These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

Leenson, I. A.

2004-01-01

2

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-print Network

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

California at Riverside, University of

3

The impact of dilute sulfuric acid on the selectivity of xylooligomer depolymerization to monomers  

E-print Network

The impact of dilute sulfuric acid on the selectivity of xylooligomer depolymerization to monomers of polymerization (DP) ranging from 2 to 5 was followed at 160 °C with sulfuric acid added to adjust the pH from. Numerous studies of hemicellulose hydrolysis using just water or with sulfuric and other acids give some

California at Riverside, University of

4

Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-print Network

Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic over a range of sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.22%, 0.49% and 0.98% w/w at 140, 160, 180 and 200 °C (Lamptey et al., 1985). Adding small amounts of a sulfuric acid significantly enhanced xylose yields from

California at Riverside, University of

5

Hydrolysis of Sasa senanensis culm with dilute sulfuric acid for production of a fermentable substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prepare a substrate for microbial conversion of xylose into xylitol, the culm of Sasa senanensis was hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. When the reaction temperature was fixed at 121°C, an optimum yield of xylose was\\u000a obtained by treatment with 2% sulfuric acid for 1 h. An increase in the sulfuric acid concentration or a prolonged reaction\\u000a time resulted in

Masahiro Miura; Atsushi Shimahata; Toshio Nishikawa; Masakazu Aoyama; Kiyoshi Tada; Junichi Horiuchi; Masahiro Nakahara; Chikara Sakai

2011-01-01

6

Initial design of a dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment process for aspen wood chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary process design for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of aspen wood chips in order to obtain fermentable sugars\\u000a has been prepared and subjected to an economic evaluation. The process design was prepared according to experimental data\\u000a on the kinetics of dilute sulfuric acid prehydrolysis and particle size effects obtained in this study and our previous work.\\u000a The initial economic

R. Torget; M. Himmel; J. D. Wright; K. Grohmann

1988-01-01

7

Modeling and optimization of the dilute-sulfuric-acid pretreatment of corn stover, poplar and switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass may be used as a potential renewable feedstock for biochemical production of ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel. However, cellulose, which is the major source of fermentable sugars in these materials, is protected by a network of lignin and hemicellulose. The dilute-sulfuric-acid pretreatment removes this protecting shield and makes the cellulose more susceptible to enzymatic digestion. In this

Alireza Esteghlalian; Andrew G. Hashimoto; John J. Fenske; Michael H. Penner

1997-01-01

8

Modeling Sucrose Hydrolysis in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Pretreatment Conditions for Lignocellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural and herbaceous feedstocks may contain appreciable levels of sucrose. The goal of this study was to evaluate the survivability of sucrose and its hydrolysis products, fructose and glucose, during dilute sulfuric acid processing at conditions typically used to pretreat lignocellulose biomass. Solutions containing 25 g/l sucrose with 0.1-2.0% (w/w) sulfuric acid concentrations were treated at temperatures of 160-200 C for 3-12 min. Sucrose was observed to completely hydrolyze at all treatment conditions. However, appreciable concentrations of fructose and glucose were detected and glucose was found to be significantly more stable than fructose. Different mathematical approaches were used to fit the kinetic parameters for acid-catalyzed thermal degradation of these sugars. Since both sugars may survive dilute acid pretreatment, they could provide an additional carbon source for production of ethanol and other bio-based products.

Bower, S.; Wickramasinghe, R.; Nagle, N. J.; Schell, D. J.

2008-01-01

9

Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn stover is a domestic feedstock that has potential to produce significant quantities of fuel ethanol and other bioenergy\\u000a and biobased products. However, comprehensive yield and carbon mass balance information and validated kinetic models for dilute-sulfuric\\u000a acid (H2SO4) pretreatment of corn stover have not been available. This has hindered the estimation of process economics and also limited\\u000a the ability to

Daniel J. Schell; Jody Farmer; Millie Newman; James D. McMillan

2003-01-01

10

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover  

E-print Network

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid stover Dilute sulfuric acid Hydrothermal pretreatment Kinetic model Xylose a b s t r a c t Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160 °C for 40 min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric

California at Riverside, University of

11

Pretreatment of rice straw with combined process using dilute sulfuric acid and aqueous ammonia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of lignocellulosic biomass has received attention lately because it can be converted into various versatile chemical compounds by biological processes. In this study, a two-step pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid and aqueous ammonia was performed efficiently on rice straw to obtain fermentable sugar. The soaking in aqueous ammonia process was also optimized by a statistical method. Results Response surface methodology was employed. The determination coefficient (R2) value was found to be 0.9607 and the coefficient of variance was 6.77. The optimal pretreatment conditions were a temperature of 42.75°C, an aqueous ammonia concentration of 20.93%, and a reaction time of 48 h. The optimal enzyme concentration for saccharification was 30 filter paper units. The crystallinity index was approximately 60.23% and the Fourier transform infrared results showed the distinct peaks of glucan. Ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 was performed to verify whether the glucose saccharified from rice straw was fermentable. Conclusions The combined pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid and aqueous ammonia on rice straw efficiently yielded fermentable sugar and achieved almost the same crystallinity index as that of ?-cellulose. PMID:23898802

2013-01-01

12

A novel diffusion-biphasic hydrolysis coupled kinetic model for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover.  

PubMed

Kinetic experiments on the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover were performed. A high xylan removal and a low inhibitor concentration were achieved by acid pretreatment. A novel diffusion-hydrolysis coupled kinetic model was proposed. The contribution to the xylose yield was analyzed by the kinetic model. Compared with the inhibitor furfural negatively affecting xylose yield, the fast and slow-hydrolyzing xylan significantly contributed to the xylose yield, however, their dominant roles were dependent on reaction temperature and time. The impact of particle size and acid concentration on the xylose yield were also investigated. The diffusion process may significantly influence the hydrolysis of large particles. Increasing the acid concentration from 0.15 M to 0.30 M significantly improved the xylose yield, whereas the extent of improvement decreased to near-quantitative when further increasing acid loading. These findings shed some light on the mechanism for dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of corn stover. PMID:25479388

Chen, Longjian; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Junbao; Lu, Minsheng; Guo, Xiaomiao; Han, Lujia

2015-02-01

13

Nickel recovery from spent Raneynickel catalyst through dilute sulfuric acid leaching and soda ash precipitation.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical industry makes extensive use of Raneynickel catalyst for various organic drug intermediates/end products. Spent catalysts contain environmentally critical and economically valuable metals. In the present study, a simple hydrometallurgical process using dilute sulfuric acid leaching was described for the recovery of nickel from spent Raneynickel catalyst. Recovery of nickel varied with acid concentration and time, whereas temperature had negligible effect. Increase of S/L ratio to 30% (w/v) showed marginal effect on nickel (90%) recovery, whereas Al recovery decreased drastically to approximately 20%. Under the optimum conditions of leaching viz: 12 vol.% H(2)SO(4), 30 degrees C, 20% solid to liquid (S/L) ratio and 120 min reaction time, it was possible to recover 98.6% Ni along with 39.2% Al. Leach liquor [pH 0.7] containing 85.0 g/L Ni and 3.25 g/L Al was adjusted to pH 5.4 with 30 wt.% alkali for quantitative aluminum removal. Nickel loss was about 2% during this Al removal step. Nickel from the purified leach liquor was recovered as nickel carbonate by adding required amount of Na(2)CO(3). The purity of NiCO(3) product was found to be 100% with a Ni content of 48.6%. Na(2)SO(4) was recovered as a by-product with a purity of 99%. Complete process is presented. PMID:20018448

Lee, Jin Young; Rao, S Venkateswara; Kumar, B Nagaphani; Kang, Dong Jun; Reddy, B Ramachandra

2010-04-15

14

Production of spent mushroom substrate hydrolysates useful for cultivation of Lactococcus lactis by dilute sulfuric acid, cellulase and xylanase treatment.  

PubMed

Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was treated with dilute sulfuric acid followed by cellulase and xylanase treatment to produce hydrolysates that could be used as the basis for media for the production of value added products. A L9 (3(4)) orthogonal experiment was performed to optimize the acid treatment process. Pretreatment with 6% (w/w) dilute sulfuric acid at 120°C for 120 min provided the highest reducing sugar yield of 267.57 g/kg SMS. No furfural was detected in the hydrolysates. Exposure to 20PFU of cellulase and 200 XU of xylanase per gram of pretreated SMS at 40°C resulted in the release of 79.85 g/kg or reducing sugars per kg acid pretreated SMS. The dilute sulfuric acid could be recycled to process fresh SMS four times. SMS hydrolysates neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, or calcium hydroxide could be used as the carbon source for cultivation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 and a cell density of 2.9×10(11)CFU/mL could be obtained. The results provide a foundation for the development of value-added products based on SMS. PMID:21683588

Qiao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Sun, Li-Fan; Liu, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hong-Ji; Zhang, Zhijun

2011-09-01

15

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOEpatents

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20

16

A technical and economic analysis of acid-catalyzed steam explosion and dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments using wheat straw or aspen wood chips  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most plentiful and potentially cheapest feedstocks for ethanol production. The cellulose component can be broken down into glucose by enzymes and then converted to ethanol by yeast. However, hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is difficult, and some form of pretreatment is necessary to increase the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. An analysis has been completed of two pretreatment options, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis and sulfur dioxide impregnated steam explosion, for two feedstocks, wheat straw and aspen wood chips. Detailed process flow sheets and material and energy balances were used to generate equipment cost information. A technical and economic analysis compared the two feedstocks for each of the two pretreatments. For the same pretreatment, sugars produced from aspen wood hydrolysis were cheaper because of the higher carbohydrate content of aspen, whereas dilute acid pretreatment is favored over acid-catalyzed steam explosion.

Schell, D.J.; Torget, R.; Power, A. [Solar Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1991-12-31

17

Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Residues for Ethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of dilute-acid prehydrolysis as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, peanut shells, and cassava stalks was investigated. The prehydrolysis was performed at 122°C during 20, 40, or 60 min using 2% H2SO4 at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1?10. Sugar formation increased with increasing reaction time. Xylose, glucose, arabinose, and galactose were detected in all of the prehydrolysates, whereas mannose was found only in the prehydrolysates of peanut shells and cassava stalks. The hemicelluloses of bagasse were hydrolyzed to a high-extent yielding concentrations of xylose and arabinose of 19.1 and 2.2 g/L, respectively, and a xylan conversion of more than 80%. High-glucose concentrations (26-33.5 g/L) were found in the prehydrolysates of rice hulls, probably because of hydrolysis of starch of grain remains in the hulls. Peanut shells and cassava stalks rendered low amounts of sugars on prehydrolysis, indicating that the conditions were not severe enough to hydrolyze the hemicelluloses in these materials quantitatively. All prehydrolysates were readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dilute-acid prehydrolysis resulted in a 2.7-to 3.7-fold increase of the enzymatic convertibility of bagasse, but was not efficient for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut shells, cassava stalks, or rice hulls.

Martin, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

18

Sulfur and Sulfuric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur is one of the few elements that is found in its elemental form in nature. Typical sulfur deposits occur in sedimentary limestone/gypsum formations, in limestone/anhydrite formations associated with salt domes, or in volcanic rock.1 A yellow solid at normal temperatures, sulfur becomes progressively lighter in color at lower temperatures and is almost white at the temperature of liquid air. It melts at 114-119°C (depending on crystalline form) to a transparent light yellow liquid as the temperature is increased. The low viscosity of the liquid begins to rise sharply above 160°C, peaking at 93 Pa·s at 188°C, and then falling as the temperature continues to rise to its boiling point of 445°C. This and other anomalous properties of the liquid state are due to equilibria between the various molecular species of sulfur, which includes small chains and rings.

D'Aquin, Gerard E.; Fell, Robert C.

19

High yield production of sugars from deproteinated palm kernel cake under microwave irradiation via dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Recent years, great interest has been devoted to the conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrate into sugars, such as glucose, mannose and fructose. These are important versatile intermediate products that are easily processed into high value-added biofuels. In this work, microwave-assisted dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) was systematically studied using Response Surface Methodology. The highest mannose yield (92.11%) was achieved at the optimized condition of 148°C, 0.75N H2SO4, 10min 31s and substrate to solvent (SS) ratio (w/v) of 1:49.69. Besides that, total fermentable sugars yield (77.11%), was obtained at 170°C, 0.181N H2SO4, 6min 6s and SS ratio (w/v) of 1:40. Ridge analysis was employed to further verify the optimum conditions. Thus, this work provides fundamental data of the practical use of DPKC as low cost, high yield and environmental-friendly material for the production of mannose and other sugars. PMID:24342947

Fan, Suet-Pin; Jiang, Li-Qun; Chia, Chin-Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah-Leong

2014-02-01

20

Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of previous studies determined dilute acid pretreatment conditions that maximize xylose yields from pretreatment or glucose yields from subsequent digestion of the pretreated cellulose, but our emphasis was on identifying conditions to realize the highest yields of both sugars from both stages. Thus, individual xylose and glucose yields are reported as a percentage of the total potential yield

Todd A. Lloyd; Charles E. Wyman

2005-01-01

21

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

22

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

23

Corrosion resistance and behavior of construction materials exposed to dilute sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures under static conditions  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory investigation has been undertaken to determine the electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of various construction materials in a simulated hydrolysis environment (5 wt % sulfuric acid) at temperatures ranging from 90 to 220C. Tests were performed in an autoclave-type electrochemical cell. The corrosion behavior of the test materials was determined using computer-controlled DC potentiodynamic polarization. Corrosion rates of the test materials were determined using AC impedance techniques. Among the stainless steels tested, only alloy N08026 (Carpenter 20Mo-6) performed satisfactory up to a temperature of 100C. The alloy passivated spontaneously in the environment and corroded at a rate of less than 2 mpy. None of the stainless steels tested could be used at 120{degrees}C or above. A number of nickel-based alloys tested had good corrosion resistance up to 100C, but their corrosion rate exceeded 2 mpy at higher temperatures. Zirconium alloys were satisfactory up to 180C. Only tantalum and a tantalum-niobium alloy were satisfactory up to 220C.

Nguyen, D.T.

1994-10-01

24

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

25

Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties. PMID:24104688

Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

2014-01-01

26

Dilute Acid and Autohydrolysis Pretreatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210°C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such “steam gun” devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems.

Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

27

Dilute Acid and Autohydrolysis Pretreatment Bin Yang and Charles E. Wyman  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery possible, while adding dilute sulfuric and other acids can recover up to about 90% of the theoretical maximum. As early as 1898, sulfuric acid was employed to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose

California at Riverside, University of

28

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-print Network

diluted with H2S, added as persulfide. Viscosity of sulfur diluted with H2S, added as liquid. . . 50 51 Viscosity of liquid sulfur 52 Characteristics of sulfur-density and thermal conductivity. . . . 53 Heat capacity of sulfur 54 Characteristics... from a reactor. It has a high heat capacity and excellent heat transfer characteris- tics, and does not require special corrosion-resistant system components. Its nuclear properties are also favorable. It is not subject to destructive or hazardous...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

2012-06-07

29

Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

1999-01-01

30

Sulfuric acid spills in marine accidents  

SciTech Connect

Concentrated sulfuric acid and oleum are among the most potentially hazardous chemicals routinely transported in bulk quantities on US and international waterways. Conceivably, during a marine mishap, tons of sulfuric acid could be abruptly released into the water, and the consequences of such a spill could be detrimental to man and the environment. Several acid spill scenarios are briefly described, and the results from laboratory experiments designed to simulate two different types of acid spill accidents are reported. It is shown that the convective mixing of concentrated sulfuric acid with water can adequately be described by a mathematical model which takes into account the variation of the buoyancy force arising from changes in acid concentration and released heat of dilution. A value of 0.21 is determined to be the entrainment parameter for the mixing of sulfuric acid with water. For oleum spills in which acid aerosol formation is a potential safety hazard, a conservative estimate of less than one-tenth of a percent is obtained for the amount of airborne acid under most accident conditions. The fraction of airborne acid, however, decreases very rapidly with increasing release depth below water surfaces. The acid aerosols exhibit a well-defined log-normal particle-size distribution with peak diameter varying from 0.1 to 0.6 ..mu..m (at 70% R.H.) depending upon release depth. This is well within the respirable particle size range.

Tang, I N; Wong, W T; Munkelwitz, H R; Flessner, M F

1980-07-01

31

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

32

Two-stage dilute-acid pretreatment of softwoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole treechips obtained from softwood forest thinnings were pretreated via single-and two-stage dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment.\\u000a Whole-tree chips were impregnated with dilute sulfuric acid and steam treated in a 4-L steam explosion reactor. In single-stage\\u000a pretreatment, wood chips were treated using a wide range of severity. In two-stage pretreatment, the first stage was carried\\u000a out at low severity tomaximize hemicellulose recovery.

Quang A. Nguyen; Melvin P. Tucker; Fred A. Keller; Fannie P. Eddy

2000-01-01

33

Zirconium in sulfuric acid applications  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium is one of the few metals that resists attack by sulfuric acid at concentrations up to 75% and temperatures to boiling and above. This capability makes zirconium a good structural metal for use in 40 to 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ up to boiling temperatures and for weak acid concentrations at elevated temperatures. Zirconium's corrosion properties in sulfuric acid solutions are compared with nickel base alloys. Examples of applications and limitations in the use of zirconium are presented.

Webster, R.T.; Yau, T.L.

1986-02-01

34

Radiolysis of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid monohydrate, and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate and its relevance to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report laboratory studies on the 0.8MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4·H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4·4H2O) between 10 and 180K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4-, and SO42-. At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that

M. J. Loeffler; R. L. Hudson; M. H. Moore; R. W. Carlson

2011-01-01

35

Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

Sill, G. T.

1972-01-01

36

Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…

Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee

2014-01-01

37

Dilute acid hydrolysis of wheat straw oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

The dilute acid posthydrolysis of wheat straw hemicellulosic oligosaccharides obtained by autohydrolysis was evaluated. An empirical model was used to describe the effect of catalyst concentration (sulfuric acid, 0.1-4% w/w) and reaction time (0-60 min) based on data from a Doehlert experimental design. Catalyst concentration is the main variable influencing posthydrolysis performance, as both its linear and quadratic coefficients are statistically significant for the majority of the studied variables, namely, the ones related to sugar and byproducts production. Reaction time influences xylose and furan derivatives concentrations but not phenolics or acetic acid content. Catalyst concentration and reaction time interact synergistically, minimizing sugar recovery and promoting furan derivatives production. Based on the proposed models, it was possible to delimit an operational range that enables to obtain high monosaccharides recovery together with a slight decrease in inhibitors content as compared to the standard acid hydrolysis treatment. Furthermore, this is achieved with up to 70% less acid spending or considerable savings on reaction time. PMID:19043676

Duarte, Luís C; Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Gírio, Francisco M

2009-05-01

38

The generation of fermentation inhibitors during dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the severity of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of spruce (softwood) on sugar yield and on the fermentability of the hydrolysate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) was investigated. Fermentability was assessed as the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars (mannose and glucose) and the mean volumetric productivity (4 h). The hydrolysis conditions, residence time, temperature, and sulfuric acid concentration

Simona Larsson; Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Charlotte Tengborg; Kerstin Stenberg; Guido Zacchi; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant

1999-01-01

39

Sulfuric acid bleaching of kraft pulp III: reactivity of kraft pulping-resistant structures under acidic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the bleaching mechanism, a lignincarbohydrate complex (LCC) model compound, a vinyl ether-type lignin model\\u000a dimer, and a hexeneuronic acid model compound were treated with dilute sulfuric acid of different pHs. Beech kraft pulp and\\u000a red pine kraft pulp were also treated with dilute sulfuric acid and then extracted with aqueous alkali. The amount of hexeneuronic\\u000a acid degradation products

Tsutomu Ikeda; Yoichi Tomimura; Kengo Magara; Mitsuro Ishihara; Shuji Hosoya

1999-01-01

40

Effect of dilute acid on the accelerated weathering of wood  

SciTech Connect

Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) specimens were soaked in acid solutions to determine the effect of acid conditions (such as low pH fog) on the weathering of wood. Daily 1-hour soaking in dilute sulfurous, sulfuric, or nitric acid (pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0) increased the rate of accelerated (xenon arc) weathering of the specimens compared to controls soaked in distilled/deionized water. Weathering was manifested as the erosion rate of the wood surface and was determined gravimetrically be fitting the weight loss over time to a linear model. This method detected significant differences between acid-treated specimens and untreated controls within 300 hours of accelerated weathering. The erosion rate was dependent on the acid type and pH. Sulfurous acid treatment caused the fastest rate of erosion, followed by sulfuric then nitric acid. None of the acids affected the erosion rate at pH 3.5 or above. Below this threshold, the rate of erosion increased as the hydrogen ion concentration increased. Sugar analysis of residues from the acids and the distilled water used to soak the wood indicated acid-dependent degradation of polysaccharides.

Williams, R.S.

1988-02-01

41

46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153...CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED...Procedures § 153.1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

2011-10-01

42

46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153...CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED...Procedures § 153.1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

2010-10-01

43

46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153...CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED...Procedures § 153.1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

2013-10-01

44

46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153...CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED...Procedures § 153.1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

2012-10-01

45

46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.  

...2014-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153...CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED...Procedures § 153.1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

2014-10-01

46

Solubility of uranous sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide important thermodynamic data for use in uranium hydrometallurgy, solubilities of uranous sulfate were determined as a function of free acid concentration and temperature. Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. One set was the precipitation experiments of uranous sulfate crystals, in which concentrated uranous sulfate solution was mixed with sulfuric acid solution of suitable concentration. The other set was the dissolution experiments of uranous sulfate crystals in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions. It is noteworthy that good agreement exists between the solubilities determined by the two methods. At elevated temperatures, say, 363 K, the presence of free sulfuric acid is required to avoid precipitation of uranous hydroxide resulting from the hydrolysis of uranous sulfate. Generally speaking, however, an increase in free sulfuric acid concentration results in a slight decrease in uranous sulfate solubility. The elevation of solution temperature causes a decrease in solubility of uranous sulfate. It should be noted that the solid uranous sulfates equilibrated with saturated solutions at 298 K were U(SO4)2 2H2O in dilute sulfuric acid solution and U(SO4)2 4H2O in concentrated sulfuric acid solution, while those at 333 K and 363 K were mainly U(SO4)2 4H2O.

Suzuki, Shigeru; Hirono, Shuichiro; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Majima, Hiroshi

1990-10-01

47

Determination of the activity of hydrogen ions in dilute sulfuric acids by use of an ionic liquid salt bridge sandwiched by two hydrogen electrodes.  

PubMed

The activities of hydrogen ions in 20-200 ?mol dm(-3) H(2)SO(4) solution were estimated by use of an ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB), made of tributyl(2-methoxyethyl)phosphonium bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)amide (TBMOEPC(2)C(2)N), sandwiched by two hydrogen electrodes. The experimental pH values (pH = -log a(H), where a(H) is the activity of hydrogen ions) were in good agreement, within 0.01 pH unit, with those calculated using the Pitzer model. The difference between the experimental and theoretical pH values at 50 ?mol dm(-3) H(2)SO(4) solution was much smaller than that obtained by use of a glass electrode in combination with a reference electrode with a concentrated KCl salt bridge. The source of the small deviation can be explained by the residual diffusion potential due to the dissolution of TBMOEPC(2)C(2)N in the H(2)SO(4) solution (W) and the resultant increase in the ionic strength of W. The use of a reference electrode equipped with an ILSB opens the way to accurately estimate the pH in dilute aqueous solutions, for which we have not had effective means. PMID:21126098

Shibata, Manabu; Sakaida, Hideaki; Kakiuchi, Takashi

2011-01-01

48

Leaching behavior of ilmenite with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the rate of dissolution of ilmenite in sulfuric acid solutions has been carried out. The effects of temperature, particle size, stirring speed, and concentration of sulfuric acid on the rate of dissolution of ilmenite has been investigated. Temperature range studied in this investigation was 88° to 115°C, and the Arrhenius activation energy was found to be 64.4

K. N. Han; T. Rubcumintara; M. C. Fuerstenau

1987-01-01

49

The Microbial Karst Sulfuric Acid Dynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original model for sulfuric acid speleogenesis attributes limestone dissolution to the oxidation of gaseous H2S to sulfuric acid on limestone cave walls (Egemeier 1981). This model has recently been reexamined in Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming (USA), where the most intense limestone dissolution appears to be the result of microbial colonization of limestone surfaces below the water table (Engel et

E. Lyon; K. Meyer; B. Koffman; S. Galdenzi; J. Macalady

2004-01-01

50

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-print Network

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen-17 In this thermochemical cycle, sulfuric acid is decomposed at high temperature 850°C to SO2 and wa- ter, and the SO2

Weidner, John W.

51

Are the clouds of Venus sulfuric acid.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that strong aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have the right refractive index and freeze at Venusian cloud temperature, explain the dryness of the Venusian stratosphere, are consistent with some features of the Venusian IR spectrum, and do not absorb in highly reflecting areas of Venus. It is also indicated that such solutions should be produced by reactions between known atmospheric constituents and most sulfur-bearing rock at the Venusian surface temperature, and require only small amounts of sulfur consistent with its cosmic abundance and with the amounts of other volatile elements present in the atmosphere. It is believed therefore that the clouds of Venus consist of sulfuric acid solutions.

Young, A. T.

1973-01-01

52

Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction and wear experiment were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

1986-01-01

53

Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction and wear experiments were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

54

Vapor phase nitration of benzene over solid acid catalysts IV. Nitration with nitric acid (3); supported sulfuric acid catalyst with co-feeding of a trace amount of sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the vapor phase nitration of benzene with diluted nitric acid, we have succeeded in keeping a high nitration activity of the supported sulfuric acid catalyst for more than 2 months by co-feeding a trace amount of sulfuric acid (H2SO4\\/HNO3=1\\/5000 (wt. ratio)). The results after 60 days on-stream over 10wt.%–H2SO4\\/SiO2 catalyst are as follows: yield of nitrobenzene (NB), 93% based

H Sato; K Nagai; H Yoshioka; Y Nagaoka

1999-01-01

55

Commercial Alloys for Sulfuric Acid Vaporization in Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Most thermochemical cycles being considered for producing hydrogen include a processing stream in which dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated, vaporized and then decomposed over a catalyst. The sulfuric acid vaporizer is exposed to highly aggressive conditions. Liquid sulfuric acid will be present at a concentration of >96 wt% (>90 mol %) H2SO4 and temperatures exceeding 400oC [Brown, et. al, 2003]. The system will also be pressurized, 0.7-3.5 MPa, to keep the sulfuric acid in the liquid state at this temperature and acid concentration. These conditions far exceed those found in the commercial sulfuric acid generation, regeneration and handling industries. Exotic materials, e.g. ceramics, precious metals, clad materials, etc., have been proposed for this application [Wong, et. al., 2005]. However, development time, costs, reliability, safety concerns and/or certification issues plague such solutions and should be considered as relatively long-term, optimum solutions. A more cost-effective (and relatively near-term) solution would be to use commercially-available metallic alloys to demonstrate the cycle and study process variables. However, the corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in sulfuric acid is rarely characterized above the natural boiling point of concentrated sulfuric acid (~250oC at 1 atm). Therefore a screening study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of various commercial alloys for concentration and vaporization of high-temperature sulfuric acid. Initially alloys were subjected to static corrosion tests in concentrated sulfuric acid (~95-97% H2SO4) at temperatures and exposure times up to 200oC and 480 hours, respectively. Alloys with a corrosion rate of less than 5 mm/year were then subjected to static corrosion tests at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperatures up to 375oC. Exposure times were shorter due to safety concerns and ranged from as short as 5 hours up to 144 hours. The materials evaluated included nickel-, iron- and cobalt-based commercial alloys. The corrosion rates in these tests are reported and how they may or may not relate to the corrosion behavior in an operating thermochemical cycle is discussed.

Thomas M. Lillo; Karen M. Delezene-Briggs

2005-10-01

56

Friction and wear of iron in sulfuric acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.000007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid) was studied. Load and reciprocating sliding speeds were kept constant. With the most dilute acid of 0.7 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent, the high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid, and decreased somewhat at 50 percent in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It is apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established which rapidly attached to the wear area.

Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

57

Sulfuric Acid on Europa's Surface and the Radiolytic Sulfur Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo infrared spectra of Europa's surface show distorted water bands that have been attributed to hydrated evaporite salts (McCord et al., J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11827, 1999) or to the scattering properties of ice (Dalton and Clark, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1081, 1998). Using new laboratory spectra, we show that hydrated sulfuric acid can explain Europa's spectra and further

R. W. Carlson; R. E. Johnson; M. S. Anderson

1999-01-01

58

Ionic mechanisms for heterogeneous stratospheric reactions and ultraviolet photoabsorption cross sections for NO2(+), HNO3, and NO3(-) in sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature photo-absorption cross sections between 180 and 340 nm for potassium nitrate dissolved in sulfuric acid-water solutions of 0, 80, and 96 percent sulfuric acid by mass are presented. The predominant nitrogen-containing species are the nitrate anion (NO3(-)) in pure water or dilute sulfuric acid solutions, molecular nitric acid (HNO3) in 80 percent sulfuric acid, and the nitronium ion

Joel D. Burley; H. S. Johnston

1992-01-01

59

Leaching behavior of ilmenite with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the rate of dissolution of ilmenite in sulfuric acid solutions has been carried out. The effects of temperature,\\u000a particle size, stirring speed, and concentration of sulfuric acid on the rate of dissolution of ilmenite has been investigated.\\u000a Temperature range studied in this investigation was 88? to 115?C, and the Arrhenius activation energy was found to be 64.4

K. N. Han; T. Rubcumintara; M. C. Fuerstenau

1987-01-01

60

46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping...CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid...

2012-10-01

61

46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.  

...5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping...CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid...

2014-10-01

62

46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping...CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid...

2013-10-01

63

Topsoe`s Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process: An alternative technology for recovering refinery sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Topsoe Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process is a catalytic process which produces concentrated sulfuric acid from refinery streams containing sulfur compounds such as HâS (Claus plant feed), Claus plant tail gas, SOâ (FCC off-gas, power plants), and spent sulfuric acid (alkylation acid). The WSA process recovers up to 99.97% of the sulfur value in the stream as concentrated

1995-01-01

64

Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose under mild hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose was investigated in a conventional oven and under microwave heating. Two acids--sulfuric and oxalic--were studied. For both hydrothermal conditions (oven and microwave) the resultant total organic carbon (TOC) values obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with sulfuric acid were higher than those obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with oxalic acid. However, the dicarboxylic acid exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency towards glucose. The hydrolysis of cellulose was greatly promoted by microwave heating. The Rietveld method was applied to fit the X-ray patterns of the resultant cellulose after hydrolysis. Oxalic acid preferentially removed the amorphous region of the cellulose and left the crystalline region untouched. On the other hand, sulfuric acid treatment decreased the ordering of the cellulose by partially disrupting its crystalline structure. PMID:25037336

Chimentão, R J; Lorente, E; Gispert-Guirado, F; Medina, F; López, F

2014-10-13

65

Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: Freezing characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature flow cell has been used in conjunction with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to study sulfuric acid/water aerosols. The aerosols were generated with a wide range of composition (28 to 85 wt%), including those characteristic of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, and studied over the temperature range from 240 K to 160 K. The particles exhibited deep supercooling, by as much as 100 K below the freezing point in some cases. Freezing of water ice was observed in the more dilute (<40 wt% sulfuric acid) particles, in agreement with the predictions of Jensen et al. and recent observations by Bertram et al. In contrast with theoretical predictions, however, the entire particle often does not immediately freeze, at least on the timescale of the present experiments (seconds to minutes). Freezing of the entire particle is observed at lower temperatures, well below that characteristic of the polar stratosphere.

Clapp, M. L.; Niedziela, R. F.; Richwine, L. J.; Dransfield, T.; Miller, R. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

1997-04-01

66

Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials provides an alternative energy production system. Rye and bermudagrass that are used in hog farms for nutrient uptake from swine wastewater have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they have a relative high cellulose and hemicellulose content. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in

Ye Sun; Jay J. Cheng

2005-01-01

67

CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPE SULFURIC ACID MIST MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype sulfuric acid mist monitor has been constructed for the purpose of detecting sulfuric acid-sulfur trioxide. The monitor utilized the selective condensation method with subsequent determination of sulfuric acid by measuring the conductivity of an aqueous isopropanol so...

68

SEMI-BATCH CRYSTALLIZATION OF GYPSUM FROM CALCITE AND SULFURIC ACID  

E-print Network

SEMI-BATCH CRYSTALLIZATION OF GYPSUM FROM CALCITE AND SULFURIC ACID F. Bard, D. Garcia , G. Févotte or reusing some compounds they contain in other production processes. The latter is of great interest, both- scale installation modeling the neutralization of a sulphuric acid solution by injection of a diluted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Sulfuric acid versus elemental sulfur as by-products. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic comparison of sulfuric acid production and sulfur recovery processes was made on eastern coal feeds in this study. Sulfuric acid is the more attractive product whenever assured markets are available, on the basis of rail transportation of by-products. The capital cost is higher for a plant to recover the sulfur, and the product value is lower per unit

1978-01-01

70

Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extremely dry nature of the Venus upper atmosphere appears to demand the presence of an efficient desiccating agent as the chief constituent of the clouds of Venus. On the basis of polarization measures it is to be expected that this substance is present as spherical droplets, 1 to 2 microns in diameter, with a refractive index n of 1.46 plus or minus 0.02 at 3500A in the observed region of the atmosphere, with T about equal to 235 K. This substance must have ultraviolet, visible, and infrared reflection properties not inconsistent with the observed spectrum of Venus. Sulfuric acid, of about 86% by weight composition, roughly fulfills the first of these properties. The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

Sill, G. T.

1972-01-01

71

Friction and wear of nickel in sulfuric acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted with elemental nickel sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid in concentrations ranging from very dilute (10 -4 N, i.e., 5 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent) acid. Load and reciprocating sliding speeds were kept constant. With the most dilute concentration (10 -4 N) no observable corrosion occurred in or outside the wear area. This was used as the base condition to determine the high contribution of corrosion to total wear loss at acid concentrations between 0.5 percent (0.1 N) and 75 percent. Corrosion reached a maximum rate of 100 millimeters per year at 30 percent acid. At the same time, general corrosion outside the wear area was very low, in agreement with published information. It is clear that friction and wear greatly accelerated corrosion in the wear area. At dilute concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 N, corrosion in the wear area was low, and general corrosion outside was also low, but local outside regions in the direction of the wear motion experienced some enhanced corrosion, apparently due to fluid motion of the acid.

Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

72

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

73

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

74

40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt...Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt...alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine...

2011-07-01

75

40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt...Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt...alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine...

2013-07-01

76

40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.  

...Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt...Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt...alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine...

2014-07-01

77

Effect of dilute liquid lime-sulfur sprays on the photosynthesis of apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

From this brief report it is apparent that the dilute liquid lime-sulfur sprays may cause marked reductions in the apparent rate of photosynthesis of Stayman apple leaves for 3 to 5 days after spray treatment, even though no visible burning occurs. It is clearly evident that when the maximum temperature reaches 90 to 100 degrees F a significant reduction in

H. W. Brody; N. F. Childers

1938-01-01

78

Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment. PMID:25613555

Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

2015-03-01

79

Hydration structure in dilute hydrofluoric acid.  

PubMed

We have performed the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) molecular dynamics simulations of a dilute hydrofluoric acid solution at ambient temperature to study the hydration structure associated with its weak acidity. The developed MS-EVB model showed reasonable agreement with experimental and previous ab initio molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model self-consistent field simulations for the free energy and structural properties. The local tetrahedral and translational order parameters around the fluorine atom significantly increase in the transition and product states of the HF dissociation reaction. This indicates that the angular and translational rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond topology are necessary especially around the fluorine atom. At the transition state of the proton transfer, the tetrahedral order parameters are very large, whereas the translational order parameters are not. This suggests that for the proton transfer to occur the large angular rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond topology are more necessary than the translational ones. PMID:21210669

Joutsuka, Tatsuya; Ando, Koji

2011-02-10

80

Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the invention and use of a sulfuric acid chamber by Charles Henry Winston during the Civil War. This invention helped supply munitions for the South. Winston, who was President of the Richmond Female Institute in Virginia, constructed the chamber at his farm and was granted a patent by the Confederate Patent Office in 1863. (PVD)

Riethmiller, Steven

1995-01-01

81

Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

1989-01-01

82

Nitrosyl sulfuric acid and stratospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

From information found in the atmospheric and chemical literature, we propose that nitrosyl sulfuric acid (NSA), NOHSO4, may play an important role in stratospheric chemistry. In one study, NSA was observed as a slurry of crystals in about a third of the aerosol particles collected between 15 and 20 km. From the chemical literature, we find that NSA is formed

Joel D. Burley; H. S. Johnston

1992-01-01

83

Optimization studies in sulfuric acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current legislation imposes tighter restrictions to reduce the impact of process industry on environment. This work presents the dynamic simulation and optimization results for an existing sulfuric acid plant. Operational problems may occur when the process is disturbed due to production rate changes or catalyst deactivation, the non-linear response of the plant leading to sustained oscillations. Since the plant is

Anton A. Kiss; Costin S. Bildea; Peter J. T. Verheijen

2006-01-01

84

Intestinal metabolism of sulfur amino acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in the body and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake that is mainly transmethylated to homocysteine and transsulfurated to cysteine. The GIT accounts for approx. 25% of the ...

85

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A continuous flow system for exposing plants to submicron aerosols of sulfuric acid has been developed and an operational model has been constructed. Exposure chambers have been designed to allow simultaneous exposures of the same plant to aerosol and control environments. All su...

86

High-Sulfur Coal and Acidic Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a geologist measures the pH of water after high-sulfur coal from a Kentucky coal mine has been added to it. This test demonstrates that the sulfate salts found on the coal’s surface cause the water to become much more acidic.

Ket

2011-01-11

87

Involvement of Intermediate Sulfur Species in Biological Reduction of Elemental Sulfur under Acidic, Hydrothermal Conditions  

E-print Network

Involvement of Intermediate Sulfur Species in Biological Reduction of Elemental Sulfur under Acidic-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAb The thermoacidophile and obligate elemental sulfur (S8-phase sulfur during S8 0 -dependent batch culture growth. Cyclic voltammetry indicated the production

Ahmad, Sajjad

88

Comparison of microbial sulfuric acid production in sewage sludge from added sulfur and thiosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial leaching is one of the most attractive methods of removing toxic metals from sewage sludge. Sulfuric acid produced by indigenous microflora by the oxidation of elemental sulfur and sulfur compounds solubilizes toxic metals. The oxidation of sulfur compounds can be achieved by the direct oxidation to sulfates or by indirect oxidation, through the production and accumulation of soluble intermediate

R. D. Tyagi; J. F. Blais; L. Deschenes; P. Lafrance; J. P. Villeneuve

1994-01-01

89

Heterogeneous Interaction of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Liquid Sulfuric Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uptake of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on liquid sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PAN was observed to be reversibly adsorbed on sulfuric acid.

Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun

1996-01-01

90

A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

Danford, M. D.

1992-01-01

91

Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

Leu, Ming-Taun

2006-01-01

92

Thin-film sulfuric acid anodizing as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chromic acid has long been used to produce a thin, corrosion resistant (Type I) coating on aluminum. Following anodizing, the hardware was sealed using a sodium dichromate solution. Sealing closes up pores inherent in the anodized coating, thus improving corrosion resistance. The thinness of the brittle coating is desirable from a fatigue standpoint, and chromium was absorbed by the coating during the sealing process, further improving corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, both chromic acid and sodium dichromate contain carcinogenic hexavalent chromium. Sulfuric acid is being considered as a replacement for chromic acid. Sulfuric acid of 10-20 percent concentration has traditionally been used to produce relatively thick (Types II and III) or abrasion resistant (Type III) coatings. A more dilute, that is five weight percent, sulfuric acid anodizing process, which produces a thinner coating than Type II or III, with nickel acetate as the sealant has been developed. The process was evaluated in regard to corrosion resistance, throwing power, fatigue life, and processing variable sensitivity, and shows promise as a replacement for the chromic acid process.

Kallenborn, K. J.; Emmons, J. R.

1995-01-01

93

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2011-07-01

94

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2010-07-01

95

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2012-07-01

96

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2014-07-01

97

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2013-07-01

98

UV spectroscopy of submicron sulfuric acid aerosol  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of gas phase species with sulfuric acid particles play important roles in the chemistry of the stratosphere. We have developed a technique to measure the kinetics of reactive uptake by submicron sulfuric acid aerosol. The kinetics are measured by monitoring the concentration of a gas phase reactant as a function of contact distance with a well characterized aerosol flow. The aerosol size distribution is extracted from measurements of the UV transmission of the aerosol and the particle number density, by using Mie theory. In this talk I will describe the experimental method used for the kinetic measurements, with emphasis on the aerosol characterization. Recent gas/aerosol kinetic results will also be presented.

Lovejoy, E.R.; Hanson, D.R. [Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

99

Infrared titration of aqueous sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the infrared (IR) titration of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions (0.50 M) obtained by the attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling technique. After subtracting the water spectra, the spectra of the ionic species of HâSOâ in the 0--14 pH range were separated by factor analysis (FA) which also gave their abundance. The results were in agreement with the theoretical

Jean-Joseph Max; C. Menichelli; Camille Chapados

2000-01-01

100

Neutralization of sulfuric acid aerosol by ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of neutralization of sulfuric acid aerosol by ammonia gas has been measured in a laboratory flow reactor for particle diameters between 0.3 and 1.4 micrometers and for relative humidities between 8 and 80%. The rates were between 21 and 70% of the rates expected if diffusion of NHâ to the aerosol droplets was the rate-determining factor, and the

James J. Huntzicker; Robert A. Cary; Chaur-Sun. Ling

1980-01-01

101

Thermodynamics of electrolytes. 7. Sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the thermodynamic properties of sulfuric acid above 0.1 M and near 25°C are well established numerically, they have not been represented accurately by equations which are based upon the ionic species present, H\\/sup +\\/, HSOâ⁻, and SOâ\\/sup 2 -\\/. We have developed and fitted such equations over the range from 0 to 6 M in a system compatible with

Kenneth S. Pitzer; Rabindra N. Roy; Leonard F. Silvester

1977-01-01

102

Radiolysis of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid monohydrate, and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate and its relevance to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied stability of three acid hydrates during ion irradiation in Europa-like conditions. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H 2 O, SO 2 , (S 2 O 3 ) x , H 3 O + , HSO 4 - , and SO 4 2 - . We find that at higher irradiation temperatures, the more

M. J. Loeffler; R. L. Hudson; M. H. Moore; R. W. Carlson

2011-01-01

103

Characterization and fermentation of dilute-acid hydrolyzates from wood  

SciTech Connect

Dilute-acid hydrolyzates from alder, aspen, birch, willow, pine, and spruce were fermented without prior detoxification. The hydrolyzates were prepared by a one-stage hydrolysis process using sulfuric acid (5 g/L) at temperatures between 188 and 234 C and with a holding time of 7 min. The fermentations were carried out anaerobically by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10 g of d.w./L) at a temperature of 30 C and an initial pH of 5.5. The fermentabilities were quite different for the different wood species, and only hydrolyzates of spruce produced at 188 and 198 C, hydrolyzates of pine produced at 188 C, and hydrolyzates of willow produced at 198 C could be completely fermented within 24 h. From the sum of the concentrations of the known inhibitors furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), a good prediction of the maximum ethanol production rate could be obtained, regardless of the origin of the hydrolyzate. Furthermore, in hydrolyzates that fermented well, furfural and HMF were found to be taken up and converted by the yeast, concomitant with the uptake of glucose.

Taherzadeh, M.J.; Niklasson, C.; Liden, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering; Eklund, R. [Mid Sweden Univ., Oernskoeldsvik (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Technology] [Mid Sweden Univ., Oernskoeldsvik (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Technology; Gustafsson, L. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology] [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

1997-11-01

104

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-print Network

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

105

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode.

G. H. Farbman; B. R. Krasicki; C. C. Hardman; S. S. Lin; G. H. Parker

1978-01-01

106

Sulfuric Acid Production on Europa: The Radiolysis of Sulfur in Water Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa's surface is chemically altered by radiolysis from energetic charged particle bombardment. It has been suggested that hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4·nH2O) is a major surface species and is part of a radiolytic sulfur cycle, where a dynamic equilibrium exists between continuous production and destruction of sulfur polymers Sx, sulfur dioxide SO2, hydrogen sulfide H2S, and H2SO4·nH2O. We measured the rate

R. W. Carlson; M. S. Anderson; R. E. Johnson; M. B. Schulman; A. H. Yavrouian

2002-01-01

107

Sulfuric Acid Production on Europa: The Radiolysis of Sulfur in Water Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa's surface is chemically altered by radiolysis from energetic charged particle bombardment. It has been suggested that hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4.nH2O) is a major surface species and is part of a radiolytic sulfur cycle, where a dynamic equilibrium exists between continuous production and destruction of sulfur polymers Sx, sulfur dioxide SO2, hydrogen sulfide H2S, and H2SO4.nH2O. We measured the rate

R. W. Carlson; M. S. Anderson; R. E. Johnson; M. B. Schulman; A. H. Yavrouian

2002-01-01

108

FTIR studies of low temperature sulfuric acid aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sub-micrometer sized sulfuric acid H2SO4 particles were generated using a constant output atomizer source. The particles were then exposed to water vapor before being injected into a low temperature cell. Multipass transmission Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the phase and composition of the aerosols as a function of time for periods of up to five hours. Binary H2SO4H2O aerosols with compositions from 35 to 95 wt % H2SO4 remained liquid for over 3 hours at room temperatures ranging from 189-240 K. These results suggest that it is very difficut to freeze SSAs via homogeneous nucleation. Attempts to form aerosols more dilute than 35 wt % H2SO4 resulted in ice formation.

Anthony, S. E.; Tisdale, R. T.; Disselkamp, R. S.; Tolbert, M. A.; Wilson, J. C.

1995-01-01

109

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] Torr H[sub 2]O and 1-2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] Torr HNO[sub 3]) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to

Laura T. Iraci; Ann M. Middlebrook; Margaret A. Wilson; Margaret A. Tolbert

1994-01-01

110

SULFURIC ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON CROP YIELD AND FOLIAR INJURY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine the relative sensitivity of major U.S. crops to sulfuric acid rain. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and exposed to simulated acid rain of three sulfuric acid concentrations (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0) or to a control rain (pH...

111

Geochemical and sulfur isotope signatures of microbial activity in acidic and sulfuric hot springs, northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidic and sulfuric hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic sulfur-utilizing microorganisms. Integration of bioenergetic evaluation, molecular analysis and stable isotopic signatures may be able to exhibit a full view of microbial activity in such an extreme environment. Widely distributed hot springs hosted by the Tatung volcano group in northern Taiwan provide a chance to evaluate the interplay between geochemical variation and microbial metabolism especially for sulfur. Several hot spring ponds varying in sizes and geochemical characteristics were studied to reveal the possible control of fluid compositions on microbial metabolisms, and vice versa. Sulfate, sulfide, elemental sulfur and dissolved organic carbon were available in spring water and sediments in the ponds. Dominant microbial metabolisms inferred from the bioenergetic evaluation were aerobic oxidations of various reduced compounds, including elemental sulfur, pyrite, ferrous iron and organic carbon. Sulfate and sulfur reductions were thermodynamically favorable but provided less energy flux, while sulfur disproportionation was thermodynamically incapable. The analyses of 16S rRNA genes extracted from the spring water and sediments indicated that aerobic oxidation of sulfur, hydrogen or organic carbon and anaerobic elemental sulfur reduction were possible metabolisms. Since the major portion of 16S rRNA sequences were affiliated with unclassified environmental sequences, their potential metabolisms remained obscure. Sulfur isotopic compositions of dissolved sulfate, pyrite and elemental sulfur exhibited significant variations among the different hot spring ponds. Apparently, the microbial effects on the sulfur isotopic signatures were various. A disproportionation reaction of volcanic gas was required to account for high sulfur isotope difference between sulfate and reduced sulfur in the large hot ponds. In contrary, abiotic or microbial oxidation of reduced sulfur might be dominant in the small ponds, where only small sulfur isotopic fractionation occurred among the sulfur species. Both sulfate and elemental sulfur reduction could not be recognized as the sulfide in all ponds were not the most depleted in S-34.

Wang, P.; Chen, K.; Cheng, T.; Hsieh, H.; Lin, L.

2009-12-01

112

Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 68636878 Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 6863­6878 Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid the uptake of gas- phase hexanal into ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols. While both deliquesced condensation product was formed only at initial concentrations of 75­96 wt% sulfuric acid in water

Elrod, Matthew J.

113

Heterogeneous Interactions of Acetaldehyde and Sulfuric Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uptake of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] by aqueous sulfuric acid has been studied via Knudsen cell experiments over ranges of temperature (210-250 K) and acid concentration (40-80 wt. %) representative of the upper troposphere. The Henry's law constants for acetaldehyde calculated from these data range from 6 x 10(exp 2) M/atm for 40 wt. % H2SO4 at 228 K to 2 x 10(exp 5) M/atm for 80 wt. % H2SO4 at 212 K. In some instances, acetaldehyde uptake exhibits apparent steady-state loss. The possible sources of this behavior, including polymerization, will be explored. Furthermore, the implications for heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in sulfate aerosols in the upper troposphere will be discussed.

Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L. T.

2004-01-01

114

Chemical and microbiological tests to simulate sulfuric acid corrosion of polymer-modified concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In certain industrial activities sulfuric acid is used during the production process, which may cause degradation of concrete structures. Another important phenomenon where sulfuric acid is responsible for concrete corrosion is biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion, which occurs often in sewer systems. Because previous investigations have already pointed out the difference between purely chemical sulfuric acid corrosion and biogenic sulfuric acid

J Monteny; N De Belie; E Vincke; W Verstraete; L Taerwe

2001-01-01

115

Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn residues and short-rotation woody crops  

SciTech Connect

As a prerequisite for the enzymatic saccharification or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for ethanol synthesis, a dilute-acid pretreatment of the biomass has been shown to be a very effective first step in the yeast-catalyzed bioprocess. Three hardwoods (silver maple, sycamore, and black locust) and two corn residues (cobs and stover) were chosen and subjected to prehydrolysis with dilute sulfuric acid at 140 and 160{degrees}C for reaction times ranging from 5 to 60 min. Although the hemicelluloses from all five samples could be completely hydrolyzed at both 140 and 160{degrees}C, hydrolysis at 160{degrees}C for the woods and stover produced a superior substrate for the cellulose enzyme from Trichodertna reesei, in which >90% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed by the enzyme. Corn cobs produced an excellent substrate after only 5 min at 140{degrees}C. Small amounts of lignin and glucan were also solubilized by the acid in all samples.

Torget, R.; Walter, P.; Himmel, M.; Grohmann, K. [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)

1991-12-31

116

Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.

1993-01-01

117

COMPARISON OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL SULFURIC ACID SAMPLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of three sulfuric acid vapor sampling systems consisting of (1) a commercially available continuous monitor (SSL) manufactured by Severn Science Limited of Great Britain, (2) an automated prototype sulfuric acid mist mon...

118

NUTRITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL IMPORTANCE OF INTESTINAL SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The metabolism of sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine, has been linked to several key aspects of human health and cellular function. In addition, the metabolism of dietary amino acids by the gastrointestinal tract is nutritionally important for normal function. In the case of sulfur amino ac...

119

46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.  

...false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153.556 Section...556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a) Except as...containment systems carrying sulfuric acid, oleum, or contaminated...

2014-10-01

120

46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153.556 Section...556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a) Except as...containment systems carrying sulfuric acid, oleum, or contaminated...

2010-10-01

121

46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153.556 Section...556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a) Except as...containment systems carrying sulfuric acid, oleum, or contaminated...

2013-10-01

122

46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153.556 Section...556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a) Except as...containment systems carrying sulfuric acid, oleum, or contaminated...

2012-10-01

123

46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153.556 Section...556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a) Except as...containment systems carrying sulfuric acid, oleum, or contaminated...

2011-10-01

124

40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 ...sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to...

2012-07-01

125

40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 ...sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to...

2010-07-01

126

High Xylose Yields from Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover Under Process-Relevant Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment experiments were carried out to demonstrate high xylose yields at high solids loadings in two different batch pretreatment reactors under process-relevant conditions. Corn stover was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid using a 4-l Steam Digester and a 4-l stirred ZipperClave{reg_sign} reactor. Solids were loaded at 45% dry matter (wt/wt) after sulfuric acid catalyst impregnation using nominal particle sizes of either 6 or 18 mm. Pretreatment was carried out at temperatures between 180 and 200 C at residence times of either 90 or 105 s. Results demonstrate an ability to achieve high xylose yields (>80%) over a range of pretreatment conditions, with performance showing little dependence on particle size or pretreatment reactor type. The high xylose yields are attributed to effective catalyst impregnation and rapid rates of heat transfer during pretreatment.

Weiss, N. D.; Nagle, N. J.; Tucker, M. P.; Elander, R. T.

2009-01-01

127

Effects of Two-Stage Dilute Acid Pretreatment on the Structure and Composition of Lignin and Cellulose in Loblolly Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard two-step dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was performed on Loblolly pine to enhance the overall efficiency of\\u000a enzymatic deconstruction of woody biomass to monomeric sugars. The structure of milled wood lignin and cellulose isolated\\u000a from the untreated and acid-treated biomass was studied in detail. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy coupled with line shape analyses has been employed to elucidate cellulose

Poulomi Sannigrahi; Arthur J. Ragauskas; Stephen J. Miller

2008-01-01

128

Processing of the Pyrite Concentrates to Generate Sulfurous Anhydride for Sulfuric Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two-stage roasting of pyrite concentrate with air blowing and the principle scheme of the process are presented in the report. The results of experimental sulfuric acid production tests using pyrite concentrate to generate sulfurous rich gas containing 0.1 - 0.15% of sulphur trioxide are shown. Comparative characteristics with technologies known for the present are given.

T. A. Chepushtanova; V. A. Luganov

129

Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1990-01-01

130

Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

1997-01-01

131

DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE DEVICE TO COLLECT SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL  

EPA Science Inventory

A quantitative, interference-free method for collecting sulfuric acid aerosol on a filter was developed and field tested. Since previous research found that severe losses of sulfuric aicd were caused by ammonia, ambient particulate material, and other interferents, a method was n...

132

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12

133

40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...  

...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). (a) Chemical...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703,...

2014-07-01

134

40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). (a) Chemical...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703,...

2012-07-01

135

40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). (a) Chemical...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703,...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). (a) Chemical...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703,...

2010-07-01

137

40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). (a) Chemical...substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703,...

2011-07-01

138

Shakedown operations in commercial production of sulfuric acid from acid tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe process technology for processing acid tars to obtain sulfuric acid by means of high temperature splitting to regenerate spent sulfuric acid contaminated with organic impurities. An illustration presents a simplified flow plan for acid tar processing. The authors conclude, from experience with this unit, that process indexes meet design requirements, in particular with respect to the degree

V. M. Perfilev; V. B. Golyshev; A. D. Goncharenko; A. M. Shtafinskaya; V. S. Sushchev

1985-01-01

139

The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

Danford, M. D.

1994-01-01

140

Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R. [Matheson Gas Products, Montgomeryville, PA (United States); Dunn, C. [Environics, Inc., Tolland, CT (United States)

1997-12-31

141

Uptake kinetics of three epoxides into sulfuric acid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a study of the uptake of isoprene epoxide, butadiene epoxide (BMO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO) into sulfuric acid solutions which helps to understand the reactivity of epoxides existing in the atmosphere toward acidic aerosols. The uptake of these three compounds into 0-30 wt % H2SO4 solutions were measured using a rotated wetted-wall reactor (RWW) coupled to a single-photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (SPI-TOFMS). The epoxides were found to be very easily taken up by H2SO4 solutions even in dilute concentrations of pH levels. Isoprene epoxide was found to partition reversibly into solution at pH = 4, whereas irreversible uptake was observed when pH ? 3. We reported the reactive uptake coefficients from 1.87 × 10-5 to 2.67 × 10-3 for pH = 3-20 wt % H2SO4 solutions. A chemical reaction for isoprene epoxide was responsible for the reactive uptake. By means of mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy, a gas product was identified to be 2-methyl-3-butenal. The uptake behavior of butadiene epoxide was similar with that of isoprene epoxide, while butadiene diepoxide partitioned irreversibly over the whole acidity range of 0-30 wt %, and the reactive uptake coefficients increased slightly (0.849 × 10-4-1.36 × 10-4) from pure water to pH = 1. The reactivity that displayed close dependence on the hydrolysis rates of the three epoxides was analyzed and compared according to their molecular structural differences. The atmospheric lifetimes were calculated and atmospheric implication was discussed based on the corresponding reactive uptake coefficients.

Wang, Tianhe; Liu, Ze; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

2012-09-01

142

ETHANOL FERMENTATION OF SUGARS IN CORN STOVER DILUTE ACID HYDROLYSATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biomass-to-ethanol fermentation process is limited in part by the presence of inhibitory compounds that are formed when biomass is pretreated with dilute acid to release fermentable sugars. We have developed a biological system for abatement of inhibitory chemicals and incorporated its use into...

143

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOEpatents

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09

144

Pressure leaching of metals from waste printed circuit boards using sulfuric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are essential components of electronic equipments which contain various metallic values. This paper reports a hydrometallurgical recycling process for waste PCBs, which consists of the novel pretreatment consisting of organic swelling of PCBs followed by sulfuric acid leaching of metals from waste PCBs. To recycle the waste PCBs, experiments were carried out for the recovery of copper from the crushed and organic swelled materials of waste PCBs using sulfuric acid leaching in presence of hydrogen peroxide under atmospheric and pressure condition. The leaching of PCBs at 90°C, pulp density 100 g/L under atmospheric condition, using 6M sulfuric acid resulted in the dissolution of a minor amount of copper due to the presence of plastic coating on the surface of metallic layers. On the other hand, when the liberated metal sheets from organic swelled PCBs were treated with dilute sulfuric acid of concentration 2M along with hydrogen peroxide in an autoclave under oxygen atmosphere, the percentage recovery of copper was found to increase from 59.63% to 97.01% with an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration from 5 to 15% (v/v) keeping constant pulp density 30 g/L.

Jha, Manis K.; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kumari, Archana; Choubey, Pankaj K.; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

2011-08-01

145

PROJECTION OF 1985 MARKET POTENTIAL FOR FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) BYPRODUCT SULFUR AND SULFURIC ACID IN THE U.S  

EPA Science Inventory

The report projects the 1985 market potential for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct sulfur and sulfuric acid in the U.S. The projection is 165,000 tons of sulfur from 11 power plants and 554,000 tons of acid from 6 power plants, with a combined benefit to the affected indu...

146

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

147

Dilute acid hydrolysis of paper birch: kinetics studies of xylan and acetyl-group hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Batch hydrolysis kinetics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) xylan and its associated acetyl groups in dilute sulfuric acid have been measured for acid concentrations of between 0.04 and 0.18M and temperatures of between 100 and 170 degrees C. Only 5% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed for up to 85% xylan removal. Rate data were correlated well by a parallel reaction model based on the existence of reactive and resistant xylan portions. The resulting rate equation predicts the experimental xylan concentrations in the residue to within 10%. Hydrolysis of xylan-associated acetyl groups was found to occur at the same rate as that of xylan, except at 100 degrees C, where acetyl is released preferentially. No effect of acid concentration on the rate of acetyl removal relative to that of xylan was evident. PMID:18553680

Maloney, M T; Chapman, T W; Baker, A J

1985-03-01

148

Factors to consider for using zirconium in sulfuric acid services  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium is a pivotal material often specified for process equipment that handles highly corrosive sulfuric acid solutions. Because of the complicated nature of sulfuric acid, several factors should be addressed to ensure the durability of zirconium equipment. These factors include acid concentration, temperature, pressure, impurity, stress, crevices, welding, and surfaces condition. Depending on the situation, certain potential hazards to zirconium equipment can be prevented by applying control measures such as heat treatment, proper design and operating, inhibitor, surface conditioning and/or shot peening.

Fitzgerald, B.J. [Exxon Chemical Co., Baytown, TX (United States); Webber, R.G. [Exxon Chemical Co., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Frechem, B.S. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States); Briegel, K.F. [Rohm and Haas Texas Co., Deer Park, TX (United States); Yau, T.L. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States)

1995-10-01

149

EVALUATION OF METHODOLOGY AND PROTOTYPE TO MEASURE ATMOSPHERIC SULFURIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is being developed to selectively assay ambient sulfuric acid aerosol. The method utilizes the vapor of a volatile amine (or amine derivative) to neutralize the acid as it is collected on a Teflon filter. The amine sulfate thus formed is thermally decomposed at 200C to r...

150

Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of perhalocarbons are proposed as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production that involve direct contact of the fluid with sulfuric acid and vaporization of the acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids are described and the results of some preliminary high temperature test data are presented.

Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

1979-01-01

151

Recovery of selenium sludges in sulfuric acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the selenium compounds formed in the production of sulfuric acid when roasting pyrites is sent together with the roaster gas and residues of cinder dust to the equipment in the wash division. Recovery of these sludges from the wash acid is the subject discussed in the present report. Analysis of the total variety of aspects related to the

V. S. Epifanov; G. B. Kabanova; L. V. Konyakhina; V. G. Moshkova; V. P. Syskova

1983-01-01

152

MOLECULAR SIEVE TESTS FOR CONTROL OF SULFURIC ACID PLANT EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of a molecular sieve control system for sulfuric acid plant tail gas. The PuraSiv S uses molecular sieve adsorbent material that releases SO2 when heat is applied. The SO2 is recycled for an additional 2-3% production of acid. The report evaluate...

153

INTESTINAL SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN NEONATAL PIGLETS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Methionine (Met) is an essential sulfur amino acid that functions as a key precursor for the synthesis of homocysteine and cysteine, via transmethylation (TM) and transsulfuration (TS), respectively. Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid in neonates.We previously showed that significan...

154

CAPSULE REPORT: RECOVERY OF SPENT SULFURIC ACID FROM STEEL PICKLING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides small manufacturers using sulfuric acid pickling with the technical and economic information necessary to select the most appropriate treatment technologies for recovering or treating their sulfuric acid. reatment alternatives include recovery of the acid, ne...

155

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01

156

Behavior of high-performance alloys in sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect

Sulfuric acid is an important reactant and by-product in the mining and metal extraction industries. Corrosion in sulfuric acid is dependent on both the concentration of the acid and the type of impurities present in the acid. The behavior of a variety of stainless steels and Ni-bse alloys is examined as a function of these factors. The range of acid concentration is divided into three zones, and the alloy performance is examined in each zone. In the lowest-concentration acids, the alloying elements of greatest benefit were Mo, Ni, and Cr, in that order. If oxidizing agents are present, however, both Cr and Mo are necessary for corrosion resistance. In the intermediate-concentration zone, Mo is beneficial as is also Cu. In the highest-concentration zone, Cr, Mo, Cu, and Si are shown to be beneficial. The effects of impurities, such as ferric, cupric, and nitrate ions, are examined in these various concentration zones.

Sridhar, N.

1988-03-01

157

Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of distillate and residual lube oils, the lube stocks may be treated with concentrated sulfuric acid or oleum. This removes unsaturates, aromatics, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds and resinous substances, all of which are materials that lower the stability and have a detrimental effect on the service indexes of commercial petroleum oils. Acid tar is formed as a

A. F. Frolov; T. S. Titova; I. V. Karpova; T. L. Denisova

1985-01-01

158

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 23. SULFUR, SULFUR OXIDES AND SULFURIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The sulfur indus...

159

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

160

Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw in this study is 65 €/Mg dry feedstock. This is reached when process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with a maleic acid concentration of 46 mM. Maleic acid replenishment is the most important of the studied cost factors. PMID:20025730

2009-01-01

161

Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar bark by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreatment of poplar bark with a combination of sulfuric acid (3%, w/w, H2SO4) and gamma irradiation (0-1000 kGy) was performed in an attempt to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The yields of reducing sugar were slightly increased with an increasing irradiation dose, ranging from 35.4% to 51.5%, with a 56.1% reducing sugar yield observed after dilute acid pretreatment. These results clearly showed that soluble sugars were released faster and to a greater extent in dilute acid-pretreated poplar bark than in gamma irradiation-pretreated bark. When combined pretreatment was carried out, a drastic increase in reducing sugar yield (83.1%) was found compared with individual pretreatment, indicating the possibility of increasing the convertibility of poplar bark following combined pretreatment. These findings are likely associated with cellulose crystallinity, lignin modification, and removal of hemicelluloses.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Jae Taek; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Gon Wi, Seung; Cho, Jae-Young

2012-08-01

162

Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

2014-01-01

163

Multivariate analysis of homogeneous nucleation rate measurements. Nucleation in the p-toluic acid/sulfuric acid/water system  

E-print Network

Multivariate analysis of homogeneous nucleation rate measurements. Nucleation in the p-toluic acid/sulfuric is applied to recent measurements by Zhang et al. Science 304, 1487 2004 on the p-toluic acid/sulfuric acid exclusively to binary sulfuric acid-water nucle- ation. More recent studies support the binary mechanism

164

Intestinal metabolism of sulfur amino acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) serves a key function in the digestion of dietary protein and absorption of amino acids. However, the GIT is also an important site of amino acid metabolism in the body. Methionine is an indispensable amino acid and must be supplied in the diet. In addition, consider...

165

Pt\\/TiO 2 (rutile) catalysts for sulfuric acid decomposition in sulfur-based thermochemical water-splitting cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical cycles consist of a series of chemical reactions to produce hydrogen from water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition. All the sulfur-based cycles for water splitting employ the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. This work reports the studies performed on 1wt% Pt\\/TiO2 (rutile) catalysts submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123K and atmospheric pressure for different times

L. M. Petkovic; D. M. Ginosar; H. W. Rollins; K. C. Burch; P. J. Pinhero; H. H. Farrell

2008-01-01

166

ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

167

Heat-Exchange Fluids for Sulfuric Acid Vaporizers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some fluorine-substituted organic materials meet criteria for heat-exchange fluids in contact with sulfuric acid. Most promising of these are perfluoropropylene oxide polymers with degree of polymerization (DP) between 10 and 50. It is desirable to have DP in high range because vapor pressure of material decreases as DP increases, and high-DP liquids have lower loss due to vaporization.

Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

1982-01-01

168

Parameterizations for sulfuric acid\\/water nucleation rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present parametrized equations for calculation of sulfuric acid\\/water critical nucleus compositions and homogeneous nucleation rates. The parameterizations are in agreement with the thermodynamically consistent version of classical binary homogeneous nucleation theory [Wilemski, 1984] incorporating the hydration effect. The new parameterizations produce nucleation rates that differ by several orders of magnitude from the rates predicted by other parameterizations available in

Markku Kulmala; Ari Laaksonen; Liisa Pirjola

1998-01-01

169

EPA'S CATALYST RESEARCH PROGRAM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SULFURIC ACID EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A sulfuric acid review conference sponsored by EPA's automotive Catalyst Research Program was held recently at Hendersonville, NC, for researchers whose work is funded by EPA. Emissions characterization research indicated that in-use catalyst-equipped vehicles emit low levels of ...

170

Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of liquids have been screened as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles that involve the vaporization of sulfuric acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids is described with the results of some preliminary high temperature test data presented.

Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

1981-01-01

171

A TUNABLE DIODE LASER STACK MONITOR FOR SULFURIC ACID VAPOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A field prototype instrument for continuous in-situ monitoring of sulfuric acid vapor in industrial smoke stacks has been developed. The method of detection is dual wavelength differential absorption in the infrared. Two tunable diode lasers are locked to two specific frequencies...

172

Methanol Uptake By Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To evaluate the role of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols in the global budget of methanol, the solubility and reactivity of CH3OH in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions are under investigation. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H(*), for methanol dissolution into 45 to 70 percent by weight H2SO4. We find that methanol solubility ranges from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) M/atm and increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and all rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Our data indicate that simple uptake by aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These results differ from those recently reported in the literature, and an explanation of this disparity will be presented. In addition to solvation, reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H may proceed in the atmosphere but is not significant under our experimental conditions. Results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique confirm this directly. In addition, the extent of methanol sequestration via formation of mono- and dimethylsulfate will be evaluated under several atmospheric conditions.

Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

173

Methanol Uptake by Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global methanol budget is currently unbalanced, with source terms significantly larger than the sinks terms. To evaluate possible losses of gaseous methanol to sulfate aerosols, the solubility and reactivity of methanol in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols is under investigation. Methanol will partition into sulfate aerosols according to its Henry's law solubility. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, for cold (196 - 220 K) solutions ranging between 45 and 70 wt % H2SO4. We have found that methanol solubility ranges from approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) M/atm for UT/LS conditions. Solubility increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. Although methanol is slightly more soluble than are acetone and formaldehyde, current data indicate that uptake by clean aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and any rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H is not significant over our experimental time scale for solutions below 80 wt % H2SO4. To confirm this directly, results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique will also be presented.

Iraci, L. T.; Essin, A. M.; Golden, D. M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

174

Hydrogen peroxide in sulfuric acid extraction of uranium ores  

SciTech Connect

Uranium can be extracted from its ores at a pH of 2.5 to 5.5 using sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, trace of iron and a sulfate. The extraction process is applicable to both tank leaching of conventionally mined ores and in situ leaching.

DeVries, F.W.

1984-01-10

175

40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the...used as a herbicide in the production of garlic and onions...potato vine dessicant in the production of potatoes. (b) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from...

2010-07-01

176

40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

...tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the...used as a herbicide in the production of garlic and onions...potato vine dessicant in the production of potatoes. (b) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from...

2014-07-01

177

40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the...used as a herbicide in the production of garlic and onions...potato vine dessicant in the production of potatoes. (b) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from...

2011-07-01

178

40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the...used as a herbicide in the production of garlic and onions...potato vine dessicant in the production of potatoes. (b) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from...

2012-07-01

179

40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the...used as a herbicide in the production of garlic and onions...potato vine dessicant in the production of potatoes. (b) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from...

2013-07-01

180

Cellulase Accessibility of Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The dilute-acid pretreatment reduces xylan content in corn stover. This reduction in xylan content appears to render the substrate less recalcitrant. Below {approx}8%, xylan content is no longer the dominant factor in biomass recalcitrance. (2) Decreasing xylan content of corn stover also created more binding sites for Cel7A, but no strong correlation with actual xylan content. (3) We found no correlation between bound Cel7A concentration and lignin content. Maybe lignin is blocking the way for Cel7A? The contribution of lignin to biomass recalcitrance requires further investigation.

Jeoh, T.; Johnson, D. K.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

2005-01-01

181

Refining of oxidation product without alkali and sulfuric acid in the manufacture of synthetic fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the existing technology, the free and esterified fatty acids are saponified and converted into the sodium salts by treating them first with calcined and then with caustic soda. After the primary and secondary nonsaponifiable substances have been removed, the sodium salts in the soap paste are decomposed with sulfuric acid, so that the acids are liberated. The free acids

P. A. Moshkin; N. B. Rapoport; M. A. Soskin

1965-01-01

182

Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids  

E-print Network

sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1, a simulation is performed removing the contribution of sulfuric acid to the weathering system. The main

183

The role of cluster energy nonaccommodation in atmospheric sulfuric acid Theo Kurtn,1,a  

E-print Network

The role of cluster energy nonaccommodation in atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation Theo Kurtén,1,a formation due to liberated excess energy in atmospheric nucleation processes involving sulfuric acid for small sulfuric acid-- containing clusters. We find that energy nonaccommodation effects may, at most

184

SEMI-BATCH PRECIPITATION OF CALCIUM SULFATE DIHYDRATE FROM CALCITE AND SULFURIC ACID  

E-print Network

SEMI-BATCH PRECIPITATION OF CALCIUM SULFATE DIHYDRATE FROM CALCITE AND SULFURIC ACID Frédéric BARD1 a calcite suspension to a sulfuric acid solution from industrial waste. The morphology of the precipitated, sulfuric acid, industrial waste. 1. INTRODUCTION Gypsum is a mineral compound of first importance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

UPTAKE OF SHORT-CHAIN ALCOHOLS BY SULFURIC ACID SOLUTIONS USING RAMAN AND VIBRATIONAL SUM FREQUENCY  

E-print Network

UPTAKE OF SHORT-CHAIN ALCOHOLS BY SULFURIC ACID SOLUTIONS USING RAMAN AND VIBRATIONAL SUM FREQUENCY-liquid interface of 0 to 96.5 wt% sulfuric acid (SA) solutions has been observed directly using vibrational sum in either the neat methanol or concentrated sulfuric acid spectra. This peak is attributed to the singly

186

ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID CATALYZED ALKYLATION  

E-print Network

ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID in sulfuric acid consumption potentially could be obtained. 1. Introduction Alkylation process is one and procedures (Albright 1990, Cupit et al. 1961). In this study a commercial sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation

Pike, Ralph W.

187

Possible Roles of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in a Chemoautotrophic Bacterium-Mollusc Symbiosis  

E-print Network

Possible Roles of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in a Chemoautotrophic Bacterium-Mollusc Symbiosis avoiding its toxic effects. The sulfur-containing free amino acids taurine and thiotaurine may function with methionine sulfoximine reduced levels of sulfur-containing amino acids. Chloramphenicol treatment inhibited

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

188

Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Methanol in Sulfuric Acid Solutions Measured by Raman Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Methanol in Sulfuric Acid Solutions Measured by Raman % sulfuric acid solutions was followed using Raman spectroscopy. Because methanol reacts to form protonated that the speciation of both methanol and sulfuric acid may be important in determining these transport coefficients

189

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-print Network

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols," J. Geophys. Res., 115, D16119, doi:10.1029/2010JD014579. [1] In the paper "Sulfuric acid deposition

Robock, Alan

190

Laboratory measurements of the homogeneous freezing of aqueous sulfuric acid and ammonium  

E-print Network

Laboratory measurements of the homogeneous freezing of aqueous sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate containing two common upper-tropospheric solutions ­ ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid. Mea- surements were of the upper troposphere when homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol is the primary ice

Swanson, Brian D.

191

Reactivity of BrONO2 and HOBr on sulfuric acid solutions at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of BrONO2 onto bulk sulfuric acid solutions and submicron sulfuric acid aerosol particles was studied in laminar flow cylindrical reactors where a chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to detect products and reactants. Results from measurements at low temperatures and for sulfuric acid content between 70 and 85 wt.% are presented. These measurements suggest that the reaction probability for

D. R. Hanson

2003-01-01

192

Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-print Network

Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer determines the product sulfuric acid concentration, iii affects SO2 crossover rate, and iv serves to hydrate on the production of sulfuric acid in a gas-phase PEM electrolyzer. The model is shown to successfully predict

Weidner, John W.

193

Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO3 decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications

Sung-Deok Hong; Chan-Soo Kim; Yong-Wan Kim; Dong-Un Seo; Goon-Cherl Park

194

MODEL OF CHEMICAL REACTION EQUILIBRIUM OF SULFURIC ACID SALTS OF TRIOCTYLAMINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical reaction of trioctylamine (TOA) and sulfuric acid in organic solvent\\/aqueous solution was carried out. TOA salt products of various kinds were obtained based on different conditions of operation and organic solvents. An equilibrium model, based on the chemical reaction of sulfuric acid and trioctylamine, is proposed. The equilibrium constants of various reactions of trioctylamine and sulfuric acid were

MAW-LING WANG; KWAN-HUA HU

1993-01-01

195

Sulfuric acid aerosols and HCl release in coastal atmospheres: evidence of rapid formation of sulfuric acid particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research report:Bacteriogenic sulfide sources may contribute to atmospheric loads of particulate sulfate in coastal locations where bacteriogenic hydrogen sulfide is released to the atmosphere. Studies were conducted along the North Carolina coast to determine the origins and chemical properties of such sulfates and to observe sulfuric acid volatization. Excess sulfate was found in all samples and strongly associated with loss

D. R. Hitchcock; L. L. Spiller; W. E. Wilson

1980-01-01

196

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

197

Effect of sulfuric acid, oxygen, and hydrogen in high temperature water on stress corrosion cracking of sensitized AISI 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen and dilute sulfuric acid in 289 C water on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of lightly and moderately sensitized AISI 304 stainless steel was determined in constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests. The CERT parameters and the fracture surface morphologies were correlated with the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfate, and the electrochemical

Ruther; G. Ayrault; T. F. Kassner

1984-01-01

198

Effect of sulfuric acid, oxygen, and hydrogen in high temperature water on stress corrosion cracking of sensitized AlSl 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen and dilute sulfuric acid in 289 C water on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of lightly and moderately sensitized AlSl 304 stainless steel was determined in constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests. The CERT parameters and fracture surface morphologies correlated with the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfate and the electrochemical potentials of

W. E. Ruther; G. Ayrault; T. F. Kassner; W. K. Soppet

1984-01-01

199

Free energy barrier in the growth of sulfuric acid-ammonia and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in atmospheric new particle formation involves the aggregation of gas phase molecules into small molecular clusters that can grow by colliding with gas molecules and each other. In this work we used first principles quantum chemistry combined with a dynamic model to study the steady-state kinetics of sets of small clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia or sulfuric acid and dimethylamine molecules. Both sets were studied with and without electrically charged clusters. We show the main clustering pathways in the simulated systems together with the quantum chemical Gibbs free energies of formation of the growing clusters. In the sulfuric acid-ammonia system, the major growth pathways exhibit free energy barriers, whereas in the acid-dimethylamine system the growth occurs mainly via barrierless condensation. When ions are present, charged clusters contribute significantly to the growth in the acid-ammonia system. For dimethylamine the role of ions is minor, except at very low acid concentration, and the growing clusters are electrically neutral.

Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Ortega, I. K.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2013-08-01

200

Analysis of sulfur–iodine thermochemical cycle for solar hydrogen production. Part I: decomposition of sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfur–iodine (S–I) thermochemical water splitting cycle is one of the most studied cycles for hydrogen (H2) production. S–I cycle consists of four sections: (I) acid production and separation and oxygen purification, (II) sulfuric acid concentration and decomposition, (III) hydroiodic acid (HI) concentration, and (IV) HI decomposition and H2 purification. Section II of the cycle is an endothermic reaction driven

Cunping Huang; Ali T-Raissi

2005-01-01

201

Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical formation of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) has been studied in the electrolyte with mixed sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The results show that, with addition of acetic acid, GICs can be synthesized in the electrolyte with sulfuric acid concentration as low as 3.6M, even though no GIC is formed in pure acetic acid. The stage structure of the synthesized

F. Kang; T.-Y. Zhang; Y. Leng

1997-01-01

202

A critique of homogeneous freezing measurements of aqueous sulfuric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two laboratory measurements of homogeneous freezing of aqueous sulfuric acid particles are critiqued: The first by Bertram et al., 1996, J. Phys. Chem., vol. 100, pp. 2376-2383: the second by Koop et al., 1998, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol. 102, pp. 8924-8931. Calculations for a proposed experimental artifact are inconclusive for Bertram et al. A proposed artifact for Koop et al. is shown to be insignificant.

Alofs, Darryl J.; Vandike, John L.

2000-08-01

203

COS in the stratosphere. [sulfuric acid aerosol precursor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been detected in the stratosphere, and mixing ratio measurements are reported for altitudes of 15.2 to 31.2 km. A large volume, cryogenic sampling system mounted on board a U-2 aircraft has been used for lower stratosphere measurements and a balloon platform for measurement at 31.2 km. These observations and measurements strongly support the concept that stratospheric COS is an important precursor in the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols.

Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Tyson, B. J.; Ohara, D.

1979-01-01

204

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

205

Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A. [Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Engineering Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-09-15

206

The Double Contact Process For Sulfuric Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the usual contact plants 97-98% of the SO2 is oxidized to SO3 while the remaining 2-3% nonoxidized S02 are emitted. The stack gas generally contains 0.2-0.3% by volume SO2.Through changing to the Bayer Double Contact process, the conversion can be raised to 99.5% or higher. The sulfuric acid can be produced at the same cost as with the single

W. Moeller; K. Winkler

1968-01-01

207

Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

208

INCREASED INFECTIVITY WITH EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of the combined action of ozone (O3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol on host susceptibility to an aerosol of viable microorganisms were studied. Exposure to O3 (0.196 mg/cu m) was for 3 h, while exposure to H2SO4 (0.9 mg/cu m) lasted 2 h. Neither pollutant alone cau...

209

Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover  

PubMed Central

Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5%?±?1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction conditions using deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings and identified an optimum reaction condition was selected and used in a series of integrated pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production campaigns. Additionally, several issues exist to be considered in future pretreatment experiments in continuous reactor systems, including the formation of char within the reactor, as well as practical issues with feeding herbaceous feedstock into pressurized systems. PMID:24548527

2014-01-01

210

Lipid production by Cryptococcus curvatus on hydrolysates derived from corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse following dilute acid pretreatment.  

PubMed

Corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) are both pre-processed lignocellulosic materials that can be used to produce liquid biofuels. Pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid at a severity factor of 1.06 and 1.02 released 83.2 and 86.5 % of theoretically available sugars out of corn fiber and SSB, respectively. The resulting hydrolysates derived from pretreatment of SSB at SF of 1.02 supported growth of Cryptococcus curvatus well. In 6 days, the dry cell density reached 10.8 g/l with a lipid content of 40 % (w/w). Hydrolysates from corn fiber, however, did not lead to any significant cell growth even with addition of nutrients. In addition to consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose, C. curvatus also utilized formic acid, acetic acid, 4-hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid for growth. Thus, C. curvatus appeared to be an excellent yeast strain for producing lipids from hydrolysates developed from lignocellulosic feedstocks. PMID:24928546

Liang, Yanna; Jarosz, Kimberly; Wardlow, Ashley T; Zhang, Ji; Cui, Yi

2014-08-01

211

Sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide for graphene preparation.  

PubMed

Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07??m after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable. PMID:24310650

Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

2013-01-01

212

Sulfuric Acid Intercalated Graphite Oxide for Graphene Preparation  

PubMed Central

Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07??m after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable. PMID:24310650

Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

2013-01-01

213

Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis: Microbial Karst and Microbial Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfuric acid speleogenesis is a fundamental mechanism of karst formation, and is potentially responsible for the formation of some of the most extensive cave systems yet discovered. Speleogenesis occurs from the rapid dissolution of the host limestone by sulfuric acid produced from biotic and abiotic sulfide oxidation, and with the release of carbon dioxide, secondary gypsum crusts form. This crust develops predominately on the cave walls, often preserving original bedding indicators, until it finally collapses under its own weight to expose fresh limestone for dissolution. While this general speleogenetic process can be inferred from secondary residues in some caves, directly observing this process is difficult, and involves entry into an extreme environment with toxic atmospheres and low pH solutions. Kane Cave, Big Horn County, WY, offers the unique opportunity to study microbe-rock interactions directly. Kane Cave presently contains 3 springs that discharge hydrogen sulfide-rich waters, supporting thick subaqueous mats of diverse microbial communities in the stream passage. Condensation droplets and elemental sulfur form on subaerially exposed gypsum surfaces. Droplets have an average pH of 1.7, and are dominated by dissolved sulfate, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si, with minor Sr and Fe, and trace Mn and U. SEM and EDS examination of the crusts reveal the presence of C, O, and S, as well as authigenic, doubly-terminated quartz crystals. An average ? 13C value of -36 ‰ suggests that the crusts are biogenic and are composed of chemoautotrophic microorganisms. Enrichment cultures of biofilms and acid droplets rapidly produce sulfuric acid, demonstrating the dominance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Colonization of gypsum surfaces by acidophilic microorganisms enhances acid dissolution of the limestone, and hence the growth of the cave itself. Limestone dissolution also results in mineralized crusts and biofilms that accumulate insoluble residues, which serve as sources of nutrient Fe, P, and N to the microbes. Other elements, such as Si, increase in concentration in the acid solutions and low-temperature mineral precipitation occurs. >http://www.geo.utexas.edu/chemhydro/Annette/karstgeo.htm

Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.; Stern, L. A.

2001-12-01

214

Ammonia recycled percolation as a complementary pretreatment to the dilute-acid process  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage dilute-acid percolation (DA) was investigated as a pre-treatment method for switchgrass. With use of extremely low acid (0.078 wt% sulfuric acid) under moderate temperature (145-170{degrees}C), hemicellulose in switchgrass was completely solubilized showing no sugar decomposition. The treated switchgrass contained about 70% glucan and 30% lignin. The high lignin content in the treated feedstock raises a concern that it may cause a high enzyme consumption because of irreversible adsorption of cellulose enzymes to lignin. This problem may be amplified in the SSF operation since it is usually run in fed-batch mode and the residual lignin is accumulated. The DA pretreatment was, therefore, combined with the ammonia recycled percolation (ARP) process that has been proven to be effective in delignification. The combined pretreatment essentially fractionated the switchgrass into three major components. The treated feedstock contained about 90% glucan and 10% lignin. The digestibility of these samples was consistently higher than that of DA treated samples. Further study on the interaction of cellulase with xylan and that with lignin has shown that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is inhibited by lignin as well as xylan. The external xylan was found to be a noncompetitive inhibitor to cellulose hydrolysis. The cellulose used in this study was proven to have the xylanase activity. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Wu, Zhangwen, Lee, Y.Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

1997-12-31

215

Effects of sulfur dioxide on lichen lipids and fatty acids.  

PubMed

Lipids and fatty acids were studied in some lichen species after exposure to 1 ppm of aqueous sulfur dioxide. The changes in lipid composition are specific to the lichen species tested. The exposure of lichens to SO2 resulted in a slight reduction of the total phospholipid content. The amount of betaine lipid diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine was increased in Stereocaulon paschale, but the level of this lipid was not changed in Peltigera aphthosa. An increase in fatty acid unsaturation in lichens in response to the effect of SO2 probably has adaptive significance. PMID:9986914

Bychek-Guschina, I A; Kotlova, E R; Heipieper, H

1999-01-01

216

Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

1994-01-01

217

Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

218

A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO{sub 2} gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9 m in height, 1.0 m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder (slurry binder) and calcinated. Final polishing of the flange faces established in the entrance nozzles was also satisfactory. Many parts were joinable using new technology (new binder). For this reason, new technology is applicable to manufacture of not only a sulfuric acid decomposer but the instruments in the IS process, or other chemical processes. (authors)

Hiroshi Fukui; Isao Minatsuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD. (Japan); Kazuo Ishino [Pacific Rundum Co., Ltd. (Japan)

2006-07-01

219

The effect of confinement on dynamics and rheology of dilute deoxyribose nucleic acid solutions. II. Effective  

E-print Network

The effect of confinement on dynamics and rheology of dilute deoxyribose nucleic acid solutions. II the effect of confinement on deoxyribose nucleic acid rheology and chain dynamics. We present results these findings to microchannel flows to study the rhe- ology and chain dynamics of dilute deoxyribose nucleic

Shaqfeh, Eric

220

Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is well established that organics compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass, the mechanisms through which organics are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols are not well understood. Acid-catalyzed reactions of compounds with carbonyl groups have recently been suggested as important pathways for transfer of volatile organics into acidic aerosols. In the present study, we use the aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to probe the uptake of gas-phase hexanal into ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols. While both deliquesced and dry non-acidic ammonium sulfate aerosols showed no organic uptake, the acidic aerosols took up substantial amounts of organic material when exposed to hexanal vapor. Further, we used 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and GC-MS to identify the products of the acid-catalyzed reaction of hexanal in acidic aerosols. Both aldol condensation and hemiacetal products were identified, with the dominant reaction products dependent upon the initial acid concentration of the aerosol. The aldol condensation product was formed only at initial concentrations of 75-96 wt% sulfuric acid in water. The hemiacetal was produced at all sulfuric acid concentrations studied, 30-96 wt% sulfuric acid in water. Aerosols up to 88.4 wt% organic/11.1 wt% H 2SO 4/0.5 wt% water were produced via these two dimerization reaction pathways. The UV-VIS spectrum of the isolated aldol condensation product, 2-butyl 2-octenal, extends into the visible region, suggesting these reactions may impact aerosol optical properties as well as aerosol composition. In contrast to previous suggestions, no polymerization of hexanal or its products was observed at any sulfuric acid concentration studied, from 30 to 96 wt% in water.

Garland, Rebecca M.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Kincaid, Kristi; Beaver, Melinda R.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

221

Heterogeneous Chemistry of HONO on Liquid Sulfuric Acid: A New Mechanism of Chlorine Activation on Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heterogeneous chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) on liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Was investigated at conditions that prevail in the stratosphere. The measured uptake coefficient (gamma) of HONO on H2SO4 increased with increasing acid content, ranging from 0.03 for 65 wt % to about 0.1 for 74 wt %. In the aqueous phase, HONO underwent irreversible reaction with H2SO4 to form nitrosylsulfuric acid (NO(+)HSO4(-). At temperatures below 230 K, NO(+)HSO4(-) was observed to be stable and accumulated in concentrated solutions (less than 70 wt % H2SO4) but was unstable and quickly regenerated HONO in dilute solutions (less than 70 wt %). HCl reacted with HONO dissolved in sulfuric acid, releasing gaseous nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). The reaction probability between HCl and HONO varied from 0.01 to 0.02 for 60-72 wt % H2SO4. In the stratosphere, ClNO photodissociates rapidly to yield atomic chlorine, which catalytically destroys ozone. Analysis of the laboratory data reveals that the reaction of HCl with HONO on sulfate aerosols can affect stratospheric ozone balance during elevated sulfuric acid loadings after volcanic eruptions or due to emissions from the projected high-speed civil transport (HSCT). The present results may have important implications on the assessment of environmental acceptability of HSCT.

Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

1996-01-01

222

Uptake of HCl molecules by aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as a function of acid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of Hci molecules by acqueous sulfuric acid droplets was measured at 283 K as a function of acid mole fraction. In the apparatus a controllable stream of monodispersed droplets is produced by a vibrating orifice jet. The droplets enter a flow system containing HCl(g). The droplets are switched on and off while the density of the species is

Lyn R. Watson; Jane M. Van Doren; Paul Davidovits; Douglas R. Worsnop; Mark S. Zahniser; Charles E. Kolb

1990-01-01

223

J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1997 821 Mechanism of the Beckmann rearrangement in sulfuric acid solution  

E-print Network

J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1997 821 Mechanism of the Beckmann rearrangement in sulfuric acid the mechanism of the Beckmann rearrangement of formaldehyde oxime in concentrated sulfuric acid or in oleum hydrogen chloride, an oleum solution contains sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide (H2SO4 SO3). An aqueous

Nguyen, Minh Tho

224

Synthesis of sulfur-35-labeled glycyrrhizic acid glycopeptide with methionine  

SciTech Connect

To carry out pharmacokinetic investigations, we prepared sulfur-35-labeled protected glycyrrhizic acid glycopeptide with methionine by the reaction of pentaacetylglycyrrhizic trichloride with a small excess of (/sup 35/S)-methionine methyl ester hydrochloride. Melting points were determined on a Boetius microscopic stage. The IR spectra were recorded with a UR-20 spectrograph in mineral oil. The UV spectra were measured with a Specord UV-vis spectrophotometer in ethanol. The specific rotation was determined with a Perkin-Elmer 141 M polarimeter in a 1-dm-long tube. The radioactivity of the /sup 35/S-labeled compounds was measured by a scintillation method with an Izokan-300 counter.

Baltina, L.A.; Kondratenko, R.M.; Kuvatov, Yu.G.; Murinov, Yu.I.; Tolstikov, G.A.

1988-11-01

225

Sulfuric acid cloud interpretation of the infrared spectrum of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfuric acid single-cloud models are compared with the Venus spectrum in the 8-14 micron region. The results indicate that a cloud composed of a 75 percent H2SO4 solution and with a particle density of 100 per cu cm is in good agreement with observations. In addition to explaining the 11.2 micron absorption, this model also predicts an absorption feature at 16.7 microns which should be detectable if the observation is made from an aircraft.

Martonchik, J. V.

1974-01-01

226

Reductive desorption of sulfuric acid formed on the carbon catalyst in flue gas desulfurization (FGD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductive desorption of sulfuric acid formed on the carbon catalyst in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by heating with hydrogen at 3: 200°C converted the acid to gas-phase sulfur dioxide with a significant loss of the acid to hydrogen sulfide and elemental sulfur. These side reactions were suppressed and the temperature required for SOâ recovery was reduced by impregnating the charcoal

S. Yoshizawa; A. Karagiri; K. Watanabe

1979-01-01

227

H2SO4 vapor pressure of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few measurements of H2SO4 vapor pressure have been made for sulfuric acid in the temperature and concentration ranges of atmospheric interest because of the very low pressures involved (below 10-4Pa, or 10-6torr); no such measurements appear to have been made for sulfuric acid solutions neutralized with ammonia. This work presents measurements of H2SO4 vapor pressure for aqueous sulfuric acid solutions

James J. Marti; Anne Jefferson; Xiao Ping Cai; Chad Richert; Peter H. McMurry; Fred Eisele

1997-01-01

228

NMR Analyses of Order and Dynamics in Poly(p-Benzamide)/ Sulfuric Acid Solutions  

E-print Network

NMR Analyses of Order and Dynamics in Poly(p-Benzamide)/ Sulfuric Acid Solutions Min Zhou, Veronica sulfuric acid. Quantitative determinations of order in the liquid crystal phases arising in these systems liquid crystalline dopes when dissolved in strong mineral acids at ap- propriate concentrations.10

Frydman, Lucio

229

POTENTIAL ABATEMENT PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT SULFURIC ACID IN THE U.S  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the market potential for sulfur and sulfuric acid byproducts of combustion in power plant boilers. (Air quality regulations require control of SOx emissions from power plant boilers. Recovery of sulfur in useful form would avoid waste ...

230

Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur  

PubMed Central

Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190?nm to 340?nm and 220?nm to 340?nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies. PMID:23401712

Klein, Sabine D.; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

2013-01-01

231

Measurement of The Conversion Efficiency of Fuel Sulfur To Sulfuric Acid In An Aircraft Jet Engine Combustor Rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion of sulfur containing fuels leads to the formation of aseous sulfuric acid (GSA) which may form new volatile aerosol particles or condense on aerosol particles. Measurements of GSA were made within the framework of the PARTEMIS (measure- ment and prediction of emissions of aerosols and gaseous precursors from gas turbine engines) project. The concentration of gaseous sulfuric acid was measured at the exit plane of a combustor rig run by Qinetiq (former DERA, Defence Evaluation and Re- search Agency). Measurements werde made for different conditions including two power settings (high pressure cruise and low pressure cruise) and 3 fuel sulfur con- tents (FSC, 50, 410 and 1270 ppm). The concentration of GSA was maesured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with an ion trap. GSA concentration ranging from 2 to 250 ppb were measured at the exit plane. Correlating these values with the total sulfur emitted in the combustion one finds a linear dependence. The con- version efficiency ranges between 0.4 and 1 % with the most probable value being 0.6 to 0.7%. This supports the view that the efficiency of fuel sulfur conversion to sulfur VI in a jet engine combustor is relatively low. This conclusion is in conflict with some previous hypotheses.

Kiendler, A.; Wilhelm, S.; Wohlfrom, K. H.; Arnold, F.

232

The averaging effect of odorant mixing as determined by air dilution sensory tests: a case study on reduced sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (CH(3)SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying concentration levels. The tests were initially conducted by analyzing samples containing single individual RSCs at a wide range of concentrations. The resulting data were then evaluated to define the empirical relationship for each RSC between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on the relationships defined for each individual RSC, the D/T ratios were estimated for a synthetic mixture of four RSCs. The effect of mixing was then examined by assessing the relative contribution of each RSC to those estimates with the aid of the actually measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed that the odor intensity of the synthetic mixture is not governed by the common theoretical basis (e.g., rule of additivity, synergism, or a stronger component model) but is best represented by the averaged contribution of all RSC components. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants. PMID:22319360

Kim, Ki-Hyun

2011-01-01

233

Gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide measurements in the Arctic troposphere and lower stratosphere - Implications for hydroxyl radical abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide were made in the winter Arctic troposphere and lower stratosphere using aircraft-borne mass spectrometers. The measurements, covering altitudes between 3.5 and 11.4 km, took place on 14 and 18 February, 1987 in northern Scandinavia. The abundance of H2SO4 was around 0.01 to 0.06 pptv (parts per trillion by volume), and the measured

O. Moehler; F. Arnold

1992-01-01

234

Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous reactions on sulfuric acid surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing evidence from field, modeling, and laboratory studies suggests that heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles may contribute to global ozone depletion. Using a Knudsen cell reactor technique, the authors have studied the uptake, reactivity, and solubility of several trace atmospheric species on cold sulfuric acid surfaces representative of stratospheric aerosol particles. The results suggest that the heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 is fast enough to significantly affect the partitioning of nitrogen species in the global stratosphere and thus contribute to global ozone depletion. The hydrolysis of ClONO2 is slower and unlikely to be important under normal conditions at midlatitudes. The solubilities of HCl and HNO3 in sulfuric acid down to 200 K were found to be quite low. For HCl, this means that little HCl is available for reaction on the surfaces of stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles. The low solubility of HNO3 means that this product of heterogeneous reactions will enter the gas phase, and the denitrification observed in polar regions is unlikely to occur in the global stratosphere.

Williams, Leah R.; Manion, Jeffrey A.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

235

Heterogeneous atmospheric reactions - Sulfuric acid aerosols as tropospheric sinks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction probabilities of various atmospheric species incident on a bulk sulfuric acid surface are measured in order to determine the role of sulfuric acid aerosols as pollutant sinks. Reaction products and unreacted starting materials leaving a Knudsen cell flow reactor after collision at 300 K with a H2SO4 surface or a soot surface were detected by mass spectrometry. Significant collision reaction probabilities are observed on a H2SO4 surface for H2O2, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, N2O5, H2O and NH3, and on soot for NH3. Estimates of the contribution of heterogeneous reactions to pollutant removal under atmospheric conditions indicate that while aerosol removal in the stratosphere is insignificant (loss rate constants approximately 10 to the -10th/sec), heterogeneous reactions may be the dominant loss process for several tropospheric species (loss rate constant approximately 10 to the -5th/sec, comparable to photolysis rate constants).

Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

1979-01-01

236

Lack of bronchoconstrictor response to sulfuric acid aerosols and fogs  

SciTech Connect

Sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) is the most common acid air pollutant in the United States and is thought to have adverse respiratory effects. Sulfuric acid exists in polluted air as a dissolved solute in both small (haze) and large (fog) particles. Previous work in our laboratory has failed to demonstrate bronchoconstriction after near ambient, large-particle H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exposure in subjects with asthma. However, other investigators have found slight but significant changes in lung function following inhalation of small-particle or small-particle, low-relative-humidity (RH) H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosols, leading us to hypothesize that particle size and/or RH may be important variables in acid aerosol exposure. We initially studied the effects of resting inhalation of large-particle (volume median diameter, VMD, approximately equal to 6 microns) and small-particle (VMD approximately equal to 0.4 microns) aerosols with an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration of 3 mg/m3 through a mouthpiece and found no effect on specific airway resistance (SRaw) or symptom scores. In a second mouthpiece study designed to compare high-RH (100%), large-particle (VMD approximately equal to 6 microns) and low-RH (less than 10%), small-particle (VMD approximately equal to 0.3 microns) aerosols with an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration of 3 mg/m3, we again found no effect of either aerosol. We then examined the effects of small-particle aerosols inhaled in dry air during moderate exercise. Although breathing low-RH air during exercise provoked increases in SRaw in almost all subjects, this could not be attributed to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} since low-RH saline aerosol produced a similar result.

Aris, R.; Christian, D.; Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1991-04-01

237

Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate: Formation and Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated some thermodynamic properties (i.e., freezing/melting points) and heterogeneous chemistry of sulfuric acid monohydrate (SAM, H2SO4.H2O), using a fast flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The freezing point observations of thin liquid sulfuric acid films show that for acid contents between 75 and 85 wt % the monohydrate crystallizes readily at temperatures between 220 and 240 K on a glass substrate. Once formed, SAM can be thermodynamically stable in the H2O partial pressure range of (1-4) x 10(exp -4) torr and in the temperature range of 220-240 K. For a constant H2O partial pressure, lowering the temperature causes SAM to melt when the temperature and water partial pressure conditions are out of its stability regime. The reaction probability measurements indicate that the hydrolysis of N2O5 is significantly suppressed owing to the formation of crystalline SAM: The reaction probability on water-rich SAM (with higher relative humidity, or RH) is of the order of 10(exp -3) at 210 K and decreases by more than an order of magnitude for the acid-rich form (with lower RH). The hydrolysis rate of ClONO2 on water-rich SAM is even smaller, of the order of 10(exp -4) at 195 K. These reported values on crystalline SAM are much smaller than those on liquid solutions. No enhancement of these reactions is observed in the presence of HCl vapor at the stratospheric concentrations. In addition, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller analysis of gas adsorption isotherms and photomicrography have been performed to characterize the surface roughness and porosities of the SAM substrate. The results suggest the possible formation of SAM in some regions of the middle- or low-latitude stratosphere and, consequently, much slower heterogeneous reactions on the frozen aerosols.

Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

1995-01-01

238

Metal extraction from spent sulfuric acid catalyst through alkaline and acidic leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent catalyst from manufacture of sulfuric acid production (main elemental composition: 3.5% V, 0.63% Ni, 7.9% Fe and 9.64% Si) can be used as a secondary source of vanadium and nickel. Extraction of these metals was studied using two different leaching systems (alkaline and acidic). Statistical design of the experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to

A. Ognyanova; A. T. Ozturk; I. De Michelis; F. Ferella; G. Taglieri; A. Akcil; F. Vegliò

2009-01-01

239

Fuel ethanol production from corn stover under optimized dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol. Generation of fermentable sugars from corn stover involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as nat...

240

ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR TOTAL SULFURIC ACID IN AMBIENT AIR. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A total sulfuric acid analysis (TSAA) system was developed and shown to provide quantitative determinations of sulfuric acid in air at concentrations as low as 0.26 micrograms/cu m. Quantitation at lower concentrations appears to be possible. The general approach in the design an...

241

An improved parameterization for sulfuric acid-water nucleation rates for tropospheric and stratospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present parameterized equations for calculation of sulfuric acid-water critical nucleus compositions, critical cluster radii and homogeneous nucleation rates for tropospheric and stratospheric conditions. The parameterizations are based on a classical nucleation model. We used an improved model for the hydrate formation relying on ab initio calculations of small sulfuric acid clusters and on experimental data for

H. Vehkamäki; M. Kulmala; I. Napari; K. E. J. Lehtinen; C. Timmreck; M. Noppel; A. Laaksonen

2002-01-01

242

Optical constants of sulfuric acid - Application to the clouds of Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young (1973) and Sill (1972) have independently suggested that the clouds of Venus may well consist of particles composed of sulfuric acid molecules with attached water molecules. For a further study of this hypothesis an investigation has been conducted with the objective to supply the needed laboratory data for a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. Optical constants have been

K. F. Palmer; Dudley Williams

1975-01-01

243

What Is the Boiling Point and Heat of Vaporization of Sulfuric Acid?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the values presented in various handbooks for the boiling point and heat of vaporization of sulfuric acid, noting discrepencies. Analyzes various approaches to data presentation, discussing the data on sulfuric acid in light of the Trouton constant. Points out the need for a more critical use of tables. (JM)

Myers, R. Thomas

1983-01-01

244

COMBINED EFFECT OF OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN MAN (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A potential synergistic effect of ozone and sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4) on respiratory function has been postulated for humans exposed to these two pollutants simultaneously. Nine young men were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone (03), 1200-1600 mcg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol (H2SO4), and ...

245

Determining insoluble impurities in spent sulfuric acid from the production of synthetic alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium sulfate is produced from spent sulfuric acid from the production of alcohols. Certain mineral and organic impurities exist in the sulfuric acid that impair the quality of the ammonium sulfate. A detailed method for the chemical analysis for the impurities is presented.

A. V. Antonov; M. K. Kuznetsova

1983-01-01

246

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion waste utilization in cement and sulfuric acid: Preliminary feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An OACD interdisciplinary project team has investigated the preliminary feasibility of using atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) waste in the production of portland cement and sulfuric acid. This investigation found that it is technically and economically feasible to simultaneously produce electricity, portland cement, and sulfuric acid in an environmentally clean, integrated industrial complex. This complex would include a 500-MW AFBC unit

D. G. Salladay; D. E. Nichols; J. T. Berry; D. B. Call; E. A. Harre; Y. K. Kim

1986-01-01

247

EFFECTS OF ENDOGENOUS AMMONIA ON NEUTRALIZATION OF INHALED SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nine male beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 0, 6 and 10.5 mg/cu.m sulfuric acid aerosols with normal ammonia, increased blood ammonia, and increased inhaled ammonia to determine whether the addition of ammonia affected the toxicity of sulfuric acid aerosols. Exhaled conce...

248

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON DECOMPOSITION RATE AND CHEMICAL ELEMENT CONTENT OF HARDWOOD LEAF LITTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0) or control rain (pH 5.6) was applied to decomposing leaf packs of 10 hardwood species. Changes in weight and chemical element concentrations were followed for 408 days. There was no apparent relationship between sulfuric acid rai...

249

A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

Goss, Lisa M.

2003-01-01

250

Uptake of isoprene by thin sulfuric acid films: Acid catalyzed heterogeneous uptake and the formation of monoterpenes and cyclic sesquiterpenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high vacuum Knudsen flow reactor was used to determine the uptake coefficient, gamma, of isoprene on sulfuric acid films as a function of sulfuric acid weight percent, temperature, and relative humidity. No discernible dependence was observed for gamma over the range of temperatures (220 - 265 K) and pressures (10-6 Torr - 10-4 Torr) studied. However, the uptake coefficient

B. M. Connelly; M. Tolbert

2008-01-01

251

Correlation of Sulfuric Acid Hydrate Abundance with Charged Particle Flux at the Surface of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's moon Europa is bombarded by charged particles trapped within Jupiter's magnetosphere. Sulfur ion implantation and impacting energetic electrons strongly affect the surface chemistry of Europa. Understanding these processes is important for disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic components of Europa's surface chemistry. In the sulfur cycle model of Carlson et al. (Science 286, 97, 1999), hydrated sulfuric acid represents the dominant reaction product of radiolytic surface modification processes on Europa. In recent compositional investigations employing linear mixture modeling, Dalton et al. (LPSC XV, #2511, 2009) and Shirley et al. (Icarus, in press, 2010) document a well-defined gradient of hydrated sulfuric acid abundance for a study area spanning the leading side - trailing side boundary in Argadnel Regio. Sulfuric acid hydrate abundance in this region increases toward the trailing side apex. Here we compare the derived sulfuric acid hydrate abundances at 41 locations on Europa's surface with independent model results describing 1) the sulfur ion flux (Hendrix et al., 2010, in preparation), and 2) the energetic electron flux, at the same locations. We improve upon the prior calculation of electron energy into the surface of Paranicas et al. (2009, in Europa, U. Arizona, p529; Pappalardo, McKinnon, & Khurana eds.) by incorporating a realistic pitch angle dependence of the distribution. While the sulfur ion implantation and electron energy deposition model distributions differ in important details, both show trailing side gradients similar to that found for the sulfuric acid hydrate. Correlation coefficients exceed 0.9 in comparisons of each of these models with the sulfuric acid hydrate distribution. Our results support models in which the electron energy flux drives reactions that utilize implanted sulfur to produce sulfuric acid hydrate. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract with NASA's Outer Planets Research Program.

Dalton, James B.; Paranicas, C. P.; Cassidy, T. A.; Shirley, J. H.

2010-10-01

252

Effect of sulfuric acid, oxygen, and hydrogen in high-temperature water on stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen and dilute sulfuric acid in 289°C water on the stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of lightly and moderately sensitized Type 304 stainless steel was determined in constant-extension-rate tensile (CERT) tests. The CERT parameters and the fracture surface morphologies were correlated with the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfate, and the electrochemical potentials of platinum and Type

W. E. Ruther; W. K. Soppet; G. Ayrault; T. F. Kassner

1983-01-01

253

Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new  

SciTech Connect

Data from exposure of experimental animals and human subjects to sulfuric acid presents a consistent picture of its toxicology. Effects on airway resistance in asthmatic subjects were well predicted by data obtained on guinea pigs. Sulfuric acid increases the irritant response to ozone in both rats and man. In donkeys, rabbits, and human subjects, sulfuric acid alters clearance of particles from the lung in a similar manner. These changes resemble those produced by cigarette smoke and could well lead to chronic bronchitis. Data obtained on guinea pigs indicate that very small amounts of sulfuric acid on the surface of ultrafine metal oxide aerosols produce functional, morphological, and biochemical pulmonary effects. Such particles are typical of those emitted from coal combustion and smelting operations. Sulfate is an unsatisfactory surrogate in existing epidemiology studies. Sulfuric acid measurement is a critical need in such studies. 31 references.

Amdur, M.O. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-05-01

254

Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 313/sup 0/K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 298/sup 0/K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

Wang, S.W.

1980-06-01

255

Note: electrochemical etching of silver tips in concentrated sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

Sharp metal tips have many uses, including in scanning probe microscopy. Silver is a particularly interesting metal for plasmonic enhancement, e.g., in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, however few methods for the production of silver tips have been explored. A simple and reliable one step dc electrochemical method for the production of sharp silver tips in concentrated H2SO4 is presented. The optimal conditions are 10 V cell voltage and 99% sulfuric acid for tip radii below 100 nm. A LabView program was written to control the cut-off of the circuit to within a millisecond to avoid blunting the tips after drop-off. PMID:23464271

Hodgson, P A; Wang, Y; Mohammad, A Awez; Kruse, P

2013-02-01

256

Heterogeneous Chemistry of HO2NO2 on Liquid Sulfuric Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of HO2NO2 (peroxynitric acid, PNA) vapor with liquid sulfuric acid surfaces was investigated for the acid contents ranging from 50 to 70 wt % and over a temperature range from 205 to 230 K, using a fast flow-reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PNA was observed to be physically taken up by liquid sulfuric acid, without undergoing irreversible aqueous phase reactions.

Leu, Ming-Taun

1995-01-01

257

Sulfuric acid rain effects on crop yield and foliar injury. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to determine the relative sensitivity of major U.S. crops to sulfuric acid rain. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and exposed to simulated acid rain of three sulfuric acid concentrations (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.7). Injury to foliage and effects on yield were common responses to acid rain. However,

J. J. Lee; G. E. Neely; S. C. Perrigan

1980-01-01

258

CE IGCC Repowering plant sulfuric acid plant. Topical report, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the CE IGCC Repowering project is to demonstrate a hot gas clean-up system (HGCU), for the removal of sulfur from the product gas stream exiting the gasifier island. Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) intends to use a HGCU developed by General Electric Environmental Services (GEESI). The original design of this system called for the installation of the HGCU, with a conventional cold gas clean-up system included as a full-load operational back-up. Each of these systems removes sulfur compounds and converts them into an acid off-gas. This report deals with the investigation of equipment to treat this off-gas, recovering these sulfur compounds as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or some other form. ABB CE contracted ABB Lummus Crest Inc. (ABB LCI) to perform an engineering evaluation to compare several such process options. This study concluded that the installation of a sulfuric acid plant represented the best option from both a technical and economic point of view. Based on this evaluation, ABB CE specified that a sulfuric acid plant be installed to remove sulfur from off-gas exiling the gas clean-up system. ABB LCI prepared a request for quotation (RFQ) for the construction of a sulfuric acid production plant. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Inc. presented the only proposal, and was eventually selected as the EPC contractor for this system.

Chester, A.M.

1993-12-01

259

Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning by combining formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space.  

PubMed

Suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by mixing formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space is a rare method of suicide. This method is similar to the so-called "detergent suicide" method where an acid-based detergent is mixed with a sulfur source to produce hydrogen sulfide. Both methods produce a toxic gas that poses significant hazards for death investigators, first responders and bystanders. Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, while hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic rotten eggs odor, so the risks associated with carbon monoxide are potentially greater due to lack of an important warning signal. While detergent suicides have become increasingly common in the USA, suicide with formic acid and sulfuric acid is rare with only three prior cases being reported. Greater awareness of this method among death investigators is warranted because of the special risks of accidental intoxication by toxic gas and the possibility that this method of suicide will become more common in the future. PMID:24328850

Lin, Peter T; Dunn, William A

2014-01-01

260

Chemical transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment  

E-print Network

a renaissance in the development of renewable and sustainable energy options. The utilization of non-food and methoxyl group content and these changes were accompanied with an increase in condensed lignin. The dilute. Introduction Increasing concerns about diminishing fossil fuel resources and energy security have spurred

California at Riverside, University of

261

40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters...Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11 -alkyl esters...chemical substance identified as sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11...

2012-07-01

262

Vibrational Spectroscopy of Bisulfate/Sulfuric Acid/Water Clusters: Structure, Stability, and Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation  

E-print Network

Vibrational Spectroscopy of Bisulfate/Sulfuric Acid/Water Clusters: Structure, Stability of mass-selected bisulfate, sulfuric acid, and water cluster anions, HSO4 - (H2SO4)m(H2O)n, are studied clusters of sulfuric acid and water are abundant in the atmosphere, with HSO4 - (H2SO4)m, m = 1

Neumark, Daniel M.

263

Uptake and Surface Reaction of Methanol by Sulfuric Acid Solutions Investigated by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation and Raman Spectroscopies  

E-print Network

Uptake and Surface Reaction of Methanol by Sulfuric Acid Solutions Investigated by Vibrational Sum and occurred on a much longer time scale. This suggests that uptake of methanol by sulfuric acid solutions Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the predominant aerosol component in the free troposphere.18 Flight measurements

264

40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters...Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9- 11-alkyl esters...chemical substance identified as sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11...

2011-07-01

265

Direct Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid by Sulfur Trioxide Catalyzed by Cerium(IV) Sulfate in the Presence  

E-print Network

Direct Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid by Sulfur Trioxide Catalyzed by Cerium activation; metal catalyst; methane; methanesulfonic acid; molecular oxygen; sulfona- tion; sulfur trioxide- ing MSA than those produced using sulfuric or para-tol- uenesulfonic acid as the catalyst. Anhydrous

Bell, Alexis T.

266

40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters...Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11 -alkyl esters...chemical substance identified as sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11...

2014-07-01

267

Process for the manufacture of sulfur or sulfuric acid from coke oven gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the complete elimination of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases is described which does not lead to the occurrence of sulfur dioxide-containing condensates as in prior-art methods. Most of the hydrogen sulfide combustion gases are cooled only to the point where elementary sulfur condenses out on the cooler bottom. The process initially involves scrubbing the

G. Wunderlich; H. Weber

1974-01-01

268

Benefits of the stirred, autorefrigerated reactor in sulfuric acid alkylation  

SciTech Connect

Alkylation is a process which combines propylenes, butylenes, and pentylenes with isobutane in the presence of an acid catalyst (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or HF) to produce a premium quality gasoline blendstock. The alkylation process was developed in the late 1930`s and processing capacity grew tremendously during World War II in response to demand for aviation gasoline. Since that time, alkylation capacity has steadily grown to supply an important motor gasoline component. Now, more than 50 years later, alkylation is in the spotlight again for reformulated gasoline. Alkylate is a high octane, low sensitivity, low RVP, totally paraffinic material which represents the ideal blendstock for modern gasoline manufacture. Two types of modern reactor systems are currently offered for license to the refining industry for sulfuric acid alkylation. These are the stirred, autorefrigerated system offered by Exxon Research and Engineering (ERE) and the indirect, or effluent refrigerated system offered by others. By means of a case study example, this paper discusses the autorefrigerated reaction system and its benefits.

Ackerman, S.; Lerner, H.; Zaczepinski, S. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States)

1996-12-01

269

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

270

Surface Characterization of Vulcanized Rubber Treated with Sulfuric Acid and its Adhesion to Polyurethane Adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications produced on a vulcanized styrene –butadiene rubber surface by treatment with sulfuric acid were studied and several experimental variables were considered.The treatment of R1 rubber with sulfuric acid produced a noticeable decrease in contact angle which was mainly ascribed to an increase in surface energy due to the formation of sulfonic acid moieties and C?O bonds, and the removal

Carmen M. Cepeda-Jiménez; M. Mercedes Pastor-blas; Teresa P. Ferrándiz-Gómez; José Miguel Martín-Martínez

2000-01-01

271

Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Decomposition in Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical cycles consist of a series of chemical reactions to produce hydrogen from water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition. All the sulfur-based cycles for water splitting employ the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. This work reports the studies performed on platinum supported on titania (rutile) catalysts to investigate the causes of catalyst deactivation under sulfuric acid decomposition reaction conditions. Samples of 1 wt% Pt/TiO2 (rutile) catalysts were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different times on stream (TOS) between 0 and 548 h. Post-operation analyses of the spent catalyst samples showed that Pt oxidation and sintering occurred under reaction conditions and some Pt was lost by volatilization. Pt loss rate was higher at initial times but total loss appeared to be independent of the gaseous environment. Catalyst activity showed an initial decrease that lasted for about 66 h, followed by a slight recovery of activity between 66 and 102 h TOS, and a period of slower deactivation after 102 h TOS. Catalyst sulfation did not seem to be detrimental to catalyst activity and the activity profile suggested that a complex dynamical situation involving platinum sintering, volatilization, and oxidation, along with TiO2 morphological changes affected catalyst activity in a non-monotonic way.

L. M. Petkovic; D. M. Ginosar; H. W. Rollins; K. C. Burch; P. J. Pinhero; H. H. Farrell

2008-04-01

272

Kinetics of gypsum formation and growth during the dissolution of colemanite in sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important boron minerals, colemanite, is dissolved in aqueous sulfuric acid to produce boric acid whereby gypsum is formed as byproduct. Filtration of gypsum has an important role in boric acid production because gypsum affects the efficiency, purity and crystallization of boric acid. The formation and growth kinetics of gypsum during the dissolution of colemanite in aqueous

E. Çetin; ?. Ero?lu; S. Özkar

2001-01-01

273

Ion Irradiation of Sulfuric Acid: Implications for its Stability on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) detected regions on Europa's surface containing distorted H2O bands. This distortion likely indicates that there are other molecules mixed with the water ice. Based on spectral comparison, some of the leading possibilities are sulfuric acid, salts. or possibly H3O(+). Previous laboratory studies have shown that sulfuric acid can be created by irradiation of H2OSO2 mixtures, and both molecules are present on Europa. In this project, we were interested in investigating the radiation stability of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and determining its lifetime on the surface of Europa.

Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.

2010-01-01

274

Sulfuric acid-methanol electrolytes as an alternative to sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures for electropolishing of niobium  

SciTech Connect

Attainment of the greatest possible interior surface smoothness is critical to meeting the performance demands placed upon niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities by next generation projects. Electropolishing with HF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes yields cavities that meet SRF performance goals, but a less-hazardous, more environmentally-friendly process is desirable. Reported studies of EP on chemically-similar tantalum describe the use of sulfuric acid-methanol electrolytes as an HF-free alternative. Reported here are the results of experiments on niobium samples with this electrolyte. Voltammetry experiments indicate a current plateau whose voltage range expands with increasing acid concentration and decreasing temperature. Impedance spectroscopy indicates that a compact salt film is responsible for the current plateau. Equivalent findings in electropolishing chemically-similar tantalum with this electrolyte were interpreted due to as mass transfer limitation by diffusion of Ta ions away from the anode surface. We infer that a similar mechanism is at work here. Conditions were found that yield leveling and brightening comparable to that obtained with HF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} mixtures.

Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Corcoran, Sean G. [Virginia Tech; Kelley, Michael J. [W& amp; M, JLAB

2011-06-01

275

Projection of 1985 market potential for FGD (flue gas desulfurization) byproduct sulfur and sulfuric acid in the US. Final report Jan 79Apr 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report projects the 1985 market potential for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct sulfur and sulfuric acid in the U.S. The projection is 165,000 tons of sulfur from 11 power plants and 554,000 tons of acid from 6 power plants, with a combined benefit to the affected industries of $20 million. FGD technology improvements and cost increases, particularly for fuel

W. E. OBrien; W. L. Anders; J. D. Veitch

1980-01-01

276

Phase transitions in a bed of vanadium catalyst for sulfuric acid production: experiment and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide oxidation on vanadium catalysts in sulfuric acid production may cause phase transitions in the catalyst active component. These phase transitions involve crystallization of vanadium(IV), and may influence catalyst activity. In the present study, we show that reaction mixture flow through a fixed catalyst bed is accompanied by the moving front of crystal phase, which decreases SO2 conversion at

B. S. Bal’zhinimaev; N. P. Belyaeva; S. I. Reshetnikov; E. S. Yudina; A. A. Ivanov

2001-01-01

277

Hydrogen and sulfuric acid production by electrolysis with anodic depolarization by sulfurous anhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical aspects of improving the efficiency of water electrolysis with anodic depolarization by sulfurous anhydride in an\\u000a electrolyzer with a solid polymeric electrolyte are discussed. Methods of reducing energy outlays for the production of hydrogen,\\u000a for example, by altering the organization of the feed of sulfurous anhydride to the reaction zone, are proposed and implemented.\\u000a This made it possible to

V. I. Kostin; V. N. Fateev; D. A. Bokach; S. V. Korobtsev; A. V. Kozolii; S. E. Sal’nikov

2008-01-01

278

On the stability and dynamics of (sulfuric acid) (ammonia) and (sulfuric acid) (dimethylamine) clusters: A first-principles molecular dynamics investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main pathway of new-particle formation in the atmosphere is likely to begin from small sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by other compounds, such as ammonia or amines. Here, we present the results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations probing the stability and dynamics of (sulfuric acid) (ammonia/dimethylamine) clusters with two, three and four sulfuric acid molecules and a varying number of the bases. In each of the eight simulated clusters, an energetic equilibrium was reached and 35 ps of equilibrium data was collected in the NVT(T=300 K) ensemble. The clusters exhibited pronounced thermal motion including rotations of the molecules within the clusters. Regardless of the continuous movement, the clusters stayed bound together. The calculated electric dipole moments were found to be sensitive to the thermal motion and consequently, large fluctuations were observed. In addition, the vibrational spectra for all the clusters were determined, indicating that the thermal motion differs from purely harmonic motion.

Loukonen, V.; Kuo, I.-F. W.; McGrath, M. J.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-01-01

279

Sulfuric Acid Mist Generation in Utility Boiler Flue Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Sulfur Trioxide (SO3) and Oxides of Nitrogen, mainly NO and NO2, are generated during the combustion of certain fossil fuels. Electric power generating units contribute more than 70% of the national SOx emissions (1). When significant volumes of flue gas containing these oxides are discharged to the atmosphere, various state or local authorities set standards for the

Boris Altshuler

280

Reaction of isoprene on thin sulfuric acid films: kinetics, uptake, and product analysis.  

PubMed

A high vacuum Knudsen flow reactor was used to determine the reactive uptake coefficient, gamma, of isoprene on sulfuric acid films as a function of sulfuric acid weight percent, temperature, and relative humidity. No discernible dependence was observed for gamma over the range of temperatures (220 - 265 K) and pressures (10(-7) Torr -10(-4) Torr) studied. However, the uptake coefficient increased with increased sulfuric acid concentration between the range of 78 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-4)) and 93 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-3)). In addition to the Knudsen Cell, a bulk study was conducted between 60 and 85 wt % H(2)SO(4) to quantify uptake at lower acid concentrations and to determine reaction products. After exposing sulfuric acid to gaseous isoprene the condensed phase products were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Isoprene was observed to polymerize in the sulfuric acid and form yellow/red colored monoterpenes and cyclic sesquiterpenes. Finally, addition of water to the 85 wt % sulfuric acid/isoprene product mixture released these terpenes from the condensed phase into the gas phase. Together these experiments imply that direct isoprene uptake will not produce significant SOA; however, terpene production from the small uptake may be relevant for ultrafine particles and could affect growth and nucleation. PMID:20499904

Connelly, Brandon M; Tolbert, Margaret A

2010-06-15

281

First-principles molecular dynamics simulations of (sulfuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1 cluster formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clustering process (sulfuric acid) + (base)?(sulfuric acid)1(base)1 is of fundamental importance in the atmospheric new-particle formation. Especially interesting are the collisions where a proton transfer reaction can happen, as the reaction often leads to relatively strongly bound clusters. Here, we studied the clustering process of (sulfuric acid) + (dimethylamine) ? (sulfuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1 using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. The collision of the two molecules was simulated starting with various spatial orientations and the evolution of the cluster was followed in the NVE ensemble. The simulations suggest that the proton transfer reaction takes place regardless of the intial collision orientation. However, due to the energy released in the process, the newly-formed cluster is not able to reach the minimun energy configuration, which might affect the following growth processes.

Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamäki, Hanna

2013-05-01

282

Cytotoxicity of sulfurous acid on cell membrane and Bioactivity of Nitrosomonas europaea.  

PubMed

Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium, was chosen as a research model to study the alteration of cell membrane in the presence of sulfurous acid and biodegradation of acetochlor. Significant changes of the outer cell membrane were observed in the presence of sulfurous acid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The fluorescence polarization has shown a significant decrease in membrane fluidity and the increase of permeability of cell membrane. Lysozyme experiment show the cell becomes easily influenced by substance in medium. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show considerable amount of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the supernatant from the sulfurous acid exposed cells. Sulfurous acid treatment enhanced the ability of N. europaea to degrade acetochlor. On this basis, it can be concluded that the increased cell permeability is favor for the absorbability of nutrition. As a result, N. europaea grows faster and the biodegradation efficiency was improved. PMID:25240954

Jiang, Ruiyu; Wang, Mingqing; Xue, Jianliang; Xu, Ning; Hou, Guihua; Zhang, Wubing

2015-01-01

283

The uptake of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} onto small sulfuric acid particles  

SciTech Connect

The probabilities for N{sub 2}O{sub 5} loss onto sulfuric acid aerosol (60-80 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.1-0.2 {mu}m radius, 230-300 K) were measured using a laminar flow reactor coupled to a sulfuric acid aerosol source and a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The aerosol morphology was extracted from measurements of the aerosol extinction of ultraviolet light (200-370nm) by using Mie theory. The reaction probabilities, {gamma}, are large (0.06-0.12) and are comparable to probabilities measured previously under similar conditions on bulk sulfuric acid surfaces and small aerosol. These measurements confirm that the overall reaction of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} with H{sub 2}O in/on 60-80% sulfuric acid is fast and the uptake is due to loss very close to the liquid surface. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hanson, D.R.; Lovejoy, E.R. [Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)] [Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-11-01

284

Sulfuric Acid Nucleation with NH3, Methyl, Dimethyl, and Trimethyl Amines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of particles from sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogen base molecules was studied within a cylindrical flow reactor. The particles formed from these vapors were detected with a nano Mobility Particle Sizer coupled to a Diethylene Glycol Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter. The effects of ammonia and small alkyl amines on particle formation with sulfuric acid vapor were very large. Enhancements of particle numbers by factors of thousands to millions indicates that these species have powerful effects on nucleation of sulfuric acid molecules. Power dependencies for particle numbers on sulfuric acid and nitrogen bases elucidates the chemical content of the critical clusters and this helps to shed light on the nucleation mechanisms. The details of the particle detection efficiencies, information on the extent of particle growth, and independently determined cluster thermodynamics help to verify these results and to extrapolate them to atmospheric conditions.

Hanson, D. R.; Volz, K.; Glasoe, W.; Panta, B.

2013-12-01

285

Fundamental study on kinetics and transport phenomena in low water dilute acid total hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research is to delineate the process of the dilute-acid hydrolysis of biomass and seek better understanding of the reactions involving dilute-acid treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Specifically the scope of the work entails the following two primary technical elements: Verification of the heterogeneous nature of the reaction mechanism in dilute-acid hydrolysis of cellulosic component of the biomass. Experimental investigation to identify the overall reaction pattern and the kinetic constants associated with dilute-acid hydrolysis of the cellulosic component of the agricultural residues.

Auburn University

2004-04-07

286

Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.  

PubMed

In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

2014-05-01

287

Alteration of the Midpoint Potential and Catalytic Activity of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein by Changes of Amino Acids Forming  

E-print Network

by Changes of Amino Acids Forming Hydrogen Bonds to the Iron-Sulfur Cluster* (Received for publication, JulyAlteration of the Midpoint Potential and Catalytic Activity of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein iron-sulfur protein indicates a sulfur atom (S-1) of the iron-sulfur cluster and the sulfur atom (S

Trumpower, Bernard L.

288

Oxidation of Fe (II) in sulfuric acid solutions with dissolved molecular oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of Fe(II) with dissolved molecular oxygen was studied in sulfuric acid solutions containing 0.2 mol ? dm?3 FeSO4 at temperatures ranging from 343 to 363 K. In solutions of sulfuric acid above 0.4 mol ? dm?3, the oxidation of Fe (II) was found to proceed through two parallel paths. In one path the reaction rate was proportional\\u000a to

Masao Iwai; Hiroshi Majima; Yasuhiro Awakura

1982-01-01

289

Sulfuric Acid droplet formation and growth in the stratosphere after the 1982 eruption of el chichon.  

PubMed

The eruption of El Chichón Volcano in March and April 1982 resulted in the nucleation of large numbers of new sulfuric acid droplets and an increase by nearly an order of magnitude in the size of the preexisting particles in the stratosphere. Nearly 10(7) metric tons of sulfuric acid remained in the stratosphere by the end of 1982, about 40 times as much as was deposited by Mount St. Helens in 1980. PMID:17734833

Hofmann, D J; Rosen, J M

1983-10-21

290

Optical constants of sulfuric acid - Application to the clouds of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young (1973) and Sill (1972) have independently suggested that the clouds of Venus may well consist of particles composed of sulfuric acid molecules with attached water molecules. For a further study of this hypothesis an investigation has been conducted with the objective to supply the needed laboratory data for a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. Optical constants have been determined for the visible, near infrared, and intermediate infrared wavelength regions.

Palmer, K. F.; Williams, D.

1975-01-01

291

Radio-wave attenuation and sulfuric-acid vapor content in the Venus atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-wave absorption in the Venus atmosphere is investigated using radio probing data on variations of the field strengths of 5-cm and 32-cm signals. It is shown that the most probable cause of cm-wave attenuation at altitudes below 50 km is absorption by sulfuric-acid vapor. Sulfuric-acid vapor contents equal to 15 ppm at 48 km and 19 ppm at 47 km were determined, which agree well with Pioneer-Venus measurements at 13 cm.

Gubenko, V. N.; Iakovlev, O. I.; Matiugov, S. S.; Kucheriavenkov, A. I.; Vaganov, I. R.

1989-11-01

292

Weak boundary layers on vulcanized styrene–butadiene rubber treated with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic vulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber (R2) was used in this study. The presence of paraffin wax and zinc stearate in the rubber composition prevented the adhesion of R2 rubber to solvent-based polyester-urethane adhesive. To increase the adhesion properties of R2 rubber, a surface treatment with sulfuric acid (cyclization) was applied, and the length of the immersion in sulfuric acid and

Carmen M. Cepeda-Jiménez; M. Mercedes Pastor-Blas; José Miguel Martín-Martínez

2001-01-01

293

Formation rates, stability and reactivity of sulfuric acid - amine clusters predicted by computational chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of atmospheric particle formation for both climate and air quality, both experiments and non-empirical models using e.g. sulfuric acid, ammonia and water as condensing vapors have so far been unable to reproduce atmospheric observations using realistic trace gas concentrations. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has shown that this mystery is likely resolved by amines. Combining first-principles evaporation rates for sulfuric acid - dimethylamine clusters with cluster kinetic modeling, we show that even sub-ppt concentrations of amines, together with atmospherically realistic concentrations of sulfuric acid, result in formation rates close to those observed in the atmosphere. Our simulated cluster formation rates are also close to, though somewhat larger than, those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN for both sulfuric acid - ammonia and sulfuric acid - dimethylamine systems. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the remaining discrepancy for the sulfuric acid - amine particle formation rates is likely caused by steric hindrances to cluster formation (due to alkyl groups of the amine molecules) rather than by significant errors in the evaporation rates. First-principles molecular dynamic and reaction kinetic modeling shed further light on the microscopic physics and chemistry of sulfuric acid - amine clusters. For example, while the number and type of hydrogen bonds in the clusters typically reach their equilibrium values on a picosecond timescale, and the overall bonding patterns predicted by traditional "static" quantum chemical calculations seem to be stable, the individual atoms participating in the hydrogen bonds continuously change at atmospherically realistic temperatures. From a chemical reactivity perspective, we have also discovered a surprising phenomenon: clustering with sulfuric acid molecules slightly increases the activation energy required for the abstraction of alkyl hydrogens from amine molecules. This implies that the oxidation rate of amines by OH and possibly other oxidants may be decreased by clustering, thus prolonging the chemical lifetime of amines in the air.

Kurtén, Theo; Ortega, Ismael; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Loukonen, Ville; Reiman, Heidi; McGrath, Matthew; Vehkamäki, Hanna

2013-04-01

294

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on yield, growth, and foliar injury of several crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to reveal patterns of response of major United States crops to sulfuric acid rain. Potted plants were grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.6). At harvest, the weights of the marketable portion, total aboveground portion and roots were determined for

J. J. Lee; G. E. Neely; S. C. Perrigan; L. C. Grothaus

1980-01-01

295

Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

2005-01-01

296

Effects of sulfuric acid and nitrogen deposition on mineral nutrition of Picea abies (L.) Karst.  

E-print Network

ecosystems, saplings have been sprayed with artificial acid rain, structured soil samples have been extractedEffects of sulfuric acid and nitrogen deposition on mineral nutrition of Picea abies (L.) Karst. B sites in the Fichtel- gebirge, and low fogwater pH (Trautner, 1989) of 2.2 indicate a high acid stress

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols - Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystalization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

1989-01-01

298

Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols: Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystallization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

1988-01-01

299

Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols - Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystalization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

1989-08-01

300

Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols: Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystallization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

1988-11-01

301

Is there an energy barrier in the growth of sulfuric acid clusters?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a kinetic model and quantum chemical formation free energy data to study the growth of molecular clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia or sulfuric acid and dimethylamine in atmospherically relevant conditions. All simulations were performed both with and without charged clusters. We show that the cluster growth in the acid-ammonia system involves energy barriers in both electrically neutral and ionic systems, while in the acid-DMA system the growth along the major pathways is barrierless and occurs via electrically neutral clusters also when ions are present.

Olenius, Tinja; Kupiainen, Oona; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna

2013-05-01

302

Comparison of sulfuric and oxalic acid anodizing for preparation of thermal control coatings for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of thermal control surfaces, which maintain stable solar absorptivity and infrared emissivity over long periods, is challenging due to severe conditions in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Some candidate coatings are second-surface silver-coated Teflon; second-surface, silvered optical solar reflectors made of glass or quartz; and anodized aluminum. Sulfuric acid anodized and oxalic acid anodized aluminum was evaluated under simulated LEO conditions. Oxalic acid anodizing shows promise of greater stability in LEO over long missions, such as the 30 years planned for the Space Station. However, sulfuric acid anodizing shows lower solar absorptivity.

Le, Huong G.; Watcher, John M.; Smith, Charles A.

1988-01-01

303

Sulfuric acid rain effects on crop yield and foliar injury. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to determine the relative sensitivity of major U.S. crops to sulfuric acid rain. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and exposed to simulated acid rain of three sulfuric acid concentrations (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.7). Injury to foliage and effects on yield were common responses to acid rain. However, foliar injury was not a good indicator of effects on yield.

Lee, J.J.; Neely, G.E.; Perrigan, S.C.

1980-01-01

304

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11

305

Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

PubMed Central

Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose. PMID:22074910

2011-01-01

306

Efficient hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis using silica sulfuric acid catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heterogeneous acid catalyst, silica sulfuric acid, was prepared from silica gel (SiO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Addition of SO3H functional group to SiO2 has been confirmed through various characterization techniques. The effect of this heterogeneous acid catalyst on hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction was studied for different ratios of catalyst to NaBH4 and at different temperatures. The catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity towards sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction. The activation energy of the NaBH4 hydrolysis reaction in the presence of silica sulfuric acid was calculated to be the lowest (17 kJ mol-1) among reported heterogeneous catalysts till date.

Manna, Joydev; Roy, Binayak; Sharma, Pratibha

2015-02-01

307

Dilution and removal of dissolved metals from acid mine drainage along Imgok Creek, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilution factors (Di) and removal fractions (Ri) of pollutants from acid mine drainage (AMD) were quantitatively estimated using two different methods, the conservative component and mass balance method, along Imgok Creek in Korea. The conservative component method assumes that SO4 is a perfectly conservative component and calculates Di and Ri from the concentration ratios of SO4. The mass balance

Jae-Young Yu; Bong Heo

2001-01-01

308

High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

309

Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements  

SciTech Connect

Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm) have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA), was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu). Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu) was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for those sulfuric acid-amine clusters were investigated by varying the residence time in the inlet. It was concluded that the amines react directly with neutral clusters and that ion-induced clustering of sulfuric acid cluster ions with amines was not a dominant process. Results from ambient measurements using the Cluster CIMS without addition of sulfuric acid have shown that the sulfuric acid-amine clusters were reasonably well correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer and consistent with the SASA experiments at the same Boulder sampling site. Also, clusters that contain C2- or C4-amines were more abundant and better correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer than other types of amine containing clusters. However, ambient measurements of sulfuric acid-amine clusters remain difficult and highly uncertain because their concentrations are only slightly above background levels, even during nucleation events.

Kuang C.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.

2011-11-02

310

Dilute hydrochloric acid extraction of plant material for routine cation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hazard?free method of extracting cations from dried plant material using dilute (0.5M) hydrochloric acid has been developed for routine determination of cations in dried plant samples. Previous work has shown that hydrochloric acid can be used to quantitatively extract cations but the methods are slow and tedious. To develop a faster and less tedious method it was first necessary

J. Hunt

1982-01-01

311

Acid deposition critical loads modeling for the simulation of sulfur exceedance and reduction in Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

The current acid deposition critical loads in Guangdong, China were calculated using the PROFILE model with a 3 km x 3 km resolution. Calculations were carried out for critical loads of potential acidity, actual acidity, sulfur and nitrogen, with values in extents of 0-3.5, 0-14.0, 0-26.0 and 0-3.5 kmol/(hm2 x year), respectively. These values were comparable to previously reported results and reflected the influences of vegetation and soil characteristics on the soil acid buffering capacity. Simulations of SO2 emission and sulfur deposition in this study showed that sulfur deposition core areas mirrored SO2 emission centers. The prediction of sulfur deposition after 20% and 40% reduction of SO2 emission suggested that the reduction of area sources contributed greatly to the decrease of sulfur deposition. Thus, abatement of area source emissions could be the primary way to mitigate sulfur deposition in Guangdong to meet both the provincial and national regulations of air pollution control. PMID:19862925

Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Xuemei; Liao, Jin; Zhang, Zhentian

2009-01-01

312

Stabilization of sulfuric acid dimers by ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study experimentally explores how ammonia (NH3), methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) affect the chemical formation mechanisms of electrically neutral clusters that contain two sulfuric acid molecules (dimers). Dimers may also contain undetectable compounds, such as water or bases, that evaporate upon ionization and sampling. Measurements were conducted using a glass flow reactor which contained a steady flow of humidified nitrogen with sulfuric acid concentrations of 107 to 109 cm-3. A known molar flow rate of a basic gas was injected into the flow reactor. The University of Minnesota Cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer was used to measure the resulting sulfuric acid vapor and cluster concentrations. It was found that, for a given concentration of sulfuric acid vapor, the dimer concentration increases with increasing concentration of the basic gas, eventually reaching a plateau. The base concentrations at which the dimer concentrations saturate suggest NH3 < MA < TMA ? DMA in forming stabilized sulfuric acid dimers. Two heuristic models for cluster formation by acid-base reactions are developed to interpret the data. The models provide ranges of evaporation rate constants that are consistent with observations and leads to an analytic expression for nucleation rates that is consistent with atmospheric observations.

Jen, Coty N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

2014-06-01

313

Determination of Key Intermediates in Cholesterol and Bile Acid Biosynthesis by Stable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

For more than a decade, we have developed stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry methods to quantify key intermediates in cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis, mevalonate and oxysterols, respectively. The methods are more sensitive and reproducible than conventional radioisotope (RI), gas-chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, so that they are applicable not only to samples from experimental animals but also to small amounts of human specimens. In this paper, we review the development of stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry for quantifying mevalonate and oxysterols in biological materials, and demonstrate the usefulness of this technique. PMID:19609389

Yoshida, Tadashi; Honda, Akira; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2008-01-01

314

Specifics of the sulfuric-acid processing of galena concentrates in the presence of nitrous acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Nitrous acid has a catalytic effect on the sulfuric-acid decomposition of galena. With oxygen at atmospheric pressure, the\\u000a presence of even small quantities of HNO2 in the solution (0.01 M) at room temperature increases the degree of oxidation of lead sulfide twofold.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The solid products of the oxidation of PbS (PbSO4 and S) form a dense film

T. I. Markovich; A. B. Ptitsyn

1998-01-01

315

Tandem sulfur-containing amino acids are epicritical determinants of dopamine D(2) receptor pharmacology.  

PubMed

The conserved aspartic acid that is required for ligand binding to the dopamine D(2) receptor is followed by three tandem sulfur-containing amino acids. While previous point mutation studies did not reveal any single one of these residues as being critical for ligand binding, we now show that simultaneously substituting all three with isovolumetric, non sulfur-containing amino acids results in large decreases in the binding affinity for dopamine, (-)-raclopride and 7-(-4(4-(2, 3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl)butyloxy)-3, 4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (aripiprazole), but not for methylspiperone or allosteric modulators. PMID:10666514

Schetz, J A; Sibley, D R

2000-01-28

316

Frequency estimates for transport-related hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid release scenarios  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was performed to predict the frequency of release associated with transportation scenarios for four refineries and a chemical plant in the South Coast Basin using hydrofluoric acid (HF) in the alkylation process/chemical process. The analysis considers two settings. The first is the set of ongoing HF transportation scenarios, and the second is a projected set of HF and sulfuric acid transportation scenarios if the HF alkylation units of the refineries are replaced by sulfuric acid alkylation units. 5 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Medhekar, S.R.; Gekler, W.C.; Bley, D.C. (PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States))

1993-07-01

317

Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

Carlson, R. W.

2004-01-01

318

Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and Cleaning of Flue Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The present paper is concerned with catalytic pollution abatement of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in flue gases from industrial\\u000a sources. Especially fundamental and applied research on industrial catalysts and their model systems is presented with regards\\u000a to cleaning of flue gases from fossil fuel based power plants and plants producing sulfuric acid. Combined DeSOx and DeNOx processes are very common

Rasmus Fehrmann; K. M. Eriksen; S. B. Rasmussen; J. Winnick

319

Exogenic controls on sulfuric acid hydrate production at the surface of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External agents have heavily weathered the visible surface of Europa. Internal and external drivers competing to produce the surface we see include, but are not limited to: aqueous alteration of materials within the icy shell, initial emplacement of endogenic material by geologic activity, implantation of exogenic ions and neutrals from Jupiter's magnetosphere, alteration of surface chemistry by radiolysis and photolysis, impact gardening of upper surface layers, and redeposition of sputtered volatiles. Separating the influences of these processes is critical to understanding the surface and subsurface compositions at Europa. Recent investigations have applied cryogenic reflectance spectroscopy to Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observations to derive abundances of surface materials including water ice, hydrated sulfuric acid, and hydrated sulfate salts. Here we compare derived sulfuric acid hydrate (H2SO4·nH2O) abundance with weathering patterns and intensities associated with charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere. We present models of electron energy, ion energy, and sulfur ion number flux as well as the total combined electron and ion energy flux at the surface to estimate the influence of these processes on surface concentrations, as a function of location. We found that correlations exist linking both electron energy flux (r?0.75) and sulfur ion flux (r=0.93) with the observed abundance of sulfuric acid hydrate on Europa. Sulfuric acid hydrate production on Europa appears to be limited in some regions by a reduced availability of sulfur ions, and in others by insufficient levels of electron energy. The energy delivered by sulfur and other ions has a much less significant role. Surface deposits in regions of limited exogenic processing are likely to bear closest resemblance to oceanic composition. These results will assist future efforts to separate the relative influence of endogenic and exogenic sources in establishing the surface composition.

Dalton, J. B.; Cassidy, T.; Paranicas, C.; Shirley, J. H.; Prockter, L. M.; Kamp, L. W.

2013-03-01

320

Heterogeneous freezing of single sulfuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilizing an acoustic levitator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulfuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -50°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, a new technique has been developed to suspend the droplet by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite,

M. Ettner; S. K. Mitra; S. Borrmann

2004-01-01

321

APPLICATION OF AN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR FOR INSTRUMENTAL SAMPLING OF SULFURIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

A means of separating gaseous sulfuric acid from flue gas particles has been evaluated. Previous attempts to achieve separation by filtration resulted in retention of the acid by the particulate buildup on the filter surface. A laboratory study of a prototype electrostatic precip...

322

Monte Carlo Simulations of Small Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters S. M. Kathmann,* and B. N. Hale,*  

E-print Network

-to-liquid nucleation1-5 to acid rain formation6-8 and ozone depletion mechanisms.9-11 Doyle's early work2 predictedMonte Carlo Simulations of Small Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters S. M. Kathmann,* and B. N. Hale§,* En Form: August 7, 2001 Effective atom-atom potentials are developed for binary sulfuric acid

Hale, Barbara N.

323

Genetic and environmental factors involved in increased resistance of brook trout to sulfuric acid solutions and mine acid polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of hatchery-reared brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), were exposed to low pH in the laboratory (sulfuric acid solutions) and in the field (mine acid polluted waters). Wild brook trout were also used in some field tests. Tests were both acute and chronic (up to 2 mo). Pronounced strain differences in survival ability were detected among embryonic, juvenile, and

FREDERICK A. SWARTS; WILLIAM A. DUNSON; JAMES E. WRIGHT

1978-01-01

324

Kinetic Study and Mathematical Model of Hemimorphite Dissolution in Low Sulfuric Acid Solution at High Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution kinetics of hemimorphite with low sulfuric acid solution was investigated at high temperature. The dissolution rate of zinc was obtained as a function of dissolution time under the experimental conditions where the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, and particle size were studied. The results showed that zinc extraction increased with an increase in temperature and sulfuric acid concentration and with a decrease in particle size. A mathematical model able to describe the process kinetics was developed from the shrinking core model, considering the change of the sulfuric acid concentration during dissolution. It was found that the dissolution process followed a shrinking core model with "ash" layer diffusion as the main rate-controlling step. This finding was supported with a linear relationship between the apparent rate constant and the reciprocal of squared particle radius. The reaction order with respect to sulfuric acid concentration was determined to be 0.7993. The apparent activation energy for the dissolution process was determined to be 44.9 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 373 K to 413 K (100 °C to 140 °C). Based on the shrinking core model, the following equation was established:

Xu, Hongsheng; Wei, Chang; Li, Cunxiong; Deng, Zhigan; Li, Minting; Li, Xingbin

2014-10-01

325

Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid  

SciTech Connect

The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 ± 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 ± 0.20 and averaged 1.18 ± 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

Oji, L.

2014-09-23

326

Bimodal distribution of sulfuric acid aerosols in the upper haze of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations by the SPICAV/SOIR instruments aboard Venus Express have revealed that the upper haze (UH) of Venus, between 70 and 90 km, is variable on the order of days and that it is populated by two particle modes. We use a one-dimensional microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two observed modes, and whether their observed variability are due in part to the action of vertical transient winds at the cloud tops. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets, which then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and therefore cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. By comparison, the mass transport enabled by transient winds at the cloud tops, possibly caused by sustained subsolar cloud top convection, are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with Venus Express observations. Below the altitude where the cloud particles are generated, sedimentation and vigorous convection causes the formation of large mode 2 and mode 3 particles in the middle and lower clouds. Evaporation of the particles below the clouds causes a local sulfuric acid vapor maximum that results in upwelling of sulfuric acid back into the clouds. In the case where the polysulfur condensation nuclei are small and their production rate is high, coagulation of small droplets onto larger droplets in the middle cloud may set up an oscillation in the size modes of the particles such that precipitation of sulfuric acid “rain” may be possible immediately below the clouds once every few Earth months. Reduction of the polysulfur condensation nuclei production rate destroys this oscillation and reduces the mode 1 particle abundance in the middle cloud by two orders of magnitude. However, it better reproduces the sulfur-to-sulfuric-acid mass ratio in the cloud and haze droplets as constrained by fits to UV reflectivity data. In general we find satisfactory agreement between our nominal and transient wind results and observations from Pioneer Venus, Venus Express, and Magellan, though improvements could be made by incorporating sulfur microphysics.

Gao, Peter; Zhang, Xi; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G.; Yung, Yuk L.

2014-03-01

327

Bimodal Distribution of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in the Upper Haze of Venus  

E-print Network

The upper haze (UH) of Venus is variable on the order of days and it is populated by two particle modes. We use a 1D microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two size modes and whether their observed variability are due to cloud top vertical transient winds. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets that then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. The mass transport enabled by cloud top transient winds are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with observations. Sedimentation and convection in the middle and lower...

Gao, Peter; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G; Yung, Yuk L

2013-01-01

328

Uptake of Small Organic Compounds by Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: Dissolution and Reaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To assess the role of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the interactions of a series of small organic compounds with low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid will be evaluated. The total amount of organic material which may be taken up from the gas phase by dissolution, surface layer formation, and reaction during the particle lifetime will be quantified. Our current results for acetaldehyde uptake on 40 - 80 wt% sulfuric acid solutions will be compared to those of methanol, formaldehyde, and acetone to investigate the relationships between chemical functionality and heterogeneous activity. Where possible, equilibrium uptake will be ascribed to component pathways (hydration, protonation, etc.) to facilitate evaluation of other species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Staton, S. J. R.

2003-01-01

329

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOEpatents

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01

330

On the prolonged lifetime of the El Chichon sulfuric acid aerosol cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed decay of the aerosol mixing ratio following the eruption of El Chichon appears to have been 20-30 percent slower than that following the eruption of Fuego in 1974, even though the sulfuric acid droplets were observed to grow to considerably larger sizes after El Chichon. This suggests the possible presence of a condensation nuclei and sulfuric acid vapor source and continued growth phenomena occurring well after the El Chichon eruption. It is proposed that the source of these nuclei and the associated vapor may be derived from annual evaporation and condensation of aerosol in the high polar regions during stratospheric warming events, with subsequent spreading to lower latitudes.

Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

1987-01-01

331

Conductance of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions to 458 K and 1.4 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical conductance measurements were made on dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid to 458 K and 1.4 MPa with a flow instrument.\\u000a These measurements agree well with those of previous authors. The conductance theory of Fuoss and Hsia as given by Fernandez-Prini\\u000a (FHFP), was fit to these measurements. It was found that this theory adequately described the present results with a

G. H. Zimmerman; Philip W. Scott; Wendy Greynolds; Dmitriy Mayorov

2009-01-01

332

Interaction of “extremely diluted solutions” with aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “extremely diluted solutions” (EDS) have revealed a really intriguing behaviour, characterized by multiple independent variables. Because of their behaviour, EDS can be described as far-from-equilibrium systems, capable of auto-organizing as a consequence of little perturbations.We measured the heats of mixing of basic and acid solutions with such EDS and their electrical conductivity, comparing with the analogous heats of mixing

V. Elia; L. Elia; M. Marchese; M. Montanino; E. Napoli; M. Niccoli; L. Nonatelli; F. Savarese

2007-01-01

333

Determination of the viscosity number of thermoplastics in dilute solution; polyamides (PA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This West German Standard presents a test used to determine the viscosity number of polyamides and copolyamides which are easily diluted in sulfuric acid, and for other polyamides which are less easily diluted in sulfuric acid, and which are diluted in m-cresol. As formic acid is often used in industry instead of sulfuric acid, this solvent is also presented as an alternative, however, sulfuric acid is preferred because of the thermodynamic solubility characteristics of the polyamides and the handling safety. In addition, it is shown which solvent should be used for each polyamide. Finally, determinations concerning the preparation of the samples are presented. Using the viscosity number, a determination of the molar mass of the polyamides is possible.

1985-01-01

334

Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment of high and low specific gravity Populus deltoides clones.  

PubMed

Populus sp. are hardwood feedstocks that grow in forest management areas that are logged for softwoods; however, they are also being considered as an energy-destined feedstock. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of xylose yield from dilute acid and hot water pretreatments performed in unstirred batch stainless steel reactors at temperatures ranging from 140 to 200°C. Populus deltoides clones S13C20 and S7C15 used in this study originated from Eastern Texas and were cultivated for 14 years in Pine Tree, AR. P. deltoides clones S13C20 and S7C15 had specific gravities of 0.48 and 0.40, respectively. Bark and wood were examined separately. As expected, hot water pretreatments, in the tested temperature range, resulted in very little direct xylose recovery. However, the 140°C dilute acid pretreatment of the lower specific gravity clone, S7C15, wood yielded the highest average xylose recovery of 56%. This condition also yielded the highest concentration of furfural, 9 mg/g sample, which can be inhibitory to the fermentation step. The highest xylose recovery from bark samples, 31%, was obtained with clone S7C15, using the 160°C dilute acid pretreatment for 60 min. PMID:20652357

Martin, Elizabeth M; Bunnell, Kris A; Lau, Ching-Shuan; Pelkki, Matthew H; Patterson, David W; Clausen, Edgar C; Smith, James A; Carrier, Danielle Julie

2011-02-01

335

Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

2014-01-01

336

Electrical charging changes the composition of sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the composition of neutral clusters must be addressed before the measured data can be linked to properties of neutral clusters. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the composition of these clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of charged clusters with those of the corresponding neutral clusters. We found that the only cluster studied in this paper which will retain its composition is H2SO4 · NH3 when charged positively; all other clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the acid molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.

Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-01-01

337

Configuring the thermochemical hydrogen sulfuric acid process step for the Tandem Mirror reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sulfuric acid step was identified as the critical part of the thermochemical cycle in dictating the thermal demands and temperature requirements of the heat source. The general atomic sulfur-iodine cycle was coupled to a tandem mirror. The sulfuric acid decomposition process step was focused on specifically since this step can use the high efficiency electrical power of the direct converter together with the other thermal-produced electricity to Joule-heat a noncatalytic SO3 decomposer to approximately 1250 K. The blanket temperature was lowered to about 900 K, greatly alleviating materials problems, the level of technology required safety problems, and costs. A moderate degree of heat was integrated to keep the cycle efficiency around 48%, but the number of heat exchangers was limited in order to keep hydrogen production costs within reasonable bounds.

Galloway, T. R.

1981-05-01

338

Configuring the thermochemical hydrogen sulfuric acid process step for the Tandem Mirror Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the sulfuric acid step as the critical part of the thermochemical cycle in dictating the thermal demands and temperature requirements of the heat source. The General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle is coupled to a Tandem Mirror. The sulfuric acid decomposition process step is focused on specifically since this step can use the high efficiency electrical power of the direct converter together with the other thermal-produced electricity to Joule-heat a non-catalytic SO/sub 3/ decomposer to approximately 1250/sup 0/K. This approach uses concepts originally suggested by Dick Werner and Oscar Krikorian. The blanket temperature can be lowered to about 900/sup 0/K, greatly alleviating materials problems, the level of technology required, safety problems, and costs. A moderate degree of heat has been integrated to keep the cycle efficiency around 48%, but the number of heat exchangers has been limited in order to keep hydrogen production costs within reasonable bounds.

Galloway, T.R.

1981-05-01

339

Autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing actinobacteria in acidic environments.  

PubMed

Some novel actinobacteria from geothermal environments were shown to grow autotrophically with sulfur as an energy source. These bacteria have not been formally named and are referred to here as "Acidithiomicrobium" species, as the first of the acidophilic actinobacteria observed to grow on sulfur. They are related to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans with which they share a capacity for ferrous iron oxidation. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is active in CO(2) fixation by Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, which appears to have acquired its RuBisCO-encoding genes from the proteobacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans or its ancestor. This lateral transfer of RuBisCO genes between a proteobacterium and an actinobacterium would add to those noted previously among proteobacteria, between proteobacteria and cyanobacteria and between proteobacteria and plastids. "Acidithiomicrobium" has RuBisCO-encoding genes which are most closely related to those of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and has additional RuBisCO genes of a different lineage. 16S rRNA gene sequences from "Acidithiomicrobium" species dominated clone banks of the genes extracted from mixed cultures of moderate thermophiles growing on copper sulfide and polymetallic sulfide ores in ore leaching columns. PMID:21308384

Norris, Paul R; Davis-Belmar, Carol S; Brown, Carly F; Calvo-Bado, Leonides A

2011-03-01

340

A comparative study of electrochemical behavior of chalcopyrite, chalcocite and bornite in sulfuric acid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the electrochemical behavior of different copper sulfide minerals (chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite) in sulfuric acid solutions was performed. Carbon paste electrodes (CPE) containing mineral particles with nonconducting binder were used. The comparative study shows that the chalcopyrite oxidation process does not produce covellite as claimed by some authors. Chalcopyrite oxidation has been found to produce a

Elsa M Arce; Ignacio González

2002-01-01

341

Effect of KI on improving copper corrosion inhibition efficiency of benzotriazole in sulfuric acid electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synergistic effect exists when benzotriazole (BTAH) and iodide ions are used together to prevent the corrosion of copper in sulfuric acid. The nature of this effect has been studied systematically by using electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synergistic effect is due largely to the formation of a film of Cu(IBTA) complex and is probably polymeric in nature.

Y. C. Wu; P. Zhang; H. W. Pickering; D. L. Allara

1993-01-01

342

BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN HUMANS UPON EXPOSURE TO SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL AND EXERCISE  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 18 human subjects were exposed to ambient air for four hours on the first day of exposure and to four hours of 100 micrograms/cu. m. (0.033 micromole) sulfuric acid aerosol exposed to four hours of ambient air on both exposure days. Six biochemical blood parameters wer...

343

Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

344

Relationships between extinction, absorption, backscattering, and mass content of sulfuric acid aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear relationships between aerosol extinction, absorption, backscatter, and mass content are derived for polydispersions of sulfuric acid aerosols. These relationships are independent of the form of the size distribution and are a consequence of approximating the corresponding Mie efficiency factors (the extinction efficiency Q\\/sub e\\/, the absorption efficiency Q\\/sub a\\/, and the backscatter gain G) by linear functions of the

R. G. Pinnick; S. G. Jennings; P. Chylek

1980-01-01

345

Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: A framework for model calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for applying rates of heterogeneous chemical reactions measured in the laboratory to small sulfuric acid aerosols found in the stratosphere is presented. The procedure for calculating the applicable reactive uptake coefficients using laboratory-measured parameters is developed, the necessary laboratory-measured quantities are discussed, and a set of equations for use in models are presented. This approach is demonstrated to

David R. Hanson; A. R. Ravishankara; Susan Solomon

1994-01-01

346

The role of cluster energy nonaccommodation in atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the possible role of energy nonaccommodation (monomer-cluster collisions that do not result in stable product formation due to liberated excess energy) in atmospheric nucleation processes involving sulfuric acid. Qualitative estimates of the role of nonaccommodation are computed using quantum Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel theory together with quantum chemically calculated vibrational frequencies and anharmonic coupling constants for small sulfuric acid-containing clusters. We find that energy nonaccommodation effects may, at most, decrease the net formation rate of sulfuric acid dimers by up to a factor of 10 with respect to the hard-sphere collision rate. A decrease in energy nonaccommodation due to an increasing number of internal degrees of freedom may kinetically slightly favor the participation of amines rather than ammonia as stabilizing agents in sulfuric acid nucleation, though the kinetic enhancement factor is likely to be less than three. However, hydration of the clusters (which always occurs in ambient conditions) is likely to increase the energy accommodation factor, reducing the role that energy nonaccommodation plays in atmospheric nucleation.

Kurten, T.; Kuang, C.; Gomez, P.; McMurry, P. H.; Vehkamaki, H.; Ortega, I.; Noppel, M.; Kulmala, M.

2010-01-11

347

Optimum Ratio to Lysine of Threonine, Tryptophan, and Sulfur Amino Acids for Finishing Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight crossbred (PIC line 26 x periods were designed to be slightly deficient in lysine Camborough 15) pigs were used in two finishing trials and to contain digestible Thr (65%), Trp (18%), and to compare the ideal ratios of threonine (Thr), SAA ( 60% 1 at the ideal ratio to digestible Lys tryptophan (Trp 1, and sulfur amino acids (SAA)

Joseph D. Hahn; David H. Bake

2010-01-01

348

Self-ordering of cell arrangement of anodic porous alumina formed in sulfuric acid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-ordering of the cell arrangement of the porous structure of anodic alumina has been studied in a sulfuric acid solution. Ordering of the cell arrangement was dependent on the applied potential, and a highly ordered structure was obtained under anodization at a constant potential of 25 to 27 V. Self-ordering of the porous structure proceeded with the growth of the

Hideki Masuda; Fumio Hasegwa; Sachiko Ono

1997-01-01

349

EFFECTS OF LARGE (0.9 MICROMETER) SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON HUMAN PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...

350

A new approach to production rate measurement in sulfuric acid plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the promulgation of the new source performance standards (NSPS) methods and standards in the December 23, 1971 Federal Register, attention has been increasingly focused on accurate determination of the process parameters for assessing compliance. For utility boilers, the standard is in units of pounds of particulate per million Btu's of heat input; for sulfuric acid plants, the units are

D. J. Grove; W. S. Smith

1983-01-01

351

Purification of regenerated sulfuric acid from crude-benzole-fraction washing  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present stage of development in chemical technology, any newly developed and operated process must not only have high technical and economic performance indices but also ensure that no toxic wastes are produced to pollute the environment. From this point of view, the future of the sulfuric-acid process for refining aromatic hydrocarbons and naphthalene hinges on the problem of

V. V. Markov; M. N. Chernyavskaya; L. A. Korzhan

1976-01-01

352

Operating experience with unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by butylenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term studies of the operation of units for the sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutanes by butylenes at the Burgas Petrochemical Combine [i] have been performed over a broad range of process conditions in order to define more precisely the technical capabilities of the unit and individual sections of the unit, and also to develop an improved unit and reconstruct existing

I. T. Tagavov; V. T. Sumanov; S. N. Khadzhiev

1988-01-01

353

How biogenic terpenes govern the correlation between sulfuric acid concentrations and new particle formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New particle formation has been observed to take place all around the world. However, because of the inability to determine the chemical composition of the smallest clusters or particles, indirect tools such as the correlation between nucleation rate and measured sulfuric acid concentrations have been used to infer the nucleation mechanism. In this study we describe the observed correlation with

B. Bonn; M. Kulmala; I. Riipinen; S.-L. Sihto; T. M. Ruuskanen

2008-01-01

354

MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL ON THE RAT LUNG  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to determine the pulmonary effects of a combination of ozone (0.5 ppm) and sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/cu. m.) and to assess the possibility of interactive effects. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were continously exposed to the pollutants, either indi...

355

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON TWO MODEL HARDWOOD FORESTS: THROUGHFALL, LITTER LEACHATE, AND SOIL SOLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.6) was applied to model forests containing either sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or red alder (Alnus rubra). Water samples were collected above and below the canopy, below the litter, and from 20 cm and 1 m below the surface of ...

356

OPERATION OF A SULFURIC ACID PLANT USING BLENDED COPPER SMELTER GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

A high degree of control of SOx emissions at copper smelters can be obtained by blending reverberatory furnace gases with gases from roasters and converters and using the combined stream as feed to a sulfuric acid plant. The Bor Copper Smelter in Bor, Yugoslavia, experimented wit...

357

Purification of Waste Waters from the Sulfuric-Acid Scheme for Reprocessing Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technological scheme is developed for purifying waste waters from the sulfuric-acid scheme of uranium refining, including galvanochemical treatment, separation of uranium-containing residue, blowing off ammonia, separation of nonradioactive calcium sulfate, and additional extraction of fluorine and sulfate ions. This scheme will make it possible to remove contaminants from the waste waters of the special piping system of the Angarskii

Yu. V. Ostrovskii; G. M. Zabortsev; S. P. Yakobchuk; R. L. Rabinovich; A. A. Lavelin

2005-01-01

358

Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Sulfuric Acid on Senior Asthmatics and Nonasthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the response of asthmatic subjects who were 60 to 75 y of age to inhaled sulfuric acid, and (2) to compare that response to findings from healthy subjects in the same age group. Nine subjects who had asthma and eight healthy subjects participated. Each subject was exposed to clean air,

Jane Q. Koenig; Karen Dumler; Viviana Rebolledo; Paul V. Williams; William E. Pierson

1993-01-01

359

Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

360

Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.  

PubMed

Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion. PMID:25353947

Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

2014-01-01

361

GEOPHYSICALRESEARCHLETTERS,VOL. 25,NO.16,PAGES3143-3146,AUGUST 15, 1998 Hydrates in binary sulfuric acid-water vapor  

E-print Network

. We reportcalculationsof the distributionof sulfuric acidGEOPHYSICALRESEARCHLETTERS,VOL. 25,NO.16,PAGES3143-3146,AUGUST 15, 1998 Hydrates in binary sulfuric acid-water vapor: Comparison of CIMS measurementswith the liquid-drop model Robert

362

The reaction of CIONO{sub 2} with submicrometer sulfuric acid aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The measured reaction probability, {gamma}, for the reaction of chlorine nitrate CIONO{sub 2} with 60 percent (by weight) sulfuric acid aerosol increases monotonically with particle size at 250 kelvin. The reactor-diffusive length (l, the effective liquid depth over which reaction occurs) derived from these experiments is 0.037{+-}0.007 micrometer (95 percent confidence level for precision). The reaction probability for the reaction of CIONO{sub 2} with 60 percent sulfuric acid aerosol doped with {approximately}7 x 10{sup -4} M hydrochloric acid at 250 kelvin is larger by about a factor of 4 than in the absence of hydrochloric acid and varies less with particle size (l = 0.009{+-}0.005 micrometer). These results provide a test of the theory for gas-particle reactions and further insight into the reactivity of atmospheric aerosol. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Hanson, D.R.; Lovejoy, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-03-03

363

Study of insoluble crystals derived from solutions of Kevlar 49 in sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect

The object of the study was to isolate and obtain x-ray diffraction analysis of the insoluble crystals which have been observed in Kevlar 49/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ dope. These insoluble crystals had previously been reported to be Kevlar single crystals after analysis by optical microscopy. A more detailed analysis does not support this conclusion. Additional optical microscopy coupled with FTIR and elemental analysis for C, H and N, has shown that these insoluble crystals are in fact terephthalic acid which is a decomposition product of the acid hydrolysis of Kevlar. A model compound study of sulfuric-acid hydrolysis of aromatic amide was carried out in order to better understand the sulfuric-acid-hydrolysis of Kevlar.

Butler, N.L.

1984-05-21

364

Methane sulfonic acid-enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over oceans and in coastal regions, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation into the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid- and dimethyl amine (DMA)-based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well-tested ab initio methods, we optimise the structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data are used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code, and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to 1 order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300 % at 258 K, less than 100 % at 278 K and less than 15 % at 298 K. The results are rationalised by a detailed analysis of the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA-enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-11-01

365

Influence of sulfur amino acids on the volatile and nonvolatile components of cooked salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Volatile and nonvolatile compounds, which could contribute to flavor, were analyzed in salmon. One hundred twenty-three volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of two different samples of cooked salmon, including lipid-derived volatiles, Maillard-derived volatiles, sulfur volatiles, Strecker aldehydes, nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, terpenes, and trimethylamine. Significant differences between samples were found for 104 of the volatiles. Although the levels of free cysteine and methionine were low in the salmon, sulfur volatiles were formed in the cooked fish, demonstrating that there were sufficient sulfur amino acids present for their formation. Notable differences in sulfur compounds between the samples suggested that small changes in sulfur amino acids could be responsible. When this hypothesis was tested, salmon heated with cysteine had increased levels of many thiophenes, thiazoles, alicyclic sulfides, and nitrogen heterocycles. With the addition of methionine, levels of dimethyl sulfides, two alicyclic sulfides, pyrazines, some unsaturated aldehydes, and alcohols and 2-furanmethanethiol increased. The largest difference found among the nonvolatile (low molecular weight water-soluble) compounds was in inosine monophosphate. PMID:17253713

Methven, Lisa; Tsoukka, Maria; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Parker, Jane K; Mottram, Donald S

2007-02-21

366

Sulfur amino acid metabolism in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Although methionine dependency is a phenotypic characteristic of tumor cells, it remains to be determined whether changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism occur in cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic medications. We compared expression/activity of sulfur amino acid metabolizing enzymes and cellular levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites between normal MCF-7 cells and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Adr) cells. The S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, an index of transmethylation potential, in MCF-7/Adr cells decreased to {approx} 10% relative to that in MCF-7 cells, which may have resulted from down-regulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Expression of homocysteine-clearing enzymes, such as cystathionine beta-synthase, methionine synthase/methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, was up-regulated in MCF-7/Adr cells, suggesting that acquiring doxorubicin resistance attenuated methionine-dependence and activated transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine. Homocysteine was similar, which is associated with a balance between the increased expressions of homocysteine-clearing enzymes and decreased extracellular homocysteine. Despite an elevation in cysteine, cellular GSH decreased in MCF-7/Adr cells, which was attributed to over-efflux of GSH into the medium and down-regulation of the GSH synthesis enzyme. Consequently, MCF-7/Adr cells were more sensitive to the oxidative stress induced by bleomycin and menadione than MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that regulating sulfur amino acid metabolism may be a possible therapeutic target for chemoresistant cancer cells. These results warrant further investigations to determine the role of sulfur amino acid metabolism in acquiring anticancer drug resistance in cancer cells using chemical and biological regulators involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. - Research Highlights: > MCF-7/Adr cells showed decreases in cellular GSH, which were attributed to increase efflux of GSH. > MCF-7/Adr was more sensitive to oxidative stress induced by bleomycin and menadione. > Hcy-clearing enzymes involved in were up-regulated in MCF-7/Adr cells. > Doxorubicin-resistance attenuated Met-dependence and activated transsulfuration. > Regulating sulfur amino acid metabolism may be a possible therapeutic target.

Ryu, Chang Seon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Lee, Kye Sook [College of Pharmacy and RCTCP, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [BK21 Project Team and Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy,Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Ki Ho; Kim, Hwan Mook [Bio-Evaluation Center, KRIBB, Ochang, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Jin Yeul [Center for Herbal Medicine Improvement Research, Korea Institute of Oriental medicine, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Kyum, E-mail: sangkim@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and RCTCP, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15

367

Leaching platinum-group metals in a sulfuric acid\\/chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leaching process was established based on the ability of platinum-group metals to form stable chloro-complexes in acidic\\u000a chloride solutions. Industrial catalyst losses were examined for the recovery of platinum, palladium, and rhodium by leaching\\u000a with a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride to avoid using aqua regia or autoclave conditions. Extraction of platinum\\u000a and rhodium in 60% H2SO4

M. H. H. Mahmoud

2003-01-01

368

Leaching platinum-group metals in a sulfuric acid\\/chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leaching process was established based on the ability of platinum-group metals to form stable chloro-complexes in acidic chloride solutions. Industrial catalyst losses were examined for the recovery of platinum, palladium, and rhodium by leaching with a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride to avoid using aqua regia or autoclave conditions. Extraction of platinum and rhodium in 60% H2SO4

M. H. H. Mahmoud

2003-01-01

369

Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of low-grade zinc silicate ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a leaching kinetics study of low-grade zinc silicate ore with sulfuric acid are presented. Effect of ore particle size, reaction temperature, and acid concentration on zinc dissolution rate were determined. The results obtained show that leaching of about 94% of zinc is achieved using ?200+270 mesh ore particle size at a reaction temperature of 70°C for 180

E. A Abdel-Aal

2000-01-01

370

On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

1988-01-01

371

Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

1993-01-01

372

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24

373

An enhanced throughput method for quantification of sulfur mustard adducts to human serum albumin via isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Here, we report an enhanced throughput method for the diagnosis of human exposure to sulfur mustard. A hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE) ester-adducted tripeptide, produced by pronase digestion of human serum albumin, was selected as the quantitative exposure biomarker. Cibacron Blue enrichment was developed from an established cartridge method into a 96-well plate format, increasing throughput and ruggedness. This new method decreased sample volume 2.5-fold. Addition of a precipitation and solid-phase extraction concentration step increased the sensitivity of the method. With the conversion to a 96-well plate and optimization of chromatography, the method resulted in a 3-fold decrease in analysis time. Inclusion of a confirmation ion has increased specificity. The method was found to be linear between 0.050 and 50 µM sulfur mustard exposure with a precision for both quality control samples of ?6.5% relative standard deviation and an accuracy of >96%. The limit of detection (3So) was calculated to be ?0.0048 µM, an exposure value similar to that of the HETE-albumin adduct method first described by Noort and co-workers (Noort et al., 1999; Noort el al., 2004) which used protein precipitation to isolate albumin. A convenience set of 124 plasma samples from healthy unexposed individuals was analyzed using this method to assess background levels of exposure to sulfur mustard; no positive results were detected. PMID:24201816

Andacht, Tracy M; Pantazides, Brooke G; Crow, Brian S; Fidder, Alex; Noort, Daan; Thomas, Jerry D; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C

2014-01-01

374

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rard, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-07-01

375

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Rard, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-07-01

376

EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

Ketusky, E

2008-07-11

377

Structure of Butanol and Hexanol at Aqueous, Ammonium Bisulfate, and Sulfuric Acid Solution Surfaces Investigated by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Structure of Butanol and Hexanol at Aqueous, Ammonium Bisulfate, and Sulfuric Acid Solution at the air-liquid interface of aqueous, aqueous ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid solutions hexanol. At aqueous, ammonium bisulfate, and at most sulfuric acid solution surfaces, butanol molecules

378

Ionic mechanisms for heterogeneous stratospheric reactions and ultraviolet photoabsorption cross sections for NO2+, HNO3, AND NO3? in sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present room temperature photo-absorption cross sections between 180 and 340 nm for potassium nitrate dissolved in sulfuric acid-water solutions of 0, 80, and 96% sulfuric acid by mass. Other investigators have obtained ultraviolet absorption spectra for similar solutions above 220 nm, and there is a large literature on the spectra, species, and nitration reactions in sulfuric acid solutions. The

Joel D. Burley; H. S. Johnston

1992-01-01

379

Delayed production of sulfuric acid condensation nuclei in the polar stratosphere from El Chichon volcanic vapors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that measurements of the vertical profiles of atmospheric condensation nuclei (CN) have been conducted since 1973. Studies with a new instrument revealed that the CN concentration undergoes a remarkable annual variation in the 30-km region characterized by a large increase in the late winter/early spring period with a subsequent decay during the remainder of the year. The event particles are observed to be volatile at 150 C, suggesting a sulfuric acid-water composition similar to that found in the normal 20 km aerosol layer. The development of about 10 to the 7th metric tons of sulfuric acid aerosol following the injection of sulfurous gases by El Chichon in April 1982, prompted Hofmann and Rosen (1983) to predict a very large CN event for 1983. The present investigation is concerned with the actual observation of the predicted event. Attention is given to the observation of a very large increase of what appear to be small sulfuric acid droplets at 30-km altitude in January 1983 over Laramie, WY, in January 1983.

Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Gringel, W.

1985-01-01

380

A combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis on sulfur metabolism pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana under simulated acid rain.  

PubMed

With rapid economic development, most regions in southern China have suffered acid rain (AR) pollution. In our study, we analyzed the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis under simulated AR stress which provide one of the first case studies, in which the systematic responses in sulfur metabolism were characterized by high-throughput methods at different levels including proteomic, genomic and physiological approaches. Generally, we found that all of the processes related to sulfur metabolism responded to AR stress, including sulfur uptake, activation and also synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acid and other secondary metabolites. Finally, we provided a catalogue of the detected sulfur metabolic changes and reconstructed the coordinating network of their mutual influences. This study can help us to understand the mechanisms of plants to adapt to AR stress. PMID:24595051

Liu, Tingwu; Chen, Juan A; Wang, Wenhua; Simon, Martin; Wu, Feihua; Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Juan B; Zheng, Hailei

2014-01-01

381

Decoupling the Impacts of Heterotrophy and Autotrophy on Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within caves such as Movile Caves (Romania), the Frasassi Caves (Italy), and Lower Kane Cave (LKC, Wyoming, USA) the combination of abiotic autoxidation and microbiological oxidation of H2S produces SO42- and H+ that promotes limestone dissolution through sulfuric-acid speleogenesis (SAS). Microbial sulfide oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been shown recently to be the dominant process leading to speleogenesis in these caves. However, due to the inherently large diversity of microbial communities within these environments, there are a variety of metabolic pathways that can impact limestone dissolution and carbon cycling to varying degrees. In order to investigate these variations we outfitted a continuous flow bioreactor with a Picarro Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) that continuously monitored and logged 12CO2 and 13CO2 at ppmv sensitivity and isotope ratios at <0.3‰ precision in simulated cave atmospheres. Bioreactors containing Madison Limestone were inoculated with either a monoculture of the mixotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix unzii or a mixed environmental (LKC) sulfur-metabolizing community. Ca2+ and pH were also continuously logged in order to quantify the impact of microbial metabolism on limestone dissolution rate. We found an order of magnitude of variability in limestone dissolution rates that were closely tied to microbial metabolism. In monocultures, limestone dissolution was inhibited by excessive reduced sulfur as T. unzii prefers to store sulfur internally as So under these conditions, generating no acidity. The headspace was depleted in 13C when sulfur was being stored as So and enriched in 13C when sulfur was being converted to SO42-. This suggests a preference for a heterotrophy during periods of high sulfur input and autotrophy when sulfur input is low. This was corroborated by an increase in SO42- during low sulfide input and microscope images showed loss of internal sulfur within the filaments during these periods. In both monoculture and LKC environmental cultures, dissolution rates were highest when sulfur-substrate was limited and CO2 was supplied with no organic carbon. Under these conditions ?13C values were as much as 20‰ higher than abiotic conditions and signifies autotrophic carbon fixation which discriminates against 13C. 16S rRNA sequences confirm that autotrophic SOB dominate within this reactor. In contrast, when acetate was supplied with no supplied CO2, ?13C was relatively constant, maintaining values between -31‰ and as low as -37‰. This signifies heterotrophic metabolism where lighter 12C is preferentially consumed resulting in lighter CO2 in the headspace. 16S rRNA sequences confirm that heterotrophic sulfur-reducing bacteria dominate the community within this reactor. When both acetate and CO2 were supplied the heterotrophic behavior appeared to dominate the system which resulted in a significant drop (15‰) in ?13C and a correlative drop in limestone dissolution rate. These results suggest that chemoautotrophy increases the rate of SAS and CO2 flux within the cave environment while heterotrophy leads to slower SAS or even calcite precipitation. Furthermore, changes in carbon substrate (CO2 vs. Acetate) or sulfur substrate concentrations caused an immediate microbial response that could be observed in all measured chemical variables.

Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

2013-12-01

382

Comparison of microwaves to fluidized sand baths for heating tubular reactors for hydrothermal and dilute acid batch pretreatment of corn stover.  

PubMed

Heating of batch tubular reactors with fluidized sand baths and with microwaves resulted in distinctive sugar yield profiles from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover at the same time, temperature, and dilute sulfuric acid concentration combinations and hydrothermal pretreatment conditions. Microwave heated pretreatment led to faster xylan, lignin, and acetyl removal as well as earlier xylan degradation than sand baths, but maximum sugar recoveries were similar. Solid state CP/MAS NMR revealed that microwave heating was more effective in altering cellulose structural features especially in breakdown of amorphous regions of corn stover than sand bath heating. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover was improved by microwave heating compared to sand bath heating. Mechanisms were proposed to explain the differences in results for the two systems and provide new insights into pretreatment that can help advance this technology. PMID:21463933

Shi, Jian; Pu, Yunqiao; Yang, Bin; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wyman, Charles E

2011-05-01

383

Solubility of methanol in low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid and implications for atmospheric particle composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using traditional Knudsen cell techniques, we find well-behaved Henry's law uptake of methanol in aqueous 45 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 197 and 231 K. Solubility of methanol increases with decreasing temperature and increasing acidity, with an effective Henry's law coefficient ranging from 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 8) M/atm. Equilibrium uptake of methanol into sulfuric acid aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will not appreciably alter gas-phase concentrations of methanol. The observed room temperature reaction between methanol and sulfuric acid is too slow to provide a sink for gaseous methanol at the temperatures of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is also too slow to produce sufficient quantities of soluble reaction products to explain the large amount of unidentified organic material seen in particles of the upper troposphere.

Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

384

Heterogeneous freezing of single sulfuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilizing an acoustic levitator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulfuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -50°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, a new technique has been developed to suspend the droplet by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite, kaolin or montmorillonite in order to study the influence of the presence of such contamination on the freezing temperature. The radii of the suspended droplets spanned the range between 0.4 and 1.1mm and the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution varied between 5 and 14 weight percent. The presence of the particles in the solution raises the freezing temperature with respect to homogeneous freezing of these solution droplets. The pure solution droplets can be supercooled up to 40 degrees below the ice-acid solution thermodynamic equilibrium curve. Depending on the concentration of sulfuric acid and the nature of the impurity the polluted droplets froze between -11°C and -35°C. The new experimental set-up, combining a deep freezer with a movable ultrasonic levitator and suitable optics, proved to be a useful approach for such investigations on individual droplets.

Ettner, M.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

2004-09-01

385

Heterogeneous chemistry of acetone in sulfuric acid solutions: Implications for the upper troposphere  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of acetone vapor by liquid sulfuric acid has been investigated over the range of 40--87 wt % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and between the temperatures 198 and 300 K. Studies were performed with a flow-tube reactor, using a quadrupole mass spectrometer for detection. At most concentrations studied (40--75 wt %), acetone was physically absorbed by sulfuric acid without undergoing irreversible reaction. However, at acid concentrations at or above 80 wt %, reactive uptake of acetone was observed, leading to products such as mesityl oxide and/or mesitylene. From time-dependent uptake data and liquid-phase diffusion coefficients calculated from molecular viscosity, the effective Henry's law solubility constant (H*) was determined. The solubility of acetone in liquid sulfuric acid was found to increase with increasing acid concentration and decreasing temperature. In the 75 wt % and 230 K range, the value for H* was found to be {approximately}2 x 10{sup 6} M/atm. This value suggests that acetone primarily remains in the gas phase rather than absorbing into sulfate aerosols under atmospheric conditions.

Kane, S.M.; Timonen, R.S.; Leu, M.T.

1999-11-18

386

Kinetics of the oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures in the decomposition of spent sulfuric acid in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of methyl benzenesulfonate a waste product is spent sulfuric acid containing 70% monohydrate and about 10% benzenesulfonic acid, direct use of which is very difficult. The possibility was investigated of thermal contact decomposition of sulfuric acid wastes from the production of methyl benzenesulfonate in a fluidized bed at 700-800°C. In the first stage of the study, this

A. G. Khludenev; B. E. Shenfeld; B. T. Vasilev; A. F. Lozhkin

1983-01-01

387

Kinetics of gypsum formation and growth during the dissolution of colemanite in sulfuric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important boron minerals, colemanite, is dissolved in aqueous sulfuric acid to produce boric acid whereby gypsum is formed as byproduct. Filtration of gypsum has an important role in boric acid production because gypsum affects the efficiency, purity and crystallization of boric acid. The formation and growth kinetics of gypsum during the dissolution of colemanite in aqueous sulfuric acid were studied in a batch reactor by varying the temperature (60-90°C), stirring rate (150-400 rpm), and initial concentrations of the reactants. The initial CaO/H 2SO 4 molar ratio was varied between 0.21-0.85 by keeping the initial concentration of sulfate ion at [SO 42-] o=0.623 mol/l, and 0.85-3.41 by keeping the initial concentration of colemanite at [B 2O 3] o=0.777 mol/l. The crystallization of gypsum from the solution was followed by monitoring the calcium ion concentration in the solution as it is decreased by the formation of calcium sulfate precipitate. The calcium ion concentration in the liquid phase first undergoes a rapid exponential decay and then slowly approaches an asymptotic value of the saturation concentration at the respective temperature. The saturation concentration decreases with the increasing temperature from 5.2 mmol/l at 60°C to 3.1 mmol/l at 80°C, however, further increase in the temperature up to 90°C causes an increase in the saturation concentration to 5.1 mmol/l. The stirring rate was found to have no significant effect on dissolution in the range of 150-400 rpm. The minimum saturation concentration of the calcium ion was obtained at 80°C when the initial CaO/H 2SO 4 molar ratio is 0.85. The boric acid concentration in the solution decreases with the decreasing initial concentration of sulfuric acid. After the fast dissolution reaction of colemanite in aqueous sulfuric acid, the nucleation of the gypsum crystals first occurs from the supersaturated solution and then the crystals grow on these nuclei. The needle like crystals become wider and taller on prolong crystallization. The rate of gypsum crystallization reaction was second order with respect to saturation level. The evaluation of the kinetic data in an Arhenius plot gives an activation energy of 34±2 kJ/mol for the crystal growth of gypsum from the supersaturated solution obtained by dissolution of colemanite in aqueous sulfuric acid.

Çetin, E.; Ero?lu, ?.; Özkar, S.

2001-11-01

388

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since relatively little is known about the effects of acid precipitation on growth and productivity of crop plants, a crop survey was initiated to study effects of HâSOâ rain simulants on growth, yield, and quality of selected crops which were chosen to represent diverse taxonomic groups and crop products. Plants were grown in pots in field-exposure chambers and subjected to

C. J. Cohen; L. C. Grothaus; S. C. Perrigan

1981-01-01

389

Kinetic and Modeling Investigation on Dilute Sulfuric Acid and Hot Water Fractionation of Selected Biomass Plan  

SciTech Connect

Subcontractor developed a processing model to evaluate and optimize an NREL-developed biomass pretreatment technology. The technology, taking advantage of the biphasic nature of hemicellulose in pretreatment, is a two-stage, reverse-flow, shrinking-bed system. The contract simulation found that this system could increase sugar yield by about 5%, with bed shrinkage of 27% and sugar yield of 95% at optimum conditions.

Lee, Y. Y.; Chen, R. B.; Wu, Z.; Hayes, J.

2004-09-01

390

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on crop plants  

SciTech Connect

Since relatively little is known about the effects of acid precipitation on growth and productivity of crop plants, a crop survey was initiated to study effects of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain simulants on growth, yield, and quality of selected crops which were chosen to represent diverse taxonomic groups and crop products. Plants were grown in pots in field-exposure chambers and subjected to three H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain simulants (pH levels 4.0, 3.5, and 3.0) and to a control simulant (pH 5.6). Yield of approximately two-thirds of the crops surveyed was not affected by the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain treatments. Equal numbers of the remaining crops exhibited stimulatory and inhibitory yield responses at some H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain simulant pH levels. These results did not suggest that acid rain treatment either generally inhibited or stimulated crop productivity. Crop response depended on crop species and crop product. For example, while forage yield of alfalfa and timothy was stimulated at some acid rain pH levels, yield of the remaining forage legume and grass species was not generally affected by acid rain treatment. However, root and fruit crop species exhibited generalized responses (yield inhibition and stimulation, respectively) which appeared to be more closely associated with crop product than occurred for other crop product groupings. Effects on crop quality were also important. For instance, although yield of some horticultural leaf and fruit crops was either unaffected or stimulated by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain treatment, marketability was adversely affected at low pH because of the presence of discoloration and/or lesions produced by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain treatment. This preliminary study demonstrates considerable variability in crop response to acid rain.

Cohen, C.J.; Grothaus, L.C.; Perrigan, S.C.

1981-01-01

391

Particle size distributions in Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, growth and freezing of sulfuric acid droplets, and implications for cloud formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper uses particle size and volume measurements obtained with the forward scattering spectrometer probe model 300 during January and February 1989 in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment to investigate processes important in the formation and growth of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. It is suggested on the basis of comparisons of the observations with expected sulfuric acid droplet deliquescence that in the Arctic a major fraction of the sulfuric acid droplets remain liquid until temperatures at least as low as 193 K. It is proposed that homogeneous freezing of the sulfuric acid droplets might occur near 190 K and might play a role in the formation of PSCs.

Dye, James E.; Baumgardner, D.; Gandrud, B. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Kelly, K. K.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.; Gary, B. L.

1992-01-01

392

Stability of Supported Platinum Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Catalysts for use in Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The activity and stability of several metal oxide supported platinum catalysts were explored for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. The acid decomposition reaction is common to several sulfur based thermochemical water splitting cycles. Reactions were carried out using a feed of concentrated liquid sulfuric acid (96 wt%) at atmospheric pressure at temperatures between 800 and 850 °C and a weight hour space velocity of 52 g acid/g catalyst/hr. Reactions were run at these high space velocities such that variations in kinetics were not masked by surplus catalyst. The influence of exposure to reaction conditions was explored for three catalysts; 0.1-0.2 wt% Pt supported on alumina, zirconia and titania. The higher surface area Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were found to have the highest activity but deactivated rapidly. A low surface area Pt/TiO2 catalyst was found to have good stability in short term tests, but slowly lost activity for over 200 hours of continuous operation.

Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Anne W. Glenn; Kyle C. Burch

2007-03-01

393

Photoluminescent properties of anodic aluminum oxide films formed in a mixture of malonic and sulfuric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films with ordered nanopore arrays were fabricated electrochemically in the mixture electrolytes of malonic and sulfuric acids. Their photoluminescent (PL) properties have been investigated. There is no obvious PL band for the AAO films prepared in pure sulfuric acid, however, with the increase of the concentration of malonic acid in the mixture electrolytes, a PL band in the range from 300 to 500 nm appears, and its intensity is enhanced gradually. Obviously, the PL band is mainly attributed to the malonic impurities incorporated into AAO films, which corresponds to the excitation center at about 270 nm. Meantime, the increase of the sulfuric acid concentration results in a blueshift of the PL band. Further, the effect of annealing process on the PL properties is also investigated. As annealing temperature increases, the malonic impurities incorporated into AAO films are gradually decomposed, the PL intensity corresponding to excitation center at about 270 nm gradually becomes weak. But interestingly, with the decomposition of malonic impurities, the defects in AAO films mainly caused by a lattice mismatch and the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between alumina and incorporated malonic impurities are gradually produced, which form a new excitation center at about 250 nm, and its PL is firstly enhanced to maximum at 400 °C and then decreases with the further increase of annealing temperature.

Li, Shou-Yi; Wang, Jian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xu-Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Cheng-Wei

2014-11-01

394

Electrical charging changes the composition of sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new-particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the composition of neutral clusters must be addressed in order to interpret and understand the measured data. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the composition of electrically neutral clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of the most stable neutral clusters with those of the corresponding charged clusters. Based on the evaporation rates of different molecules from the charged clusters, we determined the most likely resulting cluster composition when a stable neutral cluster is charged and the molecules with the highest evaporation rates are lost from it. We found that all of the most stable neutral clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the acid molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.

Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-08-01

395

Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

2009-01-01

396

Assessing the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance during dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatments  

PubMed Central

The production of cellulosic ethanol from biomass is considered a promising alternative to reliance on diminishing supplies of fossil fuels, providing a sustainable option for fuels production in an environmentally compatible manner. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels through a biological route usually suffers from the intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass owing to the complicated structure of plant cell walls. Currently, a pretreatment step that can effectively reduce biomass recalcitrance is generally required to make the polysaccharide fractions locked in the intricacy of plant cell walls to become more accessible and amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatments are attractive and among the most promising pretreatment technologies that enhance sugar release performance. This review highlights our recent understanding on molecular structure basis for recalcitrance, with emphasis on structural transformation of major biomass biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) related to the reduction of recalcitrance during dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatments. The effects of these two pretreatments on biomass porosity as well as its contribution on reduced recalcitrance are also discussed. PMID:23356640

2013-01-01

397

Redistribution of Xylan in Maize Cell Walls During Dilute Acid Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Developing processes for the conversion of biomass for use in transportation fuels production is becoming a critically important economic and engineering challenge. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising technology for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, a deeper understanding of the pretreatability of biomass is needed so that the rate of formation and yields of sugars can be increased. Xylan is an important hemicellulosic component of the plant cell wall and acts as a barrier to cellulose, essentially blocking cellulase action. To better understand xylan hydrolysis in corn stover, we have studied changes in the distribution of xylan caused by dilute acid pretreatment using correlative microscopy. A dramatic loss of xylan antibody signal from the center of the cell wall and an increase or retention of xylan at the plasma membrane interface and middle lamella of the cell were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We also observed a reduction in xylan fluorescence signal by CLSM that is generally consistent with the decrease in xylan content measured experimentally in the bulk sample, however, the compartmentalization of this xylan retention was not anticipated.

Brunecky, R.; Vinzant, T. B.; Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Johnson, D. K.; Himmel, M. E.

2009-04-15

398

Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids  

SciTech Connect

This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

1991-07-01

399

Uptake of formaldehyde by sulfuric acid solutions - Impact on stratospheric ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study investigates the uptake of CH2O by low temperature sulfuric acid solutions representative of global stratospheric particulate. It is argued that if similar uptake occurs under stratospheric pressures of CH2O, i.e., 1000 times lower than used in the present study, then the removal of CH2O from the gas phase can take away a significant source of odd hydrogen in the mid- and high-latitude lower stratosphere. It is shown that with the inclusion of this reaction, concentrations of OH and H2O are reduced by as much as 4 percent under background levels of aerosols and more than 15 percent under elevated (volcanic) conditions. The accumulation of CH2O in stratospheric aerosols over a season, reaching about 1 M solutions, will alter the composition and may even change the reactivity of these sulfuric acid-water mixtures.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Pfaff, Jeanne; Jayaweera, Indira; Prather, Michael J.

1993-01-01

400

The solubility of ozone in aqueous solutions of sulfuric, phosphoric, and perchloric acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of ozone in pure water and aqueous solutions of sulfuric, phosphoric, and perchloric acids was determined at 20°C. An increase in the concentration of H3PO4 and HClO4 (to 14.8 and 9.5 M, respectively) caused a monotonic decrease in the solubility of ozone. The solubility of ozone in sulfuric acid was minimum at a 12 M concentration; the solubility then increased and, in 17.9 M H2SO4, reached almost the same value as in pure water. The ratio between the concentrations of O3 in solution and the gas phase was 0.276 in pure water, 0.122 in 12 M H2SO4, and 0.265 in 17.9 M H2SO4. The results obtained are compared with the available literature data.

Levanov, A. V.; Kuskov, I. V.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

2008-07-01

401

Heterogeneous interactions of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen chloride, and nitric acid with sulfuric acid surfaces at stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous interactions of ClONO2, HCl, and HNO3 with sulfuric acid surfaces were studied using a Knudsen cell flow reactor. The surfaces studied, chosen to simulate global stratospheric particulate, were composed of 65-75 percent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures in the range -63 to -43 C. Heterogeneous loss, but not reaction, of HNO3 and HCl occurred on these surfaces; the measured sticking coefficients are reported. Chlorine nitrate reacted on the cold sulfuric acid surfaces, producing gas-phase HOCl and condensed HNO3. CLONO2 also reacted with HCl dissolved in the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C, forming gaseous Cl2. In all cases studied, the sticking and/or reaction coefficients were much larger for the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C than for the 75-percent solution at -43 C.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Golden, David M.

1988-01-01

402

A global three-dimensional model of the stratospheric sulfuric acid layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3D model which encompasses SO2 production from OCS, followed by its oxidation to gaseous H2SO4, the condensation-evaporation equilibrium of gaseous and particulate H2SO4, and finally particle condensation and rainout, is presently used to study processes maintaining the nonvolcanically-perturbed stratosphere's sulfuric acid layer. A comparison of the results thus obtained with remotely sensed stratospheric aerosol extinction data shows the model to simulate the general behavior of stratospheric aerosol extinction.

Golombek, Amram; Prinn, Ronald G.

1993-01-01

403

Design bases: Bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities 100-K Area  

SciTech Connect

This document defines the objective, bases, and functional requirements governing the preparation of detail design of the bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities to be installed in the 183-KE and KW buildings. These facilities will produce the chemical coagulant used in the treatment of Columbia River water in the water plants; they will replace existing liquid alum feed systems. The treated water will be used as reactor coolant.

Etheridge, E.L.

1993-06-10

404

Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol–sulfuric acid method in microplate format  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many colorimetric methods for carbohydrate analysis, the phenol–sulfuric acid method is the easiest and most reliable method. It has been used for measuring neutral sugars in oligosaccharides, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids. This method is used widely because of its sensitivity and simplicity. In its original form, it required 50–450nmol of monosaccharides or equivalent for analysis and thus is inadequate

Tatsuya Masuko; Akio Minami; Norimasa Iwasaki; Tokifumi Majima; Shin-Ichiro Nishimura; Yuan C. Lee

2005-01-01

405

Increase in the stratospheric background sulfuric acid aerosol mass in the past 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from measurements of the stratospheric aerosol at Laramie, Wyoming (41°N), indicate that the background or nonvolcanic stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol mass at northern mid-latitudes has increased by about 5 {plus minus} 2% per year during the past 10 years. Whether this increase is natural or anthropogenic could not be determined at this time because of inadequate information on

D. J. Hofmann

1990-01-01

406

Functional sulfur amino acid production and seawater remediation system by sterile Ulva sp. (chlorophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile Ulva, which is a macroalga, has the potential to grow stably; therefore, this seaweed is expected to be an efficient resource\\u000a of functional food containing various nutrients such as sulfur amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. Ulva lactuca was selected from the “Marine Park” in Tokyo Bay, and its growth rate (g-dry\\/[m2·d]) was measured using model reactors located on

Shin Hirayama; Masashi Miyasaka; Hideomi Amano; Yoshito Kumagai; Nobuhiro Shimojo; Teruyoshi Yanagita; Yoshiro Okami

2004-01-01

407

Use of polymer coatings to protect plate-type heat exchangers in sulfuric acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test anticorrosion coatings made of various thermoplastics, including Fluoroplastic 30P and Pentaplast A-2, for their protective properties when applied to steel-06KhN28MDT in the corrugated plates of heat exchangers used to cool sulfuric acid. They find the fluoroplastic to be superior not only in its corrosion resistance but also in its resistance to scale. The increase in thermal efficiency

Pavlenko

1987-01-01

408

Activation barriers in the growth of molecular clusters derived from sulfuric acid and ammonia.  

PubMed

Unraveling the chemical mechanism of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) has important implications for the broader understanding of the role of aerosols in global climate. We present computational results of the transition states and activation barriers for growth of atmospherically relevant positively charged molecular clusters containing ammonia and sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid uptake onto the investigated clusters has a small activation free-energy barrier, consistent with nearly collision-limited uptake. Ammonia uptake requires significant reorganization of ions in the preexisting cluster, which yields an activation barrier on the order of 29-53 kJ/mol for the investigated clusters. For this reason, ammonia uptake onto positively charged clusters may be too slow for cluster growth to proceed by the currently accepted mechanism of stepwise addition of sulfuric acid followed by ammonia. The results presented here may have important implications for modeling atmospheric NPF and nanoparticle growth, which typically does not consider an activation barrier along the growth pathway and usually assumes collision-limited molecular uptake. PMID:25394285

DePalma, Joseph W; Bzdek, Bryan R; Ridge, Douglas P; Johnston, Murray V

2014-12-11

409

Measurement of the kinetics of reactive uptake by submicron sulfuric acid particles  

SciTech Connect

An experimental apparatus for measuring the kinetics of the reactive uptake of gas phase species by sulfuric acid aerosol is described. The reactive uptake is studied by monitoring the concentration of the gas phase species at the exit of a laminar flow reactor as a function of the position at which the gas is added to the aerosol flow. The gas phase species concentration is measured by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Sulfuric acid aerosol is generated by the gas phase reaction between SO[sub 3] and H[sub 2]O. The aerosol have log-normal radius distributions with peak radii in the range 0.05-0.15 [mu]m with a radial dispersion of about [+-] 30%. The particle number density (5 [times] 10[sup 4-] 1 [times] 10[sup 6] particles cm[sup [minus]3] in the reactor) is measured in a separate apparatus by monitoring the extinction of visible light by the growing particles following a rapid expansion at high relative humidity. The size distribution of the aerosol in the reactor is extracted from measurements of the UV transmission between 200 and 400 nm by using Mie theory. Kinetic results for the reaction is N[sub 2]O[sub 5] with 70 wt% sulfuric acid aerosol at room temperature are presented. 43 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Lovejoy, E.R.; Hanson, D.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

1995-02-16

410

Leaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Sulfuric Acid in an Autoclave System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate was investigated in an autoclave system using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid. By decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the active oxygen formed can provide both high oxidation potential and high pressure in a closed vessel for leaching. Preliminary studies showed that hydrogen peroxide can be used as an oxidant instead of oxygen gas in the autoclave. Central composite design (CCD) was used to examine the effects of the experimental parameters on the copper and iron extraction as a response. The proposed model equation using CCD showed good agreement with experimental data, the correlation coefficients R 2 for copper and iron being 0.84 and 0.86, respectively. The optimum conditions to obtain the main goal of maximum copper and minimum iron extraction from chalcopyrite were determined as to be sulfuric acid concentration of 2.5 M, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 2.3 M, leaching time of 24 minutes, chalcopyrite amount of 3.17 g (in 50-mL solution), stirring speed of 630 rpm, and leaching temperature of 351 K (78 °C). Under the optimum condition, 76 pct of copper and 9 pct of iron were extracted from chalcopyrite concentrate. Extraction yield results of metals indicate that selective leaching of chalcopyrite can be achieved using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid in an autoclave system.

Turan, M. Deniz; Altundo?an, H. Soner

2013-08-01

411

Heterogeneous chemistry of octanal and 2, 4-hexadienal with sulfuric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental studies using the environmental chamber have suggested that acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions of organic carbonyls lead to multifold increases in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass, but the kinetics and mechanism of the heterogeneous chemistry of carbonyls with sulfuric acid remain largely uncertain. We report the first measurements of heterogeneous uptake of octanal and 2, 4-hexadienal on liquid H2SO4 in the acid range of 60 to 85 wt % and between 250 and 298 K. Octanal was physically absorbed by sulfuric acid without undergoing irreversible reaction. From the time-dependent uptake the effective Henry's law solubility constant (H*) was determined. Irreversible reactive uptake was observed for 2, 4-hexadienal, and the uptake coefficient decreased with decreasing acid concentrations. The uptake of octanal and 2, 4-hexadienal on liquid H2SO4 is explained by aldol condensation, dependent on acidity. The results suggest that aldol condensation of the aldehydes can be important in the upper troposphere, but may not significantly contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation in the lower troposphere.

Zhao, Jun; Levitt, Nicholas P.; Zhang, Renyi

2005-05-01

412

EVALUATING EFFECTS OF NEPTUNIUM ON THE SRS METHOD FOR CONTROLLED POTENTIAL COULOMETRIC ASSAY OF PLUTONIUM IN SULFURIC ACID SUPPORTING ELECTROLYTE  

SciTech Connect

A study of the impact of neptunium on the coulometric assay of plutonium in dilute sulfuric acid was performed. Weight aliquots of plutonium standard solutions were spiked with purified neptunium solution to evaluate plutonium measurement performance for aliquots with Pu:Np ratios of 50:1, 30:1, 20:1, 15:1, and 10:1. Weight aliquots of the pure plutonium standard solution were measured as controls. Routine plutonium instrument control standards were also measured. The presence of neptunium in plutonium aliquots significantly increases the random uncertainty associated with the plutonium coulometric measurement performed in accordance with ISO12183:2005.7 However, the presence of neptunium does not appear to degrade electrode performance and conditioning as aliquots of pure plutonium that were interspersed during the measurement of the mixed Pu:Np aliquots continued to achieve the historical short-term random uncertainty for the method. Lack of adequate control of the neptunium oxidation state is suspected to be the primary cause of the elevated measurement uncertainty and will be pursued in a future study.

Holland, M; Sheldon Nichols, S

2008-05-09

413

Ethanol production from glucose and dilute-acid hydrolyzates by encapsulated S. cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The performance of encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 in anaerobic cultivation of glucose, in the presence and absence of furfural as well as in dilute-acid hydrolyzates, was investigated. The cultivation of encapsulated cells in 10 sequential batches in synthetic media resulted in linear increase of biomass up to 106 g/L of capsule volume, while the ethanol productivity remained constant at 5.15 (+/-0.17) g/L x h (for batches 6-10). The cells had average ethanol and glycerol yields of 0.464 and 0.056 g/g in these 10 batches. Addition of 5 g/L furfural decreased the ethanol productivity to a value of 1.31 (+/-0.10) g/L x h with the encapsulated cells, but it was stable in this range for five consecutive batches. On the other hand, the furfural decreased the ethanol yield to 0.41-0.42 g/g and increased the yield of acetic acid drastically up to 0.068 g/g. No significant lag phase was observed in any of these experiments. The encapsulated cells were also used to cultivate two different types of dilute-acid hydrolyzates. While the free cells were not able to ferment the hydrolyzates within at least 24 h, the encapsulated yeast successfully converted glucose and mannose in both of the hydrolyzates in less than 10 h with no significant lag phase. However, since the hydrolyzates were too toxic, the encapsulated cells lost their activity gradually in sequential batches. PMID:15772948

Talebnia, Farid; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2005-05-01

414

Alteration of pulmonary macrophage intracellular pH regulation by sulfuric acid aerosol exposures.  

PubMed

In vivo exposure to sulfuric acid aerosols produces profound effects on pulmonary macrophage (PM phi) phagocytic function and cytokine release and perturbs intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis. Because pHi influences a multitude of cellular processes, we sought to investigate the mechanism by which acid aerosol exposure affects its regulation. Guinea pigs underwent a single or 5 repeated 3-hr exposures to sulfuric acid aerosol (969 and 974 micrograms/m3 for single and repeated exposures, respectively). PM phi harvested immediately after exposure were incubated in HCO3-free media and their pHi recovery from an intracellular acid load was examined. The overall pHi recovery was depressed after single and multiple exposures to sulfuric acid aerosol. delta pHi (the difference between initial pHi and the one measured at 150 sec) decreased by 15.6 and 23.3% (p < 0.05) for single and repeated exposures, respectively. Initial dpHi/dt (maximum pHi recovery rate) after cytoplasmic acidification diminished by 20.3 and 32.2%, which were not statistically significant (p = 0.08 for repeated exposure). To determine whether the activity of the H(+)-ATPase pump the Na(+)-H+ exchanger was specifically altered by the acid exposures, PM phi were first incubated in Na+ and HCO3-free media with NBD-Cl (7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol, blocking H(+)-ATPase and leaving only the Na(+)-H+ exchanger in effect) and then challenged with 30 mM NaCl. The pHi recovery of PM phi after Na challenge was significantly reduced in acid aerosol exposed guinea pigs (p < 0.05) compared to controls (for delta pHi, 18.2% lower in single exposure and 22.7% in multiple exposure groups; for initial dpHi/dt, 26.9% lower in single exposure and 22.4% in multiple exposure groups). In contrast, the H(+)-ATPase pump was inconsistently affected as indicated by delta pHi and initial dpHi/dt measured in the presence of MIA (amiloride-5-N-methylisobutyl, inhibiting the Na(+)-H+ exchanger and leaving only the H(+)-ATPase pump in effect). These results suggest that in vivo exposure to sulfuric acid aerosols induces alterations in pHi regulation in guinea pig PM phi attributable to changes in Na(+)-H+ exchanger activity. PMID:8393219

Qu, Q S; Chen, L C; Gordon, T; Amdur, M; Fine, J M

1993-07-01

415

Advances in Acid Concentration Membrane Technology for the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect

One of the most promising cycles for the thermochemical generation of hydrogen is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) process, where aqueous HI is thermochemically decomposed into H2 and I2 at approximately 350 degrees Celsius. Regeneration of HI is accomplished by the Bunsen reaction (reaction of SO2, water, and iodine to generate H2SO4 and HI). Furthermore, SO2 is regenerated from the decomposition of H2SO4 at 850 degrees Celsius yielding the SO2 as well as O2. Thus, the cycle actually consists of two concurrent oxidation-reduction loops. As HI is regenerated, co-produced H2SO4 must be separated so that each may be decomposed. Current flowsheets employ a large amount (~83 mol% of the entire mixture) of elemental I2 to cause the HI and the H2SO4 to separate into two phases. To aid in the isolation of HI, which is directly decomposed into hydrogen, water and iodine must be removed. Separation of iodine is facilitated by removal of water. Sulfuric acid concentration is also required to facilitate feed recycling to the sulfuric acid decomposer. Decomposition of the sulfuric acid is an equilibrium limited process that leaves a substantial portion of the acid requiring recycle. Distillation of water from sulfuric acid involves significant corrosion issues at the liquid-vapor interface. Thus, it is desirable to concentrate the acid without boiling. Recent efforts at the INL have concentrated on applying pervaporation through Nafion-117, Nafion-112, and sulfonated poly(etheretherketone) (S-PEEK) membranes for the removal of water from HI/water and HI/Iodine/water feedstreams. In pervaporation, a feed is circulated at low pressure across the upstream side of the membrane, while a vacuum is applied downstream. Selected permeants sorb into the membrane, transport through it, and are vaporized from the backside. Thus, a concentration gradient is established, which provides the driving force for transport. In this work, membrane separations have been performed at temperatures as high as 134 degrees Celsius. Transmembrane fluxes of water are commercially competitive (~5000 g/m2h) and separation factors have been measured as high as 8000, depending on the membrane and the water content. For the Nafion-117 experiments, the common trade off in membrane performance is observed in that as flux is increased, separation factor decreases. Nafion-112, a thinner membrane, exhibited much higher fluxes than the Nafion-117; however without the expected loss in separation factor indicating that the permeability of iodine and HI through Nafion materials is low. Preliminary data for the sulfuric acid concentration suggests performance similar to the HI experiments. All membranes studied for the HI, HI/iodine and sulfuric acid feeds exhibited no degradation in membrane performance during use.

Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme

2006-11-01

416

Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility  

SciTech Connect

The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

2012-01-01

417

Measurements of the Hydroxyl Radical and Sulfuric Acid from the NOAA P3 during ITCT 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) for measurement of OH and sulfuric acid was deployed on the ITCT 2002 mission. The wingpod mounted CIMS instrument weighed less than 600 lbs and used a total of less than 1 kW of 400 Hz power. Data was obtained on all of the science flights out of Monterey, CA. In general, very low OH number densities were observed on the flights that focused on high altitude transport of Asian pollution. On many occasions air parcels were intercepted containing enhanced levels of CO, NOy, and particulates. However, the OH levels in these air masses were very low and near the detection limit of the instrument of ~2e5 molec. cm-3. This result is consistent with the observed low dew points (TD< -240 K) and NOx concentrations. This conclusion will be tested by comparison to predictions by photochemical box models. The sulfuric acid number densities were also usually very low (<1e6 molec. cm-3) on these flights probably due to removal by cloud processing and uptake by particles during the week long transit time from Asia. However, on the 5/10/02 and 5/17/02 flights high levels of sulfuric acid strongly correlated with CO were observed in a few plumes of Asian origin. The P3 aircraft was also used to study the effects of ship emissions and pollutant transport into and out of West Coast metropolitan areas. Data from a good example of this type of experiment on May 8, 2002 will be presented. The first part of the flight was used to investigate ship emissions in the marine boundary layer and the last half explored San Francisco, Oakland and the Central Valley. During the ship plume study high levels of sulfuric acid (> 2e7 molec. cm-3) were observed that corresponded to transects of ship emission plumes. These sharp spikes were overlaid on a broad background of relatively high levels (> 5e6 molec. cm-3) of sulfuric acid in the marine boundary layer. This background level is much higher than in other portions of the marine boundary layer sampled on this mission and is approximately equal to the background levels in San Francisco or Los Angeles. These data along with elevated ozone, particulate sulfate and NOy values indicate that ship emissions are significantly perturbing the atmospheric chemistry of large portions of the marine boundary layer.

Huey, G.; Tanner, D.; Nowak, J.; Neuman, A.; Ryerson, T.; Nicks, D.; Brock, C.; Jakoubek, R.; Sullivan, A.; Orsini, D.; Holloway, J.; Dunlea, E.; Trainer, M.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.

2002-12-01

418

Microbial dissimilatory sulfur cycle in acid mine water.  

PubMed

Ferric, sulfate, and hydrogen ions are produced from pyritic minerals associated with coal as a result of autotrophic bacterial metabolism. Water carrying these ions accumulated behind a porous dam composed of wood dust originating at a log-cutting mill. As water seeped through the porous dam, it was enriched in organic nutrients which then supported growth and metabolism of heterotrophic bacteria in the water downstream from the dam. The heterotrophic microflora within and below the sawdust dam included dissimilatory sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria which reduce sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced caused the chemical reduction of ferric to ferrous ion, and black FeS precipitate was deposited on the pond bottom. A net increase in the pH of the lower pond water was observed when compared to the upper pond water. Microbial activity in the wood dust was demonstrated, and a sequence of cellulose degradation processes was inferred on the basis of sugar accumulation in mixed cultures in the laboratory, ultimately yielding fermentation products which serve as nutrients for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Some of the microorganisms were isolated and characterized. The biochemical and growth characteristics of pure culture isolates were generally consistent with observed reactions in the acidic environment, with the exception of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Mixed cultures which contained sulfate-reducing bacteria reduced sulfate at pH 3.0 in the laboratory with sawdust as the only nutrient. Pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the mixed cultures did not reduce sulfate below pH 5.5. PMID:5773013

Tuttle, J H; Dugan, P R; Macmillan, C B; Randles, C I

1969-02-01

419

Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.  

PubMed

Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20min), temperature (160-220°C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180°C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at <1 and 2g/L respectively. Response surface modelling also estimated maximum xylose recovery in pretreated liquors (87% theoretical) under the set conditions of 150°C in 1.9% H2SO4 for 23.8min. Yeast fermentations yielded high ethanol titres of 85%, 88% and 70% theoretical from glucose generated from: (a) enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated fibres, (b) enzymatic hydrolysis of whole pretreated slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively. PMID:25280112

McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

2014-12-01

420

Commercial double-indicator-dilution densitometer using heavy water: Evaluation in oleic-acid pulmonary edema  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated a commercially available, double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of pulmonary extravascular water volume in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Indocyanine green and heavy water were used as the nondiffusible and diffusible tracers, respectively. Pulmonary extravascular water volume, measured with this system, was 67% of the gravimetric value (r = 0.91), which was consistent with values obtained from the radioisotope methods. The measured volume was not influenced by changes in cardiac index over a range of 1 to 4 L.min.m2. This system is less invasive than the thermal-dye technique and has potential for repeated clinical measurements of pulmonary extravascular lung water and cardiac output.

Leksell, L.G.; Schreiner, M.S.; Sylvestro, A.; Neufeld, G.R. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-04-01

421

Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. PMID:25459864

Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

2014-11-01

422

Structural characterization and comparison of switchgrass ball-milled lignin before and after dilute acid pretreatment.  

PubMed

To reduce the recalcitrance and enhance enzymatic activity, dilute H(2)SO(4) pretreatment was carried out on Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Ball-milled lignin was isolated from switchgrass before and after pretreatment. Its structure was characterized by (13)C, HSQC, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. It was confirmed that ball-milled switchgrass lignin is of HGS type with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and felurate esters of lignin. The major ball-milled lignin interunit was the beta-O-4 linkage, and a minor amount of phenylcoumarin, resinol, and spirodienone units were also present. As a result of the acid pretreatment, there was 36% decrease of beta-O-4 linkage observed. In addition to these changes, the S/G ratio decreases from 0.80 to 0.53. PMID:19701727

Samuel, Reichel; Pu, Yunqiao; Raman, Babu; Ragauskas, Arthur J

2010-09-01

423

A novel approach for high sensitive determination of sulfur mustard by derivatization and isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS analysis.  

PubMed

A new isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of sulfur mustard (SM) has been developed using a direct chemical derivatization method by nucleophile potassium thioacetate (PTA) in aqueous solution. The reaction conditions for derivatization, such as reaction temperature, time, solvent and concentration of PTA, were optimized for high performance. Reversed phase liquid chromatography was suitable for analysis of such a PTA derivatized SM in complex environmental samples. Compared with other conventional gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for direct detection on SM, better sensitivity and selectivity were achieved by this direct derivatization and LC-MS/MS method, where SM can be detected as low as 0.05 ng/mL in acetonitrile. The linear range was from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day precision was less than 11.8%, and RSD of the inter-day precision was less than 12.3%. The whole procedure for both derivatization and analysis was quick and simple, and the total time was less than 1h. This established method has been successfully employed for determination of spiking samples both in water and soil. A detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL was achieved for river water, while the SM in soil sample could be detected at 0.1 ng/g. PMID:25476305

Xu, Bin; Zong, Cheng; Nie, Zhiyong; Guo, Lei; Xie, Jianwei

2015-01-01

424

Sulfuric acid vapor and other cloud-related gases in the Venus atmosphere - Abundances inferred from observed radio opacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that the absorbing characteristics of sulfuric acid vapor appear to reconcile what had been thought to be an inconsistency among measurements and deductions regarding the constituents of the Venus atmosphere and radio occultation, radar reflection, and radio emission measurements of its opacity. Laboratory measurements of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are used to model relative contributions to opacity as a function of height in a way that is consistent with observations of the constituents and absorbing properties of the atmosphere. It is concluded that sulfuric acid vapor is likely to be the principal microwave absorber in the 30-50 km altitude range of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

Steffes, P. G.; Eshleman, V. R.

1982-01-01

425

Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part II. Xylan removal by dilute hydrochloric acid prehydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the kinetics of xylan hemicellulose removal with 0.10 M HCl at 120 degrees C from quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), American elm (Ulmus americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), and southern red oak (Quercus falcata). The mathematical model developed in Part I to describe the kinetics of xylan removal by water prehydrolysis of these species could be used to model xylan removal with dilute hydrochloric acid. Xylan removal could thus be modelled as the sum of two parallel first-order reactions - one fast and one slow. However, unlike the case with water prehydrolysis where the rate constants for the fast and slow reaction processes could be correlated with each other, they could not be correlated for HCl prehydrolysis. Instead, these constant values determined for each species clustered about average values for all the species as a whole. A single set of parameters determined from a nonlinear least squares fit of the experimental prehydrolysis data for all the species as a whole to the model could be used to describe the course of xylan removal from all the species. The fact that one set of parameters could be used suggests that the same reactions are taking place on prehydrolysis and the chemical structure and physical morphology of the xylan hemicellulose were essentially the same in the species studied and probably in all temperate hardwood species. The model thus provides a good approximation of xylan removal from any temperate hardwood with dilute hydrochloric acid at the reaction conditions studied. 20 references.

Connor, A.H.; Libkie, K.; Springer, E.L.

1986-06-01

426

The impacts of deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment on the bioethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: 1) cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and 2) cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield. PMID:22369467

2012-01-01

427

The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K. [spectral reflectance measurement of aqueous solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for measurements of the IR spectral reflectance at near-normal incidence of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of 75% and 95.6% by weight. Kramers-Kronig analyses of the reflectance data are employed to obtain values of the optical constants n(nu) and k(nu) in the spectral range from 400 to 6000 cm to the -1 power. The optical constants of these solutions at 250 K and 300 K are compared. It is found that in spectral regions remote from strong absorption bands, the values of the n(nu) indices obtained at 250 K agree with the values given by Lorentz-Lorenz correction of the same indices at 300 K. All absorption bands observed at 300 K are found to be present at 250 K with slight shifts in frequency and with significant differences in the k(nu) indices at the band maxima. Based on these results, it is concluded that the clouds of Venus probably consist of droplets of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of about 75% by weight.

Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

1976-01-01

428

MELCOR-H2 Benchmarking of the SNL Transient Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Experiments  

SciTech Connect

MELCOR is a world-renowned nuclear reactor safety analysis code that is used to simulate both light water and gas-cooled reactors. MELCOR-H2 is an extension of MELCOR that can model detailed nuclear reactors that are fully coupled with modular secondary-system components and the sulfur iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle for the generation of hydrogen and electricity. The models are applicable to both steady state and transient calculations. Previous work has shown that the hydrogen generation rate calculated by MELCOR-H2 for the SI cycle was within the expected theoretical yield, thus providing a macroscopic confirmation that MELCOR-H2's computational approach is reasonable. However, in order to better quantify its adequacy, benchmarking of the code with experimental data is required. Sulfuric acid decomposition experiments were conducted during late 2006 at Sandia National Laboratories, and MELCOR-H2 was used to simulate them. We developed an input deck based on the experiment's geometry, as well as the initial and boundary conditions, and then proceeded to compare the experimental acid conversion efficiency and SO{sub 2} production data with the code output. The comparison showed that the simulation output was typically within less than 10% of experimental data, and that key experimental data trends such as acid conversion efficiency, molar acid flow rate, and solution mole % were computed adequately by the MELCOR-H2. (authors)

Rodriguez, Sal B.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Gelbard, Fred; Pickard, Paul; Cole, Randy; McFadden, Katherine; Drennen, Tom; Martin, Billy [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 0748, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0748 (United States); Louie, David; Archuleta, Louis [OMICRON Safety and Risk (United States); Revankar, Shripad T. [Purdue University (United States); Vierow, Karen [University of Texas A and M (United States); El-Genk, Mohamed; Tournier, Jean Michel [University of New Mexico (United States)

2007-07-01

429

Dissolution of PZT 52/48 in aqueous sulfuric acid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent interest for PZT use as a self-powered nanonsensor in extreme environments, such as an oil well, it is important to ensure the stability of the material under these conditions. Oil wells are known for being extremely caustic, with high temperature, low pH and high pressures. It has been shown that in the presence of sulfuric acid PZT is subject to chemical attack. This study attempts to identify the effects that pH and temperature have on the rate of the reaction. Sulfuric acid was used as a proxy for the H2S environment found in oil wells. Exposure of bulk PZT and thin film specimens to H2S was studied. PZT 52/48 thin films were fabricated via the sol gel process. PZT was exposed to both single drops of aqueous sulfuric acid and submerged in a bath of solution. During bath exposure potential on the substrate surface of thin film samples was recorded using a voltmeter vs. and Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thin Film samples were exposed to a single drop of 0.1 N and 1 N aqueous sulfuric acid solutions at temperatures between 25° C and 92° C. It was optically observed that a white filmed appeared on the surface as a reaction product. At both concentrations, increases in temperature lead to an increase in reaction rate for droplet exposed samples. These reactions were found to follow Arrhenius behavior. The 1 N solution activation energy of film appearance was found to be 69100 J, and for 0.1 N solution was found to be 48300 J. It was expected that an increase in concentration would lead to an increase in reaction rate as well. However for single droplet exposure it was found that lower concentrations resulted in increased reaction rate. This may be due to the difference in interfacial energy between the solution and PZT surface as a result of the concentration of sulfuric acid. The potential on the substrate during bath exposure was between -0.22 V and 0.1 V. As a ferroelectric, PZT is expected to spontaneously polarize and variations in potential are expected. The value of -0.22 V corresponds to the potential of a normal hydrogen electrode, the conditions that would be found if the platinum layer were exposed, which could occur due to pinholes in the sample. The potential on the substrate and time of exposure were not found to correspond to dissolution depth using XPS depth profiling. A proposed reason is that attack was not found to be uniform across the surface, most likely as a result of high energy regions such as pinholes in the PZT film. Using XPS and XRD characterization techniques, PbSO4 was found to be one reaction product of both the PZT bulk sample exposed to a bath of solution, and thin film samples exposed to a single droplet of solution. Other reaction products were not able to be identified using the analysis techniques in this study, because the reaction products of zirconium and titanium are believed to take the form of ions in solution. While XPS confirmed their elemental presence in solution after evaporation, analysis of the solution itself was never conducted. Suggested future work and analytical techniques are also proposed to fully characterize the dissolution kinetics of PZT in aqueous sulfuric acid. These include the characterization of the interfacial energy between solution droplets and PZT surface, potentiostatic bath exposure of thin films in which the potential on the substrate is fixed, solution analysis via ICP-MS or other alternative, and the comparison of dissolution rate between bulk PZT and thin film PZT to determine the effect pinholes may have on the reaction. Various temperatures and acid concentrations are also proposed in order to fully characterize the Arrhenius behavior of reaction rate.

Calebrese, Steven

430

Response surface optimization of corn stover pretreatment using dilute phosphoric acid for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dilute H3PO4 (0.0 - 2.0%, v/v) was used to pretreat corn stover (10%, w/w) for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment conditions were optimized for temperature, acid loading, and time using a central composite design. Optimal pretreatment conditions were chosen to promote sugar yields following enzym...

431

Influence of Dilute Acetic Acid Treatments on American Pondweed Winter Buds in the Nevada Irrigation District, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poir.) is com- monly found in northern California irrigation canals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure of American pondweed winter buds to dilute acetic acid un- der field conditions would result in reduced subsequent bio- mass. The treatment consisted of adding either 1703 or 3406 L of 2.3% acetic

D. F. SPENCER; C. L. ELMORE; G. G. KSANDER; J. A. RONCORONI

432

Pervaporation of Water from Aqueous Sulfuric Acid at Elevated Temperatures Using Nafion® Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of sulfuric acid by pervaporation has been studied using Nafion-112® and Nafion-117® membranes, which have been characterized in terms of flux, permeability, and selectivity at 100 ºC and 120 ºC. Feed concentrations investigated ranged from 40 to over 80 weight percent. In general, water fluxes ranged from 100-8000 g/m2h, depending on feed acid concentration and separations factors as high as 104 were observed. Membrane stability was probed using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis that revealed some embrittlement of the membranes during use. Further studies showed that the embrittlement was due to an interaction with the acid and was not induced by the operating temperature.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2009-01-01

433

Mercury Adsorption on Sulfuric Acid-Impregnated Carbonaceous Surface: Theoretical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory calculations are performed to provide a molecular-level understanding of the mechanism of mercury adsorption on sulfuric acid-impregnated carbonaceous surface. The carbonaceous surface is modeled by a nine-fused benzene ring in which its edge carbon atoms on the upper side are unsaturated to simulate the active sites for reaction. SO4 clusters with and without charge are examined to act as the representative species to model the sulfuric acid absorbed on the carbonaceous surface. All of the possible approaches of SO4 clusters with and without charge on the carbonaceous surface are conduced to study their effects on mercury adsorption. The results suggest that sulfuric acid effect on the mercury adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface is very complicated, and it depends on a combination of concentration and charge of SO4 cluster. SO4 cluster presents a positive effect on mercury adsorption on the carbonaceous surface, but higher concentration of SO4 cluster decreases the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface for mercury removal because there is considerable competition for active sites between Hg and SO4 cluster. Since all of the possible approaches of mercury on the carbonaceous surface with SO42- cluster, excluding one that mercury is adsorbed at bridge active site, can lead to the decrease in the adsorption energies of mercury on the carbonaceous surface, SO42- cluster presents a negative effect on the capacity of the carbonaceous surface for mercury adsorption regardless of the concentration of SO42- cluster. The results also indicate that SO2 cluster and surface oxygen complex can be formed from SO4 cluster with or without charge if mercury is adsorbed at bridge active site, which facilitates the mercury removal for the carbonaceous surface.

He, Ping; Wu, Jiang; Jiang, Xiumin; Pan, Weiguo; Ren, Jianxing

2014-01-01

434

Preparation and characterization of silver loaded montmorillonite modified with sulfur amino acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was modified with sulfur containing amino acid (L-cystine, L-cysteine or L-methionine) and characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The results showed the modification was smooth and the surface condition of MMT was changed with sulfur containing groups. Then silver was loaded on the modified MMTs via ion-exchange reaction under microwave irradiation, the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), EDS and FT-IR confirmed the successful loading of massive silver and the strong interaction between sulfur and silver, the silver loaded L-cystine modified MMT (Ag@AA-MMT-3) with a silver content of 10.93 wt% was the highest of all. Further more, the Ag@AA-MMT-3 was under the irradiation of a UV lamp to turn silver ions to silver nano particles (Ag NPs). The XPS, specific surface area (SSA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD patterns and UV-vis spectra proved the existence of uniform nano scaled metallic Ag NPs. By contrast, the UV irradiated Ag@AA-MMT-3 (Ag@AA-MMT-UV) showed a much better slow release property than Ag@AA-MMT-3 or Ag@MMT. The Ag@AA-MMT-UV showing a large inhibition zone and high inhibition ratio presented very good antibacterial property.

Li, Tian; Lin, Oulian; Lu, Zhiyuan; He, Liuimei; Wang, Xiaosheng

2014-06-01

435

Influence of Side Chain of L- ? -amino Acids on Their Interaction with D-glucose in Dilute Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titration calorimetric and UV absorption spectroscopy measurements have been performed to study the interactions of some L-?-amino acids with D-glucose in dilute aqueous solutions. The obtained results showed that the ability of L-?-amino acids to form intermolecular complexes with D-glucose in aqueous solution is affected by the size and nature of their\\u000a side chains.

Galina A. Kulikova; Elena V. Parfenyuk

2008-01-01

436

Electrochemical deposition of copper on a gold electrode in sulfuric acid: resolution of the interfacial structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of electrochemically deposited submonolayer Cu on Au(111) in sulfuric acid has been extensively investigated but is still poorly known. We report an x-ray scattering determination of this structure that explains existing data. The Cu adatoms form a honeycomb lattice and are adsorbed on threefold hollow sites, while sulfate anions occupy the honeycomb centers. Three oxygens of each sulfate bond to Cu atoms. This stabilizes the structure and illustrates that anion effects can be important in electrodeposited structures. Our results indicate that previous scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy measurements imaged the sulfate molecules not the Cu atoms.

Toney, Michael F.; Howard, Jason N.; Richer, Jocelyn; Borges, Gary L.; Gordon, Joseph G.; Melroy, Owen R.; Yee, Dennis; Sorensen, Larry B.

1995-12-01

437

Dynamic states of the Bray-Liebhafsky reaction when sulfuric acid is the control parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic behavior of hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyzed by iodate and hydrogen ions (the Bray-Liebhafsky reaction), in a continuous stirred tank reactor is investigated. The experimental results are obtained at one operational point in concentration phase space by varying mixed inflow concentrations of the sulfuric acid. The experimental evidences for the onset and termination of oscillatory behavior via the saddle node infinite period bifurcation as well as some kind of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation are presented. In addition, the possibility of excitability of a stable steady state by thiamine was observed.

Peji?, N.; Maksimovi?, J.; Ribi?, D.; Kolar-Ani?, Lj.

2009-09-01

438

Inorganic Aerosols and Their Role in Catalyzing Sulfuric Acid Production in Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicrometer ash and sulfur oxides are important pollutants formed during pulverized coal combustion. The submicrometer ash contains known catalysts for sulfur dioxide oxidation as well as alkaline species that will react with sulfur oxides. This work was an investigation to determine if submicrometer ash-sulfur oxide interactions can have a significant impact on the fate of sulfur.The submicrometer-ash-sulfur oxide interaction studies

Karl A. Graham; Adel F. Sarofim

1998-01-01

439

Redox potentials and kinetics of the Ce 3+\\/Ce 4+ redox reaction and solubility of cerium sulfates in sulfuric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental work was performed with the aim of evaluating the Ce4+\\/Ce3+ redox couple in sulfuric acid electrolyte for use in redox flow battery (RFB) technology. The solubility of cerium sulfates in 0.1–4.0M sulfuric acid at 20–60°C was studied. A synergistic effect of both sulfuric acid concentration and temperature on the solubility of cerous sulfate was observed. The solubility of cerous

A. Paulenova; S. E. Creager; J. D. Navratil; Y. Wei

2002-01-01

440

STREAMWATER ACID-BASED CHEMISTRY AND CRITICAL LOADS OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DEPOSITION IN SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK, VIRGINIA  

EPA Science Inventory

A modeling study was conducted to evaluate the acid-base chemistry of streams within Shenandoah National Park, Virginia and to project future responses to sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) atmospheric emissions controls. Many of the major stream systems in the Park have acid neutraliz...

441

Why is sulfuric acid a much stronger acid than ethanol? Determination of the contributions by inductive/field effects and electron-delocalization effects.  

PubMed

Two different and complementary computational methods were used to determine the contributions by inductive/field effects and by electron-delocalization effects toward the enhancement of the gas-phase deprotonation enthalpy of sulfuric acid over ethanol. Our alkylogue extrapolation method employed density functional theory calculations to determine the deprotonation enthalpy of the alkylogues of sulfuric acid, HOSO2-(CH2CH2)n-OH, and of ethanol, CH3CH2-(CH2CH2)n-OH. The inductive/field effect imparted by the HOSO2 group for a given alkylogue of sulfuric acid was taken to be the difference in deprotonation enthalpy between corresponding (i.e., same n) alkylogues of sulfuric acid and ethanol. Extrapolating the inductive/field effect values for the n = 1-6 alkylogues, we obtained a value of 51.0 ± 6.4 kcal mol(-1) for the inductive/field effect for n = 0, sulfuric acid, leaving 15.4 kcal mol(-1) as the contribution by electron-delocalization effects. Our block-localized wavefunction method was employed to calculate the deprotonation enthalpies of sulfuric acid and ethanol using the electron-localized acid and anion species, which were compared to the values calculated using the electron-delocalized species. The contribution from electron delocalization was thus determined to be 18.2 kcal mol(-1), which is similar to the value obtained from the alkylogue extrapolation method. The two methods, therefore, unambiguously agree that both inductive/field effects and electron-delocalization effects have significant contributions to the enhancement of the deprotonation enthalpy of sulfuric acid compared with ethanol, and that the inductive/field effects are the dominant contributor. PMID:25316069

Lynch, Kevin; Maloney, Adam; Sowell, Austin; Wang, Changwei; Mo, Yirong; Karty, Joel M

2015-01-01

442

Comparison of enzymatic reactivity of corn stover solids prepared by dilute acid, AFEX™, and ionic liquid pretreatments  

PubMed Central

Background Pretreatment is essential to realize high product yields from biological conversion of naturally recalcitrant cellulosic biomass, with thermochemical pretreatments often favored for cost and performance. In this study, enzymatic digestion of solids from dilute sulfuric acid (DA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™), and ionic liquid (IL) thermochemical pretreatments of corn stover were followed over time for the same range of total enzyme protein loadings to provide comparative data on glucose and xylose yields of monomers and oligomers from the pretreated solids. The composition of pretreated solids and enzyme adsorption on each substrate were also measured to determine. The extent glucose release could be related to these features. Results Corn stover solids from pretreatment by DA, AFEX, and IL were enzymatically digested over a range of low to moderate loadings of commercial cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase enzyme mixtures, the proportions of which had been previously optimized for each pretreatment. Avicel® cellulose, regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC), and beechwood xylan were also subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis as controls. Yields of glucose and xylose and their oligomers were followed for times up to 120 hours, and enzyme adsorption was measured. IL pretreated corn stover displayed the highest initial glucose yields at all enzyme loadings and the highest final yield for a low enzyme loading of 3 mg protein/g glucan in the raw material. However, increasing the enzyme loading to 12 mg/g glucan or more resulted in DA pretreated corn stover attaining the highest longer-term glucose yields. Hydrolyzate from AFEX pretreated corn stover had the highest proportion of xylooligomers, while IL produced the most glucooligomers. However, the amounts of both oligomers dropped with increasing enzyme loadings and hydrolysis times. IL pretreated corn stover had the highest enzyme adsorption capacity. Conclusions Initial hydrolysis yields were highest for substrates with greater lignin removal, a greater degree of change in cellulose crystallinity, and high enzyme accessibility. Final glucose yields could not be clearly related to concentrations of xylooligomers released from xylan during hydrolysis. Overall, none of these factors could completely account for differences in enzymatic digestion performance of solids produced by AFEX, DA, and IL pretreatments. PMID:24910713

2014-01-01

443

Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have compared SiNx passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1 ?A/mm, which is much lower than that for SiNx passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 104-105 to 107) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ˜215 to 90 mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (Dit) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiNx passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of Dit and improves the surface related current collapse.

Zaidi, Z. H.; Lee, K. B.; Guiney, I.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Houston, P. A.

2014-12-01

444

Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties  

SciTech Connect

Ice nucleation properties of different dust species coated with soluble material are not well understood. We determined the ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35 deg C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw). Five different mineral dust species: Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, montmorillonite, quartz and kaolinite were dry dispersed and size-selected at 150 nm and exposed to sulfuric acid vapors in the coating apparatus. The condensed sulfuric acid soluble mass fraction per particle was estimated from the cloud condensation nuclei activated fraction measurements. The fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw was determined using a compact ice chamber. In water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that only coated ATD particles showed suppression of ice nucleation ability while other four dust species did not showed the effect of coating on the fraction of particles nucleating ice. The results suggest that interactions between the dust surface and sulfuric acid vapor are important, such that interactions may or may not modify the surface via chemical reactions with sulfuric acid. At water-supersaturated conditions we did not observed the effect of coating, i.e. the bare and coated dust particles had similar ice nucleation behavior.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Sanders, Cassandra N.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

2014-08-27

445

The interaction of aluminum with silicic acid in dilute solution and its biological relevance  

SciTech Connect

The affinity of silicic acid, Si(OH){sub 4}, for aluminum is a unique one in chemistry, owing to ionic size, charge, and coordination geometry of the species involved. The chemistry of aluminosilicates generally has been concerned with the solid state (minerals such as clays, feldspars and zeolites), and relatively little attention has been given to the species which exist in solution since aluminosilicates are highly insoluble near neutral pH. However, under dilute conditions the kinetics of colloid formation can be quite slow and the soluble precursors to a solid phase may be reasonably metastable. When equilibrium is approached, the solubility levels are typically 0.05-0.28 {mu}mol/L Al and 18-210 {mu}mol/L Si. These soluble species are usually regarded as simple hydroxyaluminum ions and silicic acid, although it remains arguable as to whether these species may be associated with each other. The formation of a stable soluble specie would allow for molecular aluminosilicates to exist at below saturation levels. So at concentrations above saturation stable aluminosilicates do form (as a part of an insoluble phase), and they may possibly exist at below saturation (as a stable soluble specie). This interaction is then relevant to biology, where human plasma levels (0.06-0.54 {mu}mol/L Al, 14-39 {mu}mol/L Si) (6,7) fall among saturation values. There is a growing concern over the toxic effects of aluminum, but its chemistry with silicic acid has not been addressed. This chemistry is the topic of this study.

Chappell, J.S.; Birchall, J.D. (Imperial Chemicals Industries plc, Cheshire (England))

1988-09-01

446

Catalytic Activity of Supported Metal Particles for Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Production of hydrogen by splitting water in thermochemical water-splitting cycles, such as the sulfur-based group that employs the catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid into SO2 and O2 is of considerable interest. Most of these processes occur at high temperatures (T = 1,000 K) and exposes catalysts to the extreme conditions such as steam, oxygen, and acid vapor that severely damage these catalysts within a short time. To develop an understanding of the factors that cause catalyst deactivation, we performed density-functional-theory (DFT)-based first-principles calculations and computer simulations for transition metal (TM) particles positioned on the two types of substrate (?-alumina and TiO2-rutile). The catalytic activity of the considered systems is defined by several factors, namely: (i) The efficiency of detaching oxygen atoms from the sulfur-containing species SOn (n = 1,2,3). The breaking of the S-O bonds may occur at both the substrate and the transition metal cluster. However, the bond-breaking at the substrate is endothermic (and takes about 1.5 eV per bond) while at low-coordinated metal atom of a cluster it is exothermic (with energy gain of about 0.5 eV per bond). This explains why the presence of transition metal clusters is necessary for catalytic activity; (ii) The ability of the cluster to “clean” itself, i.e., to eliminate oxygen from its surface, in order to regain the catalytically active sites and to continue the process. We found that the clusters of Pd and Pt with the size = 2-3 nm are more efficient in this process (at T = 1,000 K) than the clusters of other TM’s considered (Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os); (iii) The ability of the cluster to keep its size to avoid sintering (that reduces the number of low-coordinated catalytically active sites at the surface of the cluster). We found that the sintering of Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os clusters is significantly suppressed in comparison with the sintering of Pd and Pt clusters of the same size (the individual atoms at the surface of Rh and Ir clusters have a tendency to have higher coordination number, i.e., the detachment of individual atoms from the surface is less likely). Therefore, the activity of TM nanoparticles is mainly defined by the competing factors (ii) and (iii). At the present, we try to find (experimentally and theoretically) the most optimal combination of the structure, size, and composition of TM nanoparticles, for which the catalytic activity of sulfuric acid decomposition will be the highest.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Helen H. Farrell

2007-08-01

447

Exploring Jupiter's icy moons with old techniques and big facilities - new insights on sulfuric acid hydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfuric acid hydrates have been proposed to be abundant on the surface of Europa [1], and hence would be important planetary forming materials for this moon and its companions Ganymede and Callisto. Understanding of the surface features and subsurface of these moons could be advanced by firmer knowledge of the icy materials that comprise them [2], insight into which can be drawn from firmer knowledge of physical properties and phase behaviour of the candidate materials. We wish to present results from a study that started with the question ';What form of sulfuric acid hydrate would form on the surface of Europa'. The intrinsic hydrogen-domination of planetary ices, makes studying these materials with laboratory powder diffraction very challenging. Insights into their crystalline phase behavior and the extraction of a number of thermal and mechanical properties is often only accessible with high-flux synchrotron x-ray diffraction and utilization of the large scattering cross section with neutron diffraction. We have used the Powder Diffraction beamline at Australian synchrotron [4] and the Echidna (High-resolution neutron powder diffraction) instrument of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, [5] to obtain an number of new insights into the crystalline phases formed from sulfruic acid and water mixtures. These instruments have enabled the discovery a new water-rich sulfuric acid hydrate form [6], improved structural characterisation of existing forms [7] and a charting the phase diagram of this fundamental binary system [8]. This has revealed exciting potential for understanding more about the surface of Europa from space, perhaps even providing a window into its past. [1] Carlson, R.W., R.E. Johnson, and M.S. Anderson, Science, 1999. 286(5437): p. 97-99. [2] Fortes, A.D. and M. Choukroun. Space Sci Rev, 2010. 153(1-4): p. 185-218. [3] Blake, D., et al., Space Sci Rev,, 2012. 170(1-4): p. 341-399. [4] Wallwork, K.S., Kennedy B. J. and Wang, D., AIP Conf Proc, 2007. 879: p. 879-882. [5] Liss, K.D., et al., Phys B-Cond Mat, 2006. 385-86: p. 1010-1012. [6] Maynard-Casely, H.E., K.S. Wallwork, and M. Avdeev, (In review). [7] Maynard-Casely, H.E., H.E.A. Brand, and K.S. Wallwork, J.of App.Cryst, 2012. 45: p.1198-1207. [8] Maynard-Casely, H.E., K.S. Wallwork, and H.E.A. Brand, (In Preparation). Stages of the crystal structure determination of sulfruic acid octahydrate a) the oxygen and sulfur postions were determined from the synchrotron x-ray data b) Once neutron diffraction data was collected Fourier difference methods were used to locate hydrogen positions to determine c) the full structure of sulfuric acid octahydrate.

Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Avdeev, M.; Brand, H.; Wallwork, K.

2013-12-01

448

Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55–75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18–25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ?9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with increased sequences from Aquificaceae, supports a role for methyltransferase in thermophilic arsenic resistance. Our study highlights microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling at Champagne Pool, with implications for understanding the evolution of microbial arsenic resistance in sulfidic geothermal systems. PMID:25414696

Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A.; Stott, Matthew B.; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W.

2014-01-01

449

Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand.  

PubMed

Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ?9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with increased sequences from Aquificaceae, supports a role for methyltransferase in thermophilic arsenic resistance. Our study highlights microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling at Champagne Pool, with implications for understanding the evolution of microbial arsenic resistance in sulfidic geothermal systems. PMID:25414696

Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A; Stott, Matthew B; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W

2014-01-01

450

Multiple inputs control sulfur-containing amino acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription of the MET regulon, which encodes the proteins involved in the synthesis of the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine, is repressed by the presence of either methionine or cysteine in the environment. This repression is accomplished by ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4, which is carried out by the SCF(Met30) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Mutants defective in MET regulon repression reveal that loss of Cho2, which is required for the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to produce phosphatidylcholine, leads to induction of the MET regulon. This induction is due to reduced cysteine synthesis caused by the Cho2 defects, uncovering an important link between phospholipid synthesis and cysteine synthesis. Antimorphic mutants in S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) synthetase genes also induce the MET regulon. This effect is due, at least in part, to SAM deficiency controlling the MET regulon independently of SAM's contribution to cysteine synthesis. Finally, the Met30 protein is found in two distinct forms whose relative abundance is controlled by the availability of sulfur-containing amino acids. This modification could be involved in the nutritional control of SCF(Met30) activity toward Met4. PMID:24648496

Sadhu, Meru J.; Moresco, James J.; Zimmer, Anjali D.; Yates, John R.; Rine, Jasper

2014-01-01

451

The simulations of sulfuric acid concentration and new particle formation in an urban atmosphere in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of sulfuric acid concentration and new particle formation are performed by using the zero-dimensional version of the model MALTE (Model to predict new Aerosol formation in the Lower TropospherE) and measurements from the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding areas (CAREBeijing) in 2008. Chemical reactions from the Master Chemical Mechanism Version 3.2 (MCM v3.2) are used in the model. High correlation (slope = 0.72, R = 0.74) between the modelled and observed sulfuric acid concentrations is found during daytime (06:00-18:00). The aerosol dynamics are simulated by the University of Helsinki Multicomponent Aerosol (UHMA) model including several nucleation mechanisms. The results indicate that the model is able to predict the on- and offset of new particle formation in an urban atmosphere in China. In addition, the number concentrations of newly formed particles in kinetic-type nucleation including homogenous homomolecular (J=K[H2SO4]2) and homogenous heteromolecular nucleation involving organic vapours (J=Khet[H2SO4][Org]) are in satisfactory agreement with the observations. However, the specific organic compounds possibly participate in the nucleation process should be investigated in further studies.

Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Mogensen, D.; Yue, D. L.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Zhou, L.; Wu, Z. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Boy, M.

2013-06-01

452

Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

Serafin, J.A.

1977-01-01

453

Enhanced acid rain and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals in Northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is known to be important mechanism reducing air pollution. In response to the growing concern on the potential effects of the deposited material entering terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as their subsequent health effects, since 2007 we have established a 10-site monitoring network in Northern China, where particularly susceptible to severe air pollution. Wet and dry deposition was collected using an automatic wet-dry sampler. The presentation will focus on the new results of atmospheric deposition flux for a number of chemical species, such as nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus), acidic matters (e.g. sulfur and proton), heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, etc. This is to our knowledge the first detailed element budget study in the atmosphere across Northern China. We find that: (1) Over the 3 year period, 26% of precipitation events in the target area were more acid than pH 5.60 and these acidic events occurred in summer and autumn. The annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH value of precipitation was lower than 5.60 at most sites, which indicated the acidification of precipitation was not optimistic. The primary ions in precipitation were NH4+, Ca2+, SO42- and NO3-, with 10-sites-average concentrations of 221, 216, 216 and 80 ?eq L-1, respectively. The ratio of SO42- to NO3- was 2.7; suggesting SO42- was the dominant acid component. (2) The deposited particles were neutral in general and the pH value increased from rural area to industrial and coastal sites. It is not surprising to note that the annual VWM pH value of precipitation was higher than 5.60 at three urban sites (Beijing and Tianjin mega cities) and one coastal site near the Bohai Bay, considering the fact that high buffer capacity of alkaline component, gas NH3 and mineral aerosols, at these sites compared to other places. (3) The 10-sites annual total deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds were 60 and 65 kg N/S ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Total deposition amounts of sulfur and nitrogen in North China were 5-10 times higher than those in CASTNet and EMEP, as well as EANET sites in Japan, which indicated that the increasing emissions of air pollutants in North China resulted in high atmospheric depositions. Integrated assessment of acidic and toxic deposition and potential environmental consequences in North China are highly needed.

Pan, Y.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

454

Kinetics of Ni3S2 sulfide dissolution in solutions of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of Ni3S2 sulfide (heazlewoodite) dissolution in solutions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids is studied. The process under study in the temperature range of 30 90°C is found to occur in a kinetic regime and is controlled by the corresponding chemical reactions of the Ni3S2 decomposition by solutions of inorganic acids ( E a = 67 92 kJ/mol, or 16 22 kcal/mol). The only exception is the Ni3S2-HCl system at elevated temperatures (60 90°C). In this case, the apparent activation energy decreases sharply to 8.8 kJ/mol (2.1 kcal/mol), which is explained by the catalytic effect of gaseous chlorine formed under these conditions. The studies performed are related to the physicochemical substantiation of the hydrometallurgical processing of the copper-nickel converter mattes produced in the industrial cycle of the Norilsk Mining Company.

Palant, A. A.; Bryukvin, V. A.; Vinetskaya, T. N.; Makarenkova, T. A.

2008-02-01

455

POTENTIAL PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF FGD BYPRODUCT SULFUR AND SULFURIC ACID IN THE U.S. (1983 PROJECTION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report updates to 1983 a 1978-base, computerized marketing evaluation of sulfur and H2SO4 as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts from U.S. coal-burning power plants. Least-costs of compliance were calculated using comparisons of clean fuel with 50 cents and 70 cents/mil...

456

Economic impact of total solids loading on enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated corn stover.  

PubMed

In process integration studies of the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process, it is necessary to understand how cellulose conversion yields vary as a function of solids and enzyme loading and other key operating variables. The impact of solids loading on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurry was determined using an experimental response surface design methodology. From the experimental work, an empirical correlation was obtained that expresses monomeric glucose yield from enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis as a function of solids loading, enzyme loading, and temperature. This correlation was used in a technoeconomic model to study the impact of solids loading on ethanol production economics. The empirical correlation was used to provide a more realistic assessment of process cost by accounting for changes in cellulose conversion yields at different solids and enzyme loadings as well as enzyme cost. As long as enzymatic cellulose conversion drops off at higher total solids loading (due to end-product inhibition or other factors), there is an optimum value for the total solids loading that minimizes the ethanol production cost. The optimum total solids loading shifts to higher values as enzyme cost decreases. PMID:20945482

Humbird, David; Mohagheghi, Ali; Dowe, Nancy; Schell, Daniel J

2010-01-01

457

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

PubMed

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

2012-08-01

458

l'acide sulfureux gazeux donnerait une rotation le sulfure de carbone liquide donnant fine rotation 1.  

E-print Network

280 l'acide sulfureux gazeux donnerait une rotation o,ooo293, le sulfure de carbone liquide donnant fine rotation 1. L'indice de réfraction de l'acide sulfureux gazeux étant 1 ,000665, le rapport de la de l'acide sulfureux li- quide et son indice de réfraction x, on devrait avoir, d'après cette loi, J

Boyer, Edmond

459

Evidence for incorporation of H2S in groundwater fulvic acids from stable isotope ratios and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Groundwater samples collected in a shallow oxic and reduced deep groundwater system revealed the influence of dissolved sulfide on the chemical and isotopic composition of fulvic acid associated sulfur. Stable isotope compositions of groundwater sulfate and fulvic acid sulfur and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were used to determine the sources and processes affecting fulvic acid sulfur in the aquifer. A delta34S value of 2.2 per thousand for the shallow groundwater sulfate and a delta34S value of fulvic acids of 4.9 per thousand accompanied by a contribution of up to 49% of the most oxidized sulfur species (S+6) documented that fulvic acid sulfur is mainly derived from soil S compounds such as ester sulfates, with delta34S values similar to those of atmospheric sulfate deposition. In contrast, in the deep groundwater system with elevated delta34S values in groundwater sulfate of up to 20per thousand due to bacterial sulfate reduction, delta34S values in fulvic acid sulfur were negative and were up to 22per thousand lower compared to those of groundwater sulfate. Furthermore, reduced sulfur compounds constituted a significantly higher proportion of total fulvic acid sulfur in the deep groundwater compared to fulvic acids in shallow groundwater, supporting the hypothesis that fulvic acids act as a sink for dissolved hydrogen sulfide in the deep aquifer. Our results suggest that the combination of sulfur K edge XANES spectroscopy and stable isotope analysis on fulvic acids represents a powerful tool to elucidate the role of fulvic acids in the sulfur cycle in groundwater. PMID:18504978

Einsiedl, Florian; Mayer, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thorsten

2008-04-01

460

Evidence for Incorporation of H2S in Groundwater Fulvic Acids from Stable Isotope Ratios and Sulfur K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater samples collected in a shallow oxic and reduced deep groundwater system revealed the influence of dissolved sulfide on the chemical and isotopic composition of fulvic acid associated sulfur. Stable isotope compositions of groundwater sulfate and fulvic acid sulfur and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were used to determine the sources and processes affecting fulvic acid sulfur in the aquifer. A {delta}34S value of 2.2 %% for the shallow groundwater sulfate and a {delta}34S value of fulvic acids of 4.9 % accompanied by a contribution of up to 49% of the most oxidized sulfur species (S+6) documented that fulvic acid sulfur is mainly derived from soil S compounds such as ester sulfates, with {delta}34S values similar to those of atmospheric sulfate deposition. In contrast, in the deep groundwater system with elevated {delta}34S values in groundwater sulfate of up to 20% due to bacterial sulfate reduction, {delta}34S values in fulvic acid sulfur were negative and were up to 22% lower compared to those of groundwater sulfate. Furthermore, reduced sulfur compounds constituted a significantly higher proportion of total fulvic acid sulfur in the deep groundwater compared to fulvic acids in shallow groundwater, supporting the hypothesis that fulvic acids act as a sink for dissolved hydrogen sulfide in the deep aquifer. Our results suggest that the combination of sulfur K edge XANES spectroscopy and stable isotope analysis on fulvic acids represents a powerful tool to elucidate the role of fulvic acids in the sulfur cycle in groundwater.

Einsiedl,F.; Mayer, B.; Schäfer, T.

2008-01-01

461

Combined Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fulvic Acids and Groundwater Sulfate Identify Sulfur Cycling in a Karstic Catchment Area  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and isotope analyses on groundwater sulfate, atmospheric deposition sulfate and fulvic acids (FAs) associated sulfur were used to determine the S cycling in a karstic catchment area of the Franconian Alb, Southern Germany. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provided information on the oxidation state and the mechanism of the incorporation of sulfur in FAs. During base flow {delta}{sup 34}S values of groundwater sulfate were slightly depleted to those of recent atmospheric sulfate deposition with mean amount-weighted {delta}{sup 34}S values of around + 3{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater sulfate shifted to lower values compared to those of atmospheric deposition and indicated steadiness from base flow to peak flow. The reduced sulfur species (S{sub -1}/thiol; S{sub 0}/thiophene, disulfide, S{sub +2}2/sulfoxide) of soil FAs averaged around 49% of the total sulfur and {delta}{sup 34}S value in FAs was found to be 0.5{per_thousand}. The formation of polysulfides and thiols in FAs in concert with a decreasing isotope value of {delta}{sup 34}S in FAs with respect to those of atmospheric deposition sulfate suggests oxidation of H{sub 2}S, enriched in the {sup 32}S isotope, with organic material. The depletion of {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by several per mil in groundwater sulfate with respect to those of atmospheric deposition is, therefore, consistent with the hypothesis that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} has been cycled through the organic S pool as well as that groundwater sulfate is formed by oxidation of H{sub 2}S with organic matter in the mineral soil of the catchment area.

Einsiedl,F.; Schafer, T.; Northrup, P.

2007-01-01

462

A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for ThermoChemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is

Isao Minatsuki; Hiroshi Fukui; Kazuo Ishino

2007-01-01

463

A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for ThermoChemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is

Hiroshi Fukui; Isao Minatsuki; Kazuo Ishino

2006-01-01

464

Structural changes of Salix miyabeana cellulose fibres during dilute-acid steam explosion: Impact of reaction temperature and retention time.  

PubMed

Dilute-acid steam explosion of Salix miyabeana has been carried out to understand the effect of processing conditions, expressed through a severity factors (SFT), on the changes in cellulose fibre structures in a perspective of using these in polymer composites. This thermo-chemico-mechanical extraction leads to the isolation of cellulose fibres as observed by SEM images. Fibre length as well as length to diameter aspect ratios decreased with the severity of the treatment. Likewise, fibre whiteness diminished with an increasing severity factor, which could be a tangible effect of physical degradation. Variations in crystallinity seemed to be dependent upon the reaction temperature, generally decreasing with regards to retention time. Above a severity threshold, a structural disorganization was observed. Overall, dilute-acid steam explosion was shown to be a valuable cellulose extraction process that can provide a variety of fibre structures. PMID:25563939

Diop, Chérif Ibrahima Khalil; Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Huneault, Michel A

2015-03-30

465

Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is well established that organics compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass, the mechanisms through which organics are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols are not well understood. Acid-catalyzed reactions of compounds with carbonyl groups have recently been suggested as important pathways for transfer of volatile organics into acidic aerosols. In the present study, we use the aerodyne

Rebecca M. Garland; Matthew J. Elrod; Kristi Kincaid; Melinda R. Beaver; Jose L. Jimenez; Margaret A. Tolbert

2006-01-01

466

Lewis acid-base interactions between polysulfides and metal organic framework in lithium sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity of 1675 mAh g(-1) based on sulfur. However, the rapid capacity degradation, mainly caused by polysulfide dissolution, remains a significant challenge prior to practical applications. This work demonstrates that a novel Ni-based metal organic framework (Ni-MOF), Ni6(BTB)4(BP)3 (BTB = benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate and BP = 4,4'-bipyridyl), can remarkably immobilize polysulfides within the cathode structure through physical and chemical interactions a