DEM). Both L-band and C-band can be operated in this way, with horizontal resolution of about 5 m and vertical errors less than 2 m. The findings and developments of these earlier investigations are discussed.

  19. High accuracy signal model and simulation for radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hanwei; Hu, Cheng; Zeng, Tao

    Radar Signal Models play extremely important role in radar echo simulation and signal process-ing. The traditional signal model is based on the `Stop-and-Go' model commonly used in radar systems. The Model neglects the relative movement between radar and target during pulse propagation, and can satisfy the precision requirement in most radar systems. However the `Stop-and-Go' assumption will collapse in some advanced radar systems nowadays, such as high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, geosynchronous SAR system and ground-based radar (GBR) system. For example in high resolution SAR system, the `Stop-and-Go' assumption will introduce Doppler error which has terrible effect on the image formation. In recent years, high accuracy signal models have been discussed in several special radar systems. However, these publications discuss the solutions from the view of signal processing, and few discussions are from the view of echo simulation. Since the echo simulation is a necessary ap-proach to validate signal processing, the signal models of them must be matched. Moreover, these publications are aimed at specific radar systems and there is still lack of a general signal model applying to all the situations. This paper focuses on a high accuracy radar signal model based on universal situation suited to for both echo simulation and signal processing, thus algorithm derivation is not our purpose. The model contains two different forms: the transmit-oriented form and the receive-oriented form. They are not equivalent and cannot be directly transformed each other. The two forms are based on the transmitting time and receiving time respectively, therefore the propagation delay definitions and signal expressions are different. Besides, the implementation methods of the two forms are also different. In the transmit-oriented form, the received signal is obtained by shifting the transmitted signal in terms of the propagation delay, which has high computational efficiency but low accuracy because of the discrete characteristics of the digital signal. In the receive-oriented form, the received signal is obtained by substituting propagation delay into the formula expression of the received signal, which has high accuracy but low computational efficiency. This paper classifies the two forms at the first time and proposes the model derivation. Numerical simulation examples illustrate that both of the forms are suited to most radar systems, especially to high resolution SAR system and geosynchronous SAR system in which the `Stop-and-Go' assumption is in failure, the model proposed can satisfy the demands well.

  20. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, Howard (West Paducah, KY); Seltzer, Steven F. (Paducah, KY)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  1. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  2. Inversion to estimate ocean wave directional spectrum from high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaki, Yukiharu

    2015-04-01

    An high-frequency (HF) radar observes ocean surface currents and waves by radiating HF radio waves to the sea surface and analyzing the backscattered signals. Ocean wave spectrum is estimated from the first- and the second-order scattering of Doppler spectra by the inversion. The estimation of ocean surface currents is robust, because the surface currents can be derived from the peak Doppler frequency of the first-order scattering in the Doppler spectrum. The method to estimate ocean wave spectra is complicated and the second-order scattering in the Doppler spectrum is fragile, which is affected by the noise in the Doppler spectrum. A new method to estimate ocean wave spectra from HF radar is developed. This method is the extension of Hisaki (1996, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2014). The new method can be applied to both the single radar and dual radar array case, while the previous methods can be applied only the single radar case (Hisaki, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2014) or dual radar case (Hisaki, 1996). Ocean wave spectra are estimated in the regular grid cells, while wave spectra are estimated on the polar grids points with the origin of the radar position in the previous method for single radar case. The governing equations for wave estimation are the integral equations which relate the wave spectrum to the Doppler spectrum, and the energy balance equation under the assumption of stationarity. The regularization constraints in the horizontal space and the wave frequency-direction space are also used for the estimation. The unknowns, which are spectral values, surface wind speeds and directions, are estimated by seeking the minimum of the objective function, which is defined as the sum of weighted squares of the equations. The signal to noise ratio in the Doppler spectrum for wave estimation must be high. We selected the Doppler spectra using the SOM (Self organization map ) analysis method. The method will be demonstrated by comparing with in-situ observed data, in which only the Doppler spectrum from the single radar can be available.

  3. Lithologic differentiation with X-band side-looking airborne radar, Indian Springs quadrangle, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, B.E.; Guth, P.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Analysis of radar imagery together with digital elevation data allows classification of the most likely lithology exposed at the ground surface. The authors extracted a digital X-band side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) mosaic of the Indian Springs 1:100,000 quadrangle from a larger image of the Las Vegas 1:250,000 quadrangle available on CD-ROM from the US Geological Survey, and registered it to landmarks. They modeled radar back scatter as a function of three variables: surface roughness at the scale of the 3 cm wavelength of the X-band radar, the surface lithology, and the incidence angle of the radar beam. They assumed that surface roughness and lithology would correlate strongly, and divided the quadrangle into the following units: late Proterozoic clastic sediments, Paleozoic carbonates, Tertiary sediments, Tertiary volcanics, Quaternary alluvium, and quaternary playas. They subdivided Paleozoic carbonates into forested areas of the Sheep Range and the unforested remainder of the quadrangle, giving a total of seven map units. Graphs of radar back scatter versus incidence angle show widespread scatter, but each lithologic unit shows a characteristic and distinctive trend. Using the relationships derived from selected training areas, they can do a reasonable job classifying the surface lithologies of the quadrangle. While multiple band and polarization radar imagery obviously provides much greater potential for scene classification, single band radar imagery can be combined with elevation data to produce a reasonable estimate of surface lithology.

  4. Low Temperature Silicon Surface Cleaning by HF Etching/Ultraviolet Ozone Cleaning (HF/UVOC) Method (I)—Optimization of the HF Treatment—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suemitsu, Maki; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Nobuo

    1989-12-01

    Several variations of fluoric acid (HF) treatments of silicon substrates were examined for their adaptability as a pretreatment method for a silicon epitaxy process. Treatments with and without distilled, deionized (DI) water rinse, of different HF concentrations, and of different methods of HF supply were tested and their residual carbonic impurity contents were measured using RHEED. As a result, HF treatments by themselves were found to be insufficient in passivating the surface dangling bonds irrespective of the method of HF supply: dipping into the solution or exposure to the vapor. The optimum procedure of HF treatment thus proposed is a succession of (a) HF dipping, (b) DI-water rinsing, (c) nitrogen-gas blowing, and (d) UV-ozone cleaning.

  5. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

  6. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1986-09-01

    The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

  7. Mars Radar Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Radar observations of Mars have been conducted since 1963 using four Earth based facilities. Wavelengths have ranged from about 3 to about 70 cm. Experiments have been conducted in ranging, spectral, and mixed modes. Results include topographic profiles, estimates of dielectric constant and meter scale surface roughness, and qualtitative determinations of centimeter scale structure.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  9. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  10. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  11. Augmented reality using ultra-wideband radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Koenig, Francois; Sherbondy, Kelly

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has been investigating the utility of ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for detecting concealed targets in various applications. We have designed and built a vehicle-based, low-frequency UWB SAR radar for proof-of-concept demonstration in detecting obstacles for autonomous navigation, detecting concealed targets (mines, etc.), and mapping internal building structures to locate enemy activity. Although the low-frequency UWB radar technology offers valuable information to complement other technologies due to its penetration capability, it is very difficult to comprehend the radar imagery and correlate the detection list from the radar with the objects in the real world. Using augmented reality (AR) technology, we can superimpose the information from the radar onto the video image of the real world in real-time. Using this, Soldiers would view the environment and the superimposed graphics (SAR imagery, detection locations, digital map, etc.) via a standard display or a head-mounted display. The superimposed information would be constantly changed and adjusted for every perspective and movement of the user. ARL has been collaborating with ITT Industries to implement an AR system that integrates the video data captured from the real world and the information from the UWB radar. ARL conducted an experiment and demonstrated the real-time geo-registration of the two independent data streams. The integration of the AR sub-system into the radar system is underway. This paper presents the integration of the AR and SAR systems. It shows results that include the real-time embedding of the SAR imagery and other information into the video data stream.

  12. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  13. Characteristics of HfO2/Hf-based bipolar resistive memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinshun, Bi; Zhengsheng, Han

    2015-06-01

    Nano-scale Hf/HfO2-based resistive random-access-memory (RRAM) devices were fabricated. The cross-over between top and bottom electrodes of RRAM forms the metal-insulator-metal sandwich structure. The electrical responses of RRAM are studied in detail, including forming process, SET process and RESET process. The correlations between SET voltage and RESET voltage, high resistance state and low resistance state are discussed. The electrical characteristics of RRAM are in a strong relationship with the compliance current in the SET process. The conduction mechanism of nano-scale Hf/HfO2-based RRAM can be explained by the quantum point contact model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11179003, 61176095).

  14. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;

  15. The Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) experiment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.

  16. Doppler radar echoes of lightning and precipitation at vertical incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zrnic, D. S.; Rust, W. D.; Taylor, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Digital time series data at 16 heights within two storms were collected at vertical incidence with a 10-cm Doppler radar. On several occasions during data collection, lightning echoes were observed as increased reflectivity on an oscilloscope display. Simultaneously, lightning signals from nearby electric field change antennas were recorded on an analog recorder together with the radar echoes. Reflectivity, mean velocity, and Doppler spectra were examined by means of time series analysis for times during and after lightning discharges. Spectra from locations where lightning occurred show peaks, due to the motion of the lightning channel at the air speed. These peaks are considerably narrower than the ones due to precipitation. Besides indicating the vertical air velocity that can then be used to estimate hydrometeor-size distribution, the lightning spectra provide a convenient means to estimate the radar cross section of the channel. Subsequent to one discharge, we deduce that a rapid change in the orientation of hydrometeors occurred within the resolution volume.

  17. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  18. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The vehicle carrying the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) arrives at the Multi-Payload Processing Facility. The primary payload on mission STS-99, the SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for September 1999. This radar system will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. Its objective is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth.

  19. Workers check out components of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility, Mary Reaves and Phil Smith, with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, work on the carrier and horizontal antenna mast for the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) while an unidentified worker watches. The SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during an 11-day mission in September 1999. This radar system will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. Its objective is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth.

  20. Workers check out components of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility, Beverly St. Ange, with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, wires a biopod, a component of the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during an 11-day mission in September 1999. This radar system will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. Its objective is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth.

  1. Workers check out components of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility, Mary Reaves (left) and Phil Smith, with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, check out the carrier and horizontal antenna mast for the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during an 11-day mission in September 1999. This radar system will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. Its objective is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth.

  2. Data acquisition system for Doppler radar vital-sign monitor.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Lubecke, Victor M

    2007-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) units increase the dynamic range of a system to compensate for the limited dynamic range of analog to digital converters. This problem is compounded in wireless systems in which large changes in signal strength are effects of a changing environment. These issues are evident in the direct-conversion Doppler radar vital-sign monitor. Utilizing microwave radar signals reflecting off a human subject, a two-channel quadrature receiver can detect periodic movement resulting from cardio-pulmonary activity. The quadrature signal is analyzed using an arctangent demodulation that extracts vital phase information. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is proposed to deal with issues inherent in arctangent demodulation of a quadrature radar signal. PMID:18002443

  3. Preliminary science results from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzek, M.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of analyzing digital radar imagery data obtained by the SIR-B aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger STS 41-G are presented. The data cover 5 million square kilometers of the earth surface between 57 deg north and south latitudes. Radar imagery of the same target at different incidence angles was used to classify surfaces by their backscatter response as a function of incidence angle. The SIR-B proved to be useful for collecting multiple incidence angle data sets over a broad range of targets, providing information in the areas of geology, archeology, forestry, agriculture, oceanography, geography, and hydrology. The analysis is also used to optimize radar parameters such as look angle for future missions.

  4. Description, characteristics and testing of the NASA airborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.; Altiz, O.; Schaffner, P.; Schrader, J. H.; Blume, H. J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a description of a coherent radar scattermeter and its associated signal processing hardware, which have been specifically designed to detect microbursts and record their radar characteristics. Radar parameters, signal processing techniques and detection algorithms, all under computer control, combine to sense and process reflectivity, clutter, and microburst data. Also presented is the system's high density, high data rate recording system. This digital system is capable of recording many minutes of the in-phase and quadrature components and corresponding receiver gains of the scattered returns for selected spatial regions, as well as other aircraft and hardware related parameters of interest for post-flight analysis. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  5. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater spectral efficiency than the MSK waveform, such as linear frequency modulation (LFM) and Costas frequency hopping, have a fixed peak sidelobe level that is therefore not configurable, and can be exceeded by high contrast targets. Furthermore, in the case of a multistatic experiment observing a target in motion, self-interference from the transmitter to the receiver is mitigated by the MSK waveform. Waveforms that have delay Doppler coupling, such as LFM, provide no such protection.

  6. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet)above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center)includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test site is covered by glaciers. Corner reflectors are set up for calibration. Five corner reflectors can be seen on the Gepatschferner and two can be seen on the Vernagtferner. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  7. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California was created from data taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This image was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C radar image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The interferometry data were acquired on April 13,1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR instrument. The color composite radar image was taken in October and was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is the large dark feature in the foreground. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California - 3D view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle and, which then, are compared to obtain elevation information. The data were acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR radar instrument. The color composite radar image was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is off the image to the left. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  11. Radar images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Butler, Bryan J.; Grossman, Arie W.; Slade, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    VLA radar-reflected flux-density mappings have yielded full disk images of Mars which reveal near-surface features, including a region in the Tharsis volcano area that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar-system noise. This feature is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash whose density is less than about 0.5 g/cu cm; it must be several meters thick, and may be much deeper. The most strongly reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which is interpretable as arising from nearly-pure CO2 or H2O ice, with less than 2 vol pct Martian dust. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside the Tharsis region.

  12. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  13. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  14. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  15. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  17. Radar detection of Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, G. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Carter, L. M.; Ostro, S. J.

    2002-09-01

    We have obtained echoes from the bright, trailing hemisphere of Iapetus using the Arecibo Observatory's 13-cm radar system on three dates in January 2002. A circularly polarized signal was transmitted and an echo in the opposite circular (OC) sense to that transmitted was clearly received along with a much weaker detection of echo power in the same circular (SC) sense. Prior to this experiment, one expectation may have been that the radar scattering properties of Iapetus may behave like the similar atmosphere-less, icy surfaces of the Galilean satellites which, due to an efficient multiple scattering mechanism, are strong backscatterers with SC reflections stronger than their OC reflections. Instead we find that Iapetus' radar cross section and polarization properties are very different from those of the icy Galilean satellites, and more reminiscent of less efficient and less exotic scattering mechanisms such as dominate the echoes from inner Solar System targets. Thus these observations indicate that there is a significant difference between the surface properties of Iapetus and the icy Galileans despite their overall classification as low temperature, water ice surfaces. A plausible explanation for Iapetus' inefficient scattering is that contaminants in the water ice increase the absorption of the signal and suppress any multiple scattering. Likely contaminants on Iapetus are ammonia and the dark material from Cassini Regio embedded below the surface. Proposed observations will seek to measure Iapetus' radar scattering law and to detect the dark, leading side which was not targeted during this observing session. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  18. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  19. 25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. Considerations for integration of a physiological radar monitoring system with gold standard clinical sleep monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Baboli, Mehran; Gao, Xiaomeng; Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Soll, Bruce; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A design for a physiological radar monitoring system (PRMS) that can be integrated with clinical sleep monitoring systems is presented. The PRMS uses two radar systems at 2.45 GHz and 24 GHz to achieve both high sensitivity and high resolution. The system can acquire data, perform digital processing and output appropriate conventional analog outputs with a latency of 130 ms, which can be recorded and displayed by a gold standard sleep monitoring system, along with other standard sensor measurements. PMID:24110139

  1. Survey of ULF wave signatures seen in the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radars data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi-Sedeh, L.; Waters, C. L.; Menk, F. W.

    2015-02-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) plasma waves propagate through the magnetosphere and ionosphere where they can alter the Doppler velocity of HF radar echoes. Data from the two Tasman International Geospace Environment Radars and the fluxgate and induction coil magnetometers located on Macquarie Island (54.5S, 158.95E geographic) over 2006-2009 show that ULF wave signatures are common. Using coincident radar and magnetometer data selection criteria, 194 events representing a total of 233.4 h were identified. The majority of ULF signatures seen in the radar data were detected between 06 and 12 UT (15 and 21 LT). Using the Maximum Entropy Method, the spectral content showed favored frequencies of 1.6, 2.1, 2.9, and 3.3 mHz but no obvious variation of frequency with latitude. Most of the observed frequencies were in the range 1-4 mHz. A class of Doppler velocity signatures that appeared as a zigzag shape in the radar range:time plots were identified and may be related to the expected plasmapause latitudes. Regularly spaced, favored frequencies appeared in the ground magnetometer data during the afternoon, night, and morning sectors for those days where ULF wave events were observed in the radar data.

  2. Collisional quenching of highly rotationally excited HF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Walker, K. M.; Forrey, R. C.; Stancil, P. C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Collisional excitation rate coefficients play an important role in the dynamics of energy transfer in the interstellar medium. In particular, accurate rotational excitation rates are needed to interpret microwave and infrared observations of the interstellar gas for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium line formation. Aims: Theoretical cross sections and rate coefficients for collisional deexcitation of rotationally excited HF in the vibrational ground state are reported. Methods: The quantum-mechanical close-coupling approach implemented in the nonreactive scattering code MOLSCAT was applied in the cross section and rate coefficient calculations on an accurate 2D HF-He potential energy surface. Estimates of rate coefficients for H and H2 colliders were obtained from the HF-He collisional data with a reduced-potential scaling approach. Results: The calculation of state-to-state rotational quenching cross sections for HF due to He with initial rotational levels up to j = 20 were performed for kinetic energies from 10-5 to 15 000 cm-1. State-to-state rate coefficients for temperatures between 0.1 and 3000 K are also presented. The comparison of the present results with previous work for lowly-excited rotational levels reveals significant differences. In estimating HF-H2 rate coefficients, the reduced-potential method is found to be more reliable than the standard reduced-mass approach. Conclusions: The current state-to-state rate coefficient calculations are the most comprehensive to date for HF-He collisions. We attribute the differences between previously reported data and our results to differences in the adopted interaction potential energy surfaces. The new He rate coefficients can be used in a variety of applications. The estimated H2 and H collision rates can also augment the smaller datasets previously developed for H2 and electrons. Rate coefficient tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A65

  3. GeoSAR: A Radar Terrain Mapping System for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas; vanZyl, Jakob; Hensley, Scott; Reis, James; Munjy, Riadh; Burton, John; Yoha, Robert

    2000-01-01

    GeoSAR Geographic Synthetic Aperture Radar) is a new 3 year effort to build a unique, dual-frequency, airborne Interferometric SAR for mapping of terrain. This is being pursued via a Consortium of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., and the California Department of Conservation. The airborne portion of this system will operate on a Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft outfitted with P- and X-band Interferometric SARs. The ground portions of this system will be a suite of Flight Planning Software, an IFSAR Processor and a Radar-GIS Workstation. The airborne P-band and X-band radars will be constructed by JPL with the goal of obtaining foliage penetration at the longer P-band wavelengths. The P-band and X-band radar will operate at frequencies of 350 Mhz and 9.71 Ghz with bandwidths of either 80 or 160 Mhz. The airborne radars will be complemented with airborne laser system for measuring antenna positions. Aircraft flight lines and radar operating instructions will be computed with the Flight Planning Software The ground processing will be a two-step step process. First, the raw radar data will be processed into radar images and interferometer derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Second, these radar images and DEMs will be processed with a Radar GIS Workstation which performs processes such as Projection Transformations, Registration, Geometric Adjustment, Mosaicking, Merging and Database Management. JPL will construct the IFSAR Processor and Calgis, Inc. will construct the Radar GIS Workstation. The GeoSAR Project was underway in November 1996 with a goal of having the radars and laser systems fully integrated onto the Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft in early 1999. Then, Engineering Checkout and Calibration-Characterization Flights will be conducted through November 1999. The system will be completed at the end of 1999 and ready for routine operations in the year 2000.

  4. Comet radar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of 100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet will enjoy significant simplifying benefits compared to using the same instrument for Mars or lunar radar science: (1) The proximity of operations leads to a much higher signal to noise, as much as +30 dB. (2) The lack of an ionosphere simplifies data modeling and analysis. (3) The body is globally illuminated during every data acquisition, minimizing ambiguity or 'clutter' and allowing for tomographic reconstruction. What is novel is the data processing, where instead of a planar radargram approach we coherently process the data into an image of the deep interior. CORE thus uses a MARSIS-SHARAD heritage radar to make coherent reflection sounding measurements, a 'CAT SCAN' of a comet nucleus. What is unique about this mission compared to the Mars radars mentioned above, is that the target is a finite mass of dirty ice in free space, rather than a sheet of dirty ice draped on a planet surface. The depth of penetration (kilometers), attainable resolution (decameters), and the target materials, are more or less the same. This means that the science story is robust, and the radar implementation is robust. The target is comet 10P/Tempel 2, discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1873 and observed on most apparitions since. It has been extensively studied, in part because of interest as a CRAF target in the mid-1980s, and much is known about it. Tempel 2 is one of the largest known comet nuclei, 1688 km (about the same size as Halley) [1] and has rotation period 8.9 hours [3,5,6,7,9]. The spin state is evolving with time, spinning up by 10 sec per perihelion pass [5,7]. The comet is active, but not exceedingly so, especially given its size. The water production is measured at 4 1028 mol/sec at its peak [2], a factor of 25 lower than comet Halley, and it is active over only 2% of its surface. The dust environment is well known, producing a factor of 100 less dust than Halley. Comet References: [1] A'Hearn et al., ApJ 347, 1155, 1989 [2] Feldman and Festou, ACM 1991, p. 171, 1992 [3] Jewitt and Luu, AJ 97, 1766, 1989 [4] Lamy et al., Comets II p 223. 2009 [5] Mueller and Ferrin, Icarus 123, 463, 1996 [6] Sekanina, AJ 102, 350, 1991 [7] Schleicher et al., BAAS 41, 1028, 2009 [8] Sykes et al, Icarus 86, 236, 1990 [9] Wisniewsi, Icarus 86, 52, 1990

  5. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  6. Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large array. Digital filtering also enables selection among multiple filter parameters as required for different radar operating modes. After digital filtering, data are decimated appropriately in order to minimize the data rate out of an antenna panel. The L-band transceiver (see Figure 2) includes a radio-frequency (RF)-to-baseband down-converter chain and an intermediate- frequency (IF)-to-RF up-converter chain. Transmit/receive (T/R) switches enable the use of a single feed to the antenna for both transmission and reception. The T/R switches also afford a built-in test capability by enabling injection of a calibration signal into the receiver chain. In order of decreasing priority, components of the transceiver were selected according to requirements of radiation hardness, then compactness, then low power. All of the RF components are radiation-hard. The noise figure (NF) was optimized to the extent that (1) a low-noise amplifier (LNA) (characterized by NF < 2 dB) was selected but (2) the receiver front-end T/R switches were selected for a high degree of isolation and acceptably low loss, regardless of the requirement to minimize noise.

  7. Low probability of intercept radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleher, D. C.

    The objective of LPI radars is defined and performance characteristics are examined. A performance criterion relating the range at which the LPI radar can detect a target to the range at which an intercept receiver aboard the target can detect the LPI radar is defined. The response of various operational and advanced intercept receivers to wideband LPI radar waveforms is explored. The performance criterion is evaluated as a function of the LPI radars time-bandwidth product and sidelobe response (both ordinary and ultralow) for a number of operational and advanced intercept receivers. An ambiguity diagram that provides the response of the intercept receiver to the LPI waveform for mismatches in receiver time and frequency response is described. The ambiguity diagram is evaluated for various mismatched receivers. A processor is discussed that improves the response of intercept receivers to pulse compression radar waveforms.

  8. Outline of the Mu radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.

    1983-01-01

    A middle and upper atmospheric radar system is described. The antenna array consists of 25 groups each of which consists of 19 crossed-Yagis with three elements; each antenna has semiconductor transmitter and receiver, called a module, and each group of 19 antennas works as an independent small radar steering its radar beam under the control of a microcomputer. Thus, the total system consists of 25 small radars of this kind, enabling one to do various sophisticated operations with the system. The system is controlled by two other computers, one for radar controlling (HP9835A) and the other for data taking and on-line analysis (VAX11/750). The computer-controlled system is simple in operation for users and reliable in observation. Very quick beam steering (as quick as in a msec) is also possible because of electronic phase-changing of each module output under control of the microcomputer which is further controlled by the radar controller.

  9. A review of array radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  10. Cognitive processing for nonlinear radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Hedden, Abigail; Mazzaro, Gregory; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    An increasingly cluttered electromagnetic environment (EME) is a growing problem for radar systems. This problem is becoming critical as the available frequency spectrum shrinks due to growing wireless communication device usage and changing regulations. A possible solution to these problems is cognitive radar, where the cognitive radar learns from the environment and intelligently modifies the transmit waveform. In this paper, a cognitive nonlinear radar processing framework is introduced where the main components of this framework consist of spectrum sensing processing, target detection and classification, and decision making. The emphasis of this paper is to introduce a spectrum sensing processing technique that identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar. It will be shown that the proposed technique successfully identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar from data collected from the EME.

  11. Plasma modifications induced by an X-mode HF heater wave in the high latitude F region of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.; Rietveld, M. T.; Häggström, I.; Ivanova, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    We presented experimental results of strong plasma modifications induced by X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. The experiments were conducted in 2009-2011 using the EISCAT Heating facility, UHF incoherent scatter radar and the EISCAT ionosonde at Tromsø, Norway; and the CUTLASS SuperDARN HF coherent radar at Hankasalmi, Finland. The results showed that the X-mode HF pump wave can generate strong small-scale artificial field aligned irregularities (AFAIs) in the F region of the high-latitude ionosphere. These irregularities, with spatial scales across the geomagnetic field of the order of 9-15 m, were excited when the heater frequency (fH) was above the ordinary-mode critical frequency (foF2) by 0.1-1.2 MHz. It was found that the X-mode AFAIs appeared between 10 s and 4 min after the heater is turned on. Their decay time varied over a wide range between 3 min and 30 min. The excitation of X-mode AFAIs was accompanied by electron temperature (Te) enhancements and an increase in the electron density (Ne) depending on the effective radiated power (ERP). Under ERPs of about 75-180 MW the Te enhances up to 50% above the background level and an increase in Ne of up to 30% were observed. Dramatic changes in the Te and Ne behavior occurred at effective radiated powers of about 370-840 MW, when the Ne and Te values increased up to 100% above the background ones. It was found that AFAIs, Ne and Te enhancements occurred, when the extraordinary-mode critical frequency (fxF2) lied in the frequency range fH-fce/2≤fxF2≤fH+fce/2, where fce is the electron gyrofrequency. The strong Ne enhancements were observed only in the magnetic field-aligned direction in a wide altitude range up to the upper limit of the UHF radar measurements. In addition, the maximum value of Ne is about 50 km higher than the Te enhancement peak. Such electron density enhancements (artificial ducts) cannot be explained by temperature-dependent reaction rates. They can be attributed to HF-induced ionization production by accelerated electrons. The possible mechanisms for plasma modifications induced by powerful X-mode HF radio waves were discussed.

  12. Ionization energy measurements and spectroscopy of HfO and HfO+.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Jeremy M; Bondybey, Vladimir E; Heaven, Michael C

    2009-04-14

    Rotationally resolved spectra for the HfO(+) cation have been recorded using the pulsed field ionization zero electron kinetic energy (PFI-ZEKE) technique. Resonant excitation of the F(0(+))<--X (1)Sigma(+) band system of HfO was used as an intermediate level providing molecule and rovibrational state selectivity in the ionization process. The ionization energy (IE) of HfO, derived from the PFI-ZEKE spectrum, was determined to be 7.916 87(10) eV, which is 0.37 eV higher than the value reported from electron impact measurements. Underestimation of the IE in the previous studies is attributed to ionization of thermally excited states. A progression in the HfO(+) stretch vibration up to nu(+)=4 was observed in the PFI-ZEKE spectrum, allowing for the determination of the ground electronic state vibrational frequency of omega(e)(+)=1017.7(10) cm(-1) and anharmonicity of omega(e)x(e)(+)=3.2(2) cm(-1). The rotational constant of HfO(+) was determined to be 0.403(5) cm(-1). Benchmark theoretical ab initio calculations were carried out in order to explore the effects of electron correlation on the predicted molecular properties. Survey scans utilizing laser induced fluorescence and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization detection revealed many previously unassigned bands in the region of the F-X and G-X bands of HfO, which we attribute to nominally forbidden singlet-triplet transitions of HfO. PMID:19368457

  13. EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radars Probing High-Latitude Near-Earth Geospace for the EURIPOS Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, E.

    2009-04-01

    EISCAT Scientific Association operates currently three incoherent scatter radars in Northern Scandinavia on behalf of its associate members in Finland, China, Germany, Japan, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom, as well as currently supporting partners in France and Russia. The radar sites include transmitter/receiver site in Troms, Norway with a monostatic VHF radar and a tristatic UHF radar transmitter/receiver, UHF receiver sites in Kiruna, Sweden and Sodankyl, Finland and a 2-dish monostatic radar in Longyearbyen, Svalbard. Incoherent scatter radar method is known to be the most sophisticated radio method to remotely sense the ionosphere. The standard parameters analysed from the recorded scattered signals are the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, line-of-sight plasma velocity, ion-neutral collision frequency and ion mass. With more assumptions also information for example on neutral density and temperature, neutral velocity, Pedersen and Hall conductivities, electric current density and heat flux is available. Current applications of the radars include also interferometric applications for small-scale structures, mapping of meteroid orbits and monitoring space debris, as well as high-resolution mapping the radar reflectivity of the Moon surface. In addition to incoherent scatter radars, EISCAT also has a powerful HF heating facility for ionospheric modification experiments, and a dynasonde in Troms, as well as another dynasonde in Svalbard for routine ionospheric observations. All the current EISCAT facilities would serve the EURIPOS proposal quantifying the ionospheric variability and response to space weather events at high latitudes. Although the main ISR facilities cannot be run continuously, regular Common Programmes, measurement campaign modes - especially combined with coordinated satellite observations and specific model studies, and the continuous operation of supporting dynasondes, would greatly enhance the EURIPOS proposal. EISCAT real-time analysis of data is available and all measured data is accessible to researchers via the Madrigal database. In the near future, unprecedented science and technology application opportunities will open up with the construction of the new EISCAT 3D radar arrays. The new multiple site phased-array radar has a design goal of ten times higher temporal and spatial resolution than the present radars, a volumetric radar imaging capability in an extended spatial area with simultaneous full-vector drift velocities, avoiding spatial and temporal ambiguities, having continuous operation modes, short baseline interferometry capability for imaging sub-beamwidth scales, real-time data access for applications and extensive data archiving facilities. Some arrays are very large, in the scale of 30 000 individual antenna elements. The first design study is to be finished in 2009 and a modular construction of the facility would provide first measurements in 2013-2015.

  14. Soft X-ray photoemission studies of Hf oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Suzer, S.; Sayan, S.; Banaszak Holl, M.M.; Garfunkel, E.; Hussain, Z.; Hamdan, N.M.

    2002-02-01

    Soft X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy using surface sensitive Synchrotron Radiation has been applied to accurately determine the binding energy shifts and the valence band offset of the HfO2 grown on Hf metal. Charging of oxide films under x-rays (or other irradiation) is circumvented by controlled and sequential in-situ oxidation. Photoemission results show the presence of metallic Hf (from the substrate) with the 4f7/2 binding energy of 14.22 eV, fully oxidized Hf (from HfO2) with the 4f7/2 binding energy of 18.16 eV, and at least one clear suboxide peak. The position of the valence band of HfO2 with respect to the Hf(m) Fermi level is determined as 4.05 eV.

  15. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is uncrated in the Multi- Payload Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) sits uncovered inside the Multi-Payload Processing Facility. The primary payload on mission STS-99, the SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will fly onboard the Space Shuttle during the 11-day mission scheduled for September 1999. This radar system will gather data that will result in the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and NASA, with participation of the German Aerospace Center DLR. Its objective is to obtain the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of the Earth.

  16. Radar cross section measurements of a scale model of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of microwave measurements was conducted to determine the radar cross section of the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle at a frequency and at aspect angles applicable to re-entry radar acquisition and tracking. The measurements were performed in a microwave anechoic chamber using a 1/15th scale model and a frequency applicable to C-band tracking radars. The data were digitally recorded and processed to yield statistical descriptions useful for prediction of orbiter re-entry detection and tracking ranges.

  17. FMCW radar for the sense function of sense and avoid systems onboard UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itcia, Eric; Wasselin, Jean-Philippe; Mazuel, Sbastien; Otten, Matern; Huizing, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Rockwell Collins France (RCF) radar department is currently developing, in close collaboration with TNO in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor dedicated to Obstacle Warning function and potentially to air traffic detection. The sensor combines flood light illumination and digital beam forming to accommodate demanding detection and coverage requirements. Performances have been evaluated in flight tests and results prove that such a radar sensor is a good candidate for the Sense Function of Sense and Avoid Systems onboard UAV.

  18. Optimum frequency for subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, most conventional synthetic-aperture radars operate at higher microwave frequencies which do not significantly penetrate below the soil surface. This study attempts to provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. Since the radar return from a buried object must compete with the return from surface clutter, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell's equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Initial results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30 MHz), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper vhf through uhf spectrum ([approximately]100 MHz--1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

  19. Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

    2013-01-01

    Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

  20. Recent Advances in Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurement Techniques and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone

    2006-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced instrument concepts and technologies for future spaceborne atmospheric radars, with an over-arching objective of making such instruments more capable in supporting future science needs and more cost effective. Two such examples are the Second-Generation Precipitation Radar (PR-2) and the Nexrad-In-Space (NIS). PR-2 is a 14/35-GHz dual-frequency rain radar with a deployable 5-meter, wide-swath scanned membrane antenna, a dual-polarized/dual-frequency receiver, and a realtime digital signal processor. It is intended for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operations to provide greatly enhanced rainfall profile retrieval accuracy while consuming only a fraction of the mass of the current TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). NIS is designed to be a 35-GHz Geostationary Earth Orbiting (GEO) radar for providing hourly monitoring of the life cycle of hurricanes and tropical storms. It uses a 35-m, spherical, lightweight membrane antenna and Doppler processing to acquire 3-dimensional information on the intensity and vertical motion of hurricane rainfall.

  1. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  2. Goldstone radar observations of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Jurgens, R. F.; Leake, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Radar observations of Mercury were made during the past two decades at the Goldstone radar facility. Correlations of these observations with geologic maps are presented in this chapter. Topographic profiles indicate that Mercurian craters are rather shallow. Some topographic features are seen on the side of Mercury not imaged by Mariner 10. There are global correlations between topography and radar roughness. Mercury's surface may be rougher on a 1-cm scale than on a 10-cm scale, in comparison with the moon.

  3. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  4. 3-D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.

    1991-01-01

    A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.

  5. The Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder. [lunar orbit coherent radar experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Jordan, R.; Adams, G. F.; Jackson, P.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Eggleton, R. E.; Schaber, G.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment, a coherent radar operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission, has scientific objectives of mapping lunar subsurface structure, surface profiling, surface imaging, and galactic noise measurement. Representative results from each of the four disciplines are presented. Subsurface reflections have been interpreted in both optically and digitally processed data. Images and profiles yield detailed selenomorphological information. The preliminary galactic noise results are consistent with earlier measurements by other workers.

  6. Monsoon flood boundary delineation and damage assessment using space borne imaging radar and Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Vermillion, C.; Story, M. H.; Choudhury, A. M.; Gafoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) Program and Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) Data from Landsat 4 were used to map flood boundaries for the assessment of flood damage in the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. The cloud penetrating capabilities of the L-band radar provided a clear picture of the hydrologic conditions of the surface during a period of inclement weather at the end of the wet phase of the 1984 monsoon. The radar image data were digitally processed to geometrically rectify the pixel geometry and were filtered to subdue radar image speckle effects. Contrast enhancement techniques and density slicing were used to create discrete land-cover categories corresponding to surface conditions present at the time of the Shuttle overflight. The radar image classification map was digitally registered to a spectral signature classification map of the area derived from Landsat MSS data collected two weeks prior to the SIR-B mission. Classification accuracy comparisons were made between the radar and MSS classification maps, and flood boundary and flood damage assessment measurements were made with the merged data by adding the classifications and inventorying the land-cover classes inundated at the time of flooding.

  7. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  8. Hf dopants in ?'-Ni3Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovski, V. N.; Ceki?, B.; Umi?evi?, A.; Beloevi?-?avor, J.; Schumacher, G.; Koteski, V.; Barudzija, T.

    2013-08-01

    The Time Differential Perturbed Angular (TDPAC) measurements of nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQIs) at 181Ta ion probe in the polycrystalline intermetallic alloy ?'-Ni3Al doped with 0.2 at. % Hf were performed in the temperature range 78-1230 K, in order to determine the lattice location of Hf atoms in the ordered ?'-Ni3Al structure. The two NQIs obtained are discussed within the present L12 cubic structure and a tetragonal distortion of L12 to another two DO22 and L60 type structures. The first low frequency NQI at the site of the 181Ta ion-probe after substitution of aluminum for hafnium in DO22 at ambient temperature, is vQ1(300 K) = 39(1) MHz with ?1 = 0. The corresponding high frequency value on the second crystallographic site in L60, is vQ2(300 K) = 204(14) MHz with ?2 = 0.47(11). These two NQI's have different temperature behavior. The presence of both DO22 and L60 tetragonal distortions of the parent cubic L12 lattice, detected after adding 0.2 at. % Hf, are with modulations to the lattice constant (a) with a ratio (c/a), 2.04 and 0.87, respectively. Ab initio calculations of electronic and structural properties and hyperfine parameters at the 181Ta ion probe of the ?'-Ni3Al-0.2 at. % Hf alloy were performed using the full potential augmented plane wave plus local-orbital (APW+lo) method as implemented in the WIEN2k code. The accuracy of the calculations and comparison with the experimental results enabled us to identify the observed hyperfine interactions and to infer the EFG sign that cannot be measured in conventional TDPAC measurements.

  9. Transmitter location system for frequencies below HF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Wallace D.

    1991-12-01

    Differential phase measurement techniques and an apparatus for accurately locating unknown transmitters over great distances at radio frequencies below HF are presented. A network of separated, time- and phase-synchronized, pairs of receiving stations are discussed. The stations are comprised of vertical whip antennas that have a known base-line geometry. The antennas are used to accurately measure VLF phase differentials. The measured phase differences are compared against theoretical calculated values to provide highly accurate transmitter location information.

  10. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  11. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  12. High Altitude Ice Fields: A Search for Unique Radar Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1996-09-01

    An enormous, publicly accessible data set was compiled by the two Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C) missions. Just as features with unique radar polarization signatures have been observed on Venus' highlands (Haldemann et al. 1995), and Mars' polar regions (Muhleman et al. 1991), we expect that unique sites exist on Earth. Indeed, unique polarization properties of ice have been observed over Greenland (Rignot et al. 1993) that mimic the radar properties of Mars' residual south polar cap, and the ice of the Galilean satellites (Ostro et al. 1992). We hypothesize that cold ice at high elevations on Earth may also display similar enhancements of the radar echo in the same sense of circular polarization. We are surveying the SIR-C data set for full polarization images of high altitude ice fields. We are concentrating on locations with significant or full sun-shadowing, and plan to compare radar properties of the ices with different insolation patterns. This investigation is complicated by the nature of the terrain in which we seek our targets: mountainous terrain typically produces foldover or radar-shadowing which we hope to avoid through judicious target site selection, and the use of digitally mapped topography where possible. We will us the full set of Stokes parameters obtained by SIR-C on many of its tracks to reconstruct circular polarization properties of the ices for comparison to planetary studies. We hope to correlate some of our measured values with known models for mountain ice field properties, and perhaps locate and elucidate unique locales. Haldemann, A. F. C., D. O. Muhleman, B. J. Butler, and M. A. Slade, The Western Hemisphere of Venus: 3.5 cm Dual Circular Polarization Radar Images, submitted to \\it Icarus, 1995. Muhleman, D. O., B. J. Butler, A. W. Grossman, and M. A. Slade, Radar Images of Mars, \\it Science, 253, 1508--1513, 1991. Ostro \\it et al., Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto: New Radar Results from Arecibo and Goldstone, \\it J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18227--18244, 1992. Rignot, E. J., S. J. Ostro, J. J. van Zyl, and K. C. Jezek, Unusual Radar Echoes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, \\it Science, 261, 1710--1713, 1993.

  13. Management and Research Applications of Long-range Surveillance Radar Data for Birds, Bats, and Flying Insects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, Janet M.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Sojda, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    There is renewed interest in using long-range surveillance radar as a biological research tool due to substantial improvements in the network of radars within the United States. Technical improvements, the digital nature of the radar data, and the availability of computing power and geographic information systems, enable a broad range of biological applications. This publication provides a summary of long-range surveillance radar technology and applications of these data to questions about movement patterns of birds and other flying wildlife. The intended audience is potential radar-data end users, including natural-resource management and regulatory agencies, conservation organizations, and industry. This summary includes a definition of long-range surveillance radar, descriptions of its strengths and weaknesses, information on applications of the data, cost, methods of calibration, and what end users need to do, and some key references and resources.

  14. A generation mechanism for the frequency up-shifted plasma lines observed in the Tromsq`s HF heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, S.P.; Kuo, S.C.; Lee, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    A new spectral feature in the backscattering spectrum of EIS CAT 933 MHz radar was observed throughout most of the observing period of the heating experiments performed with 0-mode heater transmitting near Tromsq, Norway on August 16--18, 1986. The radar returns were enhanced at frequencies offset from the radar frequency by a frequency a few hundred KHz more than the heater frequency of 4.04 MHz. Moreover, running alternately with the radar in the chirped and in the unchirped mode it was shown that the enhanced plasma lines seemed to emanate from very local regions. It is noted that a similar phenomenon recording frequency upshifted HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) has also been observed in the Arecibo heating experiments, except the amount of frequency upshift is in the range of a few tens of KHz. A physical mechanism based on a nonlinear scattering process by which the parallelly propagating Langmuir waves generated by the parametric decay instability of the HF pump scatter off the background lower hybrid density fluctuations to produce the observed frequency upshifted plasma lines has successfully explained the Arecibo`s observations and has even been verified recently by a laboratory experiment. However, the amount of frequency shift observed in the Tromsq`s experiments well exceeds the lower hybrid wave frequency. Thus, a different physical mechanism is considered in the present work for explaining the Tromsq`s observations. It is the parametric decay of a right handed circularly polarized pump wave (0-mode) into a Whistler wave (decay mode) and a frequency upshifted Langmuir wave (sideband). Since the frequency of Whistler wave extends to the range of a few hundred kHz, the frequency of the excited Langmuir wave agrees with that of the experimental observation.

  15. Bistatic radar sea state monitoring field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruck, G. T.; Kirchbaum, G. K.; Everly, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the physical phenomena controlling the interaction of electromagnetic energy with the ocean surface have revealed the possiblity of remote measurement of the two-dimensional surface wave height spectrum of the ocean using bistatic radar techniques. The basic feasibility of such a technique operating at frequencies in the HF region (3 to 30 MHz) was examined during previous studies and hardware for an experimental verification experiment was specified. The activities have resulted in a determination of the required hardware and system parameters for both satellite and aircraft systems, the development, assembly, and testing of hardware for an experimental aircraft system, the development and initial testing of data processing procedures, and the conduct of an initial flight test experiment. Activities were devoted to completing the assembly and testing of the experimental hardware, completing the experiment planning, conducting a field test experiment, and the processing and analysis of the experimental data. Even though directional spectrum maps of the test area cannot be generated from the measured data, the hardware concept employed appears viable, and solutions to the problems encountered have been identified.

  16. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  17. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  18. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  19. Detection of Transionospheric SuperDARN HF Waves by the Radio Receiver Instrument on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Canadian small-satellite was launched in September 2013. Included in this suite of eight scientific instruments is the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI). The RRI has been used to measure VLF and HF radio waves from various ground and spontaneous ionospheric sources. The first dedicated ground transmission that was detected by RRI was from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar on Nov. 7, 2013 at 14 MHz. Several other passes over the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar have been recorded since then. Ground transmissions have also been observed from other radars, such as the SPEAR, HAARP, and SURA ionospheric heaters. However, the focus of this study will be on the results obtained from the SuperDARN passes. An analysis of the signal recorded by the RRI provides estimates of signal power, Doppler shift, polarization, absolute time delay, differential mode delay, and angle of arrival. By comparing these parameters to similar parameters derived from ray tracing simulations, ionospheric electron density structures may be detected and measured. Further analysis of the results from the other ground transmitters and future SuperDARN passes will be used to refine these results.

  20. LU-HF Age and Isotope Systematics of ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial isotope compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd isotope analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during short-lived thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope compositions

  1. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  2. Application of Radar Data to Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanZyl, Jakob J.

    2000-01-01

    The field of synthetic aperture radar changed dramatically over the past decade with the operational introduction of advance radar techniques such as polarimetry and interferometry. Radar polarimetry became an operational research tool with the introduction of the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system in the early 1980's, and reached a climax with the two SIR-C/X-SAR flights on board the space shuttle Endeavour in April and October 1994. Radar interferometry received a tremendous boost when the airborne TOPSAR system was introduced in 1991 by NASA/JPL, and further when data from the European Space Agency ERS-1 radar satellite became routinely available in 1991. Several airborne interferometric SAR systems are either currently operational, or are about to be introduced. Radar interferometry is a technique that allows one to map the topography of an area automatically under all weather conditions, day or night. The real power of radar interferometry is that the images and digital elevation models are automatically geometrically resampled, and could be imported into GIS systems directly after suitable reformatting. When combined with polarimetry, a technique that uses polarization diversity to gather more information about the geophysical properties of the terrain, a very rich multi-layer data set is available to the remote sensing scientist. This talk will discuss the principles of radar interferometry and polarimetry with specific application to the automatic categorization of land cover. Examples will include images acquired with the NASA/JPL AIRSAR/TOPSAR system in Australia and elsewhere.

  3. Review of United Kingdom radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J.; Davies, D. E. N.; Radford, M. F.

    1984-09-01

    A review of primary radar systems in the United Kingdom that have recently entered service or are at an advanced stage of development is presented. Naval, airborn, and land-based types are all discussed covering both civil and military interests, although particular emphasis is given to airborne equipments. Some general supporting radar technology including university programs is also covered.

  4. Cassini Radar Investigation of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Roth, L.

    1995-01-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, boasts organic chemistry that may hold clues to how life formed on the primitive Earth. The Cassini Mission, to be launched in October 1997, will explore Saturn and its moons, especially Titan. Mapping the surface of Titan will be accomplished with a radar instrument that acts as a 14 GHz synthetic aperture radar, microwave radiometer, altimeter, and scatterometer.

  5. Imaging Radar for Ecosystem Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, Richard H.; Way, JoBea; Hunt, E. Raymond J.; Morrissey, Leslie; Ranson, K. Jon; Weishampel, John F.; Oren, Ram; Franklin, Steven E.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a number of satellites have been launched with radar sensors, thus expanding opportunities for global assessment. In this article we focus on the applications of imaging radar, which is a type of sensor that actively generates pulses of microwaves and, in the interval between sending pulses, records the returning signals reflected back to an antenna.

  6. Millimeter radar improves target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2011-06-01

    Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

  7. Molecular sieve separation of ground state HF molecules in a non-chain HF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lianying; Zhou, Songqing; Huang, Chao; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhu, Feng

    2015-05-01

    A 3A molecular sieve separation device was designed and mounted in a closed-cycled non-chain HF laser to separate the ground state molecule being produced in discharge region from gas stream in order to improve the stability of laser output energy. Experiments were carried out with several different discharge voltages and gas flow velocities, and the preliminary results show that the molecular sieve separation device could dramatically decrease the decay of output energy of HF laser while improving the laser energy stability.

  8. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Trnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  9. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  10. IONOTOMO: A new approach for ionospheric tomography using OTH radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, C.; Occhipinti, G.; Boschi, L.; Molin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tomography techniques have been recently developed to reconstruct electron density in the ionosphere. Most of the recent methods are based on the inversion of the Total Electron Content (TEC) measured by ground-based GPS receivers (e.g., Garcia & Crespon). Notwithstanding the high-density of the stations coverage, as a consequence of the high frequency of the GPS signals, the inversion of the TEC-GPS measurements mainly reconstructs the electron density of the F2 region, where the ionosphere reaches the maximum of ionization, neglecting the lower ionosphere regions. Close to the ionospheric tomography by GPS, additional studies in ionospheric tomography explore HF propagation by OTH radar (Fridman and Fridman, 1994; Ruelle and Landeau, 1994; Landeau et al., 1997; Fridman, 1998). Those works are only based on the inversion of the leading edge echo curve, neglecting valuable informations present in the OTH radar data. To overcome those limits, we set up a new ionospheric tomography 3D method, based on ray-tracing theory and achieving the full analysis of over-the-horizon (OTH) radar data. The major advance of our methodology is taking into account, numerically and jointly, not only the speed variation of EM wave induced by the electron density variation but also the perturbation in the raypath, both necessary for the OTH radar inversion. We present here the originality and the advantages of our method with a full set of synthetic benchmark highlighting the sensitivity of our tomography to the plasma heterogeneities. Additionally, we show the possibility to integrate GPS-TEC data as well as satellite TEC occultations to our tomographic method, for a complete joint inversion capable to reconstruct the entire ionosphere. [Fridman and Fridman, 1994] J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 56, 115-131, 1994. [Ruelle and Landeau, 1994] J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 56, 103-114, 1994. [Landeau et al., 1997] J. Atm. Solar Terr. Phys., 59, 125-138, 1997. [Fridman, 1998] Radio Sci., 33, 1159-1171, 1998.

  11. The initial Hf isotopic composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    One area of considerable activity in trying to understand the formation and evolution of Earth's crust is the isotopic analysis of Hf in parallel with Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon studies, either to constrain early crustal growth and evolution [1], or as a complement to detrital zircon studies [2]. The 176Lu decay constant deduced from early planetary and Earth materials have different values. It has been suggested that a period of irradiation in the early Solar System affected the 176Hf production rate in meteoritic and planetary materials [3,4]. In this scenario, the initial Hf isotopic composition of the Solar System and the Earth would be ~4 ?Hf units lower, affecting tremendously the interpretation of the differentiation history of the early Earth. We investigated Lu-Hf compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, the oldest known objects of the Solar System dated at 4568 Ma [5], to assess the possibility of neutrino irradiation in the solar nebula. Here we report high-precision 176Lu-176Hf systematics of leached and unleached, and spiked and unspiked, bulk fractions and mineral separates of 6 individual CAIs from 2 CV3 chondrites. Isotopic analyses were carried out by Neptune MC-ICPMS at ASU. Analytical details are in [6,7]. The unspiked Hf fractions reveal stable isotope anomalies of ?178Hf= 20 6 and ?180Hf= 31 9 (2SD) for the CAI B4 fractions (n=3) and ?178Hf= -4 10 and ?180Hf= 2 10 (n=2) for BCR-2 relative to the JMC 475 Hf standard. Further high-precision analysis of unspiked Sm and Nd fractions of the samples will be made to correct from nucleosynthetic or neutron capture anomalies [8]. Such Hf stable isotopic anomalies predict no more than 50ppm correction on 176Hf/177Hf. At this stage, we have thus regressed together the spiked and unspiked Hf compositions of CAI fractions (n=13) for isochron calculations. The slope of the Lu-Hf isochron is 0.0882 0.0026 (2SD) which corresponds to a 176Lu decay constant value of 1.852 ( 0.052) 10-11y-1 consistent with the "terrestrial" determination [9,10]. We do not find evidence of 176Hf excesses in the CAI Lu-Hf systematics which excludes the possibility of neutrino irradiation to explain the anomalous Lu-Hf isochron ages of eucrite and angrite meteorites [3]. The initial 176Hf/177Hf of the CAIs and thus of the Solar System is 0.28286 0.00011 which is consistent with the estimates of 0.28279 0.00002 obtained using the modern CHUR composition [6] and the terrestrial decay constant [9,10]. This last composition remains the best estimate for the initial 176Hf/177Hf of the Earth. [1] Harrison. AREP Sci. 2009 37, 479. [2] Sun et al. Prec. Res. 2009 172, 99. [3] Albarde et al. GCA 2006 70, 1261. [4] Thrane et al. Astrophys. J. 2010 717, 861-867. [5] Bouvier & Wadhwa. Nat. Geosci. 2010 3, 637. [6] Bouvier et al. EPSL 2008 273, 48. [7] Mnker et al. G3 2001 2. [8] Sprung et al. EPSL 2010 295, 1. [9] Scherer et al. Science 2001 293, 683. [10] Sderlund et al. EPSL 2004 219, 311.

  12. The HF-enhanced plasma line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, J. A.; Gonzales, C. A.; Ierkic, H. M.; Sulzer, M.; Djuth, F. T.; Duncan, L. M.; Sheerin, J. P.

    1983-07-01

    Radar detection of the ion acoustic and Langmuir waves of the parametric decay instability, of the density irregularities and Langmuir waves of the oscillating two-stream instability, and of the waves associated with parametric instabilities excited by two pumps are described. A 430 and 46.8 MHz radar were used. Certain spectra are well explained by saturation theories; others can be explained only by propagation of Langmuir waves in irregularities. Agreement with the theory is particularly convincing for the existence of the growing mode and the arithmetic mean mode, and saturation through cascading. In other cases, such as the temporal changes in the nature of the spectrum and in the height of the high frequency plasma line, agreement with theory is only qualitative. Aspects such as the presence or absence of the miniovershoot, are not understood at all.

  13. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  14. Land subsidence measured by satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Brooks, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Radar altimeter measurements from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT satellites are being evaluated to assess their potential contribution to terrain mapping. The primary evaluation area is the San Joaquin Valley of southern California; 40,000/sq km of the Valley have been mapped at a contour interval of 10 m from the satellite altimeter measurements. The accuracy of the altimeter derived terrain elevations is being assessed by comparison with 1:24,000 and digitized 1:250,000 maps and by intercomparisons at the crossover altimeter intersections. Comparisons of the altimeter derived elevations with historical maps archived at the U.S. Geological Survey confirms the USGS 1926-1972 subsidence contours for this area. Preliminary results from a similar analysis in the Houston-Galveston area of subsidence also demonstrates a capability of measuring land subsidence by satellite altimetry.

  15. Daytime scintillations induced by high-power HF waves at Tromsoe, Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H.; Waaramaa, J.

    1987-10-01

    During March 1984 the high-power HF heating facility located at Ramfjordmoen (69.6 deg N, 19.2 deg E geographic) near Tromso, Norway, was used to modify the ionospheric F region in the daytime. The intensity and phase scintillations of 250-MHz transmission from the quasi-stationary polar beacon satellite were measured when the ray path from the observing site to the satellite intercepted the modified ionospheric volume. Narrow band spectral enhancements corresponding to an irregularity scale length of 750 m were detected in the intensity spectra when the radiated HF power developed an estimated power density of about 0.3 mw/sq m at the height of reflection. Spectral enhancements at larger scales were not detected in the phase spectra. From the growth and decay of the intensity, spectral enhancements during the successive 10-min on and 10-min off periods of the heater the e-folding growth and decay times of approx. 750 m irregularities were estimated to be on order of 30 s and 2 min, respectively. The threshold power densities required for the generation of the observed irregularity scale sizes were calculated from the self-focusing instability theory of Cragin et al. (1977) by the use of ionospheric background parameters measured by the EISCAT radar.

  16. Advanced digital SAR processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.; Gaffney, B. P.; Liu, B.; Perry, R. P.; Ruvin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A highly programmable, land based, real time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor requiring a processed pixel rate of 2.75 MHz or more in a four look system was designed. Variations in range and azimuth compression, number of looks, range swath, range migration and SR mode were specified. Alternative range and azimuth processing algorithms were examined in conjunction with projected integrated circuit, digital architecture, and software technologies. The advaced digital SAR processor (ADSP) employs an FFT convolver algorithm for both range and azimuth processing in a parallel architecture configuration. Algorithm performace comparisons, design system design, implementation tradeoffs and the results of a supporting survey of integrated circuit and digital architecture technologies are reported. Cost tradeoffs and projections with alternate implementation plans are presented.

  17. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  18. Shock/Ludwieg-tube driven HF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. A.; Butler, G. W.

    A laboratory facility has been constructed for study of the highly-coupled CW HF/DF chemical laser. F2/diluent oxidizer gases are heated at the end wall of a rectangular shock tube and expanded through a screen nozzle to the test section. Unheated H2 fuel is simultaneously supplied to the screen nozzle from a Ludwieg tube. The supersonic streams mix and react downstream, and multimode power is extracted by a simple cavity. The power is repeatable and shows some agreement with a quasi 1-D model under development. Operating features and capabilities of the facility are discussed, and its usefulness for systematic study is indicated.

  19. Polarizability functions of HF and HCI molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldakov, Michail A.; Cherepanov, Victor N.; Nagornova, Nataliya S.

    2006-02-01

    The semiempirical method of construction of the electronic polarizability functions for heteronuclear diatomic molecule in the piecewise-continuous form is discussed. The polarizability functions obtained have true asymptotic behaviour as for small as for large internuclear separations R and describe correctly the polarizability of a molecule in a vicinity of the equilibrium internuclear distance. To describe the polarizability functions for large separations, the DID interactions of atoms have been taken into account, and the exchange interactions of atoms have been considered by asymptotic methods. The method has been applied to calculate the polarizability functions of HF and HCI molecules in a range R ? [0,?).

  20. Daytime scintillations induced by high-power HF waves at Tromso-dash-bar, Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H.; Waaramaa, J.

    1987-10-01

    During March 1984 the high-power HF heating facility located at Ramfjordmoen (69.6 /sup 0/N, 19.2 /sup 0/E geographic) near Tromso-dash-bar, Norway, was used to modify the ionospheric F region in the daytime. The intensity and phase scintillations of 250-MHz transmissions from the quasi-stationary polar beacon satellite were measured when the ray path from the observing site to the satellite intercepted the modified ionospheric volume. Narrow band spectral enhancements corresponding to an irregularity scale length of 750 m were detected in the intensity spectra when the radiated HF power developed an estimated power density of about 0.3 mW/m/sup 2/ at the height of reflection. Spectral enhancements at larger scales were not detected in the phase spectra. From the growth and decay of the intensity spectral enhancements during the successive 10-min ''on'' and 10-min ''off '' periods of the heater the e-folding growth and decay times of approx.750 m irregularities were estimated to be on the order of 30 s and 2 min, respectively. The threshold power densities required for the generation of the observed irregularity scale sizes were calculated from the self-focusing instability theory of Cragin et al. (1977) by the use of ionospheric background parameters measured by the EISCAT radar. The theoretical estimates were found to be within a factor of 2 of the HF power densities employed in the experiment. The presence of Fresnel oscillations in the intensity and phase spectra were attributed to a limited irregularity layer thickness less than 50 km.