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Sample records for diluted ii-vi oxide

  1. Developing Spectroscopic Ellipsometry to Study II-Vi and Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Dong

    We have constructed a rotating analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer (RAE) to study effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic doping on the E_1 and E _1 + Delta_1 band gap energies in ZnSe-based II-VI semiconductors. To remove the natural surface oxide overlayer which distorts the intrinsic dielectric response of the sample, a chemical etching technique using dilute NH_4OH solution was developed. The successful removal of the oxide overlayer on ZnSe was confirmed via the XPS technique. For diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we found that the E_1 and E _1 + Delta_1 band gap energies increase with x for Zn_{1-x}Fe _{x}Se and Zn_ {1-x}Co_{x}Se, and decrease with x for Zn_{1-x} Mn_{x}Se. An sp -d direct exchange interaction model which explained the Gamma-point band gap energy of Zn _{1-x}Mn_ {x}Se was applied. The calculated band gap energies at the L-point are only consistent with Zn _{1-x}Mn_ {x}Se data. We showed that an sp-d hybridization model, which includes the location of the energy levels of the magnetic impurity d-levels can account for the concentration dependence of E_1 and E _1 + Delta_1 band gap energies of all three materials. For Zn_{x}Cd _{1-x}Se systems, all spectral features of CdSe were identified as E_0, E_0 + Delta_0, E_1, E_1 + Delta_1, E_2, and E _sp{0}{'} threshold energies from band structure calculations using a nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. Many-body effect has to be included in the calculation of the dielectric function of CdSe to obtain good agreement with the measured spectrum. Concentration dependent spin-orbit splitting band gap Delta _1(x) is well explained by the statistical fluctuation of the alloy composition.

  2. Relaxation and coherent oscillations in the spin dynamics of II-VI diluted magnetic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, F.; Cygorek, M.; Tamborenea, P. I.; Axt, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    We study theoretically the ultrafast spin dynamics of II-VI diluted magnetic quantum wells in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. We extend a recent study where it was shown that the spin-orbit interaction and the exchange sd coupling in bulk and quantum wells can compete resulting in qualitatively new dynamics when they act simultaneously. We concentrate on Hg1-x-yMnxCdyTe quantum wells, which have a highly tunable Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our calculations use a recently developed formalism which incorporates electronic correlations originating from the exchange sd-coupling. We find that the dependence of electronic spin oscillations on the excess energy changes qualitatively depending on whether or not the spin-orbit interaction dominates or is of comparable strength with the sd interaction.

  3. Chemical trend of exchange coupling in diluted magnetic II-VI semiconductors: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanier, T.; Virot, F.; Hayn, R.

    2009-05-01

    We have calculated the chemical trend of magnetic exchange parameters ( Jdd , Nα , and Nβ ) of Zn-based II-VI semiconductors ZnA ( A=O , S, Se, and Te) doped with Co or Mn. We show that a proper treatment of electron correlations by the local spin-density approximation (LSDA)+U method leads to good agreement between experimental and theoretical values of the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling Jdd between localized 3d spins in contrast to the LSDA method. The exchange couplings between localized spins and doped electrons in the conduction band Nα are in good agreement with experiment as well. But the values for Nβ (coupling to doped holes in the valence band) indicate a crossover from weak coupling (for A=Te and Se) to strong coupling (for A=O ) and a localized hole state in ZnO:Mn. This hole localization explains the apparent discrepancy between photoemission and magneto-optical data for ZnO:Mn.

  4. Diluted II-VI oxide semiconductors with multiple band gaps.

    PubMed

    Yu, K M; Walukiewicz, W; Wu, J; Shan, W; Beeman, J W; Scarpulla, M A; Dubon, O D; Becla, P

    2003-12-12

    We report the realization of a new mult-band-gap semiconductor. Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x alloys have been synthesized using the combination of oxygen ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. Incorporation of small quantities of isovalent oxygen leads to the formation of a narrow, oxygen-derived band of extended states located within the band gap of the Zn(1-y)Mn(y)Te host. When only 1.3% of Te atoms are replaced with oxygen in a Zn0.88Mn0.12Te crystal the resulting band structure consists of two direct band gaps with interband transitions at approximately 1.77 and 2.7 eV. This remarkable modification of the band structure is well described by the band anticrossing model. With multiple band gaps that fall within the solar energy spectrum, Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x is a material perfectly satisfying the conditions for single-junction photovoltaics with the potential for power conversion efficiencies surpassing 50%. PMID:14683137

  5. Materials and device design with III-V and II-VI compound-based diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori

    2002-03-01

    Since the discovery of the carrier induced ferromagnetism in (In, Mn)As and (Ga, Mn)As, diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been of much interest from the industrial viewpoint because of their potentiality as a new functional material (spintronics). In this paper, the magnetism in DMS is investigated based on the first principles calculations, and materials and device design with the DMS is proposed toward the spintronics. The electronic structure is calculated by the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation based on the local spin density approximation. We calculate the electronic structure of ferromagnetic and spin-glass DMS, and total energy difference between them is calculated to estimate whether the ferromagnetic state is stable or not. It is shown that V-, Cr- and Mn-doped III-V compounds, V- and Cr-doped II-VI compounds and Fe-, Co- and Ni-doped ZnO are promising candidates for a high-Curie temperature ferromagnet. A chemical trend in the ferromagnetism is well understood based on the double exchange mechanism [1]. Based upon this material design, some prototypes of the spintronics devices, such as a spin-FET, a photo-induced-magnetic memory and a coherent-spin-infection device, are proposed. [1] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) L555, 40 (2001) L334, L485 and L651.

  6. Carrier-impurity spin transfer dynamics in paramagnetic II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors in the presence of a wave-vector-dependent magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygorek, M.; Tamborenea, P. I.; Axt, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum kinetic equations of motion for carrier and impurity spins in paramagnetic II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors in a k -dependent effective magnetic field are derived, where the carrier-impurity correlations are taken into account. In the Markov limit, rates for the electron-impurity spin transfer can be derived for electron spins parallel and perpendicular to the impurity spins corresponding to measurable decay rates in Kerr experiments in Faraday and Voigt geometry. Our rigorous microscopic quantum kinetic treatment automatically accounts for the fact that, in an individual spin flip-flop scattering process, a spin flip of an electron is necessarily accompanied by a flop of an impurity spin in the opposite direction and the corresponding change of the impurity Zeeman energy influences the final energy of the electron after the scattering event. This shift in the electron energies after a spin flip-flop scattering process, which usually has been overlooked in the literature, turns out to be especially important in the case of extremely diluted magnetic semiconductors in an external magnetic field. As a specific example for a k -dependent effective magnetic field the effects of a Rashba field on the dynamics of the carrier-impurity correlations in a Hg1 -x -yCdyMnxTe quantum well are described. It is found that, although accounting for the Rashba interaction in the dynamics of the correlations leads to a modified k -space dynamics, the time evolution of the total carrier spin is not significantly influenced. Furthermore, a connection between the present theory and the description of collective carrier-impurity precession modes is presented.

  7. Electron-beam-enhanced oxidation processes in II-VI compound semiconductors observed by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaraj, N.; Wessels, B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Enhanced oxidation of ZnS and ZnSe semiconductor surfaces has been observed in situ during electron irradiation in a high-resolution electron microscope. The phase present at the surface region has been identified as ZnO by optical diffractogram and selected area electron diffraction techniques. For ZnS oxidation, both hexagonal ZnO having a random orientation and cubic ZnO in perfect epitaxial relationship with the bulk ZnS were observed. Enhanced oxidation of ZnSe to ZnO has also been observed under electron beam irradiation. However, only the hexagonal form was observed. The oxidation rates for both ZnS and ZnSe depended on electron flux but was independent of orientation. A model in which the oxidation process is limited by diffusion through the oxide film is proposed. By electron irradiation the diffusion rate is enhanced presumably by a nonthermal process.

  8. Wide-gap II-VI heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Kolodziejski, L. A.; Kobayashi, M.; Otsuka, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-04-01

    Recent advances in the growth of II-VI/II-VI and II-VI/III-V heterostructures based on the widegap II-VI semiconductors CdTe and ZnTe are discussed. The potentially important pseudomorphic epilayer/epilayer heterojunction consisting of ZnTe on AlSb has been grown by MBE and characterized. Both microstructural and optical evaluation indicate a high degree of structural quality and the potential for future development of novel light-emitting device structures. Metastable zincblende MnTe, for which TEM and X-ray evaluation reveal the presence of only zincblende phases, has been grown by MBE. Single quantum well structures using zincblende MnTe for the barrier layers have been fabricated and found to show strong carrier confinement, further confirming the predicted zincblende MnTe bandgap at 3.2 eV.

  9. Monolayer II-VI semiconductors: A first-principles prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Li, Xian-Bin; Chen, Nian-Ke; Xie, Sheng-Yi; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Yuanping; Xia, Hong; Zhang, S. B.; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study of 32 honeycomb monolayer II-VI semiconductors is carried out by first-principles methods. While none of the two-dimensional (2D) structures can be energetically stable, it appears that BeO, MgO, CaO, ZnO, CdO, CaS, SrS, SrSe, BaTe, and HgTe honeycomb monolayers have a good dynamic stability. The stability of the five oxides is consistent with the work published by Zhuang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 212102 (2013), 10.1063/1.4831972]. The rest of the compounds in the form of honeycomb are dynamically unstable, revealed by phonon calculations. In addition, according to the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation evolution from these unstable candidates, we also find two extra monolayers dynamically stable, which are tetragonal BaS [P 4 /n m m (129 ) ] and orthorhombic HgS [P 21/m (11 ) ] . The honeycomb monolayers exist in the form of either a planar perfect honeycomb or a low-buckled 2D layer, all of which possess a band gap and most of them are in the ultraviolet region. Interestingly, the dynamically stable SrSe has a gap near visible light, and displays exotic electronic properties with a flat top of the valence band, and hence has a strong spin polarization upon hole doping. The honeycomb HgTe has recently been reported to achieve a topological nontrivial phase under appropriate in-plane tensile strain and spin-orbital coupling (SOC) [J. Li et al., arXiv:1412.2528]. Some II-VI partners with less than 5 % lattice mismatch may be used to design novel 2D heterojunction devices. If synthesized, potential applications of these 2D II-VI families could include optoelectronics, spintronics, and strong correlated electronics.

  10. Atomic-Scale Characterization of II-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Alloys of II-VI compound semiconductors with suitable band gap selection potentially provide broad coverage of wavelengths for photodetector applications. Achievement of high-quality epitaxial growth is, however, essential for successful development of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices. Atomic-scale characterization of structural defects in II-VI heterostructures using electron microscopy plays an invaluable role in accomplishing this goal. This paper reviews some recent high-resolution studies of II-VI compound semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure, as grown epitaxially on commonly used substrates. Exploratory studies using aberration-corrected electron microscopes are also briefly considered.

  11. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Selected II-VI Semiconducting Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Thermophysical properties are essential for the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results of the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of selected II-VI compounds, including HgTe, HgCdTe and HgZnTe. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. The results were compared with and showed good agreement with the existing data in the literature.

  13. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  14. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This methodis first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  15. Chemistry of the colloidal group II-VI nanocrystal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis and application of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based on high temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has become one of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkers in 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and later extended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well as anisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod. This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystal synthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied by characterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and products and following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on these results, a mechanism was proposed to account for the reaction between the precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth of nanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theory calculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursor decomposition and monomer formation pathway. Based on the proposed reaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses water as a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSe and US nanorods.

  16. Theory of carrier mediated ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, M.J. Das Sarma, S.

    2007-11-15

    We analyze the origin of ferromagnetism as a result of carrier mediation in diluted magnetic oxide semiconductors in the light of the experimental evidence reported in the literature. We propose that a combination of percolation of magnetic polarons at lower temperature and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida ferromagnetism at higher temperature may be the reason for the very high critical temperatures measured (up to {approx}700 K)

  17. Photothermal spectroscopy of II-VI mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, Jacek

    2005-09-01

    Wide gap II-VI semiconducting mixed crystals are extensively studied during the past few years as they are promising candidates for applications in construction photo and electrooptical devices operating in blue-green and UV spectral region. The high degree of covalent bonding of Be chalcogenides leads to increase of their lattice rigidity. For this reason, mixing of Be chalcogenides with other wide gap II-VI binary compounds would increase the resistance of the optoelectronic structure to defect generation and propagation. The photoacoustic spectroscopy has been developed to investigate the thermal and optical properties of semiconductors since it is very sensitive and complementary method to the absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The modified Jackson - Amer model is used to interpret the obtained spectra for the piezoelectric photothermal technique. From the amplitude spectra of the piezoelectric signal, the method enables computation of the optical absorption coefficient spectra and estimation of the energy gap values of the investigated samples. It also enables the determination of the thermal diffusivity values of the samples from the analysis of the piezoelectric phase signal. In special cases, the multi-layer model, developed very recently, can be applied for the interpretation of experimental spectra. The influence of the annealing process of II-VI samples in cation vapor on the amplitude photoacoustic spectra in the saturation region is shown and discussed. The values of the parameter η (efficiency of the nonradiative recombination processes) for both, as grown and annealed crystals were determined and discussed.

  18. Control of diesel engine emissions by dilute oxidizer injection

    SciTech Connect

    Duva, A.W.; Ibrahim, O.; Zhang, Z.

    1996-12-31

    The current diesel engine power systems have progressed to the point where significant reduction in emissions or fuel consumption are at the limit of the state of the art with the present fuels. It is proposed that overall system weight, power or efficiency must be traded to achieve reduced exhaust emission levels. Emission control through the injection of dilute oxidizers are explored to minimize the formation of noxious gases, emission of unburned hydrocarbons and soot in internal combustion diesel cycle engines. Relevant literature detailing the attempts to control exhaust emissions by altering the intake charge are reviewed and utilized as the foundation for the current study. Steady flow type combustion simulations utilizing low concentration hydrogen peroxide with available air in varying ratios are presented for trend comparison to experimental data developed during this investigation. The empirical portion of the study focused on the adaptation of proposed dilute hydrogen peroxide injection to a standard four cylinder marine diesel engine. The main thrust evaluated the impact of oxidizer injection on an aging engine without significant modifications to the existing auxiliary equipment. A simple spray apparatus delivered the dilute hydrogen peroxide to the air intake stream to minimize the alterations to the existing system. Water injection was performed as an experimental control for comparison to reference literature and to normalize the results obtained from the injection of the 5% and 10% concentration hydrogen peroxide. The injection of both concentrations of hydrogen peroxide showed an improvement relative to water injection for unburned hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The improvements relative to water was greater with the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Activation of shallow dopants in II-VI compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The amphoteric native defect model is applied to the understanding of the variations in the dopant activation efficiency in II-VI compounds. It is shown that the location of the common energy reference, the Fermi level stabilization energy, relative to the band edges can be used to determine the doping induced reduction of the formation energy and the enhancement of the concentration of compensating native defects. The model is applied to the most extensively studied compound semiconductors as well as to ternary and quaternary alloys. The effects of the compound ionicity on the dopant activation are briefly discussed.

  20. Large area radiation detectors based on II VI thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The development of low temperature device technologies that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible, low metal content, sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, neutron/gamma-ray/x-ray detectors, etc. In this talk, our efforts to develop novel CMOS integration schemes, circuits, memory, sensors as well as novel contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors for flexible electronics are presented. In particular, in this presentation we discuss fundamental materials properties including crystalline structure, interfacial reactions, doping, etc. defining performance and reliability of II-VI-based radiation sensors. We investigate the optimal thickness of a semiconductor diode for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors. Besides II-VI materials, we also evaluated several diode materials, Si, CdTe,GaAs, C (diamond), and ZnO, and two neutron converter materials,10B and 6LiF. We determine the minimum semiconductor thickness needed to achieve maximum neutron detection efficiency. By keeping the semiconductor thickness to a minimum, gamma rejection is kept as high as possible. In this way, we optimize detector performance for different thin-film semiconductor materials.

  1. AX centers in II-VI semiconductors: Hybrid functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik; Du, Mao-Hua

    2012-02-01

    Group-V acceptors should be efficient hole producers in II-VI compounds as in ZnTe. However, good p-type conductivity remains elusive, for example in ZnO and ZnS. With regard to this low doping efficiency, we will discuss the dopant self-compensation in II-VI semiconductors through the formation of the AX center. These are acceptor-induced defect that acts as a donor to compensate the acceptor itself. We show that the artificially high valence band maximum in Local density approximation and Generalized gradient approximation calculations can lead to incorrect prediction on the stability of the AX center in these semiconductors. The hybrid functional calculations that correct the band gap, significantly stabilize the AX centers for selected group-V acceptor dopants in ZnO, ZnS, and ZnSe. The results on AX centers obtained by hybrid functional calculations agree well with the experimentally observed doping phenomena in ZnS and ZnSe.[1] [1] Koushik Biswas and Mao-Hua Du, Applied Physics Letters 98, 181913 (2011).

  2. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence studies of II-VI semiconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael Wayne

    2010-06-01

    of 0, 1,3, and 10% and annealed at 400, 600 and 800°C in air. XAFS spectra show that low dopant concentrations and low processing temperatures limit the amount of secondary phase formation. The nanopowders did not show roomtemperature ferromagnetism and increased secondary phase formation increases the paramagnetic character of the hysteresis curves at 5°K. Keywords: X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS), X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy(XAS), X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL), time-resolved, II-VI semiconductors, nanostructure, nanomaterial, nanoribbon, nanowire, nanopartic1e, heterostructure, ZnO, ZnS, ZnO-ZnS, CdS, CdSe, CdSSe, ZnO:Mn, ZnO:Co, ZnS:Mn, dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), dilute magnetic oxide (DMO), spintronics, magnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism.

  3. II-VI Materials-Based High Performance Intersubband Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Arvind Pawan

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is of vital technological importance because of its application in trace-gas absorption spectroscopy, imaging, free-space communication or infrared countermeasures. Thus the ability to generate and detect mid-IR light at low cost and preferably, at room temperature is of utmost importance. High performance quantum cascade (QC) lasers - mid-IR light sources based on optical transitions in thin quantum wells, and intersubband infrared detectors - namely the quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and quantum cascade detectors (QCDs), have rapidly advanced, due to excellent material quality of III-V materials. In spite of this tremendous success, there lie challenges such as lack of efficient short-wavelength emitters or broadband detectors - challenges that arise from intrinsic materials properties. As a central theme in this thesis, we look at a new class of materials, the II-VI based ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe system, to close technological gaps and develop high performance infrared light sources and detectors in the entire mid-IR regime. To that end, we first demonstrate the flexibility that the combination of II-VI materials and band structure engineering allows by developing various QWIPs, QCDs and QC emitters at different wavelengths, not easily achieved by other materials. The performance of these first-of-their-kind detectors is already comparable to existing commercial solutions. To fully realize the potential of this new material system, we also developed a room-temperature broadband infrared detector detecting between 3 and 6 mum with record responsivity. With this technology, it is now possible to monolithically integrate high performance mid-IR lasers and detectors for on-chip applications. One of the challenges with all intersubband detectors is that they do not absorb normally incident light, like most conventional detectors. In order to make intersubband detectors attractive to commercial exploration, we develop a novel method to

  4. 77 FR 27081 - II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8281). The workers were engaged in... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg... former workers of II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg,...

  5. Development of novel II-VI solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tompa, G.S.

    1990-11-01

    The epitaxial growth of novel II-VI solar cell structures was investigated. In Phase I, the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process parameters and associated growth chemistries for an epitaxial p-i-n, ZnTe/CdTe/GaAs, solar cell structure were developed. No doping was attempted in the Phase I effort. The solar cell structure was grown as a continuous structure within a single process reactor. Film thickness, compositional uniformity, and electrical properties were measured. A test solar cell was not fabricated because the material was too highly resistive to produce a useful solar cell. This high resistivity is characteristic of very pure ZnTe and CdTe material. The feasibility of this structure was demonstrated, providing a foundation for the development of a functional solar cell, by optimizing the cell structure and growth processes and by developing doping techniques.

  6. FTIR Spectroscopic Characterization Of II-VI Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Szofran, F. R.

    1991-01-01

    Combination of commercial Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with computer and special-purpose software constitutes highly automated facility for acquisition and processing of infrared transmission or reflection spectral image data. Intended principally to acquire transmission spectra of some compounds of elements in groups II and VI of periodic table. System used to characterize specimens of II/VI alloy semiconductors grown by directional solidification and quenching. Transmission-edge maps helpful in studies of flows, gradients of temperature, and coefficients of diffusion in solidifying melts. Data acquired by system include optical characteristics, and they both verify and complement data obtained by such other techniques as measurements of density and x-ray-dispersion analysis.

  7. Magnetization and Hysteresis of Dilute Magnetic-Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, Ralph; Balamurugan, B.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Real-structure imperfections in dilute magnetic oxides tend to create small concentrations of local magnetic moments that are coupled by fairly long-range exchange interactions, mediated by p-electrons. The robustness of these interactions is caused by the strong overlap of the p orbitals, as contrasted to the much weaker interatomic exchange involving iron-series 3d electrons. The net exchange between defect moments can be positive or negative, which gives rise to spin structures with very small net moments. Similarly, the moments exhibit magnetocrystalline anisotropy, reinforced by electron hopping to and from 3d states and generally undergoing some random-anuisotropy averaging. Since the coercivity scales as 2K1/M and M is small, this creates pronounced and -- in thin films -- strongly anisotropic hysteresis loops. In finite systems with N moments, both K1 and M are reduced by a factor of order N1/2 due to random anisotropy and moment compensation, respectively, so that that typical coercivities are comparable to bulk magnets. Thermal activation readily randomizes the net moment of small oxide particles, so that the moment is easier to measure in compacted or aggregated particle ensembles. This research is supported by DOE (BES).

  8. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  9. Optical properties of II-VI semiconductor nanoclusters for use as phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcoxon, Jess P.; Newcomer, Paula

    2002-11-01

    The optical properties of both II-VI (direct gap) and type IV (indirect gap) nanosize semiconductors are significantly affected not only by their size, but by the nature of the chemical interface of the cluster with the embedding medium. This affects the light conversion efficiency and can alter the shape and position (i.e. the color) of the photoluminescence (PL). As the goal of our work is to embed nanoclusters into either organic or inorganic matrices for use as near UV, LED-excited phosphor thin films, understanding and controlling this interface is very important for preserving the high Q.E. of nanoclusters known for dilute solution conditions. We describe a room temperature synthesis of semiconductor nanoclusters which employs inexpensive, less toxic ionic precursors (metal salts), and simple coordinating solvents (e.g. tetrahydrofuran). This allows us to add passivating agents, ions, metal or semiconductor coatings to identical, highly dispersed bare clusters, post-synthesis. We can also increase the cluster size by heterogeneous growth on the seed nanoclusters. One of the most interesting observations for our II-VI nanomaterials is that both the absorbance excitonic features and the photoluminescence (PL) energy and intensity depend on the nature of the surface as well as the average size. In CdS, for example, the presence of electron traps (i.e Cd(II) sites) decreases the exciton absorbance peak amplitude but increases the PL nearly two-fold. Hole traps (i.e. S(II)) have the opposite effect. In the coordinating solvents used for the synthesis, the PL yield for d~2 nm, blue emitting CdSe clusters increases dramatically with sample age as the multiple absorbance features sharpen. Liquid chromatographic (LC) separation of the nanoclusters from other chemicals and different sized clusters is used to investigate the intrinsic optical properties of the purified clusters and identify which clusters are contributing most strongly to the PL. Both LC and dynamic

  10. Close-spaced vapor transport of II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Gerard

    1991-12-01

    The close spaced vapor transport (CSVT) is an efficient and cost-effective technique that allows the growth of polycrystalline as well as epitaxial thin layers of semiconductors. It has been applied to II-VI materials, especially to zinc and cadmium chalcogenides. A summary table including the deposition parameters, i.e., the nature of the ambient gas, the temperature of the source, the temperature difference between source and substrate, and the values of the growth rates measured on various substrates is presented for ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe. Experimental results concerning the growth of ZnSe on GaAs substrates are also reported. The CSVT system uses an Ar atmosphere and the working temperature is ca. 825 degree(s)C. The temperatures of source and substrate are measured during deposition and growth rates of the ZnSe films are studied as a function of the reciprocal temperature of the substrate surface for GaAs and quartz (inert) substrates. The measured values of the growth rate are compared to the theoretical ones given by the reaction-limited model and the diffusion-limited model. The validity of the models is discussed in terms of the nature of the molecules participating in the transport.

  11. Novel diluted magnetic semiconductor materials based on zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Deepayan

    The primary aim of this work was to develop a ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) materials system which displays ferromagnetism above room temperature and to understand the origin of long-range ferromagnetic ordering in these systems. Recent developments in the field of spintronics (spin based electronics) have led to an extensive search for materials in which semiconducting properties can be integrated with magnetic properties to realize the objective of successful fabrication of spin-based devices. For these devices we require a high efficiency of spin current injection at room temperature. Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) can serve this role, but they should not only display room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) but also be capable of generating spin polarized carriers. Transition metal doped ZnO has proved to be a potential candidate as a DMS showing RTFM. The origin of ferromagnetic ordering in ZnO is still under debate. However, the presence of magnetic secondary phases, composition fluctuations and nanoclusters could also explain the observation of ferromagnetism in the DMS samples. This encouraged us to investigate Cu-doped(+ spin in the 2+ valence state) ZnO system as a probable candidate exhibiting RTFM because neither metallic Cu nor its oxides (Cu2O or CuO) are ferromagnetic. The role of defects and free carriers on the ferromagnetic ordering of Cu-doped ZnO thin films was studied to ascertain the origin of ferromagnetism in this system. A novel non-equilibrium Pulsed Laser Deposition technique has been used to grow high quality epitaxial thin films of Cu:ZnO and (Co,Cu):ZnO on c-plane Sapphire by domain matching epitxay. Both the systems showed ferromagnetic ordering above 300K but Cu ions showed a much stronger ferromagnetic ordering than Co, especially at low concentrations (1-2%) of Cu where we realized near 100% polarization. But, the incorporation of Cu resulted in a 2-order of magnitude rise in the resistivity from 10-1 to 101

  12. Phase Diagrams and Electronic Structure of II-VI Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gironcoli, Stefano

    1998-03-01

    Among II-VI wide-gap semiconductor solid solutions, Zn_xMg_1-xS_ySe_1-y alloy is the most studied for its potential applications in the blue-green light-emitter technology. In spite of this enormous technological interest little is known about its fundamental thermodynamical and structural properties. In this work the structural and thermodynamical properties of the Zn_xMg_1-xS_ySe_1-y solid solutions are determined by a combination of the computational alchemy (S. de Gironcoli, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66), 2116 (1991); N. Marzari, S. de Gironcoli, and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4001 (1994). and the cluster expansion (S.-H. Wei, L. G. Ferreira, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 41), 8240 (1990). methods with Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the phase diagram of the alloy and show that the system is completely mixible at the tipical growth temperatures and phase separates at lower temperatures into two or three phases. The homogeneous phase is characterized by a large amount of short-range order occurring among first-nearest neighbors. Electronic-structure calculations, performed extending the special quasi-random structures approach (A. Zunger, S.-H. Wei, L. G. Ferreira, and J. E. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65), 353 (1990). to the quaternary alloy case, indicate that the energy gap of the alloy is rather sensitive to this short-range order.

  13. Equilibrium composition in II?VI telluride MOCVD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, L.; Greenberg, J. H.

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic calculations, or computer simulation of the equilibrium composition, offer an excellent possibility to reduce drastically the elaborate trial-and-error experimental efforts of finding the optimal preparation conditions for MOCVD processes (temperature T, pressure P, initial composition of the vapors X), to limit them only to the P- T- X field of existence of the solid to be prepared and an acceptable yield of the product. In this communication equilibrium composition was investigated for MOCVD processes of CdTe, ZnTe, HgTe and solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe. A number of volatile organometallic compounds have been used as precursors for MOCVD growth. These are dimethylcadmium (CH 3) 2Cd, DMCd; diethylzinc (C 2H 5) 2Zn, DEZn; diisopropylzinc [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Zn, DiPZn; diethyltellurium (C 2H 5) 2Te, DETe; diisopropyltellurium [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Te, DiPTe; methylallyltellurium CH 3TeCH 2CHCH 2, MATe. A choice of the particular combination of the precursors largely depends on the desired composition of the film to be prepared, especially in cases of solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe where the vapor pressure of the precursors is instrumental for the composition of the vapor in the reaction zone and, ultimately, for the composition x of the solid solution. Equilibrium composition for II-VI telluride MOCVD systems was investigated at temperatures up to 873 K in hydrogen and inert gas atmospheres at pressures up to 1 atm. P- T- X regions of existence were outlined for each of the five materials.

  14. Oxidation and dechlorination of chlorophenols in dilute aqueous suspensions of manganese oxides: Reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Ukrainczyk, L.; McBride, M.B. . Dept.of Soil, Crop, and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    Some monomeric and dimeric oxidation products of para- and/or ortho-chlorinated phenols in dilute (1 mmol/L phenol), acidified, aqueous suspensions of manganese oxide (Na-buserite) were identified by MS, Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy and UV/visible spectroscopy. The para-chlorinated phenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 4-chloro-2-methylphenol) gave corresponding p-benzoquionones (benzoquinone, 2-chlorobenzoquinone, 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone, 2-methylbenzoquinone) as the detectable water-soluble oxidation products. Dimeric products were present in the extracts obtained by washing the oxide with methylene chloride. Michael addition of phenolate to quinone seems to be the predominant mode of coupling. Chlorinated phenols without chlorine in the para-position (2-chlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol) were more difficult to oxidize and afforded diphenoquinones as the only detectable water-soluble products. For all studied phenols, with the exception of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, the amount of water-soluble products accounts only for a small fraction of oxidized phenol. The quinone and diphenoquinone products readily couple with phenols into humus like materials.

  15. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current (I D)-gate voltage (V G) and drain current (I D)-drain voltage (V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D-V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  16. Exciton Kinetics in Strained II-Vi Semiconductor Multiple Quantum Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefetz, Yaron

    1987-09-01

    Two groups of wide gap II-VI semiconductor superlattices based on ZnSe/Zn(,1-x)Mn(,x)Se and CdTe/ZnTe were investigated using CW and time-resolved photoluminescence, excitation, reflectance, and photomodulated reflectance spectroscopy at various temperatures and under an external magnetic field. All these lattice mismatch strained layer structures were grown by MBE technique and exhibit strong excitonic photoluminescence at low temperatures. By studying the dynamics of the exciton recombination processes, the role of strain, quantum confinement and localization effects were revealed. In the CdTe/ZnTc system where the lattice mismatch is (DELTA)a/a (TURNEQ) 6% the inhomogeneously broadened ((TURN)40 mev) luminescence line is governed by excitonic localization in well width fluctuations. Exchange interactions of the carriers with the Mn('++) ions in the dilute magnetic semiconductor Zn(,1-x)Mn(,x)Se in thin film and the barrier of the MQW structures influence their optical behavior in an exernal magnetic field. "Giant" Zeeman splittings of up to (TURN)10 mev/Tesla were measured in samples with moderate Mn concentration (x = .23). Antiferromagnetic interaction reduces these splittings in samples with higher Mn concentrations. In observing the time evolution of the carrier in Zn(,1-x)Mn(,x)Se MQW we found that the capture time of these carriers into the well is on the order of 1 psec but the last stages of thermalization, exciton formations and localization is (TURN)70 ps. The fast capture of electrons and holes into the quantum wells bypass the energy transfer into the Mn internal transition that is responsible to the efficient "yellow" luminescence in ZnMnSe mixed crystals.

  17. Photophysical Properties of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ke

    As it is well known, semiconductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots, QDs) are being actively pursued for use in many different types of luminescent optical materials. These materials include the active media for luminescence downconversion in artificial lighting, lasers, luminescent solar concentrators and many other applications. Chapter 1 gives general introduction of QDs, which describe the basic physical properties and optical properties. Based on the experimental spectroscopic study, a semiquantitative method-effective mass model is employed to give theoretical prediction and guide. The following chapters will talks about several topics respectively. A predictive understanding of the radiative lifetimes is therefore a starting point for the understanding of the use of QDs for these applications. Absorption intensities and radiative lifetimes are fundamental properties of any luminescent material. Meantime, achievement of high efficiency with high working temperature and heterostructure fabrication with manipulation of lattice strain are not easy and need systematic investigation. To make accurate connections between extinction coefficients and radiative recombination rates, chapter 2 will consider three closely related aspects of the size dependent spectroscopy of II-VI QDs. First, it will consider the existing literature on cadmium selenide (CdSe) QD absorption spectra and extinction coefficients. From these results and fine structure considerations Boltzmann weighted radiative lifetimes are calculated. These lifetimes are compared to values measured on very high quality CdSe and CdSe coated with zinc selenide (ZnSe) shells. Second, analogous literature data are analyzed for cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and compared to lifetimes measured for very high quality QDs. Furthermore, studies of the absorption and excitation spectra and measured radiative lifetimes for CdTe/CdSe Type-II core/shell QDs are reported. These results are also analyzed in

  18. Removal of GaAs growth substrates from II-VI semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieker, S.; Hartmann, P. R.; Kießling, T.; Rüth, M.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on a process that enables the removal of II-VI semiconductor epilayers from their GaAs growth substrate and their subsequent transfer to arbitrary host environments. The technique combines mechanical lapping and layer selective chemical wet etching and is generally applicable to any II-VI layer stack. We demonstrate the non-invasiveness of the method by transferring an all-II-VI magnetic resonant tunneling diode. High resolution x-ray diffraction proves that the crystal integrity of the heterostructure is preserved. Transport characterization confirms that the functionality of the device is maintained and even improved, which is ascribed to completely elastic strain relaxation of the tunnel barrier layer.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of iron-doped II-VI compounds for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alan

    The middle Infrared (mid-IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 2 and 15 ?m has many features which are of interest to a variety of fields such as molecular spectroscopy, biomedical applications, industrial process control, oil prospecting, free-space communication and defense-related applications. Because of this, there is a demand for broadly tunable, laser sources operating over this spectral region which can be easily and inexpensively produced. II-VI semiconductor materials doped with transition metals (TM) such as Co 2+, Cr2+, or Fe2+ exhibit highly favorable spectroscopic characteristics for mid-IR laser applications. Among these TM dopants, Fe2+ has absorption and emission which extend the farthest into the longer wavelength portion of the mid-IR. Fe2+:II-VI crystals have been utilized as gain elements in laser systems broadly tunable over the 3-5.5 microm range [1] and as saturable absorbers to Q -switch [2] and mode-lock [3] laser cavities operating over the 2.7-3 microm. TM:II-VI laser gain elements can be fabricated inexpensively by means of post-growth thermal diffusion with large homogeneous dopant concentration and good optical quality[4,5]. The work outlined in this dissertation will focus on the spectroscopic characterization of TM-doped II-VI semiconductors. This work can be categorized into three major thrusts: 1) the development of novel laser materials, 2) improving and extending applications of TM:II-VI crystals as saturable absorbers, and 3) fabrication of laser active bulk crystals. Because current laser sources based on TM:II-VI materials do not cover the entire mid-IR spectral region, it is necessary to explore novel laser sources to extend available emissions toward longer wavelengths. The first objective of this dissertation is the spectroscopic characterization of novel ternary host crystals doped with Fe2+ ions. Using crystal field engineering, laser materials can be prepared with emissions placed in spectral regions not

  20. 77 FR 21586 - II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Notice of Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8281). The workers were engaged in... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg... former workers of II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg,...

  1. ZnTe/MnTe: A new metastable wide gap II VI heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Fu, Qiang; Pelekanos, N.; Gunshor, R. L.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-04-01

    Optical characteristics of a new metastable wide-gap II-VI semiconductor heterostructure ZnTe/MnTe are reported. Single ZnTe/MnTe quantum wells show strong n = 1 exciton resonance manifesting, for example, in pronounced enhancement of the Raman cross-section. Pseudomorphic nature of the structures is inferred from strain induced shifts in the optical phonon spectrum.

  2. Exploration of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors toward transparent spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Toyosaki, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Koinuma, H.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-02-01

    A review is given for the recent progress of research in the field of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), which was triggered by combinatorial discovery of transparent ferromagnet. The possible advantages of oxide semiconductor as a host of DMS are described in comparison with conventional compound semiconductors. Limits and problems for identifying novel ferromagnetic DMS are described in view of recent reports in this field. Several characterization techniques are proposed in order to eliminate unidentified ferromagnetism of oxide-based DMS unidentified ferromagnetic oxide (UFO). Perspectives and possible devices are also given.

  3. Optical Properties of Silicon-Germanium Superlattices and Wide Band Gap II-Vi Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajakarunanayake, Yasantha Nirmal

    This thesis presents the investigation of semiconductor heterostructures for optoelectronic applications, with particular emphasis on band alignment considerations, strain effects, band structure calculations and characterization by optical spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of novel optoelectronic properties exhibited by Si/Ge superlattices both in the near infrared (interband transitions) and far infrared (intersubband transitions) energy ranges. The second part of this thesis is concerned with establishing the merits of II-VI semiconductor heterostructures for producing visible light emitters, and investigating techniques to improve the dopability of II-VI semiconductors. In the first part of this thesis we investigate the merits of Si/Ge superlattices for optical applications. We show that the optical absorption/emission strengths for interband transitions in Si/Ge superlattices can be enhanced by six orders of magnitude over pure Si or Ge. We also investigate the intersubband absorption coefficients in doped Si/Ge superlattices. Intersubband transitions in these superlattices make them interesting candidates for long-wavelength infrared detectors. In the second part of this thesis, we describe investigations of II-VI semiconductor heterostructures for visible light emitter applications. We experimentally determine the band offsets for CdTe/ZnTe and ZnSe/ZnTe heterojunctions using optical techniques, and remark on the merits of these heterojunctions for carrier injection. We also analyze the role of external electric fields applied during growth in suppressing self-compensation in II-VI semiconductors. Our results indicate that II-VI doping efficiencies can be dramatically improved if substantial electric fields are applied during growth.

  4. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  5. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  6. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  7. Novel diffusions of interstitial atoms in II-VI compounds zinc selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li An; Jiang, En Hai; Zhu, Xing Feng; Chen, Ling Fu

    2015-04-01

    The diffusion plays an important role in many applications when the impurities are employed to tune the semiconductor's electrical or optical properties, which make it essential to understand theoretically the microscopic mechanisms governing how dopant defects diffuse. Using first-principles calculations, we compare the diffusion behaviors and migration barriers of interstitial Cu, Ag, and Au atoms in II-VI compounds ZnSe. We consider interstitial diffusion mechanisms and calculate the corresponding activation energies. For noble atoms, we find that the interstitial mediated mechanism is the dominant one. We also find that the relative size of dopant atoms and constituent atoms of II-VI compounds is an important factor affecting the diffusion behaviors. The coupling in ZnSe between Cu d levels and unoccupied host s levels is not as strong as that in CdTe.

  8. Catalytic oxidative treatment of diluted black liquor at mild conditions using copper oxide/cerium oxide catalyst.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, Indra M; Chand, Shri

    2008-02-01

    Wet-air oxidation of diluted black liquor (chemical oxygen demand [COD] approximately 3250 to 14 500 mg/L) was performed at mild operating conditions (temperature = 388 to 423 K and total pressure = 0.6 MPa) in the presence of heterogeneous 60% copper oxide (CuO)/ 40% cerium oxide (CeO2) catalyst. Maximum COD reduction of 77.3% was obtained at 423 K at pH 3.0, which was marginally higher than that obtained at 413 K temperature (77.1%). In the acidic environment (pH < or = 3), most of the COD was removed in the form of settleable solids during the transient heating of the wastewater from room temperature to the desired one. The solid residue obtained after the reaction has a heating value of 20.1 MJ/kg, which is comparable with that of Indian coal. Thermal degradation kinetic determination suggested that thermal characteristics of the solid residue are well represented by a power law model with Agarwal and Sivasubramanian approximation (Safi et al., 2004). PMID:18330223

  9. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  10. Self-interaction and relaxation-corrected pseudopotentials for II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Dirk; Krüger, Peter; Pollmann, Johannes

    1996-08-01

    We report the construction of pseudopotentials that incorporate self-interaction corrections and electronic relaxation in an approximate but very efficient, physically well-founded, and mathematically well-defined way. These potentials are particularly useful for II-VI compounds which are distinguished by their highly localized and strongly bound cationic semicore d electrons. Self-interaction corrections to the local-density approximation (LDA) of density-functional theory are accounted for in the solids to a significant degree by constructing appropriate self-interaction-corrected (SIC) pseudopotentials that take atomic SIC contributions into account. In this way translational symmetry of the Hamiltonian is preserved. Without increasing the complexity of the numerical calculations we approximately account, in addition, for electronic relaxation in the solids by incorporating into our pseudopotentials relevant relaxation in the involved atoms. By this construction we arrive at very useful self-interaction and relaxation-corrected pseudopotentials and effective one-particle Hamiltonians which constitute the basis for ab initio LDA calculations yielding significant improvements in electronic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors and their surfaces. The procedure is computationally not more involved than any standard LDA calculation and, nevertheless, overcomes to a large extent the well-known shortcomings of ``state of the art'' LDA calculations employing standard pseudopotentials. Our results for electronic and structural properties of II-VI compounds agree with a whole body of experimental data.

  11. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-04-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover.

  12. Quantification of Nitrous Oxide from Fugitive Emissions by Tracer Dilution Method using a Mobile Real-time Nitrous Oxide Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, J.; Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; He, Y.; Hoffnagle, J.; Scheutz, C.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas considered 298 times stronger than carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). The increasing global concentration is of great concern and is receiving increasing attention in various scientific and industrial fields. Nitrous oxide is emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Inventories of source specific fugitive nitrous oxide emissions are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. While these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions can be a useful tool for verifying the existing estimation methods as well as providing validation for initiatives targeted at lowering unwanted nitrous oxide emissions. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001), in which a tracer gas is released at the source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of both the tracer gas and nitrous oxide gives the ratios of the emissions rates. This tracer dilution method can be done with both stationary and mobile measurements; in either case, real-time measurements of both tracer and analyte gas is required, which places high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the nitrous oxide measurements, a novel, robust instrument capable of real-time nitrous oxide measurements has been developed, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. We present the results of the laboratory and field tests of this instrument in both California and Denmark. Furthermore, results are presented from measurements using the mobile plume method with a tracer gas (acetylene) to quantify the nitrous oxide and methane emissions from known sources such as waste water treatment plants and composting facilities. Nitrous oxide (blue) and methane (yellow) plumes downwind from a waste water treatment facility.

  13. Novel photoinduced phase transitions in transition metal oxides and diluted magnetic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Some transition metal oxides have frustrated electronic states under multiphase competition due to strongly correlated d electrons with spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom and exhibit drastic responses to external stimuli such as optical excitation. Here, we present photoemission studies on Pr0.55(Ca1 − ySry)0.45MnO3 (y = 0.25), SrTiO3, and Ti1 − xCoxO2 (x = 0.05, 0.10) under laser illumination and discuss electronic structural changes induced by optical excitation in these strongly correlated oxides. We discuss the novel photoinduced phase transitions in these transition metal oxides and diluted magnetic semiconductors on the basis of polaronic pictures such as orbital, ferromagnetic, and ferroelectric polarons. PMID:23092248

  14. Crystal-Phase Control by Solution-Solid-Solid Growth of II-VI Quantum Wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2016-02-10

    A simple and potentially general means of eliminating the planar defects and phase alternations that typically accompany the growth of semiconductor nanowires by catalyzed methods is reported. Nearly phase-pure, defect-free wurtzite II-VI semiconductor quantum wires are grown from solid rather than liquid catalyst nanoparticles. The solid-catalyst nanoparticles are morphologically stable during growth, which minimizes the spontaneous fluctuations in nucleation barriers between zinc blende and wurtzite phases that are responsible for the defect formation and phase alternations. Growth of single-phase (in our cases the wurtzite phase) nanowires is thus favored. PMID:26731426

  15. Self-organized MBE growth of II VI epilayers on patterned GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, H.; Tran Anh, T.; Rogaschewski, S.; von Ortenberg, M.

    1999-05-01

    We report on the self-organized MBE growth of II-VI epilayers on patterned and unpatterned GaSb substrates resulting in quantum wires and quantum wells, respectively. The HgSe : Fe quantum wires were grown on (0 0 1)GaSb substrates with a buffer of lattice-matched ZnTe 1- xSe x. Due to the anisotropic growth of HgSe on the A-oriented stripes roof-like overgrowth with a definite ridge was obtained. Additional Fe doping in the direct vicinity of the ridge results in a highly conductive quantum wire.

  16. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Li, Chao; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, Sandra L.; Kim, Y. W.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, Heng; Benmore, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. It has long been recognized that liquid Te presents a unique case having properties between those of metals and semiconductors. The electrical conductivity for Te melt increases rapidly at melting point, indicating a semiconductor-metal transition. Te melts comprise two features, which are usually considered to be incompatible with each other: covalently bound atoms and metallic-like behavior. Why do Te liquids show metallic behavior? is one of the long-standing issues in liquid metal physics. Since thermophysical properties are very sensitive to the structural variations of a melt, we have conducted extensive thermophysical measurements on Te melt.

  17. Structural Fluctuation and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project is to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs and to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuations phenomena in these melts by: 1) Conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) Performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. A relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the sample, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed similar relaxation behavior as the measured diffusivity. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed better resolution than previous reported.

  18. Fracto-mechanoluminescence induced by impulsive deformation of II-VI semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ratnesh; Dubey, Vikas; Ramrakhiani, Meera; Chandra, B P

    2015-09-01

    When II-VI semiconductors are fractured, initially the mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value Im at a time tm, at which the fracture is completed. After tm, the ML intensity decreases with time, Im increase linearly with the impact velocity v0 and IT initially increase linearly with v0 and then it attains a saturation value for a higher value of v0. For photoluminescence, the temperature dependence comes mainly from luminescence efficiency, ηo; however, for the ML excitation, there is an additional factor, rt dependent on temperature. During fracture, charged dislocations moving near the tip of moving cracks produce intense electric field, causes band bending. Consequently, tunneling of electrons from filled electron traps to the conduction band takes place, whereby the radiative electron-hole recombination give rise to the luminescence. In the proposed mechanism, expressions are derived for the rise, the time tm corresponding to the ML intensity versus time curve, the ML intensity Im corresponding to the peak of ML intensity versus time curve, the total fracto-mechanoluminescence (FML) intensity IT, and fast and slow decay of FML intensity of II-VI semiconductors. The FML plays a significant role in understanding the processes involved in biological detection, earthquake lights and mine failure. PMID:25669489

  19. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of various ternary II VI semiconductor solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphäling, R.; Bauer, S.; Klingshirn, C.; Reznitstsky, A.; Verbin, S.

    1998-02-01

    As a result of the spatial localization of excitons in II-VI mixed crystals the external luminescence quantum efficiency η lum is expected to be remarkably higher than in the corresponding binary compounds. To investigate this assumption we built a new experimental setup with a miniature integrating sphere fitted into a cryostat. At low temperatures in the binary systems CdS and CdSe we always found η lum ⩽ 25% in the main luminescence bands (arising from bound excitons (D 0X, A 0X) and donor—acceptor pair recombination). For the free-exciton luminescence η lum was more than two orders of magnitude less. In contrast, CdS 1- xSe x mixed crystals show η lum up to 70% in the luminescence from localized states, indicating that the nonradiative recombination is strongly suppressed for localized excitons. Other II-VI alloys (ZnSe 1- xTe x Zn 1- xCd xS and Zn 1- xCd xSe) show partly considerably lower values for η lum. The temperature dependence of η lum gives information about various activation processes to nonradiative recombination channels.

  20. Threshold in electron-beam end-pumped II-VI lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, S.; Khurgin, J.; Seemungal, W.; Hebling, A.

    1987-10-01

    Electron-beam end-pumped lasers from different bulk-grown II-VI compounds have been experimentally studied and compared under similar preparation and excitation conditions. The first results on electron-beam pumped CdMnTe lasers and end-pumped CdTe lasers are reported. The order of lowest to highest threshold is found to be from CdSe, ZnCdSe, CdS, CdTe, CdMnTe, and ZnSe. The comparisons between lasing conditions are used to evaluate the contribution of the intrinsic semiconductor parameters to lasing threshold. Experiments with a large number of samples indicate that the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on lasing threshold are in most cases comparable. Therefore, for most bulk II-VI lasers, the average threshold pump power density reductions with the elimination of extrinsic factors are expected to be less than several times. These findings are further supported by threshold and relative slope efficiency measurements on lasers with different output mirror couplings.

  1. Orientation-patterned II-VI semiconductor waveguides for quasi-phasematched nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, Marilyn Joy

    1999-10-01

    The ability to grow epitaxial layers of II-VI compound semiconductors on GaAs substrates, the transparency of these materials to a broad range of visible wavelengths, and their strong second order susceptibility suggest that these materials should be promising for efficient nonlinear frequency conversion by on-chip integration with III-V pump lasers. This work investigates the use of semiconductor microfabrication techniques to create II-VI waveguides with laterally-patterned crystal orientation for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation. The fabrication of periodically-patterned <100>/<111> CdTe on <100> GaAs substrates, using epitaxial growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and a lithographic patterning process, is demonstrated. This process is adapted to create ZnTe/ZnSe waveguides with periodic lateral patterning of the crystal orientation. The optical properties of planar waveguides with orientation-patterned ZnTe core layers are characterized. Second harmonic generation is measured, but does not appear to be quasi-phasematched at the test wavelength. High optical losses are observed in the patterned waveguides, and the mechanism of the loss is investigated using X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, and angle-resolved scatterometry. These measurements suggest that the losses are primarily due to bulk defects in the <111>-oriented material. Waveguide patterning using <100>-oriented anti-phase domains, which have a single axis of crystal growth, is recommended in order to overcome this problem.

  2. Electrical and optical investigation on doping of II-VI compounds using radioactive isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienecke, Marion

    2000-12-01

    Using radioactive isotopes of shallow dopants (Ag, As, Rb) as well as of native or isoelectronic elements (Se, Te, Cd, Sr) which were incorporated as host atoms and then transmuted into relevant dopants (transmutation doping) we investigated doping phenomena occurring in the wide band gap II-VI compounds CdTe, ZnTe, ZnSe and SrS by the classical methods of semiconductor physics: Hall effect, C-V and photoluminescence measurements. Thus, we could assign unambiguously defect features in electrical and photoluminescence measurements to extrinsic dopants by means of the half lives of radioactive decay. In As doped ZnSe samples we observed two states: a metastable effective mass like state and a deep state. The occurrence of the latter state is always linked with the high resistivity of As doped ZnSe crystals. The transmutation doping experiments reveal that the so-called self-compensation typical for wide band gab II-VI compounds can be overcome when the thermal treatment for dopant incorporation is time separated from its electrical activation, achieved using transmutation at room temperature. Under these conditions we found an almost one-to-one doping efficiency relative to the implanted dose. Thus, these investigations are a contribution to understanding compensation phenomena occurring due to interactions between dopants and native defects during conventional doping treatments.

  3. Bulk Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of physical vapor transport of II-VI semiconducting compounds was studied both theoretically, using a one-dimensional diffusion model, as well as experimentally. It was found that the vapor phase stoichiometry is critical in determining the vapor transport rate. The experimental heat treatment methods to control the vapor composition over the starting materials were investigated and the effectiveness of the heat treatments was confirmed by partial pressure measurements using an optical absorption technique. The effect of residual (foreign) gas on the transport rate was also studies theoretically by the diffusion model and confirmed experimentally by the measurements of total pressure and compositions of the residual gas. An in-situ dynamic technique for the transport rate measurements and a further extension of the technique that simultaneously measured the partial pressures and transport rates were performed and, for the first time, the experimentally determined mass fluxes were compared with those calculated, without any adjustable parameters, from the diffusion model. Using the information obtained from the experimental transport rate measurements as guideline high quality bulk crystal of wide band gap II-VI semiconductor were grown from the source materials which undergone the same heat treatment methods. The grown crystals were then extensively characterized with emphasis on the analysis of the crystalline structural defects.

  4. Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1995-01-01

    The studies on the crystal growth and characterization of II-VI wide band gap compound semiconductors, such as ZnTe, CdS, ZnSe and ZnS, have been conducted over the past three decades. The research was not quite as extensive as that on Si, III-V, or even narrow band gap II-VI semiconductors because of the high melting temperatures as well as the specialized applications associated with these wide band gap semiconductors. In the past several years, major advances in the thin film technology such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) have demonstrated the applications of these materials for the important devices such as light-emitting diode, laser and ultraviolet detectors and the tunability of energy band gap by employing ternary or even quaternary systems of these compounds. At the same time, the development in the crystal growth of bulk materials has not advanced far enough to provide low price, high quality substrates needed for the thin film growth technology.

  5. Anion vacancies in II-VI chalcogenides: Review and critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babentsov, V.; James, R. B.

    2013-09-01

    We performed critical analysis and comparison of all EPR, photo-EPR, photosensitive optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity data taken on various Zn- and Cd-related II-VI chalcogenides compounds, such as ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe, and CdS, CdSe, and CdTe. We developed a scheme for the electronic transitions and recombination associated with anion vacancies that is common for all these materials. This scheme explains all known facts obtained to date on quenching and excitation of the EPR signal, optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoconductivity. Based on these data we determined that the location of the energy level of the singly charged anion vacancy, VA+, is nearly equal for Zn-related II-VI materials (EC-1.0 eV) and EC+0.8 eV for Cd-related materials. For Cd-related chalcogenides most of the data were derived only from photoluminescence- and photoconductivity-spectra, so based on the available data, the position of the energy level of a singly charged anion vacancy in these materials was determined not so convincingly. Nonetheless, these materials have attracted much interest for decades because of their industrial applications as luminescent devices, laser filters and other optical elements, infrared, visible- and (X) γ-ray-detectors, solar cells, and the like.

  6. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and

  7. Diluted bitumen causes deformities and molecular responses indicative of oxidative stress in Japanese medaka embryos.

    PubMed

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, P V; Langlois, V S

    2015-08-01

    This study characterized the toxicity and physiological effects of unweathered diluted bitumen (Access Western Blend dilbit; AWB) to fish. Embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed for 17 days to dilutions of physically-dispersed (water accommodated fraction; WAF) and chemically-dispersed (chemically-enhanced WAF; CEWAF) dilbit. AWB dilbit exposure was not lethal to medaka, but resulted in a high prevalence of blue sac disease (BSD), impaired development, and abnormal or un-inflated swim bladders at hatch. Physiological effects were indicated by the relative mRNA levels of key genes associated with, among others, cell cycling and the response to mutations (p53), xenobiotic metabolism (ahr, arnt2), phase I (cyp1a) and II processes associated with oxidative stress (cat, g6pdh, hsp70, gst, gpx, gsr, nfe2, and sod). AWB dilbit treatment increased p53 and cyp1a transcript levels (1.5-fold and >15-fold, respectively), with significant, but less pronounced changes in indicators of oxidative stress and metabolism. The exposure-related changes in embryotoxicity and mRNA synthesis were consistent with metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to reactive and toxic metabolites. Medaka embryos responded similarly to WAF and CEWAF treatments, but CEWAF was about 100 times more efficient in delivering toxic concentrations of PAHs. The toxicity of chemically-dispersed nujol, a non-toxic mineral oil used as an experimental control, suggested that a portion of the observed effects of AWB could be attributed to excess dispersant in solution. This first study of the physiological effects of dilbit toxicity to fish embryos provides a baseline to compare toxicity between dilbit and conventional crude oils, and the groundwork for the development of molecular biomarkers of the sensitivity and level of risk of native Canadian fish species to dilbit exposure. PMID:26118968

  8. Boîtes quantiques II-VI comme sources de photons uniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Moehl, S.; Tinjod, F.; Suffczynski, J.; Romestain, R.; Vial, J.-C.; Gérard, J.-M.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-P.

    2004-11-01

    Dans le cadre de l'information et de la communication quantique, la nécessité d'avoir des photons uniques monomodes et à la demande se révèle cruciale. De récents travaux théoriques ont montré la possibilité de réaliser des portes logiques quantiques n'utilisant que de l'optique linéaire. C'est dans ce contexte que s'insère notre travail sur l'élaboration et l'utilisation de boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices II-VI comme “pistolet” à photons. Des expériences de dégroupement et d'interférences à 2 photons sont les premiers pas nécessaires pour caractériser notre source.

  9. Characterization of convection related defects in II-VI compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, August F.

    1993-01-01

    The research carried out under NAG8-913, 'Characterization of Convection Related Defects in II-VI Compound Semiconductors', was aimed at exploration of the potential of axial magnetic fields for melt stabilization when applied in Bridgman geometry to the growth of HgMnTe. The thrust of the work was directed at the experimental establishment of the limits of magnetic melt stabilization during crystal growth and at the analytical verification of the effects of stabilization on critical materials properties. The data obtained indicate noticeable stabilization effects, particularly as far as the formation of microscopic compositional inhomogeneities is concerned. The effects of magnetic fields on precipitate formation are found to be minor. Magnetic field effects were investigated for both 'Bridgman' and 'travelling heater' geometries. The research was conducted during the period from May 22 to September 30, 1992.

  10. Phase transitions in Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    The structures and transition pressures of Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and of a pseudobinary system (Ga/x/In/1-x/Sb) have been investigated. Results indicate that GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaAs and possible AlP assume Metallic structures at high pressures; a tetragonal, beta-Sn-like structure is adopted by only InSb and GaSb. The rocksalt phase is preferred in InP, InAs, AlSb, ZnO and ZnS. The model of Van Vechten (1973) gives transition pressures which are in good agreement with measured values, but must be refined to account for the occurrence of the ionic rocksalt structure in some compounds. In addition, discrepancies between the theoretical scaling values for volume changes at the semiconductor-to-metal transitions are observed.

  11. Mid-IR luminescence of Cr{sup 2+} : II - VI crystals in chalcogenide glass fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, Roman A; Zabezhailov, A O; Dianov, Evgenii M; Karaksina, E V; Shapashnikov, R M; Churbanov, M F

    2010-11-13

    Optical fibres have been fabricated for the first time from As{sub 2}S{sub 3} glass containing chromium-doped ZnS and ZnSe crystals, and their optical loss and luminescence spectra have been measured in the mid-IR. In the spectral range 2 - 3 {mu}m, the optical loss in the fibres is 2 - 4 dB m{sup -1}. The fibres have a broad luminescence band in the range 1.8 - 3 {mu}m, with a maximum near 1.9 {mu}m, which is due to Cr{sup 2+} {sup 5}E - {sup 5}T{sub 2} intracentre transitions in the II - VI host. (fibre optics)

  12. Crystal Growth of II-VI Semiconducting Alloys by Directional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, Frank R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Cobb, Sharon D.; Scripa, Rosalia A.; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1999-01-01

    This research study is investigating the effects of a microgravity environment during the crystal growth of selected II-VI semiconducting alloys on their compositional, metallurgical, electrical and optical properties. The on-going work includes both Bridgman-Stockbarger and solvent growth methods, as well as growth in a magnetic field. The materials investigated are II-VI, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se, where x is between 0 and 1 inclusive, with particular emphasis on x-values appropriate for infrared detection and imaging in the 5 to 30 micron wavelength region. Wide separation between the liquidus and solidus of the phase diagrams with consequent segregation during solidification and problems associated with the high volatility of one of the components (Hg), make the preparation of homogeneous, high-quality, bulk crystals of the alloys an extremely difficult nearly an impossible task in a gravitational environment. The three-fold objectives of the on-going investigation are as follows: (1) To determine the relative contributions of gravitationally-driven fluid flows to the compositional redistribution observed during the unidirectional crystal growth of selected semiconducting solid solution alloys having large separation between the liquidus and solidus of the constitutional phase diagram; (2) To ascertain the potential role of irregular fluid flows and hydrostatic pressure effects in generation of extended crystal defects and second-phase inclusions in the crystals; and, (3) To obtain a limited amount of "high quality" materials needed for bulk crystal property characterizations and for the fabrication of various device structures needed to establish ultimate material performance limits. The flight portion of the study was to be accomplished by performing growth experiments using the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) manifested to fly on various Spacelab missions.

  13. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-05-01

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox sytems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Stabilization of n-CdSe against photodissolution has been achieved for the methanol/tetraethylammonium ferro-ferricyanide system. No degradation of the photocurrent or the electrode surface, even in the presence of traces of water, has been observed for runs up to 700 h at 6 mA/cm/sup 2/ and approx. AM1 light intensity. With higher quality single crystal CdSe, stable sort-circuit photocurrents of 15 to 17 mA/cm/sup 2/ and an open circuit voltage of 0.7 V (tungsten-halogen illumination) have been obtained, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of about 5%. Preliminary evaluation of a series of sulfur-containing 1,2-dithiolene metal complexes for stabilization of CdX photoanodes in acetonitrile solution has been completed. For the first time, a conducting polymer film (derived from pyrrole) has been electrochemically deposited on a semiconductor electrode. This could represent a breakthrough in the use of hydrophobic films to protect semiconductor photoanodes from dissolution/degradation. Mixed CdSe-CdTe solid solution electrodes were found to exhibit a minimum in both the flatband potential and the bandgap at approx. 65% CdTe. Both of these shifts would have a detrimental effect on the solar conversion efficiency.

  14. 77 FR 36579 - II-VI, Inc., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Leased Workers From Adecco, Carol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8281). The workers' firm is engaged in activities... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Inc., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Leased...., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration...

  15. All-vapor processing of p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor and ohmic contacts thereof

    DOEpatents

    McCandless, Brian E.

    2001-06-26

    An all dry method for producing solar cells is provided comprising first heat-annealing a II-VI semiconductor; enhancing the conductivity and grain size of the annealed layer; modifying the surface and depositing a tellurium layer onto the enhanced layer; and then depositing copper onto the tellurium layer so as to produce a copper tellurium compound on the layer.

  16. Origin and enhancement of spin polarized current in diluted magnetic oxides by oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Hsiung; Yang, Kung-Shang; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Cheng-Pang; Sun, Shih-Jye; Lin, L. K.; Lee, S. F.

    2016-04-01

    Spin polarized current (SPC) is a crucial characteristic of diluted magnetic oxides due to the potential application of oxides in spintronic devices. However, most research has been focused on ferromagnetic properties rather than polarization of electric current, because direct measurements are difficult and the origin of SPC has yet to be fully understood. The method to increase the SPC percentage is beyond practical consideration at present. To address this problem, we focus on the role of oxygen vacancies (VO) on SPC, which are controlled by growing the Co-doped ZnO thin-films at room temperature in a reducing atmosphere [Ar + (1%-30%)H2]. We found that the conductivity increases with an increase of VO via two independent channels: the variable range hopping (VRH) within localized states and the itinerant transport in the conduction band. The point contact Andreev reflection measurements at 4.2 K, where the electric conduction is governed only by the VRH mechanism, prove that the current flowing in the VRH hopping channel is SPC. The percentage of SPC increases with the introduction of VO and increase in its concentration. The transport measurement shows that by manipulating VO, one can control the percentage of VRH hopping conduction such that it can even dominate room temperature conduction. The highest achieved SPC ratio at room temperature was 80%.

  17. Development of transition-metal doped copper oxide and zinc oxide dilute magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivill, Mathew P.

    The field of spintronics has recently attracted much attention because of its potential to provide new functionalities and enhanced performance in conventional electronic devices. Oxide materials provide a convenient platform to study the spin-based functionality in host semiconducting material. Recent theoretical treatments predict that wide band-gap semiconductors, including ZnO, can exhibit high temperature ferromagnetic ordering when doped with transition metals. This work focused on the possibility of using wide band-gap oxide semiconductors as potential spintronic materials. The structure, magnetic, and electronic transport properties of transition-metal doped ZnO and Cu 2O were investigated. Mn and Co were used as transition metal dopants. Thin films of these materials were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Mn solubility in Cu2O was found to be small and the precipitation of Mn-oxides was favored at high growth temperatures. Phase pure Mn-doped Cu2O samples were found to be non-magnetic. Samples were p-type with carrier concentrations on the order of 1014-10 16 cm-3. The effects of carrier concentration on the magnetic properties of Mn-doped ZnO were studied using Sn and P as electronic codopants. Sn acts as an n-type dopant providing extra electrons to the ZnO. P acts as a p-type dopant that supplies excess holes to compensate the native electron concentration in ZnO. The electron concentration was decreased using P, but the films remained n-type. An inverse correlation was found between the ferromagnetism and the electron concentration; the ferromagnetic coupling between Mn spins increased with decreasing electron concentration. The nature of ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO was also investigated. Ferromagnetism was found in films deposited at 400°C in vacuum, while films deposited in oxygen or at higher temperatures were non-magnetic. Films deposited under vacuum had rather high electron concentrations and were presumably doped with

  18. Validity of deuterium oxide dilution for the measurement of body fat among Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Deurenberg, Paul

    2002-09-01

    Body fat percent (BF%) was measured in 108 adult Chinese, 76 Malays, and 107 Indians in Singapore by densitometry, deuterium oxide dilution (hydrometry), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a chemical four-compartment model (BF%4c). The hydration of the fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 69 years and their body mass index ranged from 16 to 40 kg/m2. BF%4c for the various subgroups were: Chinese females (33.5 +/- 7.5%), Chinese males (24.4 +/- 6.1%), Malay females (37.8 +/- 6.3%), Malay males (26.0 +/- 7.6%), Indian females (38.2 +/- 7.0%) and Indian males (28.1 +/- 5.5%). Biases were found between BF%4c and BF% measured by 2-compartment models (hydrometry, densitometry, DXA), with systematic underestimation by DXA and densitometry. On a group level hydrometry had the lowest bias while DXA gave the highest bias. When validated against BF%4c, 2-compartment models were found to be unsuitable for accurate measures of body fat due to high biases at the individual level and the violation of assumptions of constant hydration of FFM and density FFM among the ethnic groups. On a group level the best 2-compartment model for measuring body fat was found to be hydrometry. PMID:12362808

  19. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, S.; Li, C.; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Kim, Y. M.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, H.; Benmore, Chris; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. Thermal diffusivity of molten tellurium has been measured by a laser flash method in the temperature range of 500 C to 900 C. The measured diffusivity as a function of temperature agrees fairly well with published data. However, a relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the melt, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed a similar relaxation behavior to the measured diffusivity. The density and volume expansion coefficients for pure Te and HgTe melts were measured as a function of temperature using a pycnometric method. A density maximum was found for both melts but no relaxation behavior was observed. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed

  20. Simulations of Liquid III-V and II-VI Semiconductors: Semiconducting versus Metallic Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlevsky, V.

    2000-03-01

    All III-V group semiconductors exhibit metallic behavior when melted. The coordination number of these materials changes from 4 in the bulk to ~ 6 in the liquid phase. With the increase of the coordination number and compositional disorder common to liquid III-V semiconductors, the covalent bonds of these materials are predominantly replaced by metallic bonds. Electron delocalization and high atomic randomization result in a large entropy change during the solidarrowliquid transition. Unlike III-V compounds, a number of II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, ZnTe and HgS) experience a semiconductorarrowsemiconductor transition upon melting. These compounds retain their fourfold coordination in the liquid phase. In our work, we perform ab initio simulations of liquid GaAs (l-GaAs) and CdTe (l-CdTe), as representatives of III-V and II-VI materials.(V. Godlevsky, J. Derby, and J.R. Chelikowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81), 4959 (1998) As opposed to the more close-packed l-GaAs, l-CdTe has an open fourfold structure. Besides the coordination number, l-CdTe also retains some of its crystalline compositional features (e.g. there are fewer ``wrong'' bond defects than in l-GaAs). In l-CdTe, the density of states has a dip at the Fermi level indicating the semiconducting character of electrical conductivity in this material. The d.c. conductivity in l-CdTe is by two orders of magnitude lower than that in l-GaAs. The small change in the structural order and electron delocalization is in good agreement with the small entropy change observed experimentally during the melting of CdTe. As the temperature increases further, l-CdTe undergoes a fourfold-sixfold transition accompanied by the disappearing of band gap. The d.c. conductivity of sixfold coordinated l-CdTe is by an order of magnitude larger than the d.c. conductivity of fourfold coordinated l-CdTe.(V. Godlevsky, M. Jain, J. Derby, and J.R. Chelikowsky, Phys. Rev. B, 60), 8640 (1999)

  1. Syntheses and applications of Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heesun; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Holloway, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    Luminescent Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals have been intensively investigated over the last ten years. Several semiconductor host materials such as ZnS, CdS, and ZnSe have been used for Mn-doped nanocrystals with different synthetic routes and surface passivation. Beyond studies of their fundamental properties including photoluminescence and size, these luminescent nanocrystals have now been tested for practical applications such as electroluminescent displays and biological labeling agents (biomarkers). Here, we first review ZnS:Mn, CdS:Mn/ZnS core/shell, and ZnSe:Mn nanocrystal systems in terms of their synthetic chemistries and photoluminescent properties. Second, based on ZnS:Mn and CdS:Mn/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals as electroluminescent components, direct current electroluminescent devices having a hybrid organic/inorganic multilayer structure are reviewed. Highly luminescent and photostable CdS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals can further be used as the luminescent biomarkers and some preliminary results are also discussed here. PMID:16193951

  2. Light emitting diodes from MOVPE-grown p- and n-doped II VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, W.; Hahn, B.; Stanzl, H.; Deufel, M.

    1996-02-01

    A critical review is given of the present state, the problems and the prospects of MOVPE-growth of II-VI LEDs. It is shown that MOVPE-growth on (001)GaAs substrates occurs preferentially in a three-dimensional growth mode independent of substrate preparation. ZnS xSe 1 - x grows in good quality over the whole range of composition x. Good quality of Zn xCd 1 - xSe was only obtained for low Cd-concentrations. Improvements can be expected from the use of new precursors. The n-doping of ZnSe and ZnS xSe 1 - x presents no problem when n-butylchloride is used. Carrier concentrations can be as high as n ≥ 10 18. Various nitrogen compounds have been used to achieve p-doping of ZnSe by MOVPE. We show that quite large concentrations of nitrogen can be incorporated by photoassisted MOVPE with phenylhydrazine as precursor. The nitrogen doped samples are usually highly compensated independent from the special doping procedure. Proper annealing can activate at least part of the incorporated nitrogen. The preparation of appropriate diode structures presents no special problems, however their room temperature (RT) luminescence efficiency is still low but may be considerably improved with increasing purity of precursors.

  3. Growth of II-VI Solid Solutions in the Presence of a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C; Motakef, S.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.; Volz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The application of a rotating magnetic field (RMF)in the frequency range 60-400 Hz and field strength of the order of 2-8 mT to crystal growth has received increasing attention in recent years. To take full advantage of the control of fluid flow by the forces applied by the field, the liquid column must be electrically conducting. Also, the application of RMF to the directional solidification of a column of liquid can result in complete mixing in the resultant solid. Thus, the technique of RMF is suited to solvent zones and float zones where the composition of the liquid is more readily controlled. In the work we report on, numerical modeling has been applied to II-VI systems, particularly tellurium based traveling heater techniques (THM). Results for a spectrum of field strengths and acceleration levels will be presented. These show clearly the effects of competing buoyancy forces and electromagnetic stirring. Crystals of cadmium zinc telluride and mercury cadmium telluride have been grown terrestrially from a tellurium solvent zone. The effects of the RMF during these experiments will be demonstrated with micrographs showing etch pits, white beam x-ray synchrotron topographs and triple axis x-ray diffraction.

  4. General synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Pavle V; Barrelet, Carl J; Gradecak, Silvija; Qian, Fang; Lieber, Charles M

    2005-07-01

    A general approach for the synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V nanowires based on metal nanocluster-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has been developed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies of Mn-doped CdS, ZnS, and GaN nanowires demonstrate that the nanowires are single-crystal structures and homogeneously doped with controllable concentrations of manganese ions. Photoluminescence measurements of individual Mn-doped CdS and ZnS nanowires show characteristic pseudo-tetrahedral Mn2+ ((4)T1-->(6)A1) transitions that match the corresponding transitions in bulk single-crystal materials well. Photoluminescence studies of Mn-doped GaN nanowires suggest that manganese is incorporated as a neutral (Mn3+) dopant that partially quenches the GaN band-edge emission. The general and controlled synthesis of nanowires doped with magnetic metal ions opens up opportunities for fundamental physical studies and could lead to the development of nanoscale spintronic devices. PMID:16178248

  5. Benefitting from Dopant Loss and Ostwald Ripening in Mn Doping of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhai, You; Shim, Moonsub

    2015-12-01

    Annealing or growth at high temperatures for an extended period of time is considered detrimental for most synthetic strategies for high-quality Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. It can lead to the broadening of size distribution and, more importantly, to the loss of dopants. Here, we examine how ripening can be beneficial to doping in a simple "heat-up" approach, where high dopant concentrations can be achieved. We discuss the interplay of the loss of dopants, Ostwald ripening, and the clustering of Mn near the surface during nanocrystal growth. Smaller nanocrystals in a reaction batch, on average, exhibit higher undesirable band-edge photoluminescence (PL) and lower desirable dopant PL. The optimization of dopant loss and the removal of such smaller undesirable nanocrystals through Ostwald ripening along with surface exchange/passivation to remove Mn clustering lead to high Mn PL quantum yields (45 to 55 %) for ZnSxSe1-x, ZnS, CdS, and CdSxSe1-x host nanocrystals. These results provide an improved understanding of the doping process in a simple and potentially scalable synthetic strategy for achieving "pure" and bright dopant emission. PMID:26510444

  6. Benefitting from Dopant Loss and Ostwald Ripening in Mn Doping of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, You; Shim, Moonsub

    2015-10-01

    Annealing or growth at high temperatures for an extended period of time is considered detrimental for most synthetic strategies for high-quality Mn-doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals. It can lead to the broadening of size distribution and, more importantly, to the loss of dopants. Here, we examine how ripening can be beneficial to doping in a simple "heat-up" approach, where high dopant concentrations can be achieved. We discuss the interplay of the loss of dopants, Ostwald ripening, and the clustering of Mn near the surface during nanocrystal growth. Smaller nanocrystals in a reaction batch, on average, exhibit higher undesirable band-edge photoluminescence (PL) and lower desirable dopant PL. The optimization of dopant loss and the removal of such smaller undesirable nanocrystals through Ostwald ripening along with surface exchange/passivation to remove Mn clustering lead to high Mn PL quantum yields (45 to 55 %) for ZnSxSe1-x, ZnS, CdS, and CdSxSe1-x host nanocrystals. These results provide an improved understanding of the doping process in a simple and potentially scalable synthetic strategy for achieving "pure" and bright dopant emission.

  7. Multi-band Bloch equations and gain spectra of highly excited II-VI semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Girndt, A.; Jahnke, F.; Knorr, A.; Koch, S.W.; Chow, W.W.

    1997-04-21

    Quasi-equilibrium excitation dependent optical probe spectra of II-VI semiconductor quantum wells at room temperature are investigated within the framework of multi-band semiconductor Bloch equations. The calculations include correlation effects beyond the Hartree-Fock level which describe dephasing, interband Coulomb correlations and band-gap renormalization in second Born approximation. In addition to the carrier-Coulomb interaction, the influence of carrier-phonon scattering and inhomogeneous broadening is considered. The explicit calculation of single particle properties like band structure and dipole matrix elements using k {center_dot} p theory makes it possible to investigate various II-VI material combinations. Numerical results are presented for CdZnSe/ZnSe and CdZnSe/MnZnSSe semiconductor quantum-well systems.

  8. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Wei, Su-Huai; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-10-05

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/II-VI semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhiyi Zhao, Lukas; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Garcia, Thor Axtmann; Tamargo, Maria C.; Hernandez-Mainet, Luis C.; Deng, Haiming

    2014-12-15

    Surfaces of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have been proposed to host quantum phases at the interfaces with other types of materials, provided that the topological properties of interfacial regions remain unperturbed. Here, we report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of II-VI semiconductor–TI heterostructures using c-plane sapphire substrates. Our studies demonstrate that Zn{sub 0.49}Cd{sub 0.51}Se and Zn{sub 0.23}Cd{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.52}Se layers have improved quality relative to ZnSe. The structures exhibit a large relative upward shift of the TI bulk quantum levels when the TI layers are very thin (∼6nm), consistent with quantum confinement imposed by the wide bandgap II-VI layers. Our transport measurements show that the characteristic topological signatures of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} layers are preserved.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Density, Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity for Hg-Based II-VI Semiconductor Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Scripa, R. N.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The relaxation phenomenon of semiconductor melts, or the change of melt structure with time, impacts the crystal growth process and the eventual quality of the crystal. The thermophysical properties of the melt are good indicators of such changes in melt structure. Also, thermophysical properties are essential to the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the Hg-based II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results on the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of Hg-based II-VI compounds. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. Results were compared with available published data and showed good agreement. The implication of the structural changes at different temperature ranges was also studied and discussed.

  11. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Yan, Yanfa; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-10-01

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  12. Growth of II-VI thin-films from single-source precursors based on sterically encumbered sitel ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.; Seligson, A.L.; Walker, J.M.; Bourret, E.D.; Bonasia, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    We have developed a new route to MOCVD of II-VI compounds based on the use of novel single-source precursors in which the II-VI elements are combined at the molecular level in a single covalent compound. We have prepared and fully characterized a number of new derivatives of zinc, cadmium and mercury incorporating large, sterically demanding tellurolate ligands of general formula: M(sitel){sub 2} where sitel = -TeSi(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 3}. The crystalline compounds are relatively volatile and are easily manipulated under nitrogen. Several of these compounds have been tested for their suitability as precursors in the MOCVD process. Clean pyrolysis reactions and deposition of thin films were achieved. The stoichiometry of the pyrolysis reaction has been determined by analysis of the reaction by-products.

  13. Band Offsets of III-V and II-VI Materials Studied by Temperature-Dependent Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.; Lao, Y. F.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Krishna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band offset at the interface of a heterojunction is one of the most important parameters determining the characteristics of devices constructed from heterojunction. Accurate knowledge of band offsets and their temperature dependence will allow one to simulate and predict the device performances. We present a temperature-dependent internal-photoemission spectroscopy (TDIPS) for studying the band offsets. Applications of the TDIPS into III-V and II-VI materials are discussed.

  14. II-VI compounds 1985; Proceedings of the Second International Conference, Aussois, France, March 4-8, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfaing, Y.; Triboulet, R.; Lunn, B.; Mullin, J. B.

    1985-08-01

    Among the topics considered concerning II-VI compounds are growth of low resistivity high-quality ZnSe, ZnS films by low-pressure metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S, growth of high-purity ZnSe by sublimation traveling-heater method (THM) and the characteristics of the Y and Z deep level emission line, properties of CdTe crystals grown by THM using Cd as the solvent, and liquid-phase epitaxy growth and characterization of 1.3-micron (Hg, Cd)Te layers. Also considered are the self-consistent electronic structure of vacancies in semiconductors, defects in cadmium selenide, luminescence characterization of residual impurities in CdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and photoluminescence of Cd-rich Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x = 0.7-1.0. Additional topics discussed are optically detected magnetic resonance studies of recombination emission in II-VI compounds, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and magnetotransport studies on the surface of CdHgTe, cadmium mercury telluride infrared detectors, and electron beam-pumped II-VI lasers.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of II-VI semiconductor micro-and nanoparticles towards sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majithia, Ravish Yogesh

    Engineering particles at the nanoscale demands a high degree of control over process parameters during synthesis. For nanocrystal synthesis, solution-based techniques typically include application of external convective heat. This process often leads to slow heating and allows decomposition of reagents or products over time. Microwave-assisted heating provides faster, localized heating at the molecular level with near instantaneous control over reaction parameters. In this work, microwave-assisted heating has been applied for the synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals namely, ZnO nanopods and CdX (X = Se, Te) quantum dots (QDs). Based on factors such as size, surface functionality and charge, optical properties of such nanomaterials can be tuned for application as sensors. ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor (3.37 eV) with a large exciton binding energy (60 meV) leading to photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach allows the use of sub-5 nm ZnO zero-dimensional nanoparticles as seeds for generation of multi-legged quasi one-dimensional nanopods via heterogeneous nucleation. ZnO nanopods, having individual leg diameters of 13-15 nm and growing along the [0001] direction, can be synthesized in as little as 20 minutes. ZnO nanopods exhibit a broad defect-related PL spanning the visible range with a peak at ~615 nm. Optical sensing based on changes in intensity of the defect PL in response to external environment (e.g., humidity) is demonstrated in this work. Microwave-assisted synthesis was also used for organometallic synthesis of CdX(ZnS) (X = Se, Te) core(shell) QDs. Optical emission of these QDs can be altered based on their size and can be tailored to specific wavelengths. Further, QDs were incorporated in Enhanced Green-Fluorescent Protein -- Ultrabithorax (EGFP-Ubx) fusion protein for the generation of macroscale composite protein fibers via hierarchal self-assembly. Variations in EGFP- Ubx˙QD composite

  16. Exciton-Phonon Interaction Effects in II-Vi Compound Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelekanos, Nikolaos Themelis

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on two specific examples of exciton-LO phonon Frohlich interaction effects, namely, hot carrier relaxation and temperature dependent exciton linewidth broadening. These phenomena are considered in the context of quasi-two dimensional excitons in strongly polar II-VI semiconductor quantum wells. Hot-exciton luminescence phenomena are investigated in a single quantum well of ZnTe/MnTe where tunneling through thin MnTe barrier layers suppresses the formation of thermalized luminescence. For near resonant photoexcitation, the secondary emission spectrum is modulated by distinct LO-phonon peaks, which, for sufficiently high order of scattering ( >=4), behave like hot luminescence (HPL) as opposed to resonant Raman scattering. This is confirmed by time-resolved spectroscopy as well as by steady-state characteristics such as linewidth broadening and lack of polarization memory. Several novel observations are made: (1) The LO-phonon intermediated energy relaxation involves Coulomb-correlated pairs, i.e. hot excitons, as opposed to independently-relaxing free electrons and holes. (2) The additional weak disorder originating from QW thickness fluctuations plays a major role in the details of the HPL spectra. The major contribution to the ground state exciton linewidth at room temperature originates from LO phonon -intermediated exciton scattering to higher exciton states. A measure of the effect is given by the parameter Gamma_{LO} which increases with the polarity of the material and is independent of dimensionality provided that the LO phonon energy is greater than the exciton binding energy. Measurements of Gamma_{LO} are performed in two quantum well systems: CdTe/MnTe and (Zn,Cd)Se/ZnSe. In the latter system, a strong reduction of Gamma _{LO} is observed as the quantum well width becomes comparable to the three-dimensional exciton Bohr radius. This is explained in terms of a model where quasi-2D confinement effects increase the exciton binding

  17. Structural and optical properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi

    This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at the nanometer scale the deformation mechanisms in the zinc-blende structure. TEM images show deeper dislocation propagation for scratches along <110> compared to <100>. High strain fields were observed in <100> scratches, indicating hardening due to locking of dislocations gliding on different slip planes. Reverse plastic flow have been observed in <110> scratches in the form of pop-up events that result from recovery of stored elastic strain. In a separate study, nanoindentation-induced plastic deformation has been studied in c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO single crystals and c-plane GaN respectively, to study the deformation mechanism in wurtzite hexagonal structures. TEM results reveal that the prime deformation mechanism is slip on basal planes and in some cases, on pyramidal planes, and strain built up along particular directions. No evidence of phase transformation or cracking was observed in both materials. CL imaging reveals quenching of near band-edge emission by dislocations. In the second part, compositional inhomogeneity in quaternary GaInNAs and ternary InAlN alloys has been studied using TEM. It is shown that exposure to antimony during growth of GaInNAs results in uniform chemical composition in the epilayer, as antimony suppresses the surface mobility of adatoms that otherwise leads to two-dimensional growth and

  18. Solidification of II-VI Compounds in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Motakef, S.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.

    1999-01-01

    This project is aimed at using a rotating magnetic field (RMF) to control fluid flow and transport during directional solidification of elemental and compound melts. Microgravity experiments have demonstrated that small amounts of residual acceleration of less than a micro-g can initiate and prolong fluid flow, particularly when there is a static component of the field perpendicular to the liquid solid interface. Thus a true diffusion boundary layer is not formed, and it becomes difficult to verify theories of solidification or to achieve diffusion controlled solidification. The RMF superimposes a stirring effect on an electrically conducting liquid, and with appropriate field strengths and frequencies, controlled transport of material through a liquid column can be obtained. As diffusion conditions are precluded and complete mixing conditions prevail, the technique is appropriate for traveling solvent zone or float zone growth methods in which the overall composition of the liquid can be maintained throughout the growth experiment. Crystals grown by RMF techniques in microgravity in previous, unrelated missions have shown exceptional properties. The objective of the project is two-fold, namely (1) using numerical modeling to simulate the behavior of a solvent zone with applied thermal boundary conditions and demonstrate the effects of decreasing gravity levels, or an increasing applied RMF, or both, and (2) to grow elements and II-VI compounds from traveling solvent zones both with and without applied RMFs, and to determine objectively how well the modeling predicts solidification parameters. Numerical modeling has demonstrated that, in the growth of CdTe from a tellurium solution, a rotating magnetic field can advantageously modify the shape of the liquid solid interface such that the interface is convex as seen from the liquid. Under such circumstances, the defect structure is reduced as any defects which are formed tend to grow out and not propagate. The flow

  19. Study on the oxygen vacancy redistribution and the mechanism of electrical manipulation of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shuxia; Dong, Jingyu; Chen, Wei Zhang, Liyong; Guo, Jiajun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Xu

    2015-12-21

    Electrical manipulation of room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) has been observed in several kinds of transition metal doped diluted magnetic oxide films. We demonstrate using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that the redistribution of the oxygen vacancies in a film under an electric field plays a crucial role in the enhancement of the RTFM. Based on a detailed analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data for the oxygen vacancy distribution in different resistive states, a unified mechanism has been proposed. This work points out a new direction for improving the magnetic properties of these materials by controlling oxygen vacancies in the interior of the films.

  20. Ground-based research of crystal growth of II-VI compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Zhou, W.; Dudley, M.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Brebrick, R. F.; Wang, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based investigation of the crystal growth of II-VI semiconductor compounds, including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ZnSe, by physical vapor transport in closed ampoules was performed. The crystal growth experimental process and supporting activities--preparation and heat treatment of starting materials, vapor partial pressure measurements, and transport rate measurements are reported. The results of crystal characterization, including microscopy, microstructure, optical transmission photoluminescence, synchrotron radiation topography, and chemical analysis by spark source mass spectrography, are also discussed.

  1. Acid-free sol-gel fabrication of glass thin films embedded with II-VI colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Hemang; Duan, Lingze

    2015-01-01

    II-VI colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are ideal for optical sensors thanks to their high fluorescent brightness and good size uniformity. However, embedding colloidal QDs into a glass matrix with the standard sol-gel process leads to the QDs being damaged by the acid catalyst. Here, we report an acid-free sol-gel technique, which proves to be both simple and effective in fabricating silica glass thin films embedded with commercial II-VI colloidal QDs. Octadecylamine ligands are used as a bifunctional aid to not only stabilize the QDs in solution, but also assist the formation of the SiO2 gel. We demonstrate that high-quality QD-embedded glass thin films can be developed with this technique, and our fluorescent tests indicate that, except for a small blueshift in the emission spectrum, the QDs are very well preserved through the sol-gel process. This method offers a fast and low-cost path towards thin-film QD sensors with good mechanical and thermal stabilities, which are desirable for applications involving highly focused laser beams, such as ultrafast nanophotonics.

  2. Theory of band gap bowing of disordered substitutional II-VI and III-V semiconductor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, D.; Czycholl, G.

    2012-05-01

    For a wide class of technologically relevant compound III-V and II-VI semiconductor materials AC and BC mixed crystals (alloys) of the type A x B1- x C can be realized. As the electronic properties like the bulk band gap vary continuously with x, any band gap in between that of the pure AC and BC systems can be obtained by choosing the appropriate concentration x, granted that the respective ratio is miscible and thermodynamically stable. In most cases the band gap does not vary linearly with x, but a pronounced bowing behavior as a function of the concentration is observed. In this paper we show that the electronic properties of such A x B1- x C semiconductors and, in particular, the band gap bowing can well be described and understood starting from empirical tight-binding models for the pure AC and BC systems. The electronic properties of the A x B1- x C system can be described by choosing the tight-binding parameters of the AC or BC system with probabilities x and 1 - x, respectively. We demonstrate this by exact diagonalization of finite but large supercells and by means of calculations within the established coherent potential approximation (CPA) We apply this treatment to the II-VI system Cd x Zn1- x Se, to the III-V system In x Ga1- x As and to the III-nitride system Ga x Al1- x N.

  3. Monte-Carlo simulation studies of the effect of temperature and diameter variation on spin transport in II-VI semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Sabiq; Ghosh, Bahniman; Bishnoi, Bhupesh

    2015-02-01

    We have analyzed the spin transport behaviour of four II-VI semiconductor nanowires by simulating spin polarized transport using a semi-classical Monte-Carlo approach. The different scattering mechanisms considered are acoustic phonon scattering, surface roughness scattering, polar optical phonon scattering, and spin flip scattering. The II-VI materials used in our study are CdS, CdSe, ZnO and ZnS. The spin transport behaviour is first studied by varying the temperature (4-500 K) at a fixed diameter of 10 nm and also by varying the diameter (8-12 nm) at a fixed temperature of 300 K. For II-VI compounds, the dominant mechanism is for spin relaxation; D'yakonovPerel and Elliot Yafet have been actively employed in the first order model to simulate the spin transport. The dependence of the spin relaxation length (SRL) on the diameter and temperature has been analyzed.

  4. Reduction of tail state on boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide films prepared at high hydrogen dilution.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinjoo; Iftiquar, S M; Lee, Sunwha; Park, Hyeongsik; Shin, Chonghoon; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Balaji, Nagarajan; Yi, Junsin

    2013-12-01

    In this report, we have investigated on the defect state of diborane (B2H6) doped wide bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (p-type a-SiO:H) films prepared using silane (SiH4), hydrogen (H2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system with different hydrogen dilutions. The films prepared with higher hydrogen dilution show lower Urbach energy (Eu), lower microstructure (R*), lower short and medium range disorder (omegaTO, Gamma(TO), I(TA)/I(TO), I(LA)/I(TO)), higher dark conductivity (sigma d) and higher refractive index (n) with high optical gap (Eg). Eu decreases from 248 meV to 153 meV, and R* decreases from 0.46 to 0.26, Raman peak omegaTO-TO mode position shifts from 480.24 to 483.28, GammaTO-full width half maximum of omegaTO decreases from 78.16 to 63.87, I(TA)/I(TO)-the ratio of integrated area of TA and TO mode decreases from 0.624 to 0.474, I(LA)/I(TO)-the ratio of integrated area of LA and TO mode deceases from 0.272 to 0.151, sigma d increases from 4.6 x 10(-7) S/cm to 1.1 x 10(-6) S/cm, n increases from 3.70 to 3.86. Reduced Nd, Eu and R* at wide Eg indicates that the films are more useful for solar cell window layer. Applying this layer to a single junction solar cell shows open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.80 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) = 16.3 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) = 72%, efficiency (eta) = 9.4%. PMID:24266147

  5. Effect of Residual Accelerations on the Crystal Growth of II-VI Semiconductors in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Su, C.-H.; Szofran, F. R.; Scripa, R. N.; Cobb, S. D.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The paper compares and summarizes the effects of residual acceleration during crystal growth on the compositional variation of two II-VI solid solution binary alloys (Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te and Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te). The crystals were grown by directional solidification on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) and the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) missions, respectively. For both alloys, changes in the direction and magnitude of the quasisteady acceleration vector (approximately 0.4- 1 mu g) caused large changes in the radial compositional distribution that demonstrates the importance of residual accelerations, even in the submicrogravity range, for large density gradients in the melt and slow solidification rates. The observed compositional variations will be correlated to changes in the radial flow velocities ahead of the solidification interface.

  6. Estimation of body composition of neonatal pigs via deuterium oxide dilution: validation of technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, B.C.; Stahly, T.S.; Cromwell, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Five studies were conducted to determine 1) the time period required for the equilibration of deuterium oxide (D2O) in body water in neonatal pigs following the intravenous (iv), intramuscular (im) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of D2O and 2) the accuracy and precision of estimating body water, protein, fat and ash in neonatal pigs from the body D2O pool space. Deuterium oxide administered by iv and im injection equilibrated with body water by 40 and 20 min postinjection, respectively. Body D2O space determined from individual samples of blood fluids drawn at 40, 80 or 120 min postinjection accurately reflected body water determined by desiccation. The difference between D2O pool space determined at 120 min postinjection and body water in 4-kg pigs injected iv averaged - .050 kg, and the magnitude of the difference was relatively constant (standard deviation (SD) = .121 kg). The D2O pool space determined from im injection overestimated body water slightly (.163 kg), but the precision of the estimate was good (SD = .019 kg). Deuterium oxide injected ip did not consistently equilibrate by 200 min postinjection, and the estimated D2O pool space was not indicative of body water. The 90% confidence limits for estimating body water, protein, fat and ash in 4-kg pigs as determined by im and iv injection of D2O were .020 and .092 kg, .014 and .021 kg, .030 and .043 kg and .007 and .047 kg, respectively.

  7. Mechanism of Oxidation of Ethane to Ethanol at Iron(IV)-Oxo Sites in Magnesium-Diluted Fe2(dobdc).

    PubMed

    Verma, Pragya; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Xiao, Dianne J; Long, Jeffrey R; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-05-01

    The catalytic properties of the metal-organic framework Fe2(dobdc), containing open Fe(II) sites, include hydroxylation of phenol by pure Fe2(dobdc) and hydroxylation of ethane by its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc). In earlier work, the latter reaction was proposed to occur through a redox mechanism involving the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo species, which is an intermediate that is also observed or postulated (depending on the case) in some heme and nonheme enzymes and their model complexes. In the present work, we present a detailed mechanism by which the catalytic material, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), activates the strong C-H bonds of ethane. Kohn-Sham density functional and multireference wave function calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure of key species. We show that the catalytic nonheme-Fe hydroxylation of the strong C-H bond of ethane proceeds by a quintet single-state σ-attack pathway after the formation of highly reactive iron-oxo intermediate. The mechanistic pathway involves three key transition states, with the highest activation barrier for the transfer of oxygen from N2O to the Fe(II) center. The uncatalyzed reaction, where nitrous oxide directly oxidizes ethane to ethanol is found to have an activation barrier of 280 kJ/mol, in contrast to 82 kJ/mol for the slowest step in the iron(IV)-oxo catalytic mechanism. The energetics of the C-H bond activation steps of ethane and methane are also compared. Dehydrogenation and dissociation pathways that can compete with the formation of ethanol were shown to involve higher barriers than the hydroxylation pathway. PMID:25882096

  8. Correlation of Schottky constants with interatomic distances of selected I-VII and II-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, Heribert

    2013-10-01

    The observed linear (Na-, K-halides) and near-linear (Mg-, Sr-, Zn-, Cd-, and Hg-chalcogenides) dependences of Schottky constants on reciprocal interatomic distances yield the relation logKS=((ss1/T)+is)1/d(A-B)+(si1/T)+ii, where KS is the product of metal and non-metal thermal equilibrium vacancy concentrations, and ss, is, si and ii are the group specific slope and intercept values obtained from an extended analysis of the above log KS versus 1/d(A-B) data. The previously reported linear dependences of log KS on the Born-Haber lattice energies [1] are the basis for combining the earlier results [1] with the Born-Mayer lattice energy equation to yield a new thermodynamic relationship, namely logKS=-(2.303(c(B-M)/d(A-B)-Ie), where c(B-M) is the product of the constants of the Born-Mayer equation and Ie is the metal ionization energy of the above compounds. These results establish a correlation between point defect concentrations and basic thermodynamic, coulombic, and structural solid state properties for selected I-VII and II-VI semiconductor materials.

  9. Spectral sensitivity of p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-(II-VI) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Komaschenko, V. N. Kolezhuk, K. V.; Yaroshenko, N. V.; Sheremetova, G. I.; Bobrenko, Yu. N.

    2006-03-15

    Photosensitivity of multilayered p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-(II-VI)/n-(II-VI) heterostructures beyond the fundamental-absorption edge of the wide-gap component is studied experimentally, and a simple model is suggested as an explanation of this photosensitivity. It is established that an effective method for reducing the photosensitivity of the structures beyond the ultraviolet spectral region consists in decreasing the probability of dominant tunneling processes, by increasing the thickness of the wide-gap layer, giving rise to a blocking barrier for photogenerated minority charge carriers. It is shown that the p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-CdSe heterostructures are promising for the development of efficient 'solar-blind' detectors of ultraviolet radiation.

  10. Vibrational properties and phase transitions in II-VI materials: lattice dynamics, ab initio studies and inelastic neutron scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tista; Rao, Mala N; Gupta, M K; Chaplot, S L

    2012-03-21

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were carried out to determine the phonon density of states of ZnSe and interpreted with lattice dynamical computations (ab initio as well as a potential model). Calculations are also reported for other II-VI compounds, ZnTe and ZnS. Vibrational (phonon spectra and Grüneisen parameters), and thermal (negative thermal expansion and non-Debye specific heat) properties have been calculated and found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This model has been further employed to study the pressure-induced solid-solid phase transitions exhibited by these compounds and the results have been compared with experimental data. Total energy calculations for zincblende and SC16 phases of ZnSe were carried out employing the pseudopotential approach under the local density approximation (LDA) as well as the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The density functional perturbation theory is applied to study the vibrational properties of the zincblende and SC16 phases of ZnSe. An investigation of the pressure dependence of the phonon frequencies shows that the existence of the (experimentally undetected) SC16 phase as a thermodynamically stable high pressure phase is impeded due to dynamical instabilities. A detailed investigation of the polarization of phonons of different energies for the various phases of these compounds indicates that in the case of the zincblende phase the low energy modes are librational, while in the rocksalt phase the low energy modes are bending modes. Further, in ZnTe the low energy bending modes display a larger amplitude of bending than that in ZnSe and ZnS. PMID:22354098

  11. Computational structural investigation of select II-VI compounds and radtkeite (alpha-mercury(3) sulfur(2) chlorine iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellepack, Steven Matthew

    2000-12-01

    Computational modeling of novel materials is an increasingly powerful tool being used in the development of advanced materials and their device applications. This course of study has been undertaken to discern: (1) the present state of computational simulation of materials; (2) the present ability of computational hardware and software to model new materials; and (3) the ability to apply computational modeling to a relatively poorly studied solid state system, namely mercury(II) chalcogenide halides. Initial interest in this system was fostered by the reported tubular growth of radtkeite (alpha-Hg3S2ClI), which can display a tubular crystal habit tens of micrometers long and micrometers in diameter. To validate that the structures and energies of mercury(II) chalcogenides could be accurately modeled the pressure induced phase transitions in the HgS system were studied using ab initio DF (density functional) calculations. Select MS (M = Ca, Ba, Zn, Cd, Hg, S) compounds were modeled in the cinnabar and zinc-blende structures to discern that they could be accurately modeled. A qualitative description of the MS compounds in the cinnabar structure is provided along with reasoning concerning their relative stability. Three possible radtkeite structures were identified using a brute force methodology of powder x-ray diffraction pattern simulation and then modeled using A initio DF calculations. The cell based upon the gamma-Hg3S 2Cl2 structure was deemed as the best match. This study has validated that computational methods can be used for structural prediction of mercury(II) chalcogenides and chalcogenide halides, however certain methods produced unacceptable results. Materials application statement. This study seeks to discern halogen interactions within II--VI semiconducting materials, namely the mercury(II) chalcogenides. The strategy and methodology of the research will be to invoke computer simulations. The ultimate goal being the correlation of atomic to bulk scale

  12. A study on the crystal growth of select II-VI oxides by Czochralski and Bridgman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawash, Jalal Mohammad

    The crystal growth of ZnO-TeO2 system was experimented by Czochralski and Bridgman techniques. The series of many runs and experimentations helped optimize the growth process, which was faced by a lot of difficulties. These difficulties include, but are not limited to, the evaporation of TeO 2 material above 700 °C, the formation of more than one phase during the growth, and the lack of a ZnO-TeO2 single crystal to start the growth. It was concluded that the main and most persisting problem is that there is no stable phase, in the system that forms a line component at which the crystal growth should be attempted. However, Zn 2Te3O8 and ZnTeO3 single crystals were grown using Czochralski and Bridgman techniques, respectively. It was possible to study some of their important optical and electrical properties for the first time. The phase diagram of this system was investigated using powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microprobe. CrystalDiffract 1.3 for Windows software was used to simulate x-ray patterns to find the percentages of the resulting phases. It was found that the type of forming phases might be affected by the process, whether if it was calcining, melting, or pulling. Moreover, the history of the material plays an important role in determining what phases form. The glass form of ZnO-TeO2 system was studied as well for this research. One important finding is that the cut-off band edge of this glass depends greatly on the thickness of the sample used. Dielectric constants and resistivities of several glasses were determined. Bridgman technique was used to grow CdTe2O5 single crystals. These crystals are transparent to visible light, and have a mica-like structure. Optical and electrical properties of these crystals, like the dielectric constant and resistivity, of these crystals, were investigated.

  13. II-VI oxides phase separate whereas the corresponding carbonates order: The stabilizing role of anionic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. A.; Zunger, Alex

    2009-10-01

    The formation enthalpies of isovalent, isostructural rocksalt alloys, (A,B) , where X=O such as (Ca,Mg)O, are typically unfavorable (positive) for both ordered and random phases. Simple replacement of the single-atom anion, X , by a larger anionic group, such as CO3 or SO4 , is able to induce a favorable (negative) formation enthalpy, leading to the formation of the ordered alternate monolayer, (CaCO3)1/(MgCO3)1 , dolomite structure. The underlying cause of this behavior is analyzed by breaking down the formation process in a Born-Haber-like cycle into volume and cell-shape deformation, chemical exchange, and cell-internal relaxation using first-principles density-functional theory calculations in the generalized gradient approximation. It is found that when the anion is a group (CO3) , rather than a single atom (O), the energy gained from the internal relaxation overcomes the energy required to compensate the volume mismatch. This explains the general experimental trends of phase separation in isovalent, isostructural alloys without internal-anion structure, compared to ordering tendencies when the anionic group removes internal strain. The importance of obtaining structural ideality in the design of stable solid solutions is highlighted.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  15. Molecular Model for the Radiative Dipole Strengths and Lifetimes of the Fluorescent Levels of Mn2+and Fe3+ in II-VI And III-V Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrot, R.; Boulanger, D.

    2005-06-01

    A molecular model is used to give an overall semi-phenomenological interpretation of the radiative transition probabilities (RTP) or radiative lifetimes (RL) of Mn2+ and Fe3+ in II-VI and III-V compounds. It is shown that the RTP's are primarily controlled by: (i) the mixing of the wavefunctions of the cation and of the ligands (ii) the molecular spin-orbit interaction which involves the spin-orbit coupling constants ζd of the d electrons of the cation and ζp of the p electrons of the ligands and (iii) the energies of the intermediate levels which appear in the perturbation model.

  16. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading. PMID:27543312

  17. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  18. Molecular speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometric methods for accurate, reproducible and direct quantification of reduced, oxidized and total glutathione in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Fahrenholz, Timothy; Wolle, Mesay Mulugeta; Kingston, H M Skip; Faber, Scott; Kern, John C; Pamuku, Matt; Miller, Logan; Chatragadda, Hemasudha; Kogelnik, Andreas

    2015-01-20

    Novel protocols were developed to accurately quantify reduced (GSH), oxidized (GSSG) and total (tGSH) glutathione in biological samples using molecular speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS). For GSH and GSSG measurement, the sample was spiked with isotopically enriched analogues of the analytes ((310)GSH and (616)GSSG), along with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and treated with acetonitrile to solubilize the endogenous analytes via protein precipitation and equilibrate them with the spikes. The supernatant was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the analytes were quantified with simultaneous tracking and correction for auto-oxidation of GSH to GSSG. For tGSH assay, a (310)GSH-spiked sample was treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) to convert disulfide-bonded glutathione to GSH. After removing the protein, the supernatant was analyzed by LC-MS/MS and the analyte was quantified by single-spiking isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The mathematical relationships in IDMS and SIDMS quantifications are based on isotopic ratios and do not involve calibration curves. The protocols were validated using spike recovery tests and by analyzing synthetic standard solutions. Red blood cell (RBC) and saliva samples obtained from healthy subjects, and whole blood samples collected and shipped from a remote location were analyzed. The concentrations of tGSH in the RBC and whole blood samples were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those found in saliva. The fractions of GSSG were 0.2-2.2% (RBC and blood) and 15-47% (saliva) of the free glutathione (GSH + 2xGSSG) in the corresponding samples. Up to 3% GSH was auto-oxidized to GSSG during sample workup; the highest oxidations (>1%) were in the saliva samples. PMID:25519489

  19. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. First technical progress report, 15 April 1980-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-07-20

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Factors limiting the short circuit current of the n-CdSe/methanol/ferro-ferricyanide system to 17.5 mA/cm/sup 2/ have been identified. The principal limiting factor is apparently specific adsorption of hexacyanoferrate species on the electrode surface which occurs at higher redox couple concentrations and slows the overall charge transfer process. Ion pairing also occurs, resulting in a low mass transport rate (smaller diffusion coefficients and increased solution viscosity), and probably enhances the degree of specific adsorption. Improvements in the performance of this system will require mitigation of the interactions between the redox species and the electrode surface, e.g., via electrolytes with reduced ion-pairing tendencies or the use of electrode surface films. Photoelectrochemically generated polypyrrole films have been shown to protect CdX photoanodes from dissolution while permitting electron exchange with the electrolyte. Current effort is directed toward improving the film adhesion and optimizing the performance characteristics.

  20. Simultaneous determination of sulfur mustard and related oxidation products by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method coupled with a chemical conversion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meiling; Xu, Bin; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yajiao; Zong, Cheng; Chen, Jia; Guo, Lei; Xie, Jianwei

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating vesicant with high toxicity and complicated metabolism, the in vivo profile of its oxidation metabolism is not still fully known and urgently needs to be clarified well. In this work, an isotope-dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method coupled with chemical conversion was developed for the simultaneous quantification of SM and its oxidation products, i.e., mustard sulfoxide (SMO) and mustard sulfone (SMO2). The accurate measurement of SM and its oxidation products with high reaction activity was achived via the method of chemical conversion of 2-(3,5-bis(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy) acetic acid into stable derivative products. Method validation was performed in whole blood matrix, the linear range of the method was between 0.2 and 1000μg/L with correlation coefficients (r(2))>0.99, and the lower limits of quantification for SM, SMO and SMO2 were 1, 1, 0.2μg/L, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a toxicokinetics research of SM and its oxidation products after SM dermal exposed rats in a single dose. All three target analytes were found in whole blood samples from poisoned rats, and significant time-dependent responses were also observed. Among them, SMO2 with relatively high toxicity was identified and quantified in vivo for the first time, while SMO was the major product in whole blood and some of them continued to be oxidized to SMO2in vivo. These results give a direct experimental evidence to support that a large amount of SM is converted into the corresponding SMO and SMO2, and these oxidation products might cause potential combined toxic effects. PMID:27322628

  1. Optical phonon modes of III-V nanoparticles and indium phosphide/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles: A Raman and infrared study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia Speranta

    The prospects for realizing efficient nanoparticle light emitters in the visible/near IR for communications and bio-medical applications have benefited from progress in chemical fabrication of nanoparticles. III-V semiconductor nanopaticles such as GaP and InP are promising materials for the development of "blue" and "green" emitters, respectively, due to their large effective bandgaps. Enhanced emission efficiency has been achieved for core-shell nanoparticles, since inorganic shell materials increase electronic tunability and may decrease surface defects that often occur for nanoparticles capped with organic molecules. Also, the emission wavelength of InP nanoparticle cores can be tuned from green to red by changing the shell material in InP/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles. Investigations of phonon modes in nanocrystals are of both fundamental and applied interest. In the former case the optical phonon modes, such as surface/interface modes, are dependent on the nanoparticle dimensions, and also can provide information about dynamical properties of the nanoparticles and test the validity of various theoretical approaches. In the latter case the vibronic properties of nanoparticle emitters are controlled by confined phonons and modifications of the electron-phonon interaction by the confinement. Thus, the objective of the present thesis is the detailed study of the phonon modes of III-V nanoparticles (GaP and InP) and InP/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles by IR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies, and an elucidation of their complex vibrational properties. With the exception of three samples (two GaP and one InP), all samples were synthesized by a novel colloidal chemistry method, which does not requires added surfactant, but rather treatment of the corresponding precursors in octadecene noncoordinative solvent. Sample quality was characterized by ED, TEM and X-ray diffraction. Based on a comparison with a dielectric continuum model, the observed features

  2. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. Third technical progress report, 1 October 1980 to 31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1981-01-20

    A program to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors is described. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. Work on redox couple stabilization of n-CdX photoanodes has focused on fast metal-based one-electron couples in various nonaqueous solvents which represent an extension of work with the methanol/ferro-ferricyanide system, which, although stabilizing for n-CdSe photoanodes, has been found to be photolytically unstable. Very promising results which were obtained for the FeCl/sub 4//sup 1-/2-/ couple in acetonitrile suggest that related chloro-couples should be considered, including the colorless two-electron tin (II, IV) and antimony (III, V) systems. Conducting polymer films of polyrrole photoelectrochemically deposited onto n-type semiconductors were previously shown to protect these electrode materials from photodecomposition while permitting electron exchange with the electrolyte, but poor adhesion has remained a key problem. Recently, improved adhesion has been attained for roughened semiconductor surfaces. It now appears that polypyrrole films are to some extent permeable to solvent/solute species since the film stability depends on the nature of the redox electrolyte, and semiconductor decomposition products seem to form underneath the film in some cases. One possibility for circumventing this problem is to incorporate larger species, e.g., phthalocyanine dyes, within the film matrix.

  3. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. Third technical progress report, 1 October-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Nouffi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-01-20

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Stabilization of n-CdSe against photodissolution has been achieved for the methanol/tetraethylammonium ferro-ferricyanide system. No degradation of the photocurrent or the electrode surface, even in the presence of traces of water, has been observed for runs up to 700 h at 6 mA/cm/sup 2/ and AM1 light intensity. In recent studies with higher quality single crystal CdSe as well as polycrystalline CdTe-CdSe photoanodes, stable photocurrents of 7.5 mA/cm/sup 2/, corresponding to 4.4% conversion efficiency have been obtained. Through the use of highly purified ferro-ferricyanide electrolytes and/or organic dications, higher conversion efficiencies should be attainable. Preliminary evaluation of a series of sulfur-containing 1,2-dithiolene metal complexes for stabilization of CdX (X=Se, Te, or S) photoanodes in acetonitrile solution has been completed. In certain cases, effective hole capture is indicated and favorable negative shifts in the flatband potentials have been observed. A conducting polymer film (derived from pyrrole) has been electrochemically deposited on a semiconductor electrode. These electrochemically generated polymer films seem to be exceptionally stable and adherent. Studies of the cyanide ion as an electron-transfer mediator in aqueous Fe(CN)/sub 6//sup 3 -///sup 4 -/ electrolytes, and new directions for chemical modification of CdX electrodes are also discussed.

  4. Leaching of lead slag component by sodium chloride and diluted nitric acid and synthesis of ultrafine lead oxide powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yuehong; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Longguan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-05-01

    The compounds in lead slag are transformed into [PbCl4]2- in a mixed solution of HNO3 and NaCl, which is converted into PbC2O4 by the addition of sodium oxalate and polyethylene glycol dispersant. Novel lead oxides are prepared via a combustion-calcination process from lead oxalate precursor. Key properties of the new oxides, such as crystalline phases and morphology, have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that lead oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures comprise mainly α-PbO and β-PbO phases. In battery testing, the results reveal that the α-PbO phase exhibits higher initial capacity as positive active material, discharging about 150 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. While β-PbO yields a relatively improved cycle life, in 50 cycles, its capacity loss is 5%. Further work is being carried out with the aim to optimize the battery manufacturing process or to find out the optimum ratio of α-PbO to β-PbO in order to sustain high discharge capacity and acceptable cycle life.

  5. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Nguyen, Ba; Kien Ngo, Trung; Bui, Truong Han; Khanh Pham, Duy; Loc Dinh, Xuan; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2015-03-01

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water-oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains.

  6. Quantification of DNA damage products resulting from deamination, oxidation and reaction with products of lipid peroxidation by liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Koli; McFaline, Jose L.; Pang, Bo; Sullivan, Matthew; Dong, Min; Plummer, Elaine; Dedon, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of damage products as biomarkers of inflammation has been hampered by a poor understanding of the chemical biology of inflammation, the lack of sensitive analytical methods, and a focus on single chemicals as surrogates for inflammation. To overcome these problems, we developed a general and sensitive liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method to quantify, in a single DNA sample, the nucleoside forms of seven DNA lesions reflecting the range of chemistries associated with inflammation: 2′-deoxyuridine, 2′-deoxyxanthosine, and 2′-deoxyinosine from nitrosative deamination; 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine from oxidation; and 1,N2-etheno-2′-deoxyguanosine, 1,N6-etheno-2′-deoxyadenosine, and 3,N4-etheno-2′-deoxycytidine arising from reaction of DNA with lipid peroxidation products. Using DNA purified from cells or tissues under conditions that minimize artifacts, individual nucleosides are purified by HPLC and quantified by isotope-dilution, electrospray ionization LC/MS-MS. The method can be applied to other DNA damage products and requires 4-6 days to complete depending upon the number of samples. PMID:18714297

  7. Investigation of p-side contact layers for II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices fabricated on InP substrates by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Shingo; Nomura, Ichirou; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Kishino, Katsumi

    2015-09-01

    N-doped p-type ZnTe and ZnSeTe contact layers were investigated to evaluate which is more suitable for use in II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices on InP substrates. Contact resistances (Rc) between the contact layers and several electrode materials (Pd/Pt/Au, Pd/Au, and Au) were measured by the circular transmission line model (c-TLM) method using p-n diode samples grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The lowest Rc (6.5×10-5 Ω cm2) was obtained in the case of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination, which proves that the combination is suitable for obtaining low Rc. Yellow light-emitting diode devices with a ZnTe and ZnSeTe p-contact layer were fabricated by MBE to investigate the effect of different contact layers. The devices were characterized under direct current injections at room temperature. Yellow emission at around 600 nm was observed for each device. Higher emission intensity and lower slope resistance were obtained for the device with the ZnTe contact layer and Pd/Pt/Au electrode compared with other devices. These device performances are ascribed to the low Rc of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination.

  8. Study by ESI-FTICRMS and ESI-FTICRMS(n) of zinc and cadmium thiophenolate complexes used as precursors for the synthesis of II-VI nanosemiconductors.

    PubMed

    Arl, Didier; Aubriet, Frédéric; Gaumet, Jean-Jacques

    2009-05-01

    [M(4)(SC(6)H(5))(10)][(CH(3))N](2), [M(10)L(4)(SC(6)H(5))(16)][(CH(3))N](4) and [Cd(17)S(4)(SC(6)H(5))(28)][(CH(3))N](2)(M = Cd or Zn, and L = S or Se) zinc and cadmium thiophenolates have been studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICRMS) and tandem ESI-FTICRMS (ESI-FTICRMS(n)). ESI-FTICRMS demonstrated its ability to characterize and study such compounds, which may be used as precursors of II-VI nanomaterials. The obtained mass spectrum has been found to be highly relevant of the investigated thiophenolate and the fragmentation behavior of some of the detected ions is indicative of its stability. More specifically, it has been demonstrated that ESI in-source activation or fragmentation experiments conducted in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) cell induced the formation of a very stable entity, which corresponds to the general formula M(4)L(4) (M = Zn or Cd and L = S or Se). The elimination of SC(6)H(5)(-) and/or M(SC(6)H(5))(2) moieties by various activation processes from the studied thiophenolates led systematically to this structure. PMID:19165817

  9. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  10. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designing new nanostructured materials is discussed.

  11. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designingmore » new nanostructured materials is discussed.« less

  12. In vivo prediction of goat kids body composition from the deuterium oxide dilution space determined by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Lastel, M L; Grandclaudon, C; Brechet, C; Rychen, G; Feidt, C

    2015-09-01

    Deuterium oxide dilution space (DOS) determination is one of the most accurate methods for in vivo estimation of ruminant body composition. However, the time-consuming vacuum sublimation of blood preceding infrared spectroscopy analysis, which is traditionally used to determine deuterium oxide (DO) concentration, limits its current use. The use of isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to determine the deuterium enrichment and thus quantify DO in plasma could counteract this limitation by reducing the sample preparation for plasma deproteinisation through centrifugal filters. The aim of this study was to validate the DOS technique using IRMS in growing goat kids to establish in vivo prediction equations of body composition. Seventeen weaned male Alpine goat kids (8.6 wk old) received a hay-based diet supplemented with 2 types of concentrates providing medium ( = 9) or high ( = 8) energy levels. Kids were slaughtered at 14.0 ( = 1, medium-energy diet), 17.2 ( = 4, medium-energy diet, and = 4, high-energy diet), or 21.2 wk of age ( = 4, medium-energy diet, and = 4, high-energy diet). Two days before slaughter, DOS was determined after an intravenous injection of 0.2 g DO/kg body mass (BM) and the resulting study of DO dilution kinetics from 4 plasma samples (+5, +7, +29, and +31 h after injection). The deuterium enrichment was analyzed by IRMS. After slaughter, the gut contents were discarded, the empty body (EB) was minced, and EB water, lipid, protein, ash, and energy contents were measured by chemical analyses. Prediction equations for body components measured postmortem were computed from in vivo BM and DOS. The lack of postmortem variation of fat-free EB composition was confirmed (mean of 75.3% [SD 0.6] of water), and the proportion of lipids in the EB tended ( = 0.06) to be greater for the high-energy diet (13.1%) than for the medium-energy diet (11.1%). There was a close negative relationship (residual CV [rCV] = 3.9%, = 0.957) between EB water and lipid

  13. Modeling the movement and equilibrium of water in the body of ruminants in relation to estimating body composition by deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterium oxide (D/sub 2/O) dilution was evaluated for use in estimating body composition of ruminants. Empty body composition of cattle could not be accurately estimated by two- or three-compartment models when solved on the basis of clearance of D/sub 2/O from blood. A 29-compartment blood-flow model was developed from measured blood flow rates and water volumes of tissues of sheep. The rates of equilibration of water in tissues that were simulated by the blood-flow model were much faster than actual rates measured in sheep and cattle. The incorporation of diffusion hindrances for movement of water into tissues enabled the blood flow model to simulate the measured equilibration rates in tissues, but the values of the diffusion coefficients were different for each tissue. The D/sub 2/O-disappearance curve for blood simulated by the blood-flow model with diffusion limitations was comprised for four exponential components. The tissues and gastrointestinal tract contents were placed into five groups based upon the rate of equilibration. Water in the organs of the body equilibrated with water in blood within 3 min. Water in visceral fat, head, and some of the gastrointestinal tract tissues equilibrated within 8 to 16 min. Water in skeletal muscle, fat, and bone and the contents of some segments of the gastrointestinal tract equilibrated within 30 to 36 min. Water in the tissues and contents of the cecum and upper-large intestine equilibrated within 160 to 200 min. Water in ruminal tissue and contents equilibrated within 480 min.

  14. Pressure-induced phonon freezing in the ZnSeS II-VI mixed crystal: phonon-polaritons and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Hajj Hussein, R; Pagès, O; Polian, A; Postnikov, A V; Dicko, H; Firszt, F; Strzałkowski, K; Paszkowicz, W; Broch, L; Ravy, S; Fertey, P

    2016-05-25

    Near-forward Raman scattering combined with ab initio phonon and bond length calculations is used to study the 'phonon-polariton' transverse optical modes (with mixed electrical-mechanical character) of the II-VI ZnSe1-x S x mixed crystal under pressure. The goal of the study is to determine the pressure dependence of the poorly-resolved percolation-type Zn-S Raman doublet of the three oscillator [1  ×  (Zn-Se), 2  ×  (Zn-S)] ZnSe0.68S0.32 mixed crystal, which exhibits a phase transition at approximately the same pressure as its two end compounds (~14 GPa, zincblende  →  rocksalt), as determined by high-pressure x-ray diffraction. We find that the intensity of the lower Zn-S sub-mode of ZnSe0.68S0.32, due to Zn-S bonds vibrating in their own (S-like) environment, decreases under pressure (Raman scattering), whereas its frequency progressively converges onto that of the upper Zn-S sub-mode, due to Zn-S vibrations in the foreign (Se-like) environment (ab initio calculations). Ultimately, only the latter sub-mode survives. A similar 'phonon freezing' was earlier evidenced with the well-resolved percolation-type Be-Se doublet of Zn1-x Be x Se (Pradhan et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 115207), that exhibits a large contrast in the pressure-induced structural transitions of its end compounds. We deduce that the above collapse/convergence process is intrinsic to the percolation doublet of a short bond under pressure, at least in a ZnSe-based mixed crystal, and not due to any pressure-induced structural transition. PMID:27114448

  15. Microbial toxicity of ionic species leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe).

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Zeng, Chao; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Teixeira, Luiz H; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the microbial toxicity of soluble species that can potentially be leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide. The soluble ions tested included: cadmium, selenite, selenate, tellurite, and tellurate. Their toxicity towards the acetoclastic and hydrogen-consuming trophic groups in a methanogenic consortium as well as towards a bioluminescent marine bacterium, Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox(®) test), was assessed. The acetoclastic methanogenic activity was the most affected as evidenced by the low 50% inhibiting concentrations (IC50) values obtained of 8.6 mg L(-1) for both cadmium and tellurite, 10.2 mg L(-1) for tellurate, and 24.1 mg L(-1) for selenite. Both tellurium oxyanions caused a strong inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis at low concentrations, each additional increment in concentration provided progressively less inhibition increase. In the case of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, cadmium followed by selenite caused the greatest inhibition with IC50 values of 2.9 and 18.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Tellurite caused a moderate effect as evidenced by a 36.8% inhibition of the methanogenic activity at the highest concentration tested, and a very mild effect of tellurate was observed. Microtox(®) analyses showed a noteworthy inhibition of cadmium, selenite, and tellurite with 50% loss in bioluminescence after 30 min of exposure of 5.5, 171.1, and 458.6 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that the leaching of cadmium, tellurium and selenium ions from semiconductor materials can potentially cause microbial toxicity. PMID:27494313

  16. Dilutions Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Presents problems appropriate for high school and college students that highlight dilution methods. Promotes an understanding of dilution methods in order to prevent the unnecessary waste of chemicals and glassware in biology laboratories. (JRH)

  17. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  18. Unraveling the nature of carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerar, Georges; Bouzerar, Richard

    2015-10-01

    After more than a decade of intensive research in the field of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), the nature and origin of ferromagnetism, especially in III-V compounds, is still controversial. Many questions and open issues are under intensive debates. Why after so many years of investigations, Mn-doped GaAs remains the candidate with the highest Curie temperature among the broad family of III-V materials doped with transition metal (TM) impurities? How can one understand that these temperatures are almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of hole-doped (Zn,Mn)Te or (Cd,Mn)Se? Is there any intrinsic limitation or is there any hope to reach room-temperature ferromagnetism in the dilute regime? How can one explain the proximity of (Ga,Mn)As to the metal-insulator transition and the change from Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) couplings in II-VI compounds to double-exchange type in (Ga,Mn)N? In spite of the great success of density functional theory-based studies to provide accurately the critical temperatures in various compounds, till very lately a theory that provides a coherent picture and understanding of the underlying physics was still missing. Recently, within a minimal model, it has been possible to show that among the physical parameters, the key one is the position of the TM acceptor level. By tuning the value of that parameter, one is able to explain quantitatively both magnetic and transport properties in a broad family of DMS. We will see that this minimal model explains in particular the RKKY nature of the exchange in (Zn,Mn)Te/(Cd,Mn)Te and the double exchange type in (Ga,Mn)N and simultaneously the reason why (Ga,Mn)As exhibits the highest critical temperature among both II-VI and III-V DMS's. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Influence of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the phonon mode frequency in the II-VI compound solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Woźny, M. Cebulski, J.; Sheregii, E. M.; Marcelli, A.; Piccinini, M.

    2015-01-14

    We present an experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the TO-phonon mode frequencies for the HgTe-based II-VI semiconductor solid solutions. In the case of the ternary Hg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te solid solution was shown a discontinuity in the temperature dependence of the HgTe-like T{sub 0}-mode and of the ZnTe-like T{sub 1}-mode, similar to the Hg{sub 0.85}Cd{sub 0.15}Te system [Sheregii et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 045504 (2009)]. A generalization of the theoretical temperature shift of the phonon mode frequency as analytic equation is derived that includes both the anharmonic contribution and the electron-phonon e-p interaction which in this case is returnable—the electron subsystem effect on the phonon one. Data show that our equation satisfactorily describes the temperature shift of both Hg{sub 0.85}Cd{sub 0.15}Te and Hg{sub 0.90}Zn{sub 0.10}Te containing Dirac point (E{sub g} ≡ Γ{sub 6} – Γ{sub 8} = 0) although one of the two constants describing the anharmonic shift of the HgTe-like mode should be positive what is abnormal too. In the case of the Hg{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.20}Te and Hg{sub 0.763}Zn{sub 0.237}Te solid solution, the role of the returnable e-p contribution is negligible but a positive temperature shift for the HgTe-like modes occurs. This result does not allow to explain the positive temperature shift of these modes merely by the contribution of the (e-p) interaction. Indeed, the relativistic contribution to the chemical bonds induces an abnormal temperature shift of the electron states in Hg-based semiconductors—the effect is expected since the Hg d spin-orbit split contribution to chemical bonds may lead to an abnormal temperature shift of the HgTe-like modes.

  20. Characterization of optoelectronic properties of mercury cadmium telluride and zinc oxide II-VI semiconductors for infrared and ultraviolet detector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazzami, Kaveh

    Infrared (IR) and Ultraviolet (UV) light detectors have numerous applications including thermal imaging and chemical and biological spectroscopy. In this work, key aspects of HgCdTe and ZnO semiconductor materials are studied in accordance to their importance to state of the art IR and UV detector technologies. The leading material technology for IR detectors today is the lattice matched HgCdTe alloy. The model for optical absorption in this material has not been reexamined after major improvements in HgCdTe material growth technology. Access to an accurate model for absorption coefficient of this material is important for understanding of detector behavior, where the degree of accuracy required continues to grow as detector structures continue to add complexity. In this work, the optical absorption coefficient of HgCdTe is studied in detail using theoretical bandstructure calculations, temperature dependent optical spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. A new model for the optical absorption coefficient of this material as a function of composition and temperature is presented based on a proposed empirical relationship. A significant improvement in the prediction of photovoltaic detector spectral response is observed based on this proposed model. ZnO is emerging as an important material for short wavelength optoelectronic devices, and may have a major impact on high-performance UV detectors. In this work, the steady-state and time-resolved response of ZnO photoconductors are studied. A sharp turn on is observed in the UV for these photodetectors, corresponding to the bandgap energy of 3.4eV for the ZnO material. Photoconductive decay transients show a fast (nanoseconds) and slow (milliseconds) time constant that are attributed to minority carrier relaxation and trapping processes, respectively. Persistent photoconductivity was observed, with time constant on the order of minutes, in response to both visible and UV excitation and is attributed to deep hole traps in the material. The trap density spectra are extracted from these transients based on a rate equation model, where the peak hole trap energies are found to be at 0.75 and 0.9 eV from the edge of the valence band for photoconductors with and without SiO2 passivation.

  1. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-01

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2). PMID:24231765

  2. ECUT: Energy Conversion and utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Generation of chemical intermediates by catalytic oxidative decarboxylation of dilute organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A rhodium-based catalyst was prepared and preliminary experiments were completed where the catalyst appeared to decarboxylate dilute acids at concentrations of 1 to 10 vol%. Electron spin resonance spectroscoy was used to characterize the catalyst as a first step leading toward modeling and optimization of rhodium catalysts. Also, a hybrid chemical/biological process for the production of hydrocarbons has been assessed. These types of catalysts could greatly increase energy efficiency of this process.

  3. General synthetic approach to heterostructured nanocrystals based on noble metals and I-VI, II-VI, and I-III-VI metal chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minghui; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2014-08-19

    Solid metal precursors (alloys or monometals) can serve both as a starting template and as a source material for chemical transformation to metal chalcogenides. Herein, we develop a simple solution-based strategy to obtain highly monodisperse noble-metal-based heterostructured nanocrystals from such precursor seeds. By utilizing chemical and structural inhomogeneity of these metal seeds, in this work, we have synthesized a total of five I-VI (Ag2S, Ag2Se, Ag3AuS2, Ag3AuSe2, and Cu9S5), three II-VI (CdS, CdSe, and CuSe), and four I-III-VI (AgInS2, AgInSe2, CuInS2, and CuInSe2) chalcogenides, together with their fifteen associated heterodimers (Au-Ag2S, Au-Ag2Se, Au-Ag3AuS2, Au-Ag3AuSe2, Au-AgInS2, Au-AgInSe2, Au-CdS, Au-CdSe, Ag-Ag2S, Ag-AgInS2, Au-Cu9S5, Au-CuInS2, Au-CuSe, Au-CuInSe2, and Pt-AgInS2) to affirm the process generality. Briefly, by adding elemental sulfur or selenium to AuAg alloy seeds and tuning the reaction conditions, we can readily obtain phase-pure Au-Ag2S, Au-Ag2Se, Au-Ag3AuS2, and Au-Ag3AuSe2 heterostructures. Similarly, we can also fabricate Au-AgInS2 and Au-AgInSe2 heterostructures from the AuAg seeds by adding sulfur/selenium and indium precursors. Furthermore, by partial or full conversion of Ag seeds, we can prepare both single-phase Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals and Ag-based heterostructures. To demonstrate wide applicability of this strategy, we have also synthesized Au-based binary and ternary Cu chalcogenide (Au-Cu9S5, Au-CuSe, Au-CuInS2, and Au-CuInSe2) heterostructures from alloy seeds of AuCu and Pt chalcogenides (e.g., Pt-AgInS2) from alloy seeds of PtAg. The structure and composition of the above products have been confirmed with X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. A kinetic investigation of the formation mechanism of these heterostructures is brought forward using Au-AgInS2 and Ag-CuInS2 as model examples. PMID

  4. Effect of oxidation on the removal CU{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Mn (VII) from dilute aqueous solutions by Upper Freeport bituminous coal. Quarterly report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bodine, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Upper Freeport bituminous coal was able to remove Mn (VII) from dilute aqueous solution by concurrent adsorption and reduction of the manganese to lower valence, less toxic states. This type of reaction indicated the potential of using coal to remove oxidizing contaminants from effluents. Since oxidizing anions can degrade ion exchange resins and membranes, coal may be a viable alternative for detoxification. On analysis of the kinetics of copper and cadmium uptake from dilute aqueous solution, adsorption equilibria and functional groups analyses, it was apparent that the different oxidative pre-treatments affected both the surfaces and pore structure of Upper Freeport coal. The large amount of carboxyl and phenolic functional groups remaining after contact with copper and cadmium solutions, as determined by functional groups analyses, indicated the low affinity of the surface acid groups for these cations. Furthermore, there was almost no metal ion removal at low solution pH`s, which precludes the use of Upper Freeport for treating acidic wastes and effluents such as acid mine drainage. The coal surface functional groups are indeed able to exchange with cations, since the amount of these groups are measured by ion exchange with Na{sup +} and Ba{sup 2+}, however, it may be more difficult to displace the waters of hydration around Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}, to allow their uptake on the coal surface functional groups. Improved metal ion removal might be obtained using a lower rank coal, such as a subbituminous coal, which would be more susceptible to oxidation.

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    Chisholm, J D Budai and D P Norton Role of charge carriers for ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped rutile TiO2 T Fukumura, H Toyosaki, K Ueno, M Nakano and M Kawasaki Ab-initio study of exchange constants and electronic structure in diluted magnetic group-IV semiconductors Silvia Picozzi and Marjana Ležaić Phase coherent transport in (Ga,Mn)As D Neumaier, K Wagner, U Wurstbauer, M Reinwald, W Wegscheider and D Weiss Hydrogen interstitials-mediated ferromagnetism in MnxGe1-x magnetic semiconductors Xin-Xin Yao, Shi-Shen Yan, Shu-Jun Hu, Xue-Ling Lin, Chong Han, Yan-Xue Chen, Guo-Lei Liu and Liang-Mo Mei Electronic structures of magnetic semiconductors FeCr2Se4 and Fe0.5Cu0.5Cr2Se4 B I Min, Seung Su Baik, H C Choi, S K Kwon and J-S Kang Investigation of pure and Co2+-doped ZnO quantum dot electronic structures using the density functional theory: choosing the right functional Ekaterina Badaeva, Yong Feng, Daniel R Gamelin and Xiaosong Li Magnetic properties of sol-gel-derived doped ZnO as a potential ferromagnetic semiconductor: a synchrotron-based study N R S Farley, K W Edmonds, A A Freeman, G van der Laan, C R Staddon, D H Gregory and B L Gallagher Local electronic structure of Cr in the II-VI diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Zn1-xCrxTe M Kobayashi, Y Ishida, J I Hwang, G S Song, A Fujimori, C S Yang, L Lee, H-J Lin, D J Huang, C T Chen, Y Takeda, K Terai, S-I Fujimori, T Okane, Y Saitoh, H Yamagami, K Kobayashi, A Tanaka, H Saito and K Ando Lack of ferromagnetism in n-type cobalt-doped ZnO epitaxial thin films T C Kaspar, T Droubay, S M Heald, P Nachimuthu, C M Wang, V Shutthanandan, C A Johnson, D R Gamelin and S A Chambers XMCD studies on Co and Li doped ZnO magnetic semiconductors Thomas Tietze, Milan Gacic, Gisela Schütz, Gerhard Jakob, Sebastian Brück and Eberhard Goering Ferromagnetic semiconductors and the role of disorder B W Wessels An extensive comparison of anisotropies in MBE grown (Ga,Mn)As material C Gould, S Mark, K Pappert, R G Dengel, J Wenisch, R P

  6. Reactions of nitrogen oxides with heme models. Characterization of NO and NO2 dissociation from Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) by flash photolysis and rapid dilution techniques: Fe(TPP)(NO2) as an unstable intermediate.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mark D; Lorkovic, Ivan M; Wedeking, Katrin; Zanella, Andrew W; Works, Carmen F; Massick, Steve M; Ford, Peter C

    2002-08-21

    Described are studies directed toward elucidating the controversial chemistry relating to the solution phase reactions of nitric oxide with the iron(II) porphyrin complex Fe(TPP)(NO) (1, TPP = meso-tetraphenylporphinato2-). The only reaction observable with clean NO is the formation of the diamagnetic dinitrosyl species Fe(TPP)(NO)2 (2), and this is seen only at low temperatures (K(1) < 3 M(-1) at ambient temperature). However, 1 does readily react reversibly with N2O3 in the presence of excess NO to give the nitro nitrosyl complex Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) (3), suggesting that previous claims that 1 promotes NO disproportionation to give 3 may have been compromised by traces of air in the nitric oxide sources. It is also noted that 3 undergoes reversible loss of NO to give the elusive nitro species Fe(TPP)(NO2) (4), which has been implicated as a powerful oxygen atom transfer agent in reactions with various substrates. Furthermore, in the presence of excess NO2, the latter undergoes oxidation to the stable nitrato analogue Fe(TPP)(NO3) (5). Owing to such reactivity of Fe(TPP)(NO2), flash photolysis and stopped-flow kinetics rather than static techniques were necessary for the accurate measurement of dissociation equilibria characteristic of Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) in 298 K toluene solution. Flash photolysis of 3 resulted in competitive NO2 and NO dissociation to give Fe(TPP)(NO) and Fe(TPP)(NO2), respectively. The rate constant for the reaction of 1 with N2O3 to generate Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) was determined to be 1.8 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), and that for the NO reaction with 4 was similarly determined to be 4.2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). Stopped-flow rapid dilution techniques were used to determine the rate constant for NO dissociation from 3 as 2.6 s(-1). The rapid dilution experiments also demonstrated that Fe(TPP)(NO2) readily undergoes further oxidation to give Fe(TPP)(NO3). The mechanistic implications of these observations are discussed, and it is suggested that NO2 liberated

  7. Quantification of oxidative DNA lesions in tissues of Long-Evans Cinnamon rats by capillary high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope-dilution method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Yuan, Bifeng; Guerrero, Candace; Bahde, Ralf; Gupta, Sanjeev; Wang, Yinsheng

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of our study was to develop suitable methods to quantify oxidative DNA lesions in the setting of transition metal-related diseases. Transition metal-driven Fenton reactions constitute an important endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In genetic diseases with accumulation of transition metal ions, excessive ROS production causes pathophysiological changes, including DNA damage. Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with copper toxicosis due to deficiency of ATP7B protein needed for excreting copper into bile. The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat bears a deletion in Atp7b gene and serves as an excellent model for hepatic Wilson's disease. We used a sensitive capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS/MS) method in conjunction with the stable isotope-dilution technique to quantify several types of oxidative DNA lesions in the liver and brain of LEC rats. These lesions included 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine, and the 5'R and 5'S diastereomers of 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine. Moreover, the levels of these DNA lesions in the liver and brain increased with age and correlated with age-dependent regulation of the expression of DNA repair genes in LEC rats. These results provide significant new knowledge for better understanding the implications of oxidative DNA lesions in transition metal-induced diseases, such as Wilson's disease, as well as in aging and aging-related pathological conditions. PMID:21323344

  8. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: Differential effects of γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of 2-deoxyribose in DNA has emerged as a critical determinant of the cellular toxicity of oxidative damage to DNA, with oxidation of each carbon producing a unique spectrum of electrophilic products. We have developed and validated an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the rigorous quantification of two major 2-deoxyribose oxidation products: the 2-deoxyribonolactone abasic site of 1’-oxidation and the nucleoside 5’-aldehyde of 5’-oxidation chemistry. The method entails elimination of these products as 5-methylene-2(5H)-furanone (5MF) and furfural, respectively, followed by derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH), addition of isotopically labeled PFPH derivatives as internal standards, extraction of the derivatives, and quantification by GC-MS analysis. The precision and accuracy of the method were validated with oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde lesions. Further, the well defined 2-deoxyribose oxidation chemistry of the enediyne antibiotics, neocarzinostatin and calicheamicin γ1I, was exploited in control studies, with neocarzinostatin producing 10 2-deoxyribonolactone and 300 nucleoside 5’-aldehyde per 106 nt per µM in accord with its established minor 1’- and major 5’-oxidation chemistry. Calicheamicin unexpectedly caused 1’-oxidation at a low level of 10 2-deoxyribonolactone per 106 nt per µM in addition to the expected predominance of 5’-oxidation at 560 nucleoside 5’-aldehyde per 106 nt per µM. The two hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA oxidants, γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA, produced nucleoside 5’-aldehyde at a frequency of 57 per 106 nt per Gy (G-value 74 nmol/J) and 3.5 per 106 nt per µM, respectively, which amounted to 40% and 35%, respectively, of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation as measured by a plasmid nicking assay. However, γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA produced different proportions of 2-deoxyribonolactone at 7

  9. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: differential effects of gamma-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S; Dedon, Peter C

    2010-05-01

    The oxidation of 2-deoxyribose in DNA has emerged as a critical determinant of the cellular toxicity of oxidative damage to DNA, with oxidation of each carbon producing a unique spectrum of electrophilic products. We have developed and validated an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the rigorous quantification of two major 2-deoxyribose oxidation products: the 2-deoxyribonolactone abasic site of 1'-oxidation and the nucleoside 5'-aldehyde of 5'-oxidation chemistry. The method entails elimination of these products as 5-methylene-2(5H)-furanone (5MF) and furfural, respectively, followed by derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH), addition of isotopically labeled PFPH derivatives as internal standards, extraction of the derivatives, and quantification by GC-MS analysis. The precision and accuracy of the method were validated with oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde lesions. Further, the well-defined 2-deoxyribose oxidation chemistry of the enediyne antibiotics, neocarzinostatin and calicheamicin gamma(1)(I), was exploited in control studies, with neocarzinostatin producing 10 2-deoxyribonolactone and 300 nucleoside 5'-aldehyde per 10(6) nt per microM in accord with its established minor 1'- and major 5'-oxidation chemistry. Calicheamicin unexpectedly caused 1'-oxidation at a low level of 10 2-deoxyribonolactone per 10(6) nt per microM in addition to the expected predominance of 5'-oxidation at 560 nucleoside 5'-aldehyde per 10(6) nt per microM. The two hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA oxidants, gamma-radiation and Fe(2+)-EDTA, produced nucleoside 5'-aldehyde at a frequency of 57 per 10(6) nt per Gy (G-value 74 nmol/J) and 3.5 per 10(6) nt per microM, respectively, which amounted to 40% and 35%, respectively, of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation as measured by a plasmid nicking assay. However, gamma-radiation and Fe(2+)-EDTA produced different proportions of 2

  10. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  11. Atmospheric evolution of sulfur emissions from Kı̅lauea: real-time measurements of oxidation, dilution, and neutralization within a volcanic plume.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Jesse H; Cross, Eben S; Hunter, James F; Pai, Sidhant; Wallace, Lisa M M; Croteau, Philip L; Jayne, John T; Worsnop, Douglas R; Heald, Colette L; Murphy, Jennifer G; Frankel, Sheila L

    2015-04-01

    The high atmospheric concentrations of toxic gases, particulate matter, and acids in the areas immediately surrounding volcanoes can have negative impacts on human and ecological health. To better understand the atmospheric fate of volcanogenic emissions in the near field (in the first few hours after emission), we have carried out real-time measurements of key chemical components of the volcanic plume from Kı̅lauea on the Island of Hawai'i. Measurements were made at two locations, one ∼ 3 km north-northeast of the vent and the other 31 km to the southwest, with sampling at each site spanning a range of meteorological conditions and volcanic influence. Instrumentation included a sulfur dioxide monitor and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, allowing for a measurement of the partitioning between the two major sulfur species (gas-phase SO2 and particulate sulfate) every 5 min. During trade wind conditions, which sent the plume toward the southwest site, sulfur partitioning exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, indicating photochemical oxidation of SO2 to sulfate; this enabled the quantitative determination of plume age (5 h) and instantaneous SO2 oxidation rate (2.4 × 10(-6) s(-1) at solar noon). Under stagnant conditions near the crater, the extent of SO2 oxidation was substantially higher, suggesting faster oxidation. The particles within the plume were extremely acidic, with pH values (controlled largely by ambient relative humidity) as low as -0.8 and strong acidity (controlled largely by absolute sulfate levels) up to 2200 nmol/m(3). The high variability of sulfur partitioning and particle composition underscores the chemically dynamic nature of volcanic plumes, which may have important implications for human and ecological health. PMID:25734883

  12. Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling; Schmuckler, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    As both classroom teaching practice and literature show, many students have difficulties learning science concepts such as density. Here are some investigations that identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution.…

  13. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  14. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  15. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (P<0.05), and sows fed pectin residue had a greater CY than potato pulp-fed sows (P<0.05). Prefarrowing diets affected

  16. Investigation of local structural environments and room-temperature ferromagnetism in (Fe,Cu)-codoped In2O3 diluted magnetic oxide films.

    PubMed

    An, Yukai; Xing, Yaya; Pan, Fei; Wu, Zhonghua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-05-11

    The local structural, optical, magnetic and transport properties of (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 (0.06 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering have been systemically studied by different experimental techniques. Detailed structural analyses using XRD, XPS, EXAFS and full multiple-scattering ab initio theoretical calculations of Fe K-edge XANES show that the (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 films have the same cubic bixbyite structure as pure In2O3. The doped Fe ions exist at both +2 and +3 oxidation states, substituting for the In(3+) sites in the In2O3 lattice and forming a FeIn + 2VO complex with the O vacancy in the first coordination shell of Fe. However, the co-doped Cu atoms are not incorporated into the In2O3 lattice and form the Cu metal clusters due to high ionization energy. UV-Vis measurements show that the optical band gap Eg decreases monotonically with the increase of Fe concentration, implying an increasing s-pd exchange interaction in the films. All the films display intrinsic room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism and the saturated magnetization (Ms) increases monotonically with Fe doping. The temperature dependence of the resistivity data suggests the conduction mechanism of Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) at low temperature, confirming that the carriers are localized. It can be concluded that the observed RT ferromagnetism in the films originates from the overlapping of polarons mediated by oxygen vacancies based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. The variation of the localization effect of carriers with Fe doping can obviously adjust the magnetic exchange interaction in the (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 films. PMID:27139011

  17. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-02-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. PMID:6338826

  18. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  19. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles methodmore » can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.« less

  20. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  1. Standard dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2015-02-17

    Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES. PMID:25599250

  2. Tuning magnetic disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors using high fields to 89 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, Scott A; Samarth, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent and ongoing studies at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos using the new '100 Tesla Multi-Shot Magnet', which is presently delivering fields up to {approx}89 T during its commissioning. We discuss the first experiments performed in this magnet system, wherein the linewidth of low-temperature photoluminescence spectra was used to directly reveal the degree of magnetic alloy disorder 'seen' by excitons in single Zn{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.08}Se quantum wells. The magnetic potential landscape in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is typically smoothed when the embedded Mn{sup 2+} spins align in an applied field. However, an important (but heretofore untested) prediction of current models of compositional disorder is that magnetic alloy fluctuations in many DMS compounds should increase again in very large magnetic fields approaching 100 T. We observed precisely this increase above {approx}70 T, in agreement with a simple model of magnetic alloy disorder.

  3. On-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry approach to quantify N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and oxidative metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Kuklenyik, Peter; Baker, Samuel E; Bishop, Amanda M; Morales-A, Pilar; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-07-17

    Human exposure to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) occurs because of the widespread use of DEET as an active ingredient in insect repellents. However, information on the extent of such exposure is rather limited. Therefore, we developed a fast on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method to measure in urine the concentrations of DEET and two of its oxidative metabolites: N,N-diethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)benzamide and 3-(diethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (DCBA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of DEET and its select metabolites in human urine. After enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated species in 0.1 mL of urine, the target analytes were retained and pre-concentrated on a monolithic column, separated from each other and from other urinary biomolecules on a reversed-phase analytical column, and detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 ng mL(-1) to 1.0 ng mL(-1), depending on the analyte. Accuracy ranged between 90.4 and 104.9%, and precision ranged between 5.5 and 13.1% RSD, depending on the analyte and the concentration. We tested the usefulness of this method by analyzing 75 urine samples collected anonymously in the Southeastern United States in June 2012 from adults with no known exposure to DEET. Thirty eight samples (51%) tested positive for at least one of the analytes. We detected DCBA most frequently and at the highest concentrations. Our results suggest that this method can be used for the analysis of a large number of samples for epidemiological studies to assess human exposure to DEET. PMID:23830449

  4. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Klaus G.

    1992-09-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of

  5. Stress in dilute suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, Stephen L.

    1989-01-01

    Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

  6. Dilution refrigeration for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.

  7. Intermittency in dilute granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenxuan; Zhang, Qiang; Wylie, Jonathan J.

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we show that dilute granular systems can exhibit a type of intermittency that has no analogue in gas dynamics. We consider a simple system in which a very dilute set of granular particles falls under gravity through a nozzle. This setting is analogous to the classical problem of high-speed nozzle flow in the study of compressible gases. It is well known that very dilute granular systems exhibit behavior qualitatively similar to gases, and that gas flowing through a nozzle does not exhibit intermittency. Nevertheless, we show that the intermittency in dilute granular nozzle flows can occur and corresponds to complicated transitions between supersonic and subsonic regimes. We also provide detailed explanations of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.

  8. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  9. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  10. Improved interfacial properties of SiO2 grown on 6H-SiC in diluted NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, P. T.; Xu, J. P.; Li, C. X.; Chan, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    The interface quality and reliability of gate oxides grown on n-/p-type 6H-SiC in diluted NO gas at 1150 °C are investigated. As compared to conventional 100%-NO oxidation, the diluted-NO (50% and 23%) oxidations lead to lower interface-state, border-trap and oxide-charge densities. This is attributed to the fact that carbon-accumulation and carbon-removal rates are closer when oxidation is performed in diluted NO, giving a smoother, less disordered and strained interface. Moreover, less degradation of the diluted-NO samples than 100%-NO samples is observed during high-field stressing (±7 MV/cm), indicating that stronger Si≡N bonds are created near/at the SiC/SiO2 interface for oxide grown in diluted NO ambient.

  11. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  15. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  16. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric

  17. Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee

    2014-01-01

    This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…

  18. Dilute acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210 degrees C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such "steam gun" devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems. PMID:19768619

  19. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  20. Ozone formation in biomass burning plumes: Influence of atmospheric dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, D.; Koppmann, R.; Rudolph, J.

    Biomass burning in the tropics contributes substantially to the emission of organic compounds and nitrogen oxides into the troposphere and has an important impact on the global budget of ozone in the troposphere. Since ozone formation is a nonlinear chemical process the rate of formation is also influenced by atmospheric dilution and transport. This paper addresses the production of ozone in a plume emerging from a biomass burning site. Atmospheric mixing processes downwind the fire are expected to influence the total amount of ozone produced. A sensitivity study to assess the influence of dilution on the maximum ozone mixing ratio and on the amount of ozone formed in the entire plume (excess ozone) reveals that both quantities depend strongly on the time scale and the final value of the dilution. Up to 70% difference of the excess ozone as function of the characteristic time of the dilution was observed. Since many global models do not treat the early development of the plume with sufficient resolution in space and time a substantial uncertainty of model predicted ozone formation from biomass burning plumes is to be expected.

  1. Quantification of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in toxicant-exposed cells by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals an intrinsic antagonistic response to oxidative stress-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Chan, Wan

    2015-03-16

    Carcinogenic formaldehyde is produced by endogenous protein oxidation and various exogenous sources. With formaldehyde being both ubiquitous in the ambient environment and one of the most common reactive carbonyls produced from endogenous metabolism, quantifying formaldehyde exposure is an essential step in risk assessments. We present in this study an approach to assess the risk of exposure to oxidative stress by quantifying thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TA), a cysteine-conjugated metabolite of formaldehyde in toxicant-exposed Escherichia coli. The method entails TA derivatization with ethyl chloroformate, addition of isotope-labeled TA derivatives as internal standards, solid-phase extraction of the derivatives, and quantification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). After validating for accuracy and precision, the developed method was used to detect TA in oxidizing agent-exposed E. coli samples. Dose-dependent TA formation was observed in E. coli exposed to hydroxyl radical mediators Fe(2+)-EDTA, H2O2, and NaOCl, indicating the potential use of TA as a biomarker of exposure to oxidative stress and disease risk. PMID:25325739

  2. Residual Resistivity of Dilute Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    The residual resistivity for 156 dilute alloys of 19 hosts of different groups of the periodic table has been studied on the basis of the single parametric model potential formalism. Ashcroft's empty core model (EMC) potential is explored for the first time with five different local field correction functions, viz, Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) to investigate the effect of the exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. The comparison of the presently computed outcomes with the available theoretical and experimental data is highly encouraging. The investigation of residual resistivity is found to be quite sensitive to the selection of local field correction function, showing a significant variation with the change in the function.

  3. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  4. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zillmer, Ruediger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2006-09-15

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.

  5. XAFS in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihu; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Liu, Qinghua; Xie, Yi; Wei, Shiqiang

    2013-10-14

    X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has experienced a rapid development in the last four decades and has proved to be a powerful structure characterization technique in the study of local environments in condensed matter. In this article, we first introduce the XAFS basic principles including theory, data analysis and experiment in some detail. Then we attempt to make a review on the applications of XAFS to the study of atomic and electronic structure in dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) systems. The power of XAFS in characterizing this interesting material system, such as determining the occupation sites and distribution of the dopants, detecting the presence of metal clusters or secondary phases, as well as identifying the defect types and dopant valence, will be illuminated by selected examples. This review should be of interest both to newcomers in the DMS field and to an interdisciplinary community of researchers working in synthesis, characterization and utilization of DMS materials. PMID:23884341

  6. Development, validation and biomedical applications of stable-isotope dilution GC-MS and GC-MS/MS techniques for circulating malondialdehyde (MDA) after pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress and its relation to 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and nitric oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Rothmann, Sabine; Schneider, Jessica Y; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Trettin, Arne; Modun, Darko; Stuke, Nadine; Maassen, Norbert; Frölich, Jürgen C

    2016-04-15

    Malondialdehyde (MDA, CH2(CHO)2) is one of the best investigated and most frequently measured biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in biological fluids, a constituent of the so called thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The reaction of thiobarbituric acid with MDA and other carbonyl compounds is the basis for the batch TBARS assay, one of the most commonly and widely used assays of oxidative stress. Yet, the TBARS assay lacks specificity even if combined with HPLC separation prior to visible absorbance or fluorescence detection. In this article, we report highly specific and sensitive stable-isotope dilution GC-MS and GC-MS/MS methods for the quantitative determination of MDA in human plasma (0.1mL). These methods utilize the acidity (pKa, 4.46) of the two methylene H protons of MDA in aqueous solution, which are as acidic as acetic acid. Endogenous MDA in native plasma and the externally added internal standard [1,3-(2)H2]-MDA (d2-MDA, CH2(CDO)2) are derivatized in aqueous acetone (400μL) with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (10μL). The reaction products were identified as C(PFB)2(CHO)2 (molecular weight, 432) and C(PFB)2(CDO)2) (molecular weight, 434), respectively. After solvent extraction with toluene (1mL) quantification is performed by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) in GC-MS and by selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) in GC-MS/MS in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) mode. In the SIM mode, the anions [M-PFB](-) at m/z 251 for MDA and m/z 253 for d2-MDA are detected. In the SRM mode, the mass transitions m/z 251 to m/z 175 for MDA and m/z 253 to m/z 177 for d2-MDA are monitored. The method was thoroughly validated in human plasma. Potential interfering substances including anticoagulants and commercially available monovettes commonly used for blood sampling were tested. The lowest MDA concentrations were measured in serum followed by heparinized and EDTA plasma. The GC-MS and GC-MS/MS methods were found to be specific

  7. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096

  8. The ring phenomenon of diluted blood droplets.

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Schlote, J; Wagner, C; Fiscina, J; Kettner, M

    2016-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is occasionally required in practical forensic casework. Misinterpretations may occur in cases in which diluted bloodstains are formed either within the course of the crime or during cleaning attempts after the original crime. The resulting pale or diluted aspect of the bloodstains may also be produced by passive serum separation. To differentiate between diluted and non-diluted stains and the artifacts of pure serum separation, dripping experiments were performed using droplets of multiple sizes and dilutions dripped onto common indoor and fabric surfaces. In addition, pools of blood of different volumes were applied to solid surfaces with different inclinations to determine the conditions and properties of serum separation. This study yielded morphological characteristics that enable differentiation between stains of diluted and non-diluted blood: a prominent ring phenomenon indicates dilution with water. To elucidate the underlying physical mechanism of particle distribution within a blood stain, photomicrographs were taken during the drying process. The so-called contact line pinning effect was identified as the formation mechanism of this ring phenomenon. Serum separation was highly dependent on the applied blood volume, the ambient temperature, the time elapsed since the initial deposition, and the degree of floor inclination. PMID:26718842

  9. DAVINCI a Dilute Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for DAVINCI was originally to make use of the technology developed for space interferometers like SIM to build a coronagraph from four 1.1m telescopes that was dramatically lower in cost than a 4 5m filled aperture offaxis coronagraph. Our initial studies through team X have shown this cost savings to be real. But a more careful analysis showed that DAVINCI would have an inner working angle of 35mas a factor of 2 smaller than a 2 lambda/D 4 meter coronagraph or 70m external occulter, resulting in a 10X increase in the number of potential Earth-Clone targets. DAVINCI uses a nulling interferometer as a coronagraph, a nulling interferometer is one the few coronagraph architectures that are compatible with segmented and dilute aperture telescopes. Combined with a post coronagraph wavefront sensor several ultra-demanding tolerances of conventional coronagraphs can be relaxed by factors of 100. The post coronagraph wavefront sensor is also much less affected by local and exozodi background than wavefront sensors that use the science camera as the wavefront sensor. The post coronagraph interferometer is also used on ground based extreme AO coronagraphs, GPI, and P1640.

  10. Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung

    2005-09-01

    Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles. PMID:16131833

  11. Degradation of Sodium-Polyacrylate in Dilute Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, Takao

    1980-12-01

    It is shown using a capillary viscometer that the viscosity of a dilute aqueous solution of sodium-polyacrylate at 20°C decreases gradually for each flow time measurement and also decreases with the time of rest. Assuming that the polymer degradation is caused by shearing stress and oxidation, their effects are discussed with the data obtained using a closed-type capillary viscometer derived for this investigation. It is proved from the results that rupture of the Na-PAA molecule is caused by mechanochemical degradation, and also photo-degradation under the usual illumination and sunlight in a laboratory.

  12. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles method can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.

  13. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA.

  14. Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2014-12-01

    Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200. PMID:25205541

  15. Minimal Coital Dilution in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Cassels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Coital dilution, the reduction in the coital frequency per partner when an additional ongoing partner is added, may reduce the transmission potential of partnership concurrency for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Empirical estimates of dilution, especially dilution of sexual acts unprotected by condoms, are needed to inform prevention research. Methods Sexually active adults in Accra, Ghana were recruited in a multi-stage household probability sample. Degree (number of ongoing partners), total acts, and unprotected acts were measured retrospectively for each month in the past year through an event-history calendar. Random effects negative binomial models estimated the association between degree and coital frequency. Results Compared to person-months with a single partner (monogamy), 2.06 times as many total acts and 1.94 times as many unprotected acts occurred in months with 2 partners. In months with 3 partners, 2.90 times as many total acts and 2.39 times as many unprotected acts occurred compared to monogamous months. Total acts but not unprotected acts also declined with partnership duration. Conclusions No dilution was observed for total acts with up to three concurrent partners, but a small amount of dilution was observed for unprotected acts for months with multiple concurrencies. This suggests moderate selective condom use in months with multiple concurrencies. The implications of the observed dilution for future HIV transmission must be investigated with mathematical models. PMID:25622062

  16. Detailed mechanism of benzene oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed quantitative mechanism for the oxidation of benzene in both argon and nitrogen diluted systems is presented. Computed ignition delay time for argon diluted mixtures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results for a wide range of initial conditions. An experimental temperature versus time profile for a nitrogen diluted oxidation was accurately matched and several concentration profiles were matched qualitatively. Application of sensitivity analysis has given approximate rate constant expressions for the two dominant heat release reactions, the oxidation of C6H5 and C5H5 radicals by molecular oxygen.

  17. Microfluidics Meets Dilute Solution Viscometry: An Undergraduate Laboratory to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pety, Stephen J.; Lu, Hang; Thio, Yonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory experiment to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by measuring the viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in a PDMS microfluidic viscometer. Sample data are given for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A demonstration of shear thinning behavior using the microviscometer is…

  18. Cortical attractor network dynamics with diluted connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Webb, Tristan J

    2012-01-24

    The connectivity of the cerebral cortex is diluted, with the probability of excitatory connections between even nearby pyramidal cells rarely more than 0.1, and in the hippocampus 0.04. To investigate the extent to which this diluted connectivity affects the dynamics of attractor networks in the cerebral cortex, we simulated an integrate-and-fire attractor network taking decisions between competing inputs with diluted connectivity of 0.25 or 0.1, and with the same number of synaptic connections per neuron for the recurrent collateral synapses within an attractor population as for full connectivity. The results indicated that there was less spiking-related noise with the diluted connectivity in that the stability of the network when in the spontaneous state of firing increased, and the accuracy of the correct decisions increased. The decision times were a little slower with diluted than with complete connectivity. Given that the capacity of the network is set by the number of recurrent collateral synaptic connections per neuron, on which there is a biological limit, the findings indicate that the stability of cortical networks, and the accuracy of their correct decisions or memory recall operations, can be increased by utilizing diluted connectivity and correspondingly increasing the number of neurons in the network, with little impact on the speed of processing of the cortex. Thus diluted connectivity can decrease cortical spiking-related noise. In addition, we show that the Fano factor for the trial-to-trial variability of the neuronal firing decreases from the spontaneous firing state value when the attractor network makes a decision. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21875702

  19. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  20. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The "dilution effect" implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may "dilute" infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003-2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm's owl decline in 1980-2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003-2013 compared to 1979-1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001

  1. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. Methods We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. Results None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Conclusions Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised. PMID:22029602

  2. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  7. Spin dynamics in paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Van-Nham; Tran, Minh-Tien

    2015-10-01

    Microscopic properties of low-energy spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductor are addressed in a framework of the Kondo lattice model including random distribution of magnetic dopants. Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we derive an explicit dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient on the single-particle Green function which is directly evaluated by dynamical mean-field theory. In the paramagnetic state, the magnetic scattering has been manifested to suppress spin diffusion. In agreement with other ferromagnet systems, we also point out that the spin diffusion in diluted magnetic semiconductors at small carrier concentration displays a monotonic 1 /T -like temperature dependence. By investigating the spin diffusion coefficient on a wide range of the model parameters, the obtained results have provided a significant scenario to understand the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  8. Reactions of gaseous, elemental mercury with dilute halogen solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Livengood, C.D.

    1996-12-31

    Of the trace elements known to exist in fossil fuels, mercury (Hg) has emerged as one of the greatest concerns. Mercury has been found to be emitted from combustion in at least two different chemical forms: elemental Hg and oxidized Hg compounds. Precise identification of the oxidized compounds emitted has not been accomplished to date. However, most workers in this field assume that mercuric chloride should be the predominant oxidized species. Mercuric chloride should be readily removed in a wet scrubber system because of its relatively high solubility in water. However, it has been presumed, and we have shown, that elemental Hg will pass through a wet scrubber system with little or no removal being effected. Therefore, it is important, in order to obtain a high total Hg removal, to study methods that might result in a removal of gaseous, elemental Hg from a flue-gas stream. In this regard, we have been studying the effect of dilute halogen-containing solutions on elemental Hg in gas streams of various compositions. In particular, the results of passing Hg through bubblers containing solutions of iodine, chlorine, and chloric acid are described. Mercury found in the bubbler solutions is an indication of the extent of reaction (oxidation) of elemental Hg with the halogen species, since we have found very little Hg transferred to the liquid phase when only distilled water is used in the bubblers. Results using commercial iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and NOXSORB-solutions are presented and discussed.

  9. Reactions of gaseous, elemental mercury with dilute halogen solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Livengood, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    Of the trace elements known to exist in fossil fuels, mercury (Hg) has emerged as one of the greatest concerns. Mercury has been found to be emitted from combustion in at least two different chemical forms: elemental Hg and oxidized Hg compounds. Precise identification of the oxidized compounds emitted has not been accomplished to date. However, most workers in this field assume that mercuric chloride should be the predominant oxidized species. Mercuric chloride should be readily removed in a wet scrubber system because of its relatively high solubility in water. However, it has been presumed, and we have shown, that elemental Hg will pass through a wet scrubber system with little or no removal being effected. Therefore, it is important, in order to obtain a high total Hg removal, to study methods that might result in a removal of gaseous, elemental Hg from a flue-gas stream. In this regard, we have been studying the effect of dilute halogen-containing solutions on elemental Hg in gas streams of various compositions. In particular, the results of passing Hg through bubblers containing solutions of iodine, chlorine, and chloric acid are described. Mercury found in the bubbler solutions is an indication of the extent of reaction (oxidation) of elemental Hg with the halogen species, since we have found very little Hg transferred to the liquid phase when only distilled water is used in the bubblers. Results using commercial iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and NOXSORB (sup TM) solutions are presented and discussed.

  10. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  11. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  12. STABLE ISOTOPE DILUTION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to determine if a proposed catalytic exchange procedure could be adapted to produce the labeled analog materials necessary for isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. It is related to a general evaluation of th...

  13. LAKE RESTORATION BY DILUTION: MOSES LAKE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....

  14. Dry Dilution Refrigerator with High Cooling Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, K.

    2008-03-01

    We present the construction concept and cooling capacity measurements of a 3,4He dilution refrigerator (DR), which was pre-cooled by a commercial pulse tube refrigerator (PTR). No cryogens are needed for the operation of this type of cryostat. The condensation of the helium mash was done in an integrated Joule-Thomson circuit, which was part of the dilution unit. The composition of the dilution unit was standard, but its components (still, heat exchangers, mixing chamber) were designed for high 3He flow. For thermometry, calibrated RuO chip resistance thermometers were available. In order to condense the mixture before an experiment, the fridge was operated like a Joule-Thomson liquefier with a relatively high inlet pressure (4 bar), where the liquid fraction of the circulating 3,4He mixture was accumulated in the dilution unit. The condensation took about 2 hours, and after 2 more hours of running, the temperature of the mixing chamber approached its minimum temperature of 10 mK. The maximum flow rate of the fridge was 1 mmol/s, and the refrigeration capacity of the mixing chamber was 700 μW at 100 mK. High cooling capacity, ease of operation and reliability distinguish this type of milli-Kelvin cooler.

  15. Phase Transition of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Yuldashev, S. U.; Ihm, G.; Kang, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of phase transitions in diluted magnetic semiconductor, first-order, second-order and mixed-order, are found in theory. Especially the mixed type transition shows two steps transition and novel specific heat property. Specific heat properties disclose a possible meta ferromagnetic phase confirmed by the experimental qualitative result.

  16. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  17. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The “dilution effect” implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may “dilute” infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003–2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm’s owl decline in 1980–2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001

  18. Stable isotope dilution analysis of hydrologic samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed in the determination of Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ti, and Pb in nonsaline, natural water samples by stable isotope dilution analysis. Hydrologic samples were directly analyzed without any unusual pretreatment. Interference effects related to overlapping isobars, formation of metal oxide and multiply charged ions, and matrix composition were identified and suitable methods of correction evaluated. A comparability study snowed that single-element isotope dilution analysis was only marginally better than sequential multielement isotope dilution analysis. Accuracy and precision of the single-element method were determined on the basis of results obtained for standard reference materials. The instrumental technique was shown to be ideally suited for programs associated with certification of standard reference materials.

  19. Pinch-off dynamics, extensional viscosity and relaxation time of dilute and ultradilute aqueous polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioli, Madeleine; Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Sharma, Vivek

    Free surface flows and drop formation processes present in printing, jetting, spraying, and coating involve the development of columnar necks that undergo spontaneous surface-tension driven instability, thinning, and pinch-off. Stream-wise velocity gradients that arise within the thinning neck create and extensional flow field, which induces micro-structural changes within complex fluids that contribute elastic stresses, changing the thinning and pinch-off dynamics. In this contribution, we use dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) extensional rheometry technique for visualization and analysis of the pinch-off dynamics of dilute and ultra-dilute aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions. Using a range of molecular weights, we study the effect of both elasticity and finite extensibility. Both effective relaxation time and the transient extensional viscosity are found to be strongly concentration-dependent even for highly dilute solutions.

  20. Ionizing radiation induced degradation of monuron in dilute aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Krisztina; He, Shijun; Míle, Viktória; Földes, Tamás; Pápai, Imre; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    The decomposition of monuron was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions using pulse radiolysis and γ-radiolysis in order to identify the intermediates and final products. The main reaction takes place between monuron and the hydroxyl radicals yielding hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals with a second order rate constant of (7.4±0.2)×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. In •OH reactions, the aminyl and phenoxyl radicals may also form. Dechlorination was observed in both hydroxyl radical and hydrated electron reactions. The •OH induced dechlorination reactions are suggested to occur through OH substitution or phenoxyl radical formation. The rate of oxidation is very high in the presence of dissolved oxygen. Some of the results are also supported by quantum chemical calculations.

  1. Degradation of Sodium-Polyacrylate in Dilute Aqueous Solution, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, Takao; Matumura, On

    1983-08-01

    It has been found that Na-PAA molecules in dilute aqueous solution are degraded by shearing stress, oxidation and photolysis during usual viscosity measurements with a capillary viscometer. The results of previous viscosity measurements, mainly about the mechanochemical degradation in air and in air-free conditions, showed that the degradation rate increases with increasing shear stress, and with decreasing polymer concentration. In this work, the effects of the molecular weight and temperature on the degradation rate are measured using a capillary viscometer in air, and the photodegradation of Na-PAA and PAA in aqueous solution irradiated with UV light are studied by viscosity measurements in air, and by UV absorption and ESR methods. The results show that the degradation of molecules is enhanced by an increase in the molecular weight and strongly accelerated by a rise in temperature and by UV irradiation, and is accompanied by free-radical chain reactions.

  2. Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Olsson, P; Vidal, J; Lincot, D

    2011-10-12

    The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)(2) dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe(2) pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications. PMID:21937783

  3. MBE of wide bandgap II-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Kobayashi, M.; Kolodziejski, L. A.; Otsuka, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-01-01

    A pseudomorphic epilayer/epilayer heterojunction consisting of ZnTe on AlSb, having potential for the development of novel visible light emitting injection devices, has been grown by MBE. A variety of microstructural and optical evaluation techniques have provided evidence of high structural quality. The nonequilibrium growth capability of the MBE technique has enabled the growth of heterostructures incorporating a previously hypothetical widegap magnetic semiconductor, the zincblende phase of MnTe. Electron diffraction measurements of cross-sectional samples reveal only zincblende phases. Double barrier structures incorporating zincblende MnTe are found to exhibit two-dimensional electron and hole confinement in CdTe and ZnTe quantum well layers, and serve to confirm the zincblende MnTe bandgap at 3.2 eV.

  4. II-VI Semiconductor microstructures:from physics to optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, J. L.

    1994-12-01

    The tellurium compounds family displays many interesting features. The various compounds cover a very large range of bandgap energies from 0 (Cd{0.15}Hg0.85Te) to more than 3 eV (ZnTe : 2.4 eV ; MnTe : 3.2 eV ; MgTe : 3.5 eV). The lattice parameters of the various compounds are sometimes almost perfectly matched, as in the CdTe/CdxHg{1-x}Te case, or slightly enough mismatched for a coherent epitaxy to be performed. Furthermore, good quality Cd{0.96}Zn{0.04}Te substrates are now available which allow to grow a large variety of microstructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness control of the deposited layers allows to design and grow sophisticated beterostructures incorporating monolayer thick features. The direct band gap of these materials makes them well-suited to many optoelectronic applications in the infrared and visible range. A few examples of applications are described in more details : i) microtip semiconductor laser based on a cold microtip electron emitter for cathodic pumping of a CdTe/CdMnTe laser cavity ; ii) multiquantum well structures showing a marked excitonic absorption band at room temperature and the disappearance of this band when an electric field is applied to the structure. Application to self electrooptic and photorefractive devices ; iii) Bragg mirrors for the infrared. In addition to the usual semiconductor properties, the manganese compounds display interesting properties which can be useful in the field of magnetooptics.

  5. Multiple junction II-VI compound photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russak, Michael A.

    1986-12-01

    The application of concepts used in producing tandem solid state photovoltaic devices to photoelectrochemical cells has resulted in improved spectral response and photovoltaic output. As in solid state devices, the key to achieving good photovoltaic performance is optimization of the semiconductor properties in each part of the tandem arrangement. This has been done for the thin film CdS/CdSe/sulfide-polysulfide system with an improvement of over 15 percent in conversion efficiency being obtained. Preliminary results showing significant current enhancement by the addition of a CdSe backwall electrode to the CdTe/selenide-polyselenide system are also reported.

  6. Theory of exciton linewidth in II VI semiconductor mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    1990-04-01

    The disorder-induced broadening of excitons in mixed crystals is discussed, using a novel expression for the relevant exciton volume. Earlier experimental data on CdS 1-xSe x are successfully explained. The exciton broadening in quantum wells due to well-width fluctuations is obtained along similar lines.

  7. Analyses of compensation related defects in II-VI compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Fraboni, B.; Fernandez, P.; Piqueras, J.

    1998-12-31

    The deep levels present in semiconducting CdTe and semi-insulating (SI) CdTe:Cl and Cd{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Te have been investigated by means of cathodoluminescence (CL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photo-DLTS (PDLTS) and photo induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). PICTS and PDLTS can be applied to SI materials and allowed to determine whether the observed deep levels are hole or electron traps. Among the observed deep centers, the authors have focused their attention on those involved in the compensation process such as the so called center A and the deep traps located near midgap. They have identified a deep acceptor, labelled H, and a deep donor, labelled E, the latter is peculiar to CdTe:Cl and can be a good candidate for the deep donor level needed to explain the compensation process in SI CdTe:Cl.

  8. Modeling of mechanical properties of II-VI materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Berding, M. A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Chen, A.-B.; Patrick, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews some new developments in the theory of alloy correlations, order-disorder transitions, and solidus phase-transition curves. It is argued that semiconductor alloys are never truly random, and the various phenomena that drive deviations from random arrangements are introduced. Likely consequences of correlations on the ability to fine-tune the lattice match of epitaxial layers to substrates, on vacancy formation, on diffusion, and on vapor-phase crystal growth are discussed. Examples are chosen for the alloys Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, Cd(1-y)Zn(y)Te, and CdSe(1-y)Te(y).

  9. Sodium perxenate permits rapid oxidation of manganese for easy spectrophotometric determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bane, R. W.

    1967-01-01

    Sodium perxenate oxidizes manganese to permanganate almost instantaneously in dilute acid solution and without a catalyst. A solution is prepared by dissolving 200 mg of sodium perxenate in distilled water and diluting to 100 ml.

  10. Dilute nanoemulsions via separation of satellite droplets.

    PubMed

    Deen, Shad; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2013-10-01

    A facile method is suggested for fabrication of dilute nanoemulsions. In a typical emulsification process, drops are usually accompanied by off-grade satellite droplets. The size of these satellite droplets ranges from hundreds of nanometers to above microns. Experiments were carried out to assess the possibility of separation of nanodrops from macroemulsions made via a conventional method in order to produce nanoemulsions. A low-power homogenizer was used to produce parent emulsions which were then injected from the bottom to a glass column containing water and allowed to cream. By monitoring drops remaining in the bottom of the column, it is clearly shown how progressively smaller they become with time yielding eventually dilute nanoemulsions. The average diameter of drops reduced to 100 nm when oil with high viscosity was used. The concentration of resulting nanoemulsions increased with increasing viscosity and ratio of the disperse phase of parent emulsions. PMID:23830283

  11. Dilution jet mixing program, supplementary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    The velocity and temperature distributions predicted by a 3-D numerical model and experimental measurements are compared. Empirical correlations for the jet velocity trajectory developed are presented. The measured velocity distributions for all test cases of phase through phase 3 are presented in the form of contour and oblique plots. quantification of the effects of the following on the jet mixing characteristics with a confined crossflow are: (1) orifice geometry momentum flux ratio and density ratio; (2) nonuniform mainstream temperature and velocity profiles upstream of dilution orifices; (3) cold versus hot jet injection; (4) cross-stream flow are a convergence as encountered in practical dilution zone geometries; (5) 2-D slot versus circular orifices; (6) discrete noncirculcer orifices; (7) single-sided versus opposed jets; (8) single row of jets.

  12. Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.

    The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.

  13. The regulation of gelation of Phloem exudate from cucurbita fruit by dilution, glutathione, and glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Alosi, M C; Melroy, D L; Park, R B

    1988-04-01

    The average glutathione equivalent concentration in phloem exudate collected from squash fruit (Cucurbita moschata [Duchesne] Poir. var Butternut) and pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita pepo [L.] var Jack-o-lattern) was 1.02 and 0.60 millimolar, respectively. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity in phloem exudate from squash and pumpkin fruit averaged 0.48 and 1.74 micromole NADPH oxidized per minute per milliliter, respectively. Protein concentrations in fruit phloem exudates averaged 67 milligrams per milliliter for squash and 57 milligrams per milliliter for pumpkin. The phloem-specific P-proteins account for most of the protein content of exudate. Pure exudate from fruit does not gel for hours or days, but when diluted with neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions, exudate gels rapidly. Exudate solutions undergo biphasic pH changes with dilution. We suggest that P-protein undergoes conformational change upon dilution, exposing titratable groups and sulfhydryl residues. Oxidation of the latter forms the intermolecular disulfide bridges of the gel. The gelation of diluted exudate is regulated by factors (oxygen, pH, glutathione, NADPH) which affect the maintenance of reduced sulfhydryl residues and the activity of glutathione reductase. While these factors may also act in vivo to regulate redox conditions in phloem, their relationship to hypothetical sol/gel transitions or motile and nonmotile phases in the transport conduit is unknown. PMID:16666036

  14. 3D magnetometer for a dilution refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaikin, S.; Likhachev, A.; Cioata, F.; Perminov, I.; Sanghera, H.; Singh, I.; Spear, P.; Chavez, P.; Han, X.; Petroff, C.; Rich, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we describe a development of a three dimensional system for measurements of magnetic field at a wide temperature range of 300K-4K. The system is based on 8 AMR sensors and allows for control of the magnetic environment in a dilution refrigerator during the cool down of a superconducting processor. With a low noise signal processing electronics and a special sensor saturation circuit, a magnetic induction resolution below of 1 nT was achieved.

  15. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  16. THE ANISOTROPIC TRANSPORT EFFECTS ON DILUTE PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Devlen, Ebru

    2011-04-20

    We examine the linear stability analysis of a hot, dilute, and differentially rotating plasma by considering anisotropic transport effects. In dilute plasmas, the ion Larmor radius is small compared with its collisional mean free path. In this case, the transport of heat and momentum along the magnetic field lines becomes important. This paper presents a novel linear instability that may be more powerful and greater than ideal magnetothermal instability and ideal magnetorotational instability in the dilute astrophysical plasmas. This type of plasma is believed to be found in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters and radiatively ineffective accretion flows around black holes. We derive the dispersion relation of this instability and obtain the instability condition. There is at least one unstable mode that is independent of the temperature gradient direction for a helical magnetic field geometry. This novel instability is driven by the gyroviscosity coupled with differential rotation. Therefore, we call it gyroviscous-modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). We examine how the instability depends on signs of the temperature gradient and the gyroviscosity and also on the magnitude of the thermal frequency and on the values of the pitch angle. We provide a detailed physical interpretation of the obtained results. The GvMRI is applicable not only to the accretion flows and ICM but also to the transition region between cool dense gas and the hot low-density plasma in stellar coronae, accretion disks, and the multiphase interstellar medium because it is independent of the temperature gradient direction.

  17. Helium 3/Helium 4 dilution cryocooler for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, John B.; Dingus, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype dilution cryocoolers based on dilution refrigeration and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) cycles were designed, constructed, and tested. Although devices the devices did not operate as fully functional dilution cryocoolers, important information was gathered. The porous metal phase separator was demonstrated to operate in the -1-g configuration; this phase separation is the critical element in the He-3 circulation dilution cryocooler. Improvements in instrumentation needed for additional tests and development were identified.

  18. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  19. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  20. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicant prior to application to...

  1. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  2. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  3. WET OXIDATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE BY THE VERTICAL TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of carrying out oxidation of dilute sewage sludge by means of the vertical tube reactor (VTR) system. A pilot scale facility along with a laboratory reactor were used for this study. Dilute sewage sludge was oxidized in the laborat...

  4. The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Aaron L.

    2000-01-01

    To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.

  5. Diluted magnetic III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munekata, H.; Ohno, H.; von Molnar, S.; Segmüller, Armin; Chang, L. L.; Esaki, L.

    1989-10-01

    A new diluted magnetic III-V semiconductor of In1-xMnxAs (x<=0.18) has been produced by molecular-beam epitaxy. Films grown at 300 °C are predominantly ferromagnetic and their properties suggest the presence of MnAs clusters. Films grown 200 °C, however, are predominantly paramagnetic, and the lattice constant decreases with increasing Mn composition; both are indicative of the formation of a homogeneous alloy. These films have n-type conductivity and reduced band gaps.

  6. Steadiness in Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are often unsteady, as evidenced by direct observations of dilute lobes or jets emerging from the fronts of larger currents and by deposits that indicate transient transport and depositional regimes. We used scaled experiments to investigate unsteadiness in dilute PDCs. The experimental currents were run in an 8.5x6.1x2.6 m tank and comprised heated or ambient temperature 20-μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air. Experiments were scaled such that densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers, Froude number, and particle Stokes and settling numbers were dynamically similar to natural dilute PDCs. Although the experiment Reynolds numbers are substantially lower than those of natural PDCs, the experiments are fully turbulent. Experiments were observed with video and high-speed cameras and high-frequency thermocouples. Currents were generated with total eruption durations of 100 s. Unsteadiness in source conditions was produced by interrupting supply for intervals, t, with durations of 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 s in the experimental runs at 35 and 70 s. When t<2.5 s, the currents are indistinguishable from currents with steady supply. In runs with t=2.5-5 s, the individual pulses comprising each current are readily apparent near the source, but decay with distance downstream until the currents appear as single (e.g. steady) flows. In experiments with t=10 s, the 3 pulses comprising each run never merge and the currents remain unsteady. Comparison with the integral turbulent timescale, τ, and current velocity, U, show that unsteadiness is persistent when t>3<τ but currents are steady when t<τ. In currents with 3τ>t>τ, unsteadiness decays such that at a distance of ~4Ut, the currents are again steady. Applied to natural dilute PDCs, our results suggest that currents and their resulting deposits, will only show evidence of unsteadiness if they are disrupted for many seconds and those breaks may "heal" over distances of 100s of meters.

  7. Magnetopolaron effect in diluted semimagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Georgiy G.; Mazur, Yuri I.; Rakitin, Andrey S.; Lavoric, S. R.; Tomm, Jens W.; Hoerstel, W.

    1997-08-01

    Phonon-assisted self-trapping of free carrier is considered in diluted semimagnetics. It is shown that the binding energy of free magnetic polaron can be substantially larger when the 'spin-phonon' coupling is taken into account. For the particular case of 'soft' lattice dynamics the region of stability for hole-induced polaron can be promoted to the temperature of tenths of degrees and magnetic field of a few Tesla. The possible hybridized excitations with the partition of free magnetic polaron are discussed in semimagnetic semiconductors.

  8. Supershell structure in trapped dilute Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Ögren, M.; Åberg, S.; Reimann, S. M.; Brack, M.

    2005-11-01

    We show that a dilute harmonically trapped two-component gas of fermionic atoms with a weak repulsive interaction has a pronounced super-shell structure: The shell fillings due to the spherical harmonic trapping potential are modulated by a beat mode. This changes the “magic numbers” occurring between the beat nodes by half a period. The length and amplitude of this beating mode depend on the strength of the interaction. We give a simple interpretation of the beat structure in terms of a semiclassical trace formula for the symmetry breaking U(3)→SO(3) .

  9. Supershell structure in trapped dilute Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.; Oegren, M.; Aaberg, S.; Reimann, S. M.; Brack, M.

    2005-11-15

    We show that a dilute harmonically trapped two-component gas of fermionic atoms with a weak repulsive interaction has a pronounced super-shell structure: The shell fillings due to the spherical harmonic trapping potential are modulated by a beat mode. This changes the ''magic numbers'' occurring between the beat nodes by half a period. The length and amplitude of this beating mode depend on the strength of the interaction. We give a simple interpretation of the beat structure in terms of a semiclassical trace formula for the symmetry breaking U(3){yields}SO(3)

  10. Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

  11. Capillary electrophoretic separation of DNA restriction fragments using dilute polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, B.; Blanch, W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    Because the mechanism of DNA separation in capillary electrophoresis is not well understood, selection of polymers is a {open_quotes}trial-and-error{close_quotes} procedure. We investigated dilute-solution DNA separations by capillary electrophoresis using solutions of four polymers that differ in size, shape and stiffness. Hydroxyethylcellulose of high molecular weight provides excellent separation of large DNA fragments (2027 bp - 23130 bp). Polyvinylpyrrolidone separates DNA from 72 bp to 23 kbp and star-(polyethylene oxide), like linear poly (ethylene oxide), provides separation of fragments up to 1353 bp.

  12. Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope {sup 36}Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast.

  13. Dilute Potts model in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaofeng; Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W J

    2005-11-01

    We study the two-dimensional dilute q-state Potts model by means of transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo methods. Using the random-cluster representation, we include noninteger values of q. We locate phase transitions in the three-dimensional parameter space of q, the Potts coupling K>0, and the chemical potential of the vacancies. The critical plane is found to contain a line of fixed points that divides into a critical branch and a tricritical one, just as predicted by the renormalization scenario formulated by Nienhuis et al for the dilute Potts model. The universal properties along the line of fixed points agree with the theoretical predictions. We also determine the density of the vacancies along these branches. For q=2-squareroot of 2 we obtain the phase diagram in a three-dimensional parameter space that also includes a coupling V> or = 0 between the vacancies. For q=2, the latter space contains the Blume-Capel model as a special case. We include a determination of the tricritical point of this model, as well as an analysis of percolation clusters constructed on tricritical Potts configurations for noninteger q. This percolation study is based on Monte Carlo algorithms that include local updates flipping between Potts sites and vacancies. The bond updates are performed locally for and by means of a cluster algorithm for q>1. The updates for q>1 use a number of operations per site independent of the system size. PMID:16383713

  14. Dilute Potts model in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaofeng; Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W. J.

    2005-11-01

    We study the two-dimensional dilute q -state Potts model by means of transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo methods. Using the random-cluster representation, we include noninteger values of q . We locate phase transitions in the three-dimensional parameter space of q , the Potts coupling K⩾0 , and the chemical potential of the vacancies. The critical plane is found to contain a line of fixed points that divides into a critical branch and a tricritical one, just as predicted by the renormalization scenario formulated by Nienhuis for the dilute Potts model. The universal properties along the line of fixed points agree with the theoretical predictions. We also determine the density of the vacancies along these branches. For q=2-2 we obtain the phase diagram in a three-dimensional parameter space that also includes a coupling V⩾0 between the vacancies. For q=2 , the latter space contains the Blume-Capel model as a special case. We include a determination of the tricritical point of this model, as well as an analysis of percolation clusters constructed on tricritical Potts configurations for noninteger q . This percolation study is based on Monte Carlo algorithms that include local updates flipping between Potts sites and vacancies. The bond updates are performed locally for q<1 and by means of a cluster algorithm for q>1 . The updates for q>1 use a number of operations per site independent of the system size.

  15. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ˜keV to ˜MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, and large-scale structure, as well as x-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early Universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ˜TeV to ˜EeV rest-mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high-energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to evade current x-ray or lifetime constraints. Nevertheless, we discuss how future x-ray observations, future lepton number constraints, and future observations and sophisticated simulations of large-scale structure could, in conjunction, provide evidence for this model and/or constrain and probe its parameters.

  16. Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y; Pickhardt, Paul C; Fisher, Nicholas S; Folt, Carol L

    2007-05-01

    Rapid growth could significantly reduce methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic organisms by causing a greater than proportional gain in biomass relative to MeHg (somatic growth dilution). We hypothesized that rapid growth from the consumption of high-quality algae, defined by algal nutrient stoichiometry, reduces MeHg concentrations in zooplankton, a major source of MeHg for lake fish. Using a MeHg radiotracer, we measured changes in MeHg concentrations, growth and ingestion rates in juvenile Daphnia pulex fed either high (C:P = 139) or low-quality (C:P = 1317) algae (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) for 5 d. We estimated Daphnia steady-state MeHg concentrations, using a biokinetic model parameterized with experimental rates. Daphnia MeHg assimilation efficiencies (approximately 95%) and release rates (0.04 d(-1)) were unaffected by algal nutrient quality. However, Daphnia growth rate was 3.5 times greater when fed high-quality algae, resulting in pronounced somatic growth dilution. Steady-state MeHg concentrations in Daphnia that consumed high-quality algae were one-third those of Daphnia that consumed low-quality algae due to higher growth and slightly lower ingestion rates. Our findings show that rapid growth from high-quality food consumption can significantly reduce the accumulation and trophic transfer of MeHg in freshwater food webs. PMID:17456601

  17. Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y.; Pickhardt, Paul C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Folt, Carol L.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid growth could significantly reduce methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic organisms by causing a greater than proportional gain in biomass relative to MeHg (somatic growth dilution). We hypothesized that rapid growth from the consumption of high-quality algae, defined by algal nutrient stoichiometry, reduces MeHg concentrations in zooplankton, a major source of MeHg for lake fish. Using a MeHg radiotracer, we measured changes in MeHg concentrations, growth and ingestion rates in juvenile Daphnia pulex fed either high (C:P = 139) or low-quality (C:P = 1317) algae (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) for 5 d. We estimated Daphnia steady-state MeHg concentrations, using a biokinetic model parameterized with experimental rates. Daphnia MeHg assimilation efficiencies (≈95%) and release rates (0.04 d−1) were unaffected by algal nutrient quality. However, Daphnia growth rate was 3.5 times greater when fed high-quality algae, resulting in pronounced somatic growth dilution. Steady-state MeHg concentrations in Daphnia that consumed high-quality algae were one-third those of Daphnia that consumed low-quality algae due to higher growth and slightly lower ingestion rates. Our findings show that rapid growth from high-quality food consumption can significantly reduce the accumulation and trophic transfer of MeHg in freshwater food webs. PMID:17456601

  18. A century of indicator dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals and human during the next decades. Multiple indicators, radioactive tracers, inlet-outlet detection and residue detection were introduced in the 1950s and 1960s, and refined along with the development of indicator kinetics. From the 1970s, a wide clinical use in the study of heart, brain, lungs, liver and kidneys developed, and powerful computers in the 1980s and 1990s accorded the technique a new dimension. Today, the indicator dilution technique, on one hand, is applied in the same way as 100 years ago, on the other hand it forms the basis of quantitative SPECT, positron emission tomography, and dynamic MR scans. The technique still undergoes refinement and elaboration as a lasting concept with a high potential for further development. PMID:23869947

  19. Motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Karpeev, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study molecular motor-induced microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model of microtubule interaction via molecular motors to investigate microtubule bundle dynamics. Microtubules are modeled as polar rods interacting through fully inelastic, binary collisions. Our model indicates that initially disordered systems of interacting rods exhibit an orientational instability resulting in spontaneous ordering. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results reveal a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In semi-dilute filament solutions, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered phase with a nonzero mean orientation. Motors attach to a pair of filaments and walk along the pair bringing them into closer alignment. We develop a spatially homogenous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We show that the transition to the oriented state can be both continuous and discontinuous when the force-dependent detachment of motors is important.

  20. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous

  1. Disorder Problem In Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Ryky; Ekuma, Chinedu; Terletska, Hanna; Sudhindra, Vidhyadhiraja; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by experimental studies addressing the role of impurity disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we investigate the effects of disorder using a simple tight-binding Hamiltonian with random impurity potential and spin-fermion exchange which is self-consistently solved using the typical medium theory. Adopting the typical density of states (TDoS) as the order parameter, we find that the TDoS vanishes below a critical concentration of the impurity, which indicates an Anderson localization transition in the system. Our results qualitatively explain why at concentrations lower than a critical value DMS are insulating and paramagnetic, while at larger concentrations are ferromagnetic. We also compare several simple models to explore the interplay between ferromagnetic order and disorder induced insulating behavior, and the role of the spin-orbit interaction on this competition. We apply our findings to (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)N to compare and contrast their phase diagrams.

  2. Crystallization of a dilute atomic dipolar condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisset, Russell; Blakie, Blair

    2016-05-01

    A recent experiment found that a dilute BEC of highly-magnetic dysprosium atoms may spontaneously break up into a crystal of droplets, a process reminiscent of the Rosensweig instability [ArXiv:1508.05007]. We dynamically simulate this scenario and find that the standard dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) cannot explain such a droplet crystal. Indeed, the GPE predicts too much heating during the violent droplet formation, and a droplet lifetime that is much shorter than observed in the experiment. We investigate the requisite properties of the unknown stabilization mechanism, and find that an effective repulsive interaction with a higher order density dependence than the usual two-body interactions is required to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results.

  3. Dilution Jet Mixing Program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of jet to mainstream density ratio, flow area convergence as encounted in transition sections, and nonuniform mainstream profile upstream of dilution orifices on the mixing of a row of jets with a confined cross flow was quantified. It is found that: (1) jet spreading rate in transverse direction is increased with increasing J, H/D and with decreasing S/D; (2) the density ratio has only a second order effect on the jet mixing characteristics for a constant momentum ratio; (3) the temperature distributions in the jet mixing region are strongly influenced by the undisturbed mainstream profile; (4) flow area convergence enhances mixing in radial and transverse directions. An asymmetric convergent duct with flat wall injection has the same jet mixing characteristics as a symmetric convergent duct. An asymmetric convergent duct with slant wall injection has a faster jet spreading rate in the transverse direction.

  4. Computational modeling of dilute biomass slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Fischer, Paul; Lischeske, James

    2012-11-01

    The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels involves a multitude of physical and chemical transformations that occur in several distinct processing steps (e.g., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation). In this work we focus on development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid that can exhibit yield-stress behavior. Here, we model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that accommodates biomass transport due to settling and biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity. Within a typical mixing vessel, viscosity can vary over several orders of magnitude. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element solver in a simple vane mixer, and validate against experimental results. This work is directed towards our goal of a fully coupled computational model of fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2015-07-21

    We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system. PMID:26054840

  6. Dynamical Threshold of Diluteness of Soft Colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ren; Do, Changwoo; Egami, T; Falus, Peter; Li, Xin; Liu, Dazhi; Porcar, L.; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E; Smith, Gregory Scott; Wu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of soft colloids in solutions is characterized by internal collective motion as well as center-of-mass diffusion. Using neutron scattering we demonstrate that the competition between the relaxation processes associated with these two degrees of freedom results in strong dependence of dynamics and structure on colloid concentration, c, well below the overlap concentration c*. Triggered by the increasing inter-particle collisions, substantial structural dehydration and slowing-down of internal dynamics occurs before geometrically defined colloidal overlap develops. This observation is surprising since it is generally believed that the internal dynamics and conformation of soft colloidal particles essentially remain invariant below c*. The competition between these two relaxation processes gives rise to a new dynamically-defined dilute threshold concentration well below c*.

  7. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.

    PubMed

    Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003

  8. Sibling dilution hypothesis: a regression surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, K

    2001-08-01

    This study examined relationships between sibship size (the number of children in a family), birth order, and measures of academic performance, academic self-concept, and educational aspirations at different levels of family educational resources. As part of a national longitudinal study of Australian secondary school students data were collected from 2,530 boys and 2,450 girls in Years 9 and 10. Regression surfaces were constructed from models that included terms to account for linear, interaction, and curvilinear associations among the variables. Analysis suggests the general propositions (a) family educational resources have significant associations with children's school-related outcomes at different levels of sibling variables, the relationships for girls being curvilinear, and (b) sibling variables continue to have small significant associations with affective and cognitive outcomes, after taking into account variations in family educational resources. That is, the investigation provides only partial support for the sibling dilution hypothesis. PMID:11729548

  9. Dilute acid saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, M.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.

    1995-12-01

    Aqueous dilute sulfuric acid solutions have been evaluated in terms of their effectiveness for the saccharification of the insoluble xylan fraction of poplar and switchgrass feedstocks. Acid concentrations ranging from .6 to 1.2% have been tested at temperatures ranging from 120 to 160{degrees}C. Treatments at optimum time, temperature, and acid combinations provided xylose yields of approximately 90% theoretical. Rate constants associated with xylan hydrolysis and xylose degradation for each of the feed-stocks have been evaluated. In general, optimum yields were associated with high temperature treatments for relatively short reaction times. Results from our laboratory will be presented with reference to previously published studies on hemicellulose saccharification and in the general context of converting lignocellulosic biomass to useful products.

  10. Dilute spin-orbit Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Mundo, Daniel; He, Lianyi; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    We study repulsive Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in two and three dimensions when they are dilute enough that a single branch of the spectrum is occupied in the non-interacting ground state. We develop an effective renormalizable theory for fermions in the lower branch and obtain the energy of the system in three dimensions to second order in the renormalized coupling constant. We then exploit the non-Galilean-relativistic nature of spin-orbit coupled gases. We find that at finite momentum, the two-dimensional Fermi sea is deformed in a non-trivial way. Using mean-field theory to include interactions, we show that the ground-state of the system acquires a finite momentum, and is consequently deformed, when the interaction is stronger than a critical value. Heriot-Watt University. CM-DTC. SUPA. EPSRC.

  11. Diluted neural network with refractory periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Crisógono R.; Tamarit, Francisco A.; Curado, Evaldo M. F.

    1997-03-01

    We study an extreme and asymmetrically diluted version of the Hopfield model when the refractory period is taken into account in the dynamics of the neurons through a time dependent threshold. We present an analytical approach that allows one to preserve, in an approximate way, the dependence of the system on its whole history. In particular, we obtain a recurrent equation for the overlap from which one can analyze the retrieval capacity. We also perform numerical simulations that are well fitted by our analytical results. Depending on the amplitude of the potential that mimics the effect of the refractory period and on the ratio α between the number of stored patterns p and the mean connectivity per neuron C, the system presents different dynamical behaviors and retrieval abilities.

  12. Postoperative bypass bleeding: a bypass-associated dilutional (BAD) coagulopathy?

    PubMed

    Bull, Brian S; Hay, Karen L; Herrmann, Paul C

    2009-01-01

    A number of associations with post-bypass bleeding have been described in the accompanying paper. Herein we hypothesize that dilution is an underlying cause through a malign series of bypass-associated events. Heparinized blood behaves anomalously when diluted. Clotting times first shorten somewhat, then--as the dilution of whole blood approaches 50%--rapidly lengthen to unclottability. During cardiopulmonary bypass, low blood volume patients are at a significant risk of clotting factor dilution which will always be more severe than the level of whole blood dilution. If severe enough, this dilution may lower plasma clotting factors to a critical level and may result in excess protamine administration, secondary to overestimation of heparin. The presence of un-neutralized protamine combined with critically lowered clotting factors leads to marked coagulopathy. PMID:19699663

  13. Nuclear Isotopic Dilution of Highly-Enriched Uranium-235 and Uranium-233 by Dry Blending via the RM-2 Mill Technology

    SciTech Connect

    N. A. Chipman; R. N. Henry; R. K. Rajamani; S. Latchireddi; V. Devrani; H. Sethi; J. L. Malhotra

    2004-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to identify strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. Two such materials are the off-specification highly enriched uranium-235 oxide powder and the uranium-233 contained in unirradiated nuclear fuel both currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report describes the development of a technology that could dilute these materials to levels categorized as low-enriched uranium, or further dilute the materials to a level categorized as waste. This dilution technology opens additional pathways for the disposition of these excess fissile materials as existing processing infrastructure continues to be retired.

  14. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  15. Characterization of dilution action in laser-induction hybrid cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjun

    2011-07-01

    Based on an experimental study of laser-induction hybrid cladding by powder feeding, the dilution action and elemental composition distribution were investigated in detail. The results indicate that, compared with individual laser cladding, by using laser-induction hybrid cladding it is easier to form a metallurgical bonding coating and the change range of dilution is much larger. Moreover, at the bottom of molten region, the morphology exhibits nearly a straight line. The processing parameters have great influence on dilution in hybrid cladding. With the increase of scanning speed, the tendency of dilution presents a U-shaped profile, i.e., the middle dilution is much less than those of two ends. The dilution increases with the induction energy. Furthermore, the bigger the dilution, the more uniform is the elemental composition throughout coating. In laser-induction hybrid cladding, the microstructure of low dilution coating is relatively fine due to the low hybrid cladding energy. By adjusting the laser energy and induction energy appropriately, i.e., high induction energy—low laser energy, the low dilution coating with fine microstructure and good mechanical properties can be achieved.

  16. Effects of oxygen cover gas and NaOH dilution on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101 waste

    SciTech Connect

    Person, J.C.

    1996-05-30

    Laboratory studies are reported of gas generation in heated waste from tank 241-SY-101. The rates of gas generation and the compositions of product gas were measured. Three types of tests are compared. The tests use: undiluted waste, waste diluted by a 54% addition of 2.5 M NaOH, and undiluted waste with a reactive cover gas of 30% Oxygen in He. The gas generation rate is reduced by dilution, increased by higher temperatures (which determines activation energies), and increased by reactions of Oxygen (these primarily produce H{sub 2}). Gases are generated as reduction products oxidation of organic carbon species by nitrite and oxygen.

  17. Efficient removal of UDMH from dilute nitride MOCVD exhaust streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahle, Jörg; Czerniak, Mike; Seeley, Andy; Baker, Derek

    2004-12-01

    Unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) (CH 3) 2N 2H 2 is often used in the deposition of dilute nitride semiconductors because it provides a source of nitrogen with a low thermal decomposition temperature (Temperature-dependent carrier lifetime in GaNAs using resonant-coupled photoconductive decay, NCPV Program Review Meeting, Lakewood, Colorado, 14-17 October, 2001). The problems with using this material, however, are its significant toxicity (0.01 ppm compared to ammonia's 25 ppm) and also the fact that it blocks the action of conventional dosed wet scrubbers sometimes used on nitride applications, resulting in diminished efficiency in removing arsine (the source of arsenic), and arsine being similarly toxic (TLV of 0.05 ppm). Efficient removal of UDMH, AsH 3 and hydrogen (which, though not toxic poses a potential safety hazard) by means of a combined thermal oxidation reaction and wet scrubber in series is described at input gas flow rates exceeding those typically encountered in practice. The detection technique employed was Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), and the calibration and resolution techniques will be described. For input UDMH flows of up to 445 sccm (i.e. 1.85×10 -2 mol/min), destructive reaction efficiencies (DREs) of >99.9% were demonstrated, corresponding to the background detection resolution of 0.4 ppm.

  18. Droplet Size Distributions in Atomization of Dilute Viscoelastic Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; McKinley, Gareth; Houze, Eric; Moore, John; Pottiger, Michael; Cotts, Patricia; M. I. T. Collaboration; DuPont Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The droplet size probability distribution functions (PDF) for atomization/fragmentation processes in Newtonian fluids are now generally accepted to be close to Gamma distributions. Despite the great practical importance, little is known about the nature of corresponding distributions for viscoelastic liquids, e.g. polymeric solutions such as pesticide sprays and paints. We present data from air-assisted atomization experiments for model viscoelastic solutions composed of very dilute solutions of polyethylene oxide. Although the addition of small amounts of high molecular weight polymer keeps the fluid shear viscosity and surface tension close to the solvent values, the size distributions are skewed towards higher values of the Sauter mean diameter. We show that the PDF curves for these weakly-elastic fluids are well described by Gamma distributions, but the exponent n is systematically decreased by fluid elasticity. Flow visualization images show that this behavior arises from the non-linear dynamics close to the break-up point which are dominated by an elasto-capillary force balance within the thinning ligaments and the magnitude of the extensional viscosity in the viscoelastic fluid. Mechanical Engineering Department, Cambridge, MA.

  19. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  20. Transport and sedimentation in unconfined experimental dilute pyroclastic density currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, G.; Andrews, B. J.; Dennen, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from experiments conducted in a new facility that permits the study of large, unconfined particle laden density currents that are dynamically similar to natural dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Experiments were run in a sealed, air-filled tank measuring 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents were generated by feeding mixture of heated particles (5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut shell, 76 μm glass beads) down a chute at controlled rates to produce dilute, turbulent gravity currents. Comparison of experimental currents with natural PDCs shows good agreement between Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, and particle Stokes and settling numbers; experimental currents have lower Reynolds numbers than natural PDCs, but are fully turbulent. Currents were illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps). Deposits were mapped using a grid of sedimentation traps. We observe distinct differences between ambient temperature and warm currents: * warm currents have shorter run out distances, narrow map view distributions of currents and deposits, thicken with distance from the source, and lift off to form coignimbrite plumes; * ambient temperature currents typically travel farther, spread out radially, do not thicken greatly with transport distance, and do not form coignimbrite plumes. Long duration currents (600 s compared to 30-100 s) oscillate laterally with time (e.g. transport to the right, then the left, and back); this oscillation happens prior to any interaction with the tank walls. Isopach maps of the deposits show predictable trends in sedimentation versus distance in response to eruption parameters (eruption rate, duration, temperature, and initial current mass), but all sedimentation curves can be fit with 2nd order polynomials (R2>.9). Proximal sedimentation is similar in comparable warm

  1. Three-dimensional structure of dilute pyroclastic density currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Unconfined experimental density currents dynamically similar to pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) suggest that cross-stream motions of the currents and air entrainment through currents' lateral margins strongly affects PDC behavior. Experiments are conducted within an air-filled tank 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents are generated by feeding heated powders down a chute into the tank at controlled rates to form dilute, particle-laden, turbulent gravity currents that are fed for 30 to 600 seconds. Powders include 5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut, 76 μm glass beads and mixtures thereof. Experiments are scaled such that Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers, and thermal to kinetic energy densities are all in agreement with dilute PDCs; experiments have lower Reynolds numbers that natural currents, but the experiments are fully turbulent, thus the large scale structures should be similar. The experiments are illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps); this system provides synchronous observation of a vertical streamwise and cross-stream planes, and a horizontal plane. Ambient temperature currents tend to spread out radially from the source and have long run out distances, whereas warmer currents tend to focus along narrow sectors and have shorter run outs. In addition, when warm currents lift off to form buoyant plumes, lateral spreading ceases. The behavior of short duration currents are dominated by the current head; as eruption duration increases, current transport direction tends to oscillate back and forth (this is particularly true for ambient temperature currents). Turbulent structures in the horizontal plane show air entrainment and advection downstream. Eddies illuminated by the vertical cross-stream laser sheet often show vigorous mixing along the current margins

  2. 17 CFR 229.506 - (Item 506) Dilution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 506) Dilution. 229.506 Section 229.506 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... (Item 506) Dilution. Where common equity securities are being registered and there is...

  3. 17 CFR 229.506 - (Item 506) Dilution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 506) Dilution. 229.506 Section 229.506 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... (Item 506) Dilution. Where common equity securities are being registered and there is...

  4. 17 CFR 229.506 - (Item 506) Dilution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 506) Dilution. 229.506 Section 229.506 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... (Item 506) Dilution. Where common equity securities are being registered and there is...

  5. 17 CFR 229.506 - (Item 506) Dilution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 506) Dilution. 229.506 Section 229.506 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... (Item 506) Dilution. Where common equity securities are being registered and there is...

  6. THE DILUTION/FLUSHING TECHNIQUE IN LAKE RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilution/flushing has been documented as an effective restoration technique for Moses and Green Lakes in Washington State. The dilution water added in both lakes was low in nitrogen and phosphorus content relative to the lake or normal input water. Consequently, lake nutrient con...

  7. A PRESSURIZED PROPORTIONAL DILUTER FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A half-liter proportional diluter using positive pressure was designed and tested. Its primary siphons are activated by a pulse of pressure instead of by a partial vacuum as in conventional diluters. This method eliminated the need for venturi tubes, vacuum manifolds, and individ...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  11. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Dilution air background correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Dilution air background correction. (a... ratio of the test fuel. You may measure a or use default values from Table 1 of 40 CFR 1065.655. b... 40 CFR 1065.655. ER28AP14.101 (c) Determine the dilution factor, DF, over the test interval...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  14. Effects of dilution on vehicle emissions of primary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, K. L.; Li, S.; Liggio, G.; McCurdy, M.; Chan, T.; Rostkowski, J.

    2009-12-01

    Dilution of primary aerosols from vehicles into the ambient atmosphere can change their physical and chemical characteristics. In order to study these processes, experiments were conducted in an engine testing facility at Environment Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. Exhaust from a light duty diesel engine was vented into a constant volume sampling (CVS) system where it underwent primary dilution at an ambient temperature of 25oC, leading to a primary dilution ratio of 10-15. From the CVS, the exhaust was further diluted using a combination of a Dekati ejection diluter and mixing with zero air in a flow tube, achieving secondary dilution ratios of up to 3000. Particle and gas measurements were made through multi-ports in the CVS and the flow tube using an SMPS, FMPS, AMS, and SP2, and instruments to measure CO, CO2, NOx, and total hydrocarbons (THC). Preliminary results indicate that regardless of dilution ratios, primary particles contain significant amounts of organic material that appear to reside on small black carbon cores. With increasing dilution ratios, the primary particle sizes become progressively smaller, suggesting volatilization of the adsorbed organic material. Results from various engine operating modes (simulating different driving conditions) will be presented.

  15. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  17. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  20. Chain Dynamics in a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jing; Hagenbuchle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The structure, formation, and dynamics of dilute, mono-dispersive ferrofluid emulsions in an external magnetic field have been investigated using dynamic light scattering techniques. In the absence of the magnetic field, the emulsion particles are randomly distributed and behave like hard spheres in Brownian motion. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each particle. Dipolar interactions between particles align them into chains where correlation functions show two decay processes. The short-time decay shows the motion of straight chains as a whole where the apparent chain length increases with the applied magnetic field and the particle volume fraction. Good scaling results are obtained showing that the apparent chain length grows with time following a power law with exponent of 0.6 and depends on the applied field, particle volume fraction, and diffusion constant of the particles. The long-time decay in the correlation function shows oscillation when the chains reach a certain length with time and stiffness with threshold field This result shows that chains not only fluctuate, but move in a periodic motion with a frequency of 364 Hz at lambda = 15. It may suggest the existence of phonons. This work is the first step in the understanding of the structure formation, especially chain coarsening mechanism, of magnetorheological (MR) fluids at higher volume fractions.

  1. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  2. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate wettability. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  3. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  4. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  5. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-03-31

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  6. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  7. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.

  8. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  9. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

  10. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  11. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-04-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

  12. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

  13. Diluted magnetic semiconductor superlattices and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, S.; Furdyna, J. K.; Gunshor, R. L.

    Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are mixed semiconducting crystals whose lattice is made up in part of substitutional magnetic ions. Cd 1-xMn xTe and Hg 1-xMn xTe are examples of such materials. Their structural and band parameters can be "tuned" by composition over a wide range. They can thus be exploited in situations completely similar to those involving Ga 1-xAl xAs. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we have grown Cd 1-xMn xTe superlattices with alternating Mn content, having up to 150 layers, with layer thickness ranging from 50 to 100 Å. The superlattice structure is clearly revealed by transmission electron microscopy and by zone-folding of the phonon spectrum observed in Raman scattering. Photoluminescence observed on Cd 1-xMn xTe superlattices is several orders of magnitude greater than that from a Cd 1-xMn xTe film with uniform Mn content, or from bulk Cd 1-xMn xTe specimens. The presence of localized magnetic moments in DMS results in a strong exchange interaction between these moments and band electrons. This in turn leads to gigantic Zeeman splittings of impurity states, exciton levels, Landau levels, and the bands themselves. Zeeman splittings as large as 20 meV (which in non-magnetic semiconductors would require unrealistic megagauss fields) are easily achieved in DMS in fields of several kilogauss. Since the magnitude of this exchange-induced splitting in DMS can be comparable to the binding energies and to the minigaps encountered in multiple quantum wells, DMS superlattices hold promise of a host of novel effects of both fundamental and applied interest.

  14. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  15. Optical investigation of effective permeability of dilute magnetic dielectrics with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ananya; Sarkar, A.

    2016-05-01

    The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the magnetic nature of dilute magnetic dielectrics (DMD) under variation of external magnetic field. The said variation is studied over developed nano-sized Gadolinium Oxide as a DMD system. The observed experimental field variation of the effective magnetic permeability is analyzed results of optical experiment. The experiment records the variation of Brewster angle of incident polarized LASER beam from the surface of developed DMD specimen with applied out of plane external magnetic field. The effective refractive index and hence relative magnetic permeability were estimated following electro-magnetic theory. The overall results obtained and agreement between theory and experiment are good.

  16. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased. PMID:26508358

  17. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect

    PubMed Central

    Civitello, David J.; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T.; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A.; Ortega, C. Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these patterns are causally related; diverse host communities inhibit the spread of parasites via several mechanisms, such as by regulating populations of susceptible hosts or interfering with parasite transmission. However, the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis remains controversial, especially for zoonotic diseases of humans. Here we provide broad evidence that host diversity inhibits parasite abundance using a meta-analysis of 202 effect sizes on 61 parasite species. The magnitude of these effects was independent of host density, study design, and type and specialization of parasites, indicating that dilution was robust across all ecological contexts examined. However, the magnitude of dilution was more closely related to the frequency, rather than density, of focal host species. Importantly, observational studies overwhelmingly documented dilution effects, and there was also significant evidence for dilution effects of zoonotic parasites of humans. Thus, dilution effects occur commonly in nature, and they may modulate human disease risk. A second analysis identified similar effects of diversity in plant–herbivore systems. Thus, although there can be exceptions, our results indicate that biodiversity generally decreases parasitism and herbivory. Consequently, anthropogenic declines in biodiversity could increase human and wildlife diseases and decrease crop and forest production. PMID:26069208

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Wheat Seedlings following Treatment with Ultrahigh Diluted Arsenic Trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Borghini, Giovanni; Nani, Daniele; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Plant systems are useful research tools to address basic questions in homeopathy as they make it possible to overcome some of the drawbacks encountered in clinical trials (placebo effect, ethical issues, duration of the experiment, and high costs). The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 or unpoisoned, showed different significant gene expression profiles after the application of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 (beyond Avogadro's limit) compared to water (control). The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes. A plausible hypothesis is that ultrahigh diluted As2O3 treatment induced a reequilibration of those genes that were upregulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants. PMID:25525452

  19. Antiferromagnetic instability in Sr3Ru2O7: stabilized and revealed by dilute Mn impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Muhammed; Bohnenbuck, B.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Cruz, E.; Wu, H.-H.; Tjeng, L. H.; Elfimov, I. S.; Hussain, Z.; Keimer, B.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Damascelli, A.

    2009-03-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Resonant Elastic Soft X-ray Scattering (RESXS) studies have been performed on Mn-doped Sr3Ru2O7, both on the Ru and Mn L-edges, to investigate the origin of the metal insulator transition. Extensive simulations based on our experimental findings point toward an intrinsic antiferromagnetic instability in the parent Sr3Ru2O7 compound that is stabilized by the dilute Mn impurities. We show that the metal-insulator transition is a direct consequence of the antiferromagnetic order and we propose a phenomenological model that may be applicable also to metal-insulator transitions seen in other oxides. Moreover, a comparison of Ru and Mn L-edge data on 5% Mn doped system reveals that dilute Mn impurities are generating much more intense signal than Ru which is occupying 95% of the lattice sites. This suggests the embedding of dilute impurities as a powerful mean to probe weak and, possibly, spatially inhomogeneous order in solid-state systems. In collaboration with: Y. Yoshida (AIST), J. Geck, D.G. Hawthorn (UBC), M.W. Haverkort, Z. Hu, C. Sch"ußler-Langeheine (Cologne), R. Mathieu, Y. Tokura, S. Satow, H. Takagi (Tokyo), J.D. Denlinger (ALS).

  20. Coalescence of silver clusters by immersion in diluted HF solution

    SciTech Connect

    Milazzo, R. G.; Mio, A. M.; D’Arrigo, G.; Spinella, C.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Rimini, E.

    2015-07-14

    The galvanic displacement deposition of silver on H-terminated Si (100) in the time scale of seconds is instantaneous and characterized by a cluster density of 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. The amount of deposited Ag follows a t{sup 1/2} dependence in agreement with a Cottrell diffusion limited mechanism. At the same time, during the deposition, the cluster density reduces by a factor 5. This behavior is in contrast with the assumption of immobile clusters. We show in the present work that coalescence and aggregation occur also in the samples immersed in the diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution without the presence of Ag{sup +}. Clusters agglomerate according to a process of dynamic coalescence, typical of colloids, followed by atomic redistribution at the contact regions with the generation of multiple internal twins and stacking-faults. The normalized size distributions in terms of r/r{sub mean} follow also the prediction of the Smoluchowski ripening mechanism. No variation of the cluster density occurs for samples immersed in pure H{sub 2}O solution. The different behavior might be associated to the strong attraction of clusters to oxide-terminated Si surface in presence of water. The silver clusters are instead weakly bound to hydrophobic H-terminated Si in presence of HF. HF causes then the detachment of clusters and a random movement on the silicon surface with mobility of about 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/s. Attractive interaction (probably van der Waals) among particles promotes coarsening.

  1. Two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Grohmann, Karel; Torget, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis process on xylan containing hemicellulose in biomass is effected by: treating feedstock of hemicellulosic material comprising xylan that is slow hydrolyzable and xylan that is fast hydrolyzable under predetermined low temperature conditions with a dilute acid for a residence time sufficient to hydrolyze the fast hydrolyzable xylan to xylose; removing said xylose from said fast hydrolyzable xylan and leaving a residue; and treating said residue having a slow hydrolyzable xylan with a dilute acid under predetermined high temperature conditions for a residence time required to hydrolyze said slow hydrolyzable xylan to xylose.

  2. Two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Torget, R.W.

    1992-06-30

    This patent describes a two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis process on xylan containing hemicellulose in biomass. It comprises treating a feedstock of hemicellulosic material comprising xylan that is slow hydrolyzable and xylan that is fast hydrolyzable under predetermined low temperature conditions with a dilute acid for a residence time sufficient to hydrolyze the fast hydrolyzable xylan at temperatures between about 90 to about 180{degrees} C to xylose; removing the xylose from the fast hydrolyzable xylan and leaving a residue having slow hydrolyzable xylan; treating the residue having slow hydrolyzable xylan with a dilute acid under predetermined higher temperature conditions for a residence time sufficient to hydrolyze the slow hydroyzable xylan.

  3. Retroviral sequences located within an intron of the dilute gene alter dilute expression in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed Central

    Seperack, P K; Mercer, J A; Strobel, M C; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A

    1995-01-01

    The murine dilute coat color locus encodes an unconventional myosin heavy chain that is thought to be required for the elaboration or maintenance of dendrites or organelle transport in melanocytes and neurons. In previous studies we showed that the d mutation carried by many inbred strains of mice (now referred to as dilute viral, dv), is caused by the integration of an ecotropic murine leukemia virus (Emv-3) into the dilute gene and that phenotypic revertants of dv (termed d+) result from viral excision; a solo viral long terminal repeat (LTR) is all that remains in revertant DNA. In the studies described here we show that Emv-3 sequences are located within an intron of the dilute gene in a region of the C-terminal tail that is differentially spliced. We also show that these Emv-3 sequences result in the production of shortened and abnormally spliced dilute transcripts and that the level of this effect varies among tissues. This tissue-specific effect on dilute expression likely accounts for the absence of neurological abnormalities observed in dv mice. Surprisingly, we also found that the solo viral LTR present in revertant d+ DNA produces a tissue-specific effect on dilute expression, although this effect is less dramatic than with the full-length provirus and produces no obvious mutant phenotype. These findings have important implications for understanding the effects of viral sequences on mammalian gene expression. Images PMID:7774591

  4. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, Jr., Henry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  5. Preservation of long range temporal correlations under extreme random dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzayof, Dror; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2010-12-01

    Many natural time series exhibit long range temporal correlations that may be characterized by power-law scaling exponents. However, in many cases, the time series have uneven time intervals due to, for example, missing data points, noisy data, and outliers. Here we study the effect of randomly missing data points on the power-law scaling exponents of time series that are long range temporally correlated. The Fourier transform and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) techniques are used for scaling exponent estimation. We find that even under extreme dilution of more than 50%, the value of the scaling exponent remains almost unaffected. Random dilution is also applied on heart interbeat interval time series. It is found that dilution of 70%-80% of the data points leads to a reduction of only 8% in the scaling exponent; it is also found that it is possible to discriminate between healthy and heart failure subjects even under extreme dilution of more than 90%.

  6. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, H.D. Jr.

    1993-04-20

    A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  7. Reconfigurable microfluidic dilution for high-throughput quantitative assays.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinzhen; Li, Baoqing; Xing, Siyuan; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-06-21

    This paper reports a reconfigurable microfluidic dilution device for high-throughput quantitative assays, which can easily produce discrete logarithmic/binary concentration profiles ranging from 1 to 100-fold dilution in parallel from a fixed sample volume (e.g., 10 μL) without any assistance of continuous fluidic pump or robotic automation. The integrated dilution generation chip consists of switchable distribution and collection channels, metering reservoirs, reaction chambers, and pressure-activatable Laplace valves. Following the sequential loading of a sample, a diluent, and a detection reagent into their individual metering chambers, the top microfluidic layer can be reconfigured to collect the metered chemicals into the reaction chambers in parallel, where detection will be conducted. To facilitate mixing and reaction in the microchambers, two acoustic microstreaming actuation mechanisms have been investigated for easy integrability and accessibility. Furthermore, the microfluidic dilution generator has been characterized by both colorimetric and fluorescent means. A further demonstration of the generic usage of the quantitative dilution chip has utilized the commonly available bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay to analyse the protein concentrations of human tissue extracts. In brief, the microfluidic dilution generator offers a high-throughput high-efficiency quantitative analytical alternative to conventional quantitative assay platforms, by simple manipulation of a minute amount of chemicals in a compact microfluidic device with minimal equipment requirement, which can serve as a facile tool for biochemical and biological analyses in regular laboratories, point-of-care settings and low-resource environments. PMID:25994379

  8. Magnetic Properties of Diluted Fcc System Nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhen

    Starting from Ni and Mg nitrates, about 20 samples of Ni_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O (0.06 <=q p <=q 0.86) were prepared and X-ray diffraction studies showed the samples to have the NaCl structure with the lattice constant fitting the equation a(p) = 4.2115 - 0.0340p A. Temperature dependent dc magnetic susceptibility (chi ) studies of the samples were carried out between 1.8K and 600K using a SQUID magnetometer and the Neel temperature T_{rm N} were determined from the peak in partial(chiT)/ partialT. The variation of t = T _{rm N}(p)/T _{rm N}(1) versus p is compared with that in Co_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O. For both systems, the variations for p > 0.31 are found to fit the predicted values for a simple cubic Heisenberg antiferromagnet and a theoretical basis for this anomalous results is advanced. The experimental percolation threshold p_{rm c} = 0.15 +/- 0.01. For p_ {rm c} <=q p <=q 0.33, chi below T_{rm N} shows irreversible behavior for the zero-field-cooled and field -cooled cases, suggestive of spin-glass-like behavior, also observed in other diluted fcc antiferromagnets such as Co_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O and Eu _{rm p}Sr_ {rm 1-p}Te. It is suggested that the differences in the t vs p variations for p < 0.33 in Ni_{rm p} Mg_{rm 1-p}O, Co_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O and Eu _{rm p}Sr_ {rm 1-p}Te may be related to the differences in the ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor to nearest-neighbor exchange constants in these systems. A higher order correction to Curie-Weiss law was applied for sample with 0.19 <=q p <=q 0.59 which explains why 1/ chi curve versus T bends downward with decreasing temperatures. For the sample Ni_{0.33} Mg_{0.67}O, the magnetization M versus magnetic field H (0 to 0.2T) are measured with temperature ranging from 5.2K to 13.4K at intervals of 0.2K. The magnitude of the non-linear susceptibility, a_3, is determined from the M versus H data at different temperatures. The divergence of a _3 around 9.4 +/- 0.6K indicates spin-glass behavior in this system.

  9. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-09-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily.

  10. Mobile Melt-Dilute Treatment for Russian Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.

    2002-09-17

    Treatment of spent Russian fuel using a Melt-Dilute (MD) process is proposed to consolidate fuel assemblies into a form that is proliferation resistant and provides critically safety under storage and disposal configurations. Russian fuel elements contain a variety of fuel meat and cladding materials. The Melt-Dilute treatment process was initially developed for aluminum-based fuels so additional development is needed for several cladding and fuel meat combinations in the Russian fuel inventory (e.g. zirconium-clad, uranium-zirconium alloy fuel). A Mobile Melt-Dilute facility (MMD) is being proposed for treatment of spent fuels at reactor site storage locations in Russia; thereby, avoiding the costs of building separate treatment facilities at each site and avoiding shipment of enriched fuel assemblies over the road. The MMD facility concept is based on laboratory tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and modular pilot-scale facilities constructed at the Savannah River Site for treatment of US spent fuel. SRTC laboratory tests have shown the feasibility of operating a Melt-Dilute treatment process with either a closed system or a filtered off-gas system. The proposed Mobile Melt-Dilute process is presented in this paper.

  11. Isotope dilution study of exchangeable oxygen in premium coal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Finseth, D.

    1987-01-01

    A difficulty with improving the ability to quantitate water in coal is that truly independent methods do not always exist. The true value of any analytical parameter is always easier to determine if totally independent methods exist to determine that parameter. This paper describes the possibility of using a simple isotope dilution technique to determine the water content of coal and presents a comparison of these isotope dilution measurements with classical results for the set of Argonne coals from the premium coal sample program. Isotope dilution is a widely used analytical method and has been applied to the analysis of water in matrices as diverse as chicken fat, living humans, and coal. Virtually all of these applications involved the use of deuterium as the diluted isotope. This poses some problems if the sample contains a significant amount of exchangeable organic hydrogen and one is interested in discriminating exchangeable organic hydrogen from water. This is a potential problem in the coal system. To avoid this potential problem /sup 18/O was used as the diluted isotope in this work.

  12. [Wound healing by homeopathic silica dilutions in mice].

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, M; Markovits, R; Weisman, Z; Kalinkevits, A; Bentwich, Z

    1992-08-01

    Highly diluted solutions of silica are widely used in homeopathic medicine to treat lesions such as chronic wounds, ulcers, and abscesses. We tested the therapeutic effects of homeopathic dilutions of silica on induced chronic wounds. Holes were made in the ears of mice by dental wire, which then remained hanging from the ear to cause persistent mechanical irritation. In each experiment 3 or 4 groups of 10 mice each were treated by adding homeopathic dilutions of silica (10(-10), 10(-60), 10(-400)) and of saline (10(-10), respectively, to the drinking water of the mice for 4-20 days. The size of the wound holes was measured every second day (grades 0-4) and/or by an objective image analysis system. The results showed that in 7/11 experiments the ear holes of the silica-treated animals were significantly smaller (p less than 0.05-0.001) and healed faster than in those treated with saline. Also the therapeutic effect increased progressively with increase in dilution of the silica (10(-10) less than 10(-60) less than 10(-400)). These results show that homeopathic dilutions of silica (even well beyond Avogadro's number) clearly have a therapeutic effect on wound healing and that our experimental model for studying wound healing is a very useful tool for such studies. PMID:1325402

  13. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  17. Thermal diffusion in dilute nanofluids investigated by photothermal interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, J.; Nisha, M. R.

    2010-03-01

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the dependence of the particle mass fraction on the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids (dilute nanofluids). The analysis takes in to account adsorption of an ordered layer of solvent molecules around the nanoparticles. It is found that thermal diffusivity decreases with mass fraction for sufficiently small particle sizes. Beyond a critical particle size thermal diffusivity begins to increase with mass fraction for the same system. The results have been verified experimentally by measuring the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. The effect is attributed to Kapitza resistance of thermal waves in the medium.

  18. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  19. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  20. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  1. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  2. Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

    2011-06-06

    A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

  3. Maximum First Transfer and Dilution Volumes for 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-10-28

    This report discusses the solution to the following problem: what is the maximum waste transfer and dilution quantities and locations which can be allowed in the first transfer of waste from SY-101 given the following constraints? (1) The crust must float on the submerged waste (waste becomes less dense when diluted, eventually allowing crust to sink); (2) No credit is taken for the top dilution; (3) Addition of water to the bulk slurry through the transfer pump must be able to refloat the crust base to above 295 inches; (4) The margin between refloating to 295 inches and crust sinking must be at least 10,000 gallons; (5) The crust can't be thinned to less than 60 inches thick.

  4. Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.

  5. Computer registration of radioactive indicator-dilution curves.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, A P; Perry, M A; Alexander, G M; Granger, D N; Riedel, G L; Kvietys, P R; Franke, C P

    1983-12-01

    A system is described for recording indicator-dilution curves produced by gamma radiation-emitting tracers. The system consists of a flow-through cuvette in a well counter, appropriate commercially available gamma radiation-detecting equipment, an Apple II computer, and a two-channel pulse-counting interface of our own design. With the counting interface and the software described here, an investigator can simultaneously record two indicator-dilution curves produced by gamma emitters. Instead of having to wait hours or days for results, the investigator can watch the data being recorded and display the results in graphic form almost immediately after each injection. PMID:6660306

  6. Field observations of dilution on the Ipanema Beach outfall.

    PubMed

    Roldão, J; Carvalho, J L; Roberts, P J

    2001-01-01

    Field observations of the Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, ocean sewage outfall are presented. Measurements of dilution and other wastefield characteristics were obtained by adding dye tracer to the effluent and measuring in-situ. Simultaneous measurements of oceanographic conditions were made by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, thermistor strings, and profiling instruments. Four experiments were performed, two during unstratified conditions when the plume was surfacing, and two during conditions of strong stratification when the plume was submerged. The minimum dilution varied from 30 to 130. The measurements reflect the worst case conditions as the campaigns were all made for weak currents. PMID:11443984

  7. Dilutional Hyponatremia during Hysteroscpic Surgery: Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ling; Zhang, Yu-Guan; Wang, Jin; Gong, Ya-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dilutional hyponatremia caused by excess absorption of hypo-osmotic irrigation fluids is one of the severe complications during hysteroscopic surgery. Appropriate delivery system and distending media,proper distending pressure,and reducing destruction of uterine venous sinus may remarkably lower the morbidity. Meanwhile,early detection and timely treatment of moderate and severe hyponatremia to avoid the occurrence of secondary nervous system demyelination are particularly important during the surgery. This review summarizes the risk factors and the prevention and treatment strategies of dilutional hyponatremia during hysteroscopic surgery. PMID:27594163

  8. The electrochemistry of SIMFUEL in dilute alkaline hydrogen peroxide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldik, Jon

    The work described in this thesis is a study of the electrochemistry of SIMFUEL (SIMulated nuclear FUEL) in dilute, alkaline hydrogen peroxide solutions. In the first set of experiments, the reaction of H2O 2 on SIMFUEL electrodes was studied electrochemically and under open circuit conditions in 0.1 mol L-1 NaCl solutions at pH 9.8. The composition of the oxidized UO2 surface was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hydrogen peroxide reduction was found to be catalyzed by the formation of a mixed UIV/UV (UO 2+x) surface layer, but to be blocked by the accumulation of UVI species (UO3· yH2O or adsorbed (UO2)2+) on the electrode surface. The formation of this UVI layer blocks both H2O2 reduction and oxidation, thereby inhibiting the potentially rapid H2O2 decomposition reaction to H2O and O2. Decomposition is found to proceed at a rate controlled by the desorption of the adsorbed (UO2)2+ or reduction of adsorbed O2 species. Reduction of (O2) ads is coupled to the slow oxidative dissolution of UO2 and formation of a corrosion product deposit of UO3· yH2O. In the second series of experiments, the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on SIMFUEL was studied using the steady-state polarization technique. Kinetic parameters for the reaction, such as Tafel slopes and reaction orders, were determined. The results were interpreted in terms of a chemical-electrochemical mechanism involving UIV/UV donor-acceptor reduction sites. The large values of the Tafel slopes and the fractional reaction orders with respect to H2O2 can be understood in terms of the potential-dependent surface coverage of active sites, similar to that observed in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide on oxidized copper surfaces. The effects of pH over the range 10-13 were also investigated. The H2O 2 reduction currents were nearly independent of pH in the range 10-11, but were slowed at more alkaline values. The change in pH dependence appears to be related to the acid-base properties

  9. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  10. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  11. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul L.; Sonne, Anne T.; Balbarini, Nicola; Rosenberg, Louise; Binning, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing guidelines for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

  12. Current density and state density in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Zuñiga, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We study in this paper the spin-polarized current density components in diluted magnetic semiconductor tunnelling diodes with different sample geometries. We calculate the resonant JxV and the density of states. The differential conductance curves are analyzed as functions of the applied voltage and the magnetic potential strength induced by the magnetic ions.

  13. Artifacts in dilution pharmacokinetic models caused by adherent bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Haag, R; Lexa, P; Werkhäuser, I

    1986-01-01

    Liquid cultures of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in Mueller-Hinton broth diluted at rates higher than the bacterial growth rate showed the expected decrease in CFU only for 1 to 2 h. Later the CFU started to increase. This phenomenon can be explained by a hypothesis that assumes that the bacteria multiply in two different compartments. From the first compartment, which comprises bacteria homogeneously distributed in the broth, cells are eliminated at a rate that is dependent on the dilution and growth rates. Concomitantly, the second compartment is formed as a nondilutable adherent population on the surface of the culture vessel. Eventually, only cells stemming from that population appeared in the medium and were subsequently diluted. This hypothesis can be described mathematically by a linear combination of two exponential functions. The calculated values fit the experimental data well. Because similar CFU versus time curves were also found with other strains, care should be taken in interpreting results of experiments performed in liquid cultures and evaluated in terms of CFU. One should bear in mind that within a liquid culture an adherent population may exist, which differs in size according to selective influences (dilution, addition of antibiotics, etc.). This may give rise to artificial and unexpected results. PMID:3089140

  14. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  15. Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1 K-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1 K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ∼ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1 K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1 K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1 K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1 K-loop. Several different versions of a 1 K-loop have been tested in combination with a dilution refrigeration circuit. The lowest temperature of our DR was 4.3 mK.

  16. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success. PMID:19436637

  17. Brood size matching: a novel perspective on predator dilution.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2013-02-01

    A primary benefit of grouping is diluting the individual risk of attack by predators. However, the fact that groups are formed not always by solitary adults but also by subgroups (e.g., families) has been overlooked. The subgroup-specific benefit of predator dilution depends on its relative contribution to total group size. Therefore, the willingness of a subgroup to merge with others should increase the less it contributes to total group size, but the conflicting preferences of partners may result in the preferential merger of similar-sized subgroups. Here, we evaluate how the proportional contribution of subgroups to diluting risk affects group formation. We generate predictions using a bidding game over parental care and test them using data on common eiders (Somateria mollissima), in which females with variable-sized broods may form brood-rearing coalitions. The predictions (1) that size-matched subgroups should have a higher propensity to merge, (2) that predation should increase group formation propensity, and (3) that increased bargaining power, as proxied by female body condition, should increase the time needed to establish partnerships were all supported. Partners do negotiate over their relative contributions to predator dilution, accepting or rejecting partnerships on the basis of this criterion. Our results show that consideration of the size of subgroups before merger is critical in understanding the process of group formation under the threat of predation. PMID:23348772

  18. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Keller, Fred A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  19. Activity coefficients of chlorophenols in water at infinite dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Tabai, S.; Rogalski, M.; Solimando, R.; Malanowski, S.K.

    1997-11-01

    The total pressure of aqueous solutions of chlorophenols was determined by a ebulliometric total pressure method for the aqueous solutions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the temperature range from 40 to 90 C. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the Henry constants were derived.

  20. 33 CFR 154.2107 - Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activates an alarm that satisfies the requirements of 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the amount of enriching gas... diluting system must be equipped, except as permitted by 33 CFR 154.2105(a), with a gas injection and... point, if a combustion device is used to produce the inert gas; and (5) Have an alarm value in...

  1. Coffee-ring effect beyond the dilute limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Joon Heon; Park, Jung Su; Park, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeong Su; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    The coffee-ring effect, which is a natural generation of outward capillary flows inside drying coffee drops, is valid at the dilute limit of initial solute concentrations. If the solute is not dilute, the ring deposit is forced to have a non-zero width; higher initial concentration leads to a wider ring. Here we study the coffee-ring effect in the dense limit by demonstrating differences with various initial coffee concentrations from 0.1% to 60%. The coffee drops with high initial concentrations of real coffee particles show interesting evaporation dynamics: dense coffee drops tend to evaporate slowly. This result is different from the classic coffee-ring effect in the dilute limit. We suppose that the slow evaporation of dense coffee drops is associated with the ring growth dynamics. The coffee-ring effect becomes more significant in modern technologies such as self-assembly of nanoparticles, ink-jet printing, painting and ceramics. The complexity in evaporation dynamics of colloidal fluids would be able to be understood by expanding the coffee-ring effects in the dilute as well as the dense limits.

  2. Consequences of Accounting for Isotopic Dilution in Thymidine Incorporation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

    1988-01-01

    Rates of thymidine incorporation into DNA were corrected for isotope dilution by internal nucleotide pools and were compared with rates obtained from uncorrected data. Differences as large as 109% were observed between corrected and uncorrected estimates of thymidine incorporation. The degree of underestimation varied seasonally and, to a lesser extent, spatially. PMID:16347698

  3. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success. PMID:19436637

  4. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  9. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  10. Spin-orbit dilution effects on the magnetism of frustrated spinel Ge(Co1-xMgx)2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, Ryotaro; Takita, Shota; Ishikawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tadataka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated magnetic properties of spinel oxides Ge(Co1-xMgx)2O4 with x = 0 ~ 0.5 to study the spin-orbit dilution effects on the magnetism of spin-orbit frustrated spinel GeCo2O4. We discovered that the magnetic moment per single Co2+ ion is decreased with increasing nonmagnetic Mg2+ concentration, which indicates the spin-orbit decoupling caused by the spin-orbit dilution. Additionally, small-amount substitution of Mg2+ for Co2+ causes the rapid increase of the positive Weiss temperature indicating the enhancement of ferromagnetic interactions, while the Mg2+ substitution suppresses the antiferromagnetic ordering resulting in the appearance of spin glass behavior. The present results suggest that the spin-orbit dilution causes the spin-orbit decoupling and the reinforcement of ferromagnetic frustration in GeCo2O4.

  11. Fabrication of Flexible Au/ZnO/ITO/PET Memristor Using Dilute Electrodeposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, F. B.; Ani, M. H.; Othman, R.; Azhar, A. Z. A.; Mohamed, M. A.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    DRAM has been approaching its maximum physical limit due to the demand of smaller size and higher capacity memory resistor. The researchers have discovered the abilities of a memristor, a Non Volatile Memory (NVM) that could overcome the size and capacity obstacles. This paper discussed about the deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by electrodeposition. Metallic Zn film was deposited on substrates with varying deposition time from 15 to 120 seconds in very dilute zinc chloride (ZnCl2) aqueous and subsequently oxidized at 150 °C to form ZnO/ITO coated PET junction. The deposited thin film was characterized via x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results from I-V measurement show the deposited ZnO exhibits pinched hysteresis loop. The hysteresis loop becomes smaller with increasing deposition time. The 15 seconds electrodeposition gave the largest hysteresis loop and largest value of resistive switching ratio of 1.067. The result of the synthesized ZnO on the flexible substrate can be one of the alternatives to replace the current memory system as the flexible memory system.

  12. Rapid NO 2 formation in diluted petrol-fuelled engine exhaust—A source of NO 2 in winter smog episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ji Ping; Harrison, Roy M.

    Substantially enhanced rates of oxidation of nitric oxide have been found in petrol engine exhaust diluted with air in the dark. The main product of oxidation is nitrogen dioxide, but up to 20% of the oxidised NO can be in the form of other NO y species. Similarly enhanced NO oxidation rates are also found in the presence of petrol vapour. The kinetics of NO oxidation are close to zero order in NO, the rate being appreciably faster than the known thermal reaction 2NO + O 2 → 2NO 2. Attempts to isolate the chemical species responsible for this rate enhancement from petrol vapour and engine exhaust have led to identification of 1-methyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. A mechanism has been developed in which addition of NO 2 to a conjugated diene causes initiation of a free-radical chain oxidation. A simple numerical model incorporating this process is capable of explaining the observed rate enhancements.

  13. Quantifying Methane Fluxes Simply and Accurately: The Tracer Dilution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Christopher; Crosson, Eric; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary; Dayton, Dave; Lafleur, Rick; Merrill, Ray; Tan, Sze; Thoma, Eben

    2010-05-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric constituent with a wide variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic, including wetlands and other water bodies, permafrost, farms, landfills, and areas with significant petrochemical exploration, drilling, transport, or processing, or refining occurs. Despite its importance to the carbon cycle, its significant impact as a greenhouse gas, and its ubiquity in modern life as a source of energy, its sources and sinks in marine and terrestrial ecosystems are only poorly understood. This is largely because high quality, quantitative measurements of methane fluxes in these different environments have not been available, due both to the lack of robust field-deployable instrumentation as well as to the fact that most significant sources of methane extend over large areas (from 10's to 1,000,000's of square meters) and are heterogeneous emitters - i.e., the methane is not emitted evenly over the area in question. Quantifying the total methane emissions from such sources becomes a tremendous challenge, compounded by the fact that atmospheric transport from emission point to detection point can be highly variable. In this presentation we describe a robust, accurate, and easy-to-deploy technique called the tracer dilution method, in which a known gas (such as acetylene, nitrous oxide, or sulfur hexafluoride) is released in the same vicinity of the methane emissions. Measurements of methane and the tracer gas are then made downwind of the release point, in the so-called far-field, where the area of methane emissions cannot be distinguished from a point source (i.e., the two gas plumes are well-mixed). In this regime, the methane emissions are given by the ratio of the two measured concentrations, multiplied by the known tracer emission rate. The challenges associated with atmospheric variability and heterogeneous methane emissions are handled automatically by the transport and dispersion of the tracer. We present detailed methane flux

  14. The Carlina-type diluted telescope. Stellar fringes on Deneb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Coroller, H.; Dejonghe, J.; Hespeels, F.; Arnold, L.; Andersen, T.; Deram, P.; Ricci, D.; Berio, P.; Blazit, A.; Clausse, J.-M.; Guillaume, C.; Meunier, J. P.; Regal, X.; Sottile, R.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The performance of interferometers has been much increased over the past ten years. But the number of observable objects is still limited by the low sensitivity and imaging capability of the current facilities. Studies have been conducted with the aim to propose a new generation of interferometers. Aims: The Carlina concept studied at the Haute-Provence Observatory consists of an optical interferometer configured as a diluted version of the Arecibo radio telescope: above the diluted primary mirror made of fixed co-spherical segments, a helium balloon or cables that are suspended between two mountains and/or pylons carry a gondola containing the focal optics. This concept does not require delay lines. Methods: Since 2003, we have been building a technical demonstrator of this diluted telescope. The main goals of this project were to find opto-mechanical solutions to stabilize the optics attached to cables at several tens of meters above the ground, and to characterize this diluted telescope under real conditions. In 2012, we obtained metrology fringes, and co-spherized the primary mirrors within one micron accuracy. In 2013, we tested the whole optical train: servo loop, metrology, and the focal gondola. Results: We obtained stellar fringes on Deneb in September 2013. We here present the characteristics of these observations: quality of the guiding, signal-to-noise ratio reached, and possible improvements for a future system. Conclusions: By detecting fringes on Deneb, we confirm that the entire system conceptually has worked correctly. It also proves that when the primary mirrors are aligned using the metrology system, we can directly record fringes in the focal gondola, even in blind operation. It is an important step that demonstrates the feasibility of building a diluted telescope using cables strained between cliffs or pylons. Carlina, like the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) or Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), could be one of the first members of a

  15. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide

  16. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G

    2016-01-01

    Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children's educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger number of brothers is harmful to a person's educational attainment. Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, covering 18 European countries, we show that the number of brothers is more negatively related with the odds of obtaining a college degree than the number of sisters. This holds particularly for women. However, this pattern is weaker in countries that are known to have a more gender-egalitarian climate. PMID:27560371

  17. Magnetic relaxation of diluted and self-assembled cobalt nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. X.; Wen, G. H.; Xiao, Gang; Sun, Shouheng

    2003-04-01

    We have studied the magnetic relaxation of monodispersed 4 nm cubic ɛ-cobalt nanocrystals in both randomly oriented and pre-aligned assemblies. The blocking temperature TB, for the closely packed Co nanocrystal assemblies, is 30% higher than that of the highly diluted and well-dispersed Co nanocrystal-organic composites. This increase is attributed to the strong magnetic dipole interaction induced from the close packing of the nanocrystals. It is found that the frequency-dependent susceptibility data, obtained from the diluted samples, can be fitted to the half-circle Argand Diagrams, indicating a single barrier (or very narrow energy distribution) of the nanocrystals. This agrees well with the physical observation from TEM that the nanocrystals are monodispersed. The long time magnetic relaxation measurements reveal that energy barrier distribution in a pre-aligned nanocrystal assembly is significantly different from that in a randomly oriented one.

  18. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  19. Tracer-dilution method indicates flowrate through compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Lagus, P.L.; Flanagan, B.S. ); Peterson, M.E. ); Clowney, S.L. )

    1991-02-25

    A technique for measuring compressor flowrate through an operating natural-gas centrifugal compressor has been tested and found to have a precisions approaching {plus minus}1.5%. The technique employs constant-flow tracer dilution. Testing demonstrated that use of a critical-flow nozzle to inject a constant, known flow of tracer into a flowing natural-gas stream is feasible. Effects of potential pulsation on a tracer flow measurement appear to be eliminated by this technique. With experimental and operational streamlining, the constant-flow tracer dilution technique is capable of being used to measure the flowrate through operating centrifugal compressors with sufficient precisions and accuracy to allow compressor operating characteristics to be determined. This technique is especially useful in situations in which an orifice-flow measurement cannot be performed because of physical space limits or economic considerations.

  20. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children’s educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger number of brothers is harmful to a person’s educational attainment. Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, covering 18 European countries, we show that the number of brothers is more negatively related with the odds of obtaining a college degree than the number of sisters. This holds particularly for women. However, this pattern is weaker in countries that are known to have a more gender-egalitarian climate. PMID:27560371

  1. Transfer-matrix scaling for diluted Ising systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Stinchcombe, R. B.

    1992-09-01

    A transfer-matrix scaling technique is developed for randomly diluted systems and applied to the site-diluted Ising model on a square lattice. For each connected configuration between adjacent columns, the contribution of the respective transfer matrix to the decay of correlations is considered only as far as the ratio of the two largest eigenvalues, allowing an economical incorporation of configurational averages. Predictions for the phase boundary at and near the percolation and pure Ising limits, and for the correlation exponent η at those limits, agree with exactly known results to within 1% error with largest strip widths of only L=5. The exponent η remains near the pure value (1/4) for all intermediate concentrations until it turns over to the percolation value at the threshold.

  2. Atomically thin dilute magnetism in Co-doped phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, L.; Carvalho, A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional dilute magnetic semiconductors can provide fundamental insights into the very nature of magnetic order and their manipulation through electron and hole doping. Besides the fundamental interest, due to the possibility of control of charge density, they can be extremely important in spintronics applications such as spin valve and spin-based transistors. In this paper, we studied a two-dimensional dilute magnetic semiconductor consisting of a phosphorene monolayer doped with cobalt atoms in substitutional and interstitial defects. We show that these defects can be stabilized and are electrically active. Furthermore, by including holes or electrons by a potential gate, the exchange interaction and magnetic order can be engineered, and may even induce a ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transition in p -doped phosphorene. At a Co concentration of 2.7%, we estimate a Curie temperature of TCMF A=466 K in the mean-field approximation.

  3. Praxair's dilute oxygen combustion technology for pyrometallurgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, M. F.; Kobayashi, H.; Deneys, A. C.

    2001-05-01

    Dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) technology uses separate high-velocity fuel and oxygen jets to generate strong in-furnace gas recirculation, producing combustion between the fuel and a highly diluted oxygen and furnace-gas mixture. These very low NOx oxy-fuel burners have been developed and commercially demonstrated in steel reheating furnaces. The burner design meets industry needs for increased productivity and lower operating costs with minimal capital expense and low maintenance. The performance of DOC technology has been measured under laboratory and industrial conditions encompassing both natural gas and coke oven gas firing, and a wide range of furnace temperatures and nitrogen levels that simulate air infiltration. This paper describes the results of the tests using natural gas as the fuel and lists potential applications for DOC technology in the non-ferrous metals industry.

  4. Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering; Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2010-12-15

    This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution is defined as a weighted average concentration. This derivation has direct applications to the ventilation of indoor spaces where indoor air quality and energy consumption cannot in general be simultaneously optimized. By solving the equation we can specify how much air we need to use in one ventilation pattern compared to another to obtain same indoor air quality. Because energy consumption is related to the amount of air exchanged by a ventilation system, the equation can be used as a first step to evaluate different ventilation patterns effect on the energy consumption. The use of the derived equation is demonstrated by representative cases of interest in both residential and non-residential buildings.

  5. Fluidized bed electrowinning of chromium from very dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Bautista, R.G.

    1988-10-01

    The Fluidized Bed Electrochemical Reactor (FBER) was used to electrowin chromium from very dilute solutions, ranging in concentration from 0.52 to 3.12 g Cr/1 at pH = 2. The cathode consisted of particulate chromium (450-600 ..mu..m diam.) with a current feeder made of carbon bars and a tubular lead anode in a cylindrical cell. The current efficiency was in the range of 0.08-0.22. The bed expansion, deposition rate, conversion ratio of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and voltage - current characteristic of the cell were studied. The results indicate that the use of the FBER will make possible the removal of chromium from very dilute solutions without the introduction of other chemicals which would need to be removed or treated further downstream to satisfy environmental abatement codes.

  6. Replica bounds for diluted non-Poissonian spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvio; Leone, Michele; Lucio Toninelli, Fabio

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we extend replica bounds and free energy subadditivity arguments to diluted spin-glass models on graphs with arbitrary, non-Poissonian degree distribution. The new difficulties specific of this case are overcome introducing an interpolation procedure that stresses the relation between interpolation methods and the cavity method. As a byproduct we obtain self-averaging identities that generalize the Ghirlanda-Guerra ones to the multi-overlap case.

  7. Nematic ordering in dilute solutions of rodlike polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemkin, Igor I.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2004-06-01

    Quantitative theory of orientational behavior of rodlike polyelectrolytes in dilute solution is developed. We find that in salt-free solutions many-body Coulomb interactions between macro- and counterions favor nematic ordering. It is shown that the orientationally isotropic phase of the solution becomes unstable toward nematic ordering at polymer concentration smaller than the overlap concentration. Our predictions are consistent with experimental observations for synthetic polyelectrolytes poly(p-phenylene)sulfonates in aqueous solutions.

  8. Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2014-01-29

    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ∼ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.

  9. Development of a compact dilution refrigerator for zero gravity operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Helvensteijn, Ben

    1990-01-01

    A compact dilution refrigerator design based on internal charcoal adsorption is being tested for operation in zero gravity. This refrigerator is self-contained with no external pumps or gas handling system and provides reliable operation since it has no moving parts. All operations are performed with heaters and are completely computer controlled. The refrigerator is capable of providing many hours of operation at very low temperature before the charcoal pumps must be recycled.

  10. Characterizing storm water dispersion and dilution from small coastal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Leonel; Siegel, David A.; McWilliams, James C.; Uchiyama, Yusuke; Jones, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Characterizing the dispersion and dilution of storm water from small coastal creeks is important for understanding the importance of land-derived subsidies to nearby ecosystems and the management of anthropogenic pollutants. In Southern California, creek runoff is episodic, intense, and short-lived while the plumes are buoyant, all of which make the field sampling of freshwater plumes challenging. Numerical modeling offers a viable way to characterize these systems. The dilution and dispersion of freshwater from two creeks that discharge into the Santa Barbara Channel, California is investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations with a horizontal resolution of 100 m. Tight coupling is found among precipitation, hydrologic discharge, wind forcing, and submesoscale flow structures which all contribute to plume evolution. During flooding, plumes are narrow and attached to the coast, due to downwelling/onshore wind forcing and intense vorticity filaments lying parallel to the shelf. As the storm passes, the winds typically shift to offshore/upwelling favorable conditions and the plume is advected offshore which enhances its dilution. Plumes reach the bottom nearshore while they form thin layers a few meters thick offshore. Dilution field of passive tracers released with the runoff is strongly anisotropic with stronger cross-shelf gradients than along-shelf. Dispersion analysis of statistical moments of the passive tracer distribution results in scale-dependent diffusivities consistent with the particle-pair analysis of Romero et al. Model validation, the roles of submesoscale processes, and wind forcing on plume evolution and application to ecological issues and marine resource management are discussed.

  11. ESR study of AuEr dilute alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokter, H. D.; Davidov, D.; Hoekstra, F. R.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.

    1981-06-01

    ESR linewidth and signal intensity measurements of AuEr (0.2%, 1%, 3%) dilute alloys have been carried out as a function of temperature in order to resolve previous discrepancies regarding the crystal field splitting. The data analysis indicates a splitting of (16 ± 4) K between the Γ 7 ground state and the Γ (1)8 first excited state. No evidence for an additional broadening mechanism associated with Er-Er exchange interactions was observed.

  12. The Effect of SF6 dilution in an Argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Sudip; Gordon, Matt

    2010-02-01

    Plasma etching is widely used in semiconductor industries. There have been extensive studies in the dilution of rare gases; however, limited studies are found in the dilution of electronegative gases. In this work, SF6 content is varied from 5% to 60% in an Ar plasma in a deep reactive ion etching system. A Langmuir probe is used to measure electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), and electron energy distribution function (eedf). Te decreases monotonically with increasing SF6 at first, and then increases for SF6 content greater than 20%. This increase is attributed to the loss of low energy electrons in attachment and high energy electrons in excitation and ionization. As the content of SF6 is increased above 20%, the dissociation of SF6 increases and most of the low energy electrons are lost in attachment and hence the average electron temperature increases. ne decreases by an order of magnitude as the SF6 dilution is increased from 5% to 60%. eedf shows that the distribution shifts towards high energy with the increase of SF6 content, which is because of the depletion of low energy electrons. )

  13. Breakdown of Cell Wall Nanostructure in Dilute Acid Pretreated Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Heller, William T; McGaughey, Joseph; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Foston, Marcus B; Myles, Dean A A; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Evans, Barbara R

    2010-01-01

    The generation of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass holds great promise for renewable and clean energy production. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of lignocellulose breakdown during various pretreatment methods is needed to realize this potential in a cost and energy efficient way. Here, we use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize morphological changes in switchgrass lignocellulose across molecular to sub-micron length scales resulting from the industrially-relevant dilute acid pretreatment method. Our results demonstrate that dilute acid pretreatment increases the cross-sectional radius of the crystalline cellulose fibril. This change is accompanied by removal of hemicellulose and the formation of Rg ~ 135 lignin aggregates. The structural signature of smooth cell wall surfaces is observed at length scales larger than 1000 , and it remains remarkably invariable during pretreatment. This study elucidates the interplay of the different biomolecular components in the break down process of switchgrass by dilute acid pretreatment. The results are important for the development of efficient strategies of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  14. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  15. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Jared M.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  16. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  17. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    SciTech Connect

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I.

    1996-12-31

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  18. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  19. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  20. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOEpatents

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  1. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOEpatents

    Barringer, Eric A.; Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce; Bowen, H. Kent

    1985-01-01

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

  2. CO sub 2 induced inhibition of the localized corrosion of aluminum, Al-0. 5% Cu, and Al-2% Cu in dilute HF solution

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, J.R. . Dept. of Materials Science); Peebles, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This study presents work on corrosion of aluminum, Al-.5% Cu, and Al-2% Cu. Electrochemical tests were performed in dilute HF solutions both with and without CO{sub 2} sparging. It is suggested that CO{sub 2} or its reaction products interact with the passive film so that exposure of Cu in the oxide-solution interface is minimized. CO{sub 2} is investigated as a corrosion inhibitor. 4 refs. (JDL)

  3. Use of seawater for the boron-doped diamond electrochemical treatment of diluted vinasse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Daskalaki, V M; Marakas, H; Mantzavinos, D; Katsaounis, A; Gikas, P

    2013-01-01

    Vinasse wastewater of high organic content (COD = 131,000 mg/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD = 0.11) cannot be easily managed and usually require several consecutive treatment steps. The objective of this work was to dilute vinasse wastewater with seawater and then subject them to electrochemical oxidation over boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The use of seawater is a rational and novel approach for plants close to the seashore since it may achieve the desirable levels of effluent concentration and conductivity without consuming other water resources and extra electrolytes. Experiments were conducted at initial COD values of 830-8,400 mg/L, NaCl concentrations of 34-200 mM and current densities of 70-200 mA/cm(2) for up to 5 hours. The effect of current density and NaCl concentration was marginal on the electrochemical treatment, while the single most important parameter was the initial COD concentration. The order of reaction for COD reduction appears to be 'first' at low effluent concentrations and it decreases to 'zero' at higher concentrations, denoting the importance of the ratio of organics to reactive radicals concentration. Based on COD and total organic carbon data, it is postulated that degradation occurs predominantly through total oxidation (i.e. mineralization) to carbon dioxide and water, which is characteristic of BDD anodes. PMID:24334881

  4. Electric-field-induced dielectrophoresis and heterogeneous aggregation in dilute suspensions of positively polarizable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acrivos, Andreas; Qiu, Zhiyong; Markarian, Nikolai; Khusid, Boris

    2002-11-01

    We specified the conditions under which a dilute suspension of positively polarizable particles would undergo a heterogeneous aggregation in high-gradient strong AC fields and then examined experimentally and theoretically its kinetics [1]. Experiments were conducted on flowing dilute suspensions of heavy aluminum oxide spheres subjected to a high-gradient AC field (several kV/mm) such that the dielectrophoretic force acting on the particles was arranged in the plane perpendicular to the streamlines of the main flow. To reduce the gravitational settling of the particles, the electric chamber was kept slowly rotating around a horizontal axis. Following the application of a field, the particles were found to move towards both the high-voltage and grounded electrodes and to form arrays of "bristles" along their edges. The process was modeled by computing the motion of a single particle under the action of dielectrophoretic, viscous, and gravitational forces for negligibly small particle Reynolds numbers. The particle polarization required for the calculation of the dielectrophoretic force was measured in low-strength fields (several V/mm). The theoretical predictions for the kinetics of the particle accumulation on the electrodes were found to be in a reasonable agreement with experiment, although the interparticle interactions governed the formation of arrays of bristles. These bristles were formed in a two-step mechanism, which arose from the interplay of the dielectrophoretic force that confined the particles near the electrode edge and the dipolar interactions of nearby particles. The results of our studies provide the basic characteristics needed for the design and optimization of electro-hydrodynamic apparatuses. The work was supported by a NASA grant. The suspension characterization was conducted at the NJIT W.M. Keck Laboratory. 1. Z. Qiu, N. Markarian, B. Khusid, A. Acrivos, J. Apple. Phys., 92(5), 2002.

  5. Geochemical Detection of Carbon Dioxide in Dilute Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y.; Carroll, S.; Aines, R.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. In this study we use the reactive transport simulations performed by the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. We address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, and detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 103 to 2 x106t/yr to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. The simulation results show the CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. Detection of CO2 leaks in aquifers by changes in pH and carbonate chemistry is readily available and well understood. Reactive transport modeling is a critical component to the design and effective performance of measurement, monitoring, and verification plans for carbon storage. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  7. Using isotope dilution mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, D.L.; Christman, R.F.; Johnson, J.D.; Hass, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development, verification, and application of a method based on isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) at the micrograms per litre level are described. The simultaneous determination of aqueous chloroform is also demonstrated. Trichloroacetic acid is shown to be a significant by-product of the chlorination of raw waters in the laboratory and to constitute a large fraction of the total organic halide (TOX) formed. Analysis of finished-water samples indicated that TCAA, like trihalomethanes is ubiquitous. Positive correlations exist between the levels of TCAA in laboratory-chlorinated raw waters and in finished waters and measured TOX.

  8. Hydrogenic states of monopoles in diluted quantum spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Olga; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the effect of adding quantum dynamics to a classical topological spin liquid, with a particular view of how to best detect its presence in experiment. For the Coulomb phase of spin ice, we find quantum effects to be most visible in the gauge-charged monopole excitations. In the presence of weak dilution with nonmagnetic ions we find a particularly crisp phenomenon, namely, the emergence of hydrogenic excited states in which a magnetic monopole is bound to a vacancy at various distances. Via a mapping to an analytically tractable single particle problem on the Bethe lattice, we obtain an approximate expression for the dynamic neutron scattering structure factor.

  9. Dispersion of Sound in Dilute Suspensions with Nonlinear Particle Relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2010-01-01

    The theory accounting for nonlinear particle relaxation (viscous and thermal) has been applied to the prediction of dispersion of sound in dilute suspensions. The results suggest that significant deviations exist for sound dispersion between the linear and nonlinear theories at large values of Omega(Tau)(sub d), where Omega is the circular frequency, and Tau(sub d) is the Stokesian particle relaxation time. It is revealed that the nonlinear effect on the dispersion coefficient due to viscous contribution is larger relative to that of thermal conduction

  10. [Influence of dissolved gases on highly diluted aqueous media].

    PubMed

    Belovolova, L V; Glushkov, M V; Vinogradov, E A

    2014-01-01

    In the experiments on redox potential measurement for a series of identical samples of purified and presettled water it was found that the response to ultraviolet irradiation varies appreciably within a few days after treatment, including stepwise changes. In a few hours after exposure, leading to a higher content of reactive oxygen species as compared with the equilibrium values, long-term changes including variations in redox potential and optical system parameters are recorded in water and diluted aqueous media. We propose a heuristic organization model of the water-gas system with an increased content of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25707230

  11. Quantum localization in bilayer Heisenberg antiferromagnets with site dilution.

    PubMed

    Roscilde, Tommaso; Haas, Stephan

    2005-11-11

    The field-induced antiferromagnetic ordering in systems of weakly coupled S = 1/2 dimers at zero temperature can be described as a Bose-Einstein condensation of triplet quasiparticles (singlet quasiholes) in the ground state. For the case of a Heisenberg bilayer, it is here shown how the above picture is altered in the presence of site dilution of the magnetic lattice. Geometric randomness leads to quantum localization of the quasiparticles or quasiholes and to an extended Bose-glass phase in a realistic disordered model. This localization phenomenon drives the system towards a quantum-disordered phase well before the classical geometric percolation threshold is reached. PMID:16384096

  12. Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

  13. Modeling Corrosion Reactions of Steel in a Dilute Carbonate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2016-02-01

    This research models the corrosion reactions of a high-strength steel in an aerated, dilute, carbonate solution during a single-cycle voltammetry. Based on a previous study (Eliyan et al. in J Mater Eng Perform 24(6):1-8, 2015) and a literature survey, the corrosion reactions of the cathodic reduction, anodic dissolution, and passivation, as well as the interfacial interactions and the chemistry of the corrosion products are illustrated in schematics. The paper provides a visual guide on the corrosion reactions for steel in carbonate solutions based on the available mechanistic details that were reported and are still being investigated in literature.

  14. Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades.

    PubMed

    Curry, Ruth; Mauritzen, Cecilie

    2005-06-17

    Declining salinities signify that large amounts of fresh water have been added to the northern North Atlantic Ocean since the mid-1960s. We estimate that the Nordic Seas and Subpolar Basins were diluted by an extra 19,000 +/- 5000 cubic kilometers of freshwater input between 1965 and 1995. Fully half of that additional fresh water-about 10,000 cubic kilometers-infiltrated the system in the late 1960s at an approximate rate of 2000 cubic kilometers per year. Patterns of freshwater accumulation observed in the Nordic Seas suggest a century time scale to reach freshening thresholds critical to that portion of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. PMID:15961666

  15. Thermodynamics of suspensions of polymeric chains in dilute solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Annunziata; Valenti, Antonino; Lebon, Georgy

    2010-07-01

    A model of suspensions of deformable polymeric chains in dilute solutions is proposed. The originality of the model lies in raising the relative motion of polymers with respect to the solvent to the status of independent variables, at the same level of such classical variables as global mass, mass fraction, temperature, and conformation tensor. Such an attitude is typical of extended irreversible thermodynamics. It is shown that the restrictions placed by the second law of thermodynamics leads to the various expressions of the constitutive and evolution equations governing the model. The use of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the criterion of frame indifference is also commented upon.

  16. Trace determination of zinc by substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhya, D.; Priya, S.; Subramanian, M.O.S.

    1996-09-01

    A radiometric method based on substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis using 1,10-phenanthroline and a substoichiometric amount of eosin was developed for determining trace amounts of zinc. Evaluation of various metal ion interferences shows that as little as 0.2 {mu}g Zn could be determined in an aqueous-phase volume of 60 mL. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of Zn in city waste incineration ash, cadmium metal, Fourts-B tablets, Boro-plus ointment, and magnesium alloy samples. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Classical Equation of State for Dilute Relativistic Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, N. A.; Eisa, D. A.; Sayed, E. G.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to calculate the analytical form of the equation of state for dilute relativistic plasma. We obtained the excess free energy and pressure in the form of a convergent series expansion in terms of the thermal parameter μ where μ = {{m{c^2}} over {KT}}, m is the mass of charge, c is the speed of light, K is the Boltzmann's constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The results are discussed and compared with previous work of other authors.

  18. Scaling of Greenwood Peierls conductance on a diluted square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, William; Schmitz, Albert

    The modified rectangle lattice of Dhar is a bond-diluted square lattice. The structure is self-similar and finitely ramified, like a fractal. Nevertheless certain discrete Schrödinger equation Green functions for the modified rectangle are known in closed form in the infinite lattice limit and the spectrum is continuous. By standard transfer matrix renormalization methods we present a study scaling properties of the Greenwood Peierls conductance distribution across the lattice with one dimensional lead wires attached as a function of lattice size and of additional disorder of several types.

  19. Dynamic model of neural networks with asymmetric diluted couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Choi, Meekyoung

    1990-06-01

    We study an asymmetric diluted version of the dynamic model for neural networks proposed recently, which explicitly takes into account the existence of several time scales without discretizing the time. The dynamics is neither totally synchronous nor totally asynchronous, and the couplings in the neural networks are asymmetric. These considerations may be regarded as more biologically realistic. We obtain the phase diagram as a function of the temperature ɛ-1, the capacity α, and the ratio a of the refractory period to the action potential duration.

  20. Effect of Kr Gas Dilution on O Atom Density in Inductively Coupled Kr/O2 Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masaru; Ikuma, Soichi; Goto, Toshio

    2003-10-01

    Oxygen-based plasmas have been used for the low temperature oxidation of materials. It has been reported that the high quality SiO2 film was formed at a low temperature by Kr dilution O2 plasma. From the viewpoint of developing the low temperature oxidation processes used for the gate dielectric film in LCD devices, a quantitative study on the behavior of O atom in the Kr/O2 mixture plasma is strongly required. In this study, we measured the absolute O atom and metastable Kr atom densities in an inductively coupled Kr/O2 plasma using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy technique. The transition lines used for absorption measurements were ^3S0 - ^3P_2, ^3S0 - ^3P1 and ^3S0 - ^3P0 at 130.2 nm for O atom and ^3D3 - ^3P2 at 811.3 nm for metastable Kr atom. The absolute O atom density was almost constant on 4×10^13 cm-3 although the Kr dilution ratio was increased from 0 to 99% at an RF power of 200W, a pressure of 107 Pa, and a total gas flow rate of 100 sccm. The effect of metastable Kr atom on the production of the O atom has been discussed.

  1. Influence of Oxygen Supply on Oxide Coarsening During the Internal Oxidation of Two-Phase Fe-Y Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachur, Stephen J.; Webler, Bryan A.

    2016-05-01

    Fe-Y binary alloys underwent thermogravimetric analysis while exposed to low oxidant partial pressures using a mixture of 5 pct H2-95 pct Ar gas at two flow rates. The alloys experienced in situ internal oxidation of Y-rich intermetallic phases. Kinetics and microstructures were both affected by flowrate. Lower flow rates resulted in coarser oxides and decreased oxidation rates. Results show the possible impacts of rate-controlling processes in the gas phase on internal oxidation with dilute oxidants.

  2. Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of nanocrystalline silicon films fabricated by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with highly H{sub 2} dilution of SiH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiang; Huang Rui; Song Jie; Guo Yanqing; Ding Honglin

    2010-06-15

    Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) film deposited on silicon oxide in a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with highly H{sub 2} dilution of SiH{sub 4} has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that at early growth stage the initial amorphous incubation layer in nc-Si:H growth on silicon oxide can be almost eliminated and crystallites with diameter of about 6 to 10 nm are directly formed on the silicon oxide. Nearly parallel columnar structures with complex microstructure are found from cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images of the film. It is considered that highly H{sub 2} dilution and higher excitation frequency are the main reason for eliminating the initial amorphous incubation layer in nc-Si:H growth on silicon oxide.

  3. Analytical approaches to the OH radical induced degradation of sulfonamide antibiotics in dilute aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sági, Gyuri; Csay, Tamás; Szabó, László; Pátzay, György; Csonka, Emil; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2015-03-15

    By combining a large variety of analytical techniques this study aimed at elaborating methods to follow up the degradation of sulfonamides in an advanced oxidation process (AOP): irradiation with ionizing radiation in dilute aqueous solution. In this process, besides other radicals, hydroxyl radicals are produced. As pulse radiolysis experiments show the basic initial reaction is hydroxyl radical addition to the benzene ring, forming cyclohexadienyl radical intermediates. In aerated solutions these radicals transform to peroxy radicals. Among the first formed products aromatic molecules hydroxylated in the benzene rings or in some cases in the heterocyclic rings were observed by LC-MS/MS. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements indicate that at the early reaction period of degradation one hydroxyl radical induces incorporation of 1.5 O atoms into the products. Comparison of the COD and TOC (total organic carbon content) results shows gradual oxidation. Simultaneously with hydroxylation ring opening also takes place. The kinetics of inorganic SO4(2-) and NH4(+) formation, analyzed by ion chromatography, is similar to the kinetics of ring degradation (UV spectroscopy), however, there is a delayed formation of NO3(-). The latter ions may be produced in oxidative degradation of smaller N containing fragments. The S atoms of the sulfonamides remain in the solution (ICP-MS measurements) after degradation, whereas some part of the N atoms leaves the solution probably in the form of N2 (total nitrogen content (TN) measurements). Degradation is accompanied by a high pH drop due to formation of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and smaller organic acids. The degradation goes through many simultaneous and consecutive reactions, and with the applied methods the different stages of degradation can be characterized. PMID:25266558

  4. Multifunctional properties of zinc oxide: An ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Priya

    In this dissertation, we present our results of first-principles calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties of a range of ZnO-based systems. ZnO is a II-VI wide band gap semiconductor, is a strong piezoelectric, is transparent and can be easily fabricated in a variety of microstructurures from bulk single crystals to thin films to nanostructures. Recent reports also suggest the possibility of magnetic ZnO as a potential spintronic material. Due to its range of properties, ZnO has numerous applications including varistors, piezoelectric transducers, sonars, acoustic devices, solar cells, UV blocking, chemical catalysts and transparent conducting oxides. In this work, we explore the following "multifunctional aspects" of ZnO-based systems. First we calculate the structural, polarization and piezoelectric properties of wurtzite-structure ZnO, MgO and CdO (used in band gap engineering of ZnO) to explore the relationship between optical and piezoelectric functionalities. Second, we investigate wurtzite-structure MnO to understand coexisting magnetic and piezoelectric functionalities. Finally, we study the nature of magnetic interactions in ZnO doped with 3d transition metals to explore the simultaneous magnetic, semiconducting and piezoelectric properties. Our main findings are: (i) Polarization differences between MgO and ZnO, and CdO and ZnO are large suggesting that strong polarization gradients will accompany the changes in band gap induced by Cd or Mg doping. (ii) wurtzite-structure MnO is antiferromagnetic, with a strong magnetostructural coupling and piezoelectric response; this indicates the possibility of coexistence of magnetism and piezoelectricity. (iii) In transition-metal doped ZnO we do not observe a room-temperature ferromagnetic interaction. We find that the magnetic ground state is highly sensitive to details of the calculations such as k-point mesh, details of the geometry optimizations and the choice of exchange correlation functional.

  5. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    Blue or ultraviolet semiconducting light-emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize illumination systems in the near-future. Such industrial need has propelled the investigation of several wide-gap semiconducting materials in recent years. Commercial applications include blue lasers for DVD memory and laser printers, while military applications are also expected. Most of the material development has so far been focused on GaN (band gap 3.5 eV at 2 K), and ZnSe (2.9 eV) because these two representative direct transition semiconductors are known to be bright emitting sources. GaN and GaN-based alloys are emerging as the winners in this field because ZnSe is subject to defect formation under high current drive. On the other hand, another II-VI compound, ZnO, has also excited substantial interest in the optoelectronics-oriented research communities because it is the brightest emitter of all, owing to the fact that its excitons have a 60 meV binding energy. This is compared with 26 meV for GaN and 20 meV for ZnSe. The stable excitons could lead to laser action based on their recombination even at temperatures well above room temperature. ZnO has additional major properties that are more advantageous than other wide-gap materials: availability of large area substrates, higher energy radiation stability, environmentally-friendly ingredients, and amenability to wet chemical etching. However, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field as exemplified by several studies made during the 1960s on structural, vibrational, optical and electrical properties (Mollwo E 1982 Landolt-Boernstein New Series vol 17 (Berlin: Springer) p 35). In terms of devices, the luminescence from light-emitting diode structures was demonstrated in which Cu2O was used as the p-type material (Drapak I T 1968 Semiconductors 2 624). The main obstacle to the development of ZnO has been the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO. The possibility of achieving epitaxial p-type layers with the aid of thermal

  6. Pollination by passerine birds: why are the nectars so dilute?

    PubMed

    Nicolson, Susan W

    2002-04-01

    Bird-pollinated flowers are known to secrete relatively dilute nectars (with concentrations averaging 20-25% w/w). Many southern African plants that are pollinated by passerine birds produce nectars with little or no sucrose. Moreover, these hexose nectars are extremely dilute (10-15%). This suggests a link between sugar composition and nectar concentration. Nectar originates from sucrose-rich phloem sap, and the proportion of monosaccharides depends on the presence and activity of invertase in the nectary. Hydrolysis of sucrose increases nectar osmolality and the resulting water influx can potentially convert a 30% sucrose nectar into a 20% hexose nectar, with a 1.56 times increase in volume. Hydrolysis may also increase the gradient for sucrose transport and thus the rate of sugar secretion. When sucrose content and refractometer data were compared, some significant correlations were seen, but the occurrence of sucrose-rich or hexose-rich nectars can also be explained on phylogenetic grounds (e.g. Erythrina and Protea). Hexose nectars may be abundant enough to drip from open flowers, but evaporation leads to much variability in nectar concentration and increases the choices available to pollinators. PMID:11923080

  7. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y; Aines, R

    2009-03-27

    Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO{sub 2} gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO{sub 2} storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO{sub 2} flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO{sub 2} flux ranges from 10{sup 3} to 2 x 10{sup 6} t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m{sup 2}/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure.

  8. Host polymer influence on dilute polystyrene segmental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, T. R.

    2005-03-01

    We have utilized deuterium NMR to investigate the segmental dynamics of dilute (2%) d3-polystyrene (PS) chains in miscible polymer blends with polybutadiene, poly(vinyl ethylene), polyisoprene, poly(vinyl methylether) and poly(methyl methacrylate). In the dilute limit, we find qualitative differences depending upon whether the host polymer has dynamics that are faster or slower than that of pure PS. In blends where PS is the fast (low Tg) component, segmental dynamics are slowed upon blending and can be fit by the Lodge-McLeish model. When PS is the slow (high Tg) component, PS segmental dynamics speed up upon blending, but cannot be fit by the Lodge-McLeish model unless a temperature dependent self-concentration is employed. These results are qualitatively consistent with a recent suggestion by Kant, Kumar and Colby (Macromolecules, 2003, 10087), based upon data at higher concentrations. Furthermore, as the slow component, we find the segmental dynamics of PS has a temperature dependence similar to that of its host. This suggests viewing the high Tg component dynamics in a miscible blend as similar to a polymer in a low molecular weight solvent.

  9. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

  10. Dilute NiPt alloy interactions with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corni, F.; Grignaffini Gregorio, B.; Ottaviani, G.; Queirolo, G.; Follegot, J. P.

    1993-11-01

    The reaction between a dilute Ni 95Pt 5 alloy and <111>Si has been investigated as a function of the annealing temperature and time, and the film thickness. Contrary to the concentrate alloys the first phase formed is Ni 2Si and the growth kinetics in the initial steps are similar to the case of pure Ni. Pt segregates in the alloy and its presence slows down the silicide growth rate suggesting that a new mechanism, namely the release of Ni from the alloy, is competing with the diffusion process in the silicide. In all the cases here considered NiSi starts to form only when all the Ni is reacted, indicating that the Pt never reaches high enough concentrations to inhibit the Ni 2Si growth. The further evolution of the system is similar to the ones reported for bilayers and non-dilute alloys. The I-V characteristics measured after annealing give a barrier height of 0.70 ± 0.01 eV.

  11. Dilution Refrigerator for Nuclear Refrigeration and Cryogenic Thermometry Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hisashi; Hata, Tohru

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the design and construction of an ultra-low temperature facility in order to realize the Provisional low-temperature scale from 0.9 mK to 1 K (PLTS-2000) in Japan, to disseminate its use through calibration services, and to study thermometry at low temperatures below 1 K. To this end, a dilution refrigerator was constructed in-house that has four sintered silver discrete heat exchangers for use as a precooling stage of a copper nuclear demagnetization stage. A melting curve thermometer attached to the mixing chamber flange could be cooled continuously to 4.0 mK using the refrigerator. The dependence of minimum temperatures on circulation rates can be explained by the calculation of Frossati's formula based on a perfect continuous counterflow heat exchanger model, assuming that the Kapitza resistance has a temperature dependence. Residual heat leakage to the mixing chamber was estimated to be around 86 nW. A nuclear demagnetization cryostat with a nuclear stage containing an effective amount of copper (51 mol in a 9 T magnetic field) is under construction, and we will presently start to work toward the realization of the PLTS-2000. In this article, the design and performance of the dilution refrigerator are reported.

  12. Simulations of Polymer Crazing: Effect of Crosslinks and Dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark O.; Barsky, Sandra

    2000-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the growth and structure of crazes in adhesive films of entangled linear polymers that have been either (a) crosslinked or (b) diluted by smaller molecules. The films were ruptured by separating the two bounding walls (adherends) at a small constant velocity. In all systems the force on the walls rose to the same value before the first yield event caused cavities to form in the film. These cavities grew as the walls were displaced further. In systems that formed a stable craze, cavity growth was eventually stopped by entanglements or crosslinks. Stress concentrations then caused new cavities to form in neighboring regions. This process continued at a constant plateau stress until the entire film had been stretched by an extension ratio λ. The plateau stress increased slightly with increasing crosslink density, and decreased with decreasing fraction of long chains in diluted systems. As in experiments, when the fraction decreased below about 30plateau stress vanished and there was no longer a stable craze. The extension ratio fell with increasing crosslink density and rose as the fraction of long chains dropped. These changes can be fit with a simple geometric model based on the ability to stretch a random coil whose length is the mean spacing between crosslinks or entanglements. No chain scission was found for reasonable bond strengths. Void formation and elastic constants were also studied.

  13. Thermal conductivity and sound attenuation in dilute atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, Matt; Chao Jingyi; Schaefer, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T{sub c}, the quasiparticles are fermions, whereas below T{sub c}, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity {kappa} in the normal phase scales as {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T{sub c} to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.

  14. High-dilution effects revisited. 1. Physicochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bellavite, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Olioso, Debora; Moratti, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that homeopathic high dilutions (HDs) can effectively have a pharmacological action, and so cannot be considered merely placebos. However, until now there has been no unified explanation for these observations within the dominant paradigm of the dose-response effect. Here the possible scenarios for the physicochemical nature of HDs are reviewed. A number of theoretical and experimental approaches, including quantum physics, conductometric and spectroscopic measurements, thermoluminescence, and model simulations investigated the peculiar features of diluted/succussed solutions. The heterogeneous composition of water could be affected by interactive phenomena such as coherence, epitaxy and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, silica and, possibly, the original material of the remedy. It is likely that the molecules of active substance act as nucleation centres, amplifying the formation of supramolecular structures and imparting order to the solvent. Three major models for how this happens are currently being investigated: the water clusters or clathrates, the coherent domains postulated by quantum electrodynamics, and the formation of nanoparticles from the original solute plus solvent components. Other theoretical approaches based on quantum entanglement and on fractal-type self-organization of water clusters are more speculative and hypothetical. The problem of the physicochemical nature of HDs is still far from to be clarified but current evidence strongly supports the notion that the structuring of water and its solutes at the nanoscale can play a key role. PMID:24439452

  15. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Dilute Ca²⁺ Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Samar Layek; Rout, K; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Verma, H C

    2016-01-01

    Undoped and calcium substituted hematite (α-Fe₂O₃) nanoparticles are synthesized by surfactant-directed co-precipitation and post annealing method. The annealed nanoparticles were found to be in single phase in nature and crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with space group R3c as confirmed by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Average crystallite sizes are calculated to be 20 to 30 nm and 50 to 60 nm for the nanoparticles annealed at 400 and 600 °C respectively. Mössbauer spectra for all the nanoparticles could be fitted with a sextet corresponding to the single magnetic state of the iron atoms in its Fe³⁺ state in the hematite matrix. The FTIR and Raman spectra of all the samples correspond to specific modes of α-Fe₂O₃. UV-Vis spectra of annealed samples showed broad peaks in the range of 525-630 nm resulting from spin-forbidden ligand field transition together with the spin-flip transition among the 2t₂g states. The estimated band gap energies were in the range of 1.6 to 1.9 eV which are much lower than the reported values for nano hematite. From the room temperature magnetic hysteresis loop measurements, weak ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all undoped and Ca²⁺ doped hematite samples. Morin temperature (T(M)) is calculated to be 257 and 237 K for 1.45% doped samples with particle size 54 and 27 nm respectively. The sample with Ca content of 1.45 wt% when annealed at 400 °C showed that the particles were of different shapes which included both quasi spherical and rod shaped. On annealing the same sample at 600 °C, the nanorods collapsed to form bigger spherical and ellipsoidal particles. PMID:27398469

  16. Determination of Trace Cadmium in Geological Samples by Aerosol Dilution ICP-MS with Inverse Aqua Regia Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Guo, W.; Jin, L.; Hu, S.; Chai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that occurs at ppb level in most terrestrial materials. The determination of Cd in geological samples by ICP-MS is subject to Zr and/or Mo based oxide/hydroxide interference. This study developed a valid method for the determination of Cd by Ar aerosol dilution ICP-MS with inverse aqua regia extraction (in a water bath at 95℃ for 2h). An Agilent 7700x ICP-MS (Agilent Technologies, USA) with an aerosol dilution system was used. The extraction procedure separated most of the Zr matrix (>90%) from the analyte, and the residual Zr- hydroxides and Mo-oxides or hydroxides were successfully eliminated by adding an amount of Ar to the sample aerosol prior to the plasma. Compared to the conventional operation, the amounts of oxide and hydroxide ions formed in the plasma were reduced by up to 10 times. The relative yields of the interfering oxides and hydroxides were as low as 0.012% ((94Mo16OH++95Mo16O+)/(94Mo++95Mo+)) and 0.007% (94Zr16OH+/94Zr+). Under the optimized dilution gas flow rate (0.85 L min-1) and carrier gas flow rate (0.24 L min-1), the limit of detection (LOD, 3s) for 111Cd was 1.3 ng g-1. The accuracy of the method was assessed by using two USGS SRMs (andesite AGV-2 and basalt BCR-2). The Cd contents determined for AGV-2 and BCR-2 are 0.058±0.004μg g-1 and 0.148±0.007μg g-1 (N=10), which are in good agreement with the USGS reference values (0.061μg g-1 and 0.14μg g-1). The proposed method was also applied to determine Cd contents in 65 IGGE SRMs (28 soils, 28 sediments and 9 rocks). The measured Cd levels in these samples agree well with their certified values. The developed method shows great potential for the direct determination of trace levels of Cd in geological samples.

  17. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong Intapan, Pewpan; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  18. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  19. Simulations of the magnetization and magnetoviscosity of dilute magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Toro, Jorge Hernan

    In this work was studied the rotational Brownian motion of magnetic spherical and tri-axial ellipsoidal particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid, in the dilute suspension limit, under applied shear and magnetic fields by Brownian dynamics simulation to determine the magnetization and magnetoviscosity of the suspension. The algorithm describing the change in the magnetization and magnetoviscosity of the suspension was derived from the stochastic angular momentum equation using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and a quaternion formulation of orientation space. Results are presented for the response of dilute suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles to constant and transient magnetic fields with and without simple shear flow fields. Simulation results are in agreement with the Langevin function for equilibrium magnetization and with single-exponential relaxation from equilibrium at small fields using Perrin's effective relaxation time. Dynamic susceptibilities for ellipsoidal particles of different aspect ratios were obtained from the response to oscillating magnetic fields of different frequencies and described by Debye's model for the complex susceptibility using Perrin's effective relaxation time. Suspensions of ellipsoidal particles show a significant effect of aspect ratio on the intrinsic magnetoviscosity of the suspension, and this effect is more pronounced as the aspect ratio becomes more extreme. The use of an effective rotational diffusion coefficient Dr,eff collapses the normalized intrinsic magnetoviscosity of all suspensions to a master curve as a function of Peclet number and the Langevin parameter alpha = (mu0muH)/(kBT), up to a critical value of alpha for which the results for suspensions of spherical particles deviate from those of suspensions of ellipsoids. This discrepancy is attributed to the action of the shear-torque on the ellipsoidal particles, which tends to orient the particles in the direction of maximum deformation of the simple shear flow

  20. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of

  1. Molecular dynamics of a dilute solution of hydrogen in palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Lawrence R.; Eckert, J.

    1989-06-01

    Molecular-dynamics results on a dilute solution of H in Pd are presented and compared with available incoherent inelastic neutron-scattering results. The embedded-atom model adopted here does a good job of describing the H-Pd atomic forces probed by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. The time correlation functions associated with the computed spectra are strongly damped and indicative of the anharmonicity that has been suggested as the principal contribution to the anomalous isotope dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in PdH. These results highlight the fact that the H-atom vibrations in Pd-H solutions are low-frequency, large-amplitude vibrations relative to vibrations of H atoms in usual covalent interactions. The rms displacement of the H atom from its mean position in the center of the Pd octahedron compares favorably with the available neutron-diffraction results.

  2. Detection of dilute sperm samples using photoacoustic flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viator, J. A.; Sutovsky, P.; Weight, R. M.

    2008-02-01

    Detection of sperm cells in dilute samples may have application in forensic testing and diagnosis of male reproductive health. Due to the optically dense subcellular structures in sperm cells, irradiation by nanosecond laser pulses induces a photoacoustic response detectable using a custom flow cytometer. We determined the detection threshold of bull sperm using various concentrations, from 200 to 1,000,000 sperm cells per milliliter. Using a tunable laser system set to 450nm with a 5 ns pulse duration and 11-12 mJ/pulse, we obtained a detection threshold of 3 sperm cells. The flow rate was 4 ml/minute through the flow chamber. The acoustic sensor was a 100 μm PVDF film attached to the glass flow chamber. The acoustic signal was preamplified and sent to an oscilloscope. The threshold signal indicated a signal to noise ratio of approximately 6 to 1. Improved system design may decrease the threshold to single sperm cells.

  3. Muon hyperfine fields in iron and its dilute alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.; Squire, K. R.; Arrott, A. S.; Patterson, B. D.; Heinrich, B.; Lankford, W. F.; Fiory, A. T.; Kossler, W. J.; Singh, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the interstitial magnetic field, B, as determined by the rotation of the spin of the muon, has been measured for dilute polycrystalline iron alloys with Mo, Ti, and Nb additions over a temperature range of 240 to 633 K. In all cases the behaviors differ from one another and from the Fe(Al) alloys previously studied. B, which is negative with respect to the magnetization, is increased in magnitude by Al and Mo, and decreased greatly by Ti. The addition of Nb creates a two-phase alloy from which the role of heterogeneity and/or strain on B in iron can be assessed. If the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field extracted from B for Fe(Mo) alloys is interpreted on the model previously used to discuss the Fe(Al) data, then the muon must be attracted to the Mo atom while repelled by the Al atoms as the temperature decreases.

  4. Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-03-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). PMID:23395763

  5. Band Anticrossing in Dilute Germanium Carbides Using Hybrid Density Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Chad A.; O'brien, William A.; Qi, Meng; Penninger, Michael; Schneider, William F.; Wistey, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    Dilute germanium carbides (Ge1- x C x ) offer a direct bandgap for compact silicon photonics, but widely varying properties have been reported. This work reports improved band structure calculations for Ge1- x C x using ab initio simulations that employ the HSE06 exchange-correlation density functional. Contrary to Vegard's law, the conduction band minimum at Γ is consistently found to decrease with increasing C content, while L and X valleys change much more slowly. The calculated Ge bandgap is within 11% of experimental values. A decrease in energy at the Γ conduction band valley of (170 meV ± 50)/%C is predicted, leading to a direct bandgap for x > 0.008. These results indicate a promising material for Group IV lasers.

  6. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; Lozanne, Alex de

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  7. Pinning Susceptibility: The Effect of Dilute, Quenched Disorder on Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Amy L.; Nashed, Samer; Padgett, Elliot; Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of dilute pinning on the jamming transition. Pinning reduces the average contact number needed to jam unpinned particles and shifts the jamming threshold to lower densities, leading to a pinning susceptibility, χp . Our main results are that this susceptibility obeys scaling form and diverges in the thermodynamic limit as χp∝|ϕ -ϕc∞|-γp where ϕc∞ is the jamming threshold in the absence of pins. Finite-size scaling arguments yield these values with associated statistical (systematic) errors γp=1.018 ±0.026 (0.291 ) in d =2 and γp=1.534 ±0.120 (0.822 ) in d =3 . Logarithmic corrections raise the exponent in d =2 to close to the d =3 value, although the systematic errors are very large.

  8. High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world. PMID:27434308

  9. Studies of the effects of curvature on dilution jet mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdeman, James D.; Srinivasan, Ram; Reynolds, Robert S.; White, Craig D.

    1992-02-01

    An analytical program was conducted using both three-dimensional numerical and empirical models to investigate the effects of transition liner curvature on the mixing of jets injected into a confined crossflow. The numerical code is of the TEACH type with hybrid numerics; it uses the power-law and SIMPLER algorithms, an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, and an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model. From the results of the numerical calculations, an existing empirical model for the temperature field downstream of single and multiple rows of jets injected into a straight rectangular duct was extended to model the effects of curvature. Temperature distributions, calculated with both the numerical and empirical models, are presented to show the effects of radius of curvature and inner and outer wall injection for single and opposed rows of cool dilution jets injected into a hot mainstream flow.

  10. Positive ion polymerization in hydrogen diluted silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, S.; Kondo, M.

    2008-12-08

    Mass spectra of positive ions (cations) and neutrals have been measured in hydrogen diluted silane plasmas at gas pressures of 0.1-10 Torr. The mass spectrum of ions changes with the pressure, while that of neutrals maintains a similar shape. The dominant ion species varies from a hydrogen ion group at < or approx. 0.5 Torr to a monosilicon hydride ion group at {approx_equal}0.5-1 Torr and polysilicon hydride ion groups at > or approx. 1 Torr, which is determined from ionization channels and consecutive ion-molecule reactions. The ion bombardment is suppressed with the pressure, from several tens of eV at < or approx. 1 Torr to a few eV at > or approx. 7 Torr.

  11. Dilute Aperture Visible Nulling Coronagraph Imaging (DAViNCI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. M.; Vasisht, G.; Lane, B. F.; Woodruff, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Samuele R.; Harvey, K.; Clampin, M.; Lyon, R.; Guyon, O.; Tolls, V.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation focuses on instrument and mission overview, science case, Team X study, and technology status. Topics include DAViNCI study milestones, number of targets versus inner working angle, planet orbit and IWA, combiner/nuller instrument, DAViNCI Team X costs, technology status and near future plans, and deep laser null 1.23 x 10(exp -7) suppression. Summary points are: dilute aperture concept advantages, lower cost than a comparable 7-8m coronagraph working at 2 lambda/D, technology progress prior to 2008 was seriously limited by available funding but showed 1e-y suppression (2006) of laser light needed for 1e-9 to approximately 1e-10 contrast, and current technology effort is off to a fast date with a demonstration of less than 100pm wavefront measurement in Nov 08.

  12. Elimination of charge carrier trapping in diluted semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Kunz, A.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Michels, J. J.; Crăciun, N. I.; Koynov, K.; Lieberwirth, I.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2016-06-01

    In 1962, Mark and Helfrich demonstrated that the current in a semiconductor containing traps is reduced by N/Ntr, with N the amount of transport sites, Nt the amount of traps and r a number that depends on the trap energy distribution. For r > 1, the possibility opens that trapping effects can be nearly eliminated when N and Nt are simultaneously reduced. Solution-processed conjugated polymers are an excellent model system to test this hypothesis, because they can be easily diluted by blending them with a high-bandgap semiconductor. We demonstrate that in conjugated polymer blends with 10% active semiconductor and 90% high-bandgap host, the typical strong electron trapping can be effectively eliminated. As a result we were able to fabricate polymer light-emitting diodes with balanced electron and hole transport and reduced non-radiative trap-assisted recombination, leading to a doubling of their efficiency at nearly ten times lower material costs.

  13. Tunable exchange bias in dilute magnetic alloys - chiral spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudl, Matthias; Mathieu, Roland; Nordblad, Per

    2016-01-01

    A unidirectional anisotropy appears in field cooled samples of dilute magnetic alloys at temperatures well below the cusp temperature of the zero field cooled magnetization curve. Magnetization measurements on a Cu(13.5 at% Mn) sample show that this anisotropy is essentially temperature independent and acts on a temperature dependent excess magnetization, ΔM. The anisotropy can be partially or fully transferred from being locked to the direction of the cooling field at lower fields to becoming locked to the direction of ΔM at larger fields, thus instead appearing as a uniaxial anisotropy. This introduces a deceiving division of the anisotropy into a superposition of a unidirectional and a uniaxial part. This two faced nature of the anisotropy has been empirically scrutinized and concluded to originate from one and the same exchange mechanism: the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.

  14. Dilution ventilation to accommodate smoking: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, E.; Collett, C.; Ross, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    The principal consensus standard on ventilation to control indoor air quality in the US is ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Table 2 of this standard prescribes outside air ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable air quality in a variety of commercial and institutional facilities. A footnote to this table states that the ventilation rates were chosen to control carbon dioxide and other contaminants with an adequate margin of safety and to account for health variations among people, varied activity levels, and a moderate amount of smoking. The research reported here was designed to assess the effectiveness of the dilution ventilation provisions in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 in controlling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the office workplace.

  15. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 103 to 2 × 106 t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. Results For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux ≥ 104 t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase in the lower most permeable

  16. Scattering of dilute thermal atom clouds on optical Weber beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Cedillo, C. L.; Bernon, S.; Hattermann, H.; Fortágh, J.; Jáuregui, R.

    2013-02-01

    We report the experimental observation and a theoretical description of the scattering of free falling dilute thermal clouds of 87Rb atoms by microscopically structured light beams with parabolic-cylindrical symmetry. These structured beams are known in the literature as Weber beams. High-fidelity Weber beams are generated by means of a spatial light modulator and an annular spatial filtering process, which yields a quasipropagation-invariant electromagnetic field in the region of interaction with the atom cloud. The dynamics of the atomic density profile and the phase space distribution of the scattered atoms is explored. A natural dynamical variable of Weber modes is the product of the angular momentum along the axis of propagation of the beam with a component of linear momentum perpendicular to that axis. To pave the way of the understanding about the transfer of this variable, we study the evolution of the analogous atomic variable.

  17. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Dierigl, M.; Fodor, Z.; Katz, S. D.; Mages, S. W.; Nogradi, D.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Szabo, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ (T) of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ (T) in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses) and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA). A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  18. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required.

  19. Spin mixing conductance in Cu–Ir dilute alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Sei; Kimata, Motoi; Omori, Yasutomo; Niimi, Yasuhiro; Otani, YoshiChika

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the spin mixing conductance at the interface of Py and Cu–Ir dilute alloys by means of spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) measurements for Cu–Ir. From systematic studies of the effective spin mixing conductance as a function of Ir concentration, we found that the interfacial spin mixing conductance g \\uparrow \\downarrow was proportional to the Ir concentration. This result is consistent with a scenario based on the impurity-dependent density of states at the Fermi energy. From the ISHE measurements as a function of Ir concentration, we show that the mechanism of the spin Hall effect is skew scattering and that the spin Hall angle is comparable to the previously determined value by using the lateral spin valve structures.

  20. Leslie thermomechanical power in diluted cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, P.

    2014-11-01

    I measure the Leslie thermomechnical coefficient ν in diluted cholesteric liquid crystals. The chiral molecules are R811 and cholesteryl chloride (CC) and the host nematic liquid crystals are 7CB and MBBA. I show that ν is proportional to the concentration of chiral molecules C when C\\ll1 . This allows me to define the Leslie thermomechanical power as \\textit{LTP}=ν/(2π C) by analogy with the helical twisting power, \\textit{HTP}=q/(2π C) where q denotes the equilibrium twist. I show that the LTP (dynamic in nature) and the HTP (static in nature) are independent in sign and magnitude. In addition, the same chiral molecule can rotate clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the host nematic liquid crystal used.

  1. Strongly-correlated fermionic matter in the dilute limit

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Cardenas, Andres L

    2008-01-01

    We study 'the ground-state properties of the many-body system composed of spin-l/2 fermions interacting via a zero-range, infinite scattering length contact interaction.' Sometimes referred to as the George Bertsch problem, it is of particular interest in astrophysics in connection with the equation of state for neutron matter and has been revisited recently with the advent of experimental studies of the BCS to BEC crossover in ultracold fermionic atom gases. We will show that new insights into the solution to this problem are obtained in the context of a coupled-cluster (exp S) expansion approach to calculating the equation of state for dilute fermionic systems and that present state-of-the-art Monte Carlo calculations have not yet provided the definitive answer.

  2. High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database.

    PubMed

    Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world. PMID:27434308

  3. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. PMID:21627628

  4. Application of the Thermodynamic Solution Model of Dilute Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luáek, J.

    1997-12-01

    The thermodynamic solution model by Tanaka et al. for liquid binary systems was extended to solid binary systems. On the basis of this extension the activity coefficients of solute elements in the solid phase in infinite dilution for transition metals were calculated in Part I of this paper. The determination of the activity coefficients in both solid and liquid phases can enable one to predict the equilibrium segregation coefficient of the solute elements in transition metal base alloys without the knowledge of equilibrium binary phase diagrams. The model was applied on Ti, Zr and Hf-base dilute alloys at their melting points. The calculated values of equilibrium segregation coefficients are compared with values derived by other methods. The effect of the model parameters on the value of equilibrium segregation coefficients was discussed. Das thermodynamische Modell für flüssige binäre Systeme nach Tanaka wurde auf feste binäre Systeme ausgedehnt. Auf dieser Grundlage wurden die Aktivitätskoeffizienten der gelösten Elemente in der Solidusphase für die Übergangsmetalle in Teil I dieser Arbeit berechnet. Die Bestimmung der Aktivitätskoeffizienten in der Solidus- und Liquidusphase ermöglicht die Vorhersage des Gleichgewichtsverteilungskoeffizienten der gelösten Elemente in den Legierungen der Übergangsmetalle ohne Kenntnis ihrer Zustandsdiagramme. Das Modell wurde auf Ti, Zr und Hf-Legierungen im Bereich der Schmelztemperatur der Hauptkomponente angewandt. Die berechneten Werte der Gleichgewichtsverteilungskoeffizienten wurden mit den Werten anderer Methoden verglichen. Der Einfluss der Eingangsparameter in unserem Modell auf die Werte der Gleichgewichtsverteilungskoeffizienten wurde diskutiert.

  5. Dispersal and air entrainment in unconfined dilute pyroclastic density currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2014-09-01

    Unconfined scaled laboratory experiments show that 3D structures control the behavior of dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) during and after liftoff. Experiments comprise heated and ambient temperature 20 μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air to form density currents within an unobstructed 8.5 × 6 × 2.6-m chamber. Comparisons of Richardson, thermal Richardson, Froude, Stokes, and settling numbers and buoyant thermal to kinetic energy densities show good agreement between experimental currents and dilute PDCs. The experimental Reynolds numbers are lower than those of PDCs, but the experiments are fully turbulent; thus, the large-scale dynamics are similar between the two systems. High-frequency, simultaneous observation in three orthogonal planes shows that the currents behave very differently than previous 2D (i.e., confined) currents. Specifically, whereas ambient temperature currents show radial dispersal patterns, buoyancy reversal, and liftoff of heated currents focuses dispersal along narrow axes beneath the rising plumes. The aspect ratios, defined as the current length divided by a characteristic width, are typically 2.5-3.5 in heated currents and 1.5-2.5 in ambient temperature currents, reflecting differences in dispersal between the two types of currents. Mechanisms of air entrainment differ greatly between the two currents: entrainment occurs primarily behind the heads and through the upper margins of ambient temperature currents, but heated currents entrain air through their lateral margins. That lateral entrainment is much more efficient than the vertical entrainment, >0.5 compared to ˜0.1, where entrainment is defined as the ratio of cross-stream to streamwise velocity. These experiments suggest that generation of coignimbrite plumes should focus PDCs along narrow transport axes, resulting in elongate rather than radial deposits.

  6. Whole-genome haplotyping by dilution, amplification, and sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kaper, Fiona; Swamy, Sajani; Klotzle, Brandy; Munchel, Sarah; Cottrell, Joseph; Bibikova, Marina; Chuang, Han-Yu; Kruglyak, Semyon; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Eberle, Michael A.; Fan, Jian-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Standard whole-genome genotyping technologies are unable to determine haplotypes. Here we describe a method for rapid and cost-effective long-range haplotyping. Genomic DNA is diluted and distributed into multiple aliquots such that each aliquot receives a fraction of a haploid copy. The DNA template in each aliquot is amplified by multiple displacement amplification, converted into barcoded sequencing libraries using Nextera technology, and sequenced in multiplexed pools. To assess the performance of our method, we combined two male genomic DNA samples at equal ratios, resulting in a sample with diploid X chromosomes with known haplotypes. Pools of the multiplexed sequencing libraries were subjected to targeted pull-down of a 1-Mb contiguous region of the X-chromosome Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. We were able to phase the Duchenne muscular dystrophy region into two contiguous haplotype blocks with a mean length of 494 kb. The haplotypes showed 99% agreement with the consensus base calls made by sequencing the individual DNAs. We subsequently used the strategy to haplotype two human genomes. Standard genomic sequencing to identify all heterozygous SNPs in the sample was combined with dilution-amplification–based sequencing data to resolve the phase of identified heterozygous SNPs. Using this procedure, we were able to phase >95% of the heterozygous SNPs from the diploid sequence data. The N50 for a Yoruba male DNA was 702 kb whereas the N50 for a European female DNA was 358 kb. Therefore, the strategy described here is suitable for haplotyping of a set of targeted regions as well as of the entire genome. PMID:23509297

  7. Whole-genome haplotyping by dilution, amplification, and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kaper, Fiona; Swamy, Sajani; Klotzle, Brandy; Munchel, Sarah; Cottrell, Joseph; Bibikova, Marina; Chuang, Han-Yu; Kruglyak, Semyon; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Eberle, Michael A; Fan, Jian-Bing

    2013-04-01

    Standard whole-genome genotyping technologies are unable to determine haplotypes. Here we describe a method for rapid and cost-effective long-range haplotyping. Genomic DNA is diluted and distributed into multiple aliquots such that each aliquot receives a fraction of a haploid copy. The DNA template in each aliquot is amplified by multiple displacement amplification, converted into barcoded sequencing libraries using Nextera technology, and sequenced in multiplexed pools. To assess the performance of our method, we combined two male genomic DNA samples at equal ratios, resulting in a sample with diploid X chromosomes with known haplotypes. Pools of the multiplexed sequencing libraries were subjected to targeted pull-down of a 1-Mb contiguous region of the X-chromosome Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. We were able to phase the Duchenne muscular dystrophy region into two contiguous haplotype blocks with a mean length of 494 kb. The haplotypes showed 99% agreement with the consensus base calls made by sequencing the individual DNAs. We subsequently used the strategy to haplotype two human genomes. Standard genomic sequencing to identify all heterozygous SNPs in the sample was combined with dilution-amplification-based sequencing data to resolve the phase of identified heterozygous SNPs. Using this procedure, we were able to phase >95% of the heterozygous SNPs from the diploid sequence data. The N50 for a Yoruba male DNA was 702 kb whereas the N50 for a European female DNA was 358 kb. Therefore, the strategy described here is suitable for haplotyping of a set of targeted regions as well as of the entire genome. PMID:23509297

  8. The extrinsic hysteresis behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lihua; Li, Jian; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Longlong; Li, Junming; Li, Decai

    2014-10-01

    We report on the magnetization behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids based on γ-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) composite nanoparticles (A particles), with diameter about 11 nm, and ferrihydrite (Fe(5)O(7)(OH) ・4H2O) nanoparticles (B particles), with diameter about 6 nm. The results show that for the binary ferrofluids with A-particle volume fraction φ(A) = 0.2% and B-particle volume fractions φ(B) = 0.1% and φ(B) = 0.6%, the magnetization curves exhibit quasi-magnetic hysteresis behavior. The demagnetizing curves coincide with the magnetizing curves at high fields. However, for single γ-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) ferrofluids with φ(A) = 0.2% and binary ferrofluids with φ(A) = 0.2% and φ(B) = 1.0%, the magnetization curves do not behave in this way. Additionally, at high field (750 kA/m), the binary ferrofluid with φ(B) = 1.0% has the smallest magnetization. From the model-of-chain theory, the extrinsic hysteresis behavior of these samples is attributed to the field-induced effects of pre-existing A particle chains, which involve both Brownian rotation of the chains'moments and a Néel rotation of the particles' moments in the chains. The loss of magnetization for the ferrofluids with φ(B) = 1.0% is attributed to pre-existing ring-like A-particle aggregates. These magnetization behaviors of the dilute binary ferrofluids not only depend on features of the strongly magnetic A-particle system, but also modifications of the weaker magnetic B-particle system. PMID:25365919

  9. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H/sub 2/O and /sup 82/Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support.

  10. Effects of high-temperature diluted-H2 annealing on effective mobility of 4H-SiC MOSFETs with thermally-grown SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirohisa; Kita, Koji

    2016-04-01

    The impact of post-oxidation annealing (POA) in diluted-H2 ambient on a 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface was investigated with a cold wall furnace. Effective mobility (μeff) was extracted from lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) by applying the split capacitance-voltage (C-V) technique to the determination of charge density and a calibration technique using two MOSFETs with different gate lengths to minimize the contribution of parasitic components. POA at 1150 °C in diluted-H2 ambient resulted in an enhancement of μeff compared with that for POA in N2 ambient. It was indicated that the effects of POA in diluted H2 should be attributed to the reduction in the density of near interface traps, which disturb the electron transportation in the inversion channel, from the measurement temperature dependence of μeff as well as from the C-V curves of MOS capacitors fabricated on n-type SiC.

  11. Precision of a field method for determination of pH in dilute lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Replicate pH measurements in three dilute lakes made during extreme conditions indicate that pH can be measured in the field with a variance due to measurement error of 0.005 unit. Error of the field technique in measuring the pH of dilute solutions in the laboratory ranges from less than 0.01 unit in dilute strong-acid solutions to about 0.05 unit in air-saturated deionized water.

  12. Exact results for the site-dilute antiferromagnetic Ising model on finite triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farach, H. A.; Creswick, R. J.; Poole, C. P., Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Exact analytical and numerical results for the site-diluted antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice (AFIT) are presented. For infinitesimal dilution the change in the free energy of the system is related to the distribution of local fields, and it is shown that for a frustrated system such as the AFIT, dilution lowers the entropy per spin. For lattices of finite size and dilution the transfer matrix for the partition function is evaluated numerically. The entropy per spin shows a marked minimum near a concentration of spins x=0.70, in some disagreement with earlier transfer-matrix results.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Australian isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae using a new broth dilution method.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Märit; Oxberry, Sophy L; Hampson, David J

    2002-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 76 field isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae from different states of Australia were tested in a newly developed broth dilution procedure. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, erythromycin, lincomycin and clindamycin. The results from the broth dilution susceptibility testing of 39 of the isolates were compared with results obtained for the same isolates using the agar dilution method. Amongst the isolates tested by broth dilution, 17 were from three farms and had been collected over a number of years. Their pulsed field gel electrophoresis pattern previously had been determined. The broth dilution technique was simple to use, less labor intensive than agar dilution, and gave clear end points. The results obtained using the two methods generally corresponded well, although in a few cases the MIC obtained by broth dilution were lower than those with agar dilution. For the 76 isolates tested by broth dilution, the MIC(90) (mg/l) was: tiamulin, 1; valnemulin, 0.5; tylosin>256; erythromycin>256; lincomycin, 64 and clindamycin, 16. Only minor differences in susceptibility patterns were found amongst isolates from different Australian states. Over all the isolates, and also amongst the isolates obtained from different years on the three farms, there was no trend for the susceptibility of the isolates to alter with time. PMID:11731165

  14. Tuning oxygen impurities and microstructure of nanocrystalline silicon photovoltaic materials through hydrogen dilution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As a great promising material for third-generation thin-film photovoltaic cells, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films have a complex mixed-phase structure, which determines its defectful nature and easy residing of oxygen impurities. We have performed a detailed investigation on the microstructure properties and oxygen impurities in the nc-Si:H thin films prepared under different hydrogen dilution ratio treatment by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy have been utilized to fully characterize the microstructure properties of the nc-Si:H films. The oxygen and hydrogen contents have been obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy. And the configuration state of oxygen impurities on the surface of the films has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicating that the films were well oxidized in the form of SiO2. The correlation between the hydrogen content and the volume fraction of grain boundaries derived from the Raman measurements shows that the majority of the incorporated hydrogen is localized inside the grain boundaries. Furthermore, with the detailed information on the bonding configurations acquired from the infrared absorption spectroscopy, a full explanation has been provided for the mechanism of the varying microstructure evolution and oxygen impurities based on the two models of ion bombardment effect and hydrogen-induced annealing effect. PMID:24994958

  15. Application of Uranium Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in the preparation of New Certified Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasözbek, A.; Mathew, K. J.; Orlowicz, G.; Srinivasan, B.; Narayanan, U.

    2012-04-01

    Proven measurement techniques play a critical role in the preparation of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) - those requiring high accuracy and precision in the measurement results. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is one such measurement method commonly used in the quantitative analysis of uranium in nuclear safeguards and isotope geology applications. In this project, we evaluated the possibility of using some of the uranium isotopic and assay CRMs made earlier by the New Brunswick laboratory as IDMS spikes to define the uranium mass fraction in future preparations of CRMs. Uranium solutions prepared from CRM 112-A (a highly pure uranium metal assay standard) and CRM 115 (a highly pure uranium oxide isotopic and assay standard) were used as spikes in the determination of uranium. Two different thermal ionization mass spectrometer instruments (MAT 261 and TRITON) were used for the isotopic measurements. Standard IDMS equation was used for data reduction to yield results for uranium mass fraction along with uncertainties, the latter calculated according to GUM. The results show that uranium mass fraction measurements can be made with the required accuracy and precision for defining the uranium concentration in new CRMs as well as in routine samples analyses.

  16. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  17. Soot surface temperature measurements in pure and diluted flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L.

    2008-10-15

    Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)

  18. Photooxidation of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane film by 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation in dilute oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, S.

    2006-08-01

    Plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane films irradiated under different partial pressures of oxygen with a 172nm vacuum ultraviolet light were investigated in order to clarify the roles of molecular oxygen and photons in photooxidation. The thickness, densities, surface roughness, elemental compositions, and molecular structures of the irradiated and unirradiated films were examined by using glazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, Rutherford backscattering, infrared, and x-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Photooxidation is hardly promoted by irradiation in a high vacuum of 1×10-4Pa, though photodesorption of the methyl group and formation of Si-H bonds were observed. Silica films thicker than 140nm were formed at room temperature by irradiating them in low pressure oxygen gases. The degree of oxidation was smaller for the oxygen pressure of 10kPa than for 83Pa. Si K-edge XAS was performed to clarify the change of coordination environment of silicon by photooxidation in dilute oxygen flow containing less than 5ppm of molecular oxygen.

  19. A liver stress-endocrine nexus promotes metabolic integrity during dietary protein dilution.

    PubMed

    Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A; Schumacher, Jonas; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L; Stemmer, Kerstin; Kiens, Bente; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response-driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency-induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis. PMID:27548521

  20. Tuning oxygen impurities and microstructure of nanocrystalline silicon photovoltaic materials through hydrogen dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chao; Xu, Hao; He, Wei; Li, Zhengping; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-06-01

    As a great promising material for third-generation thin-film photovoltaic cells, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films have a complex mixed-phase structure, which determines its defectful nature and easy residing of oxygen impurities. We have performed a detailed investigation on the microstructure properties and oxygen impurities in the nc-Si:H thin films prepared under different hydrogen dilution ratio treatment by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy have been utilized to fully characterize the microstructure properties of the nc-Si:H films. The oxygen and hydrogen contents have been obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy. And the configuration state of oxygen impurities on the surface of the films has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicating that the films were well oxidized in the form of SiO2. The correlation between the hydrogen content and the volume fraction of grain boundaries derived from the Raman measurements shows that the majority of the incorporated hydrogen is localized inside the grain boundaries. Furthermore, with the detailed information on the bonding configurations acquired from the infrared absorption spectroscopy, a full explanation has been provided for the mechanism of the varying microstructure evolution and oxygen impurities based on the two models of ion bombardment effect and hydrogen-induced annealing effect.

  1. A thermodynamic assessment of the potential synthesis of condensed hydrocarbons during cooling and dilution of volcanic gases.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, M Y; Shock, E L

    2000-01-10

    The possibility for abiotic synthesis of condensed hydrocarbons in cooling/diluting terrestrial volcanic gases has been evaluated on the basis of the consideration of metastable chemical equilibria involving gaseous CO, CO2, H2 and H2O. The stabilities of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) have been evaluated for several typical volcanic gas compositions under various conditions for cooling/diluting of quenched volcanic gas. The modeling shows that n-alkanes and PAHs have a thermodynamic potential to form metastably from H2 and CO below approximately 250 degrees C within the stability field of graphite. Despite the predominance of CO2 in volcanic gases, synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO2 and H2 is less favored energetically than from CO and H2. Both low temperature and a high H/C atomic ratio in volcanic gas generally favor stability of hydrocarbons with higher H/C ratios. PAHs are thermodynamically stable at temperatures approximately 10 degrees -50 degrees C higher than large n-alkanes; however, at lower temperatures, PAHs and n-alkanes have similar stabilities and are likely to form metastable mixtures. Both the energetic drive to form hydrocarbons and possible temperatures of formation increase as the oxidation state (fO2) of the volcanic gases decreases and as the cooling/dilution ratios of volcanic gases increase. Synthesis of hydrocarbons is energetically more likely in cooling trapped gases than in ashcloud eruptive columns. Mechanisms for hydrocarbon formation may include Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis catalyzed by magnetite from solid volcanic products. On the early Earth, Mars, and Jupiter's satellite Europa, several factors would have provided more favorable conditions for hydrocarbon synthesis in volcanic gases than under current terrestrial conditions and might have contributed to the production of organic compounds required for the emergence of life. PMID:11543291

  2. Convection and segregation in directional solidification of dilute and non-dilute binary alloys - Effects of ampoule and furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adornato, Peter M.; Brown, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    A Petrov-Galerkin/finite-element method is used to analyze the effect of furnace configuration and ampoule design on the temperature field, the convection in the melt, the shape of the melt-solid interface, and the segregation of solute in the crystal, in the directional solidification of several dilute and nondilute binary semiconductor alloys. The vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger system leads to a two-cell flow structure, and the constant gradient furnace has only a single cell near the interface. Radial temperature gradients interact with the solute field to cause the previously predicted sideways diffusive instability, and addition of a solute that is less dense than the bulk melt and that is incorporated upon solidification decreases the intensity of the flow near the interface by increasing the melt density there. The present results have application to understanding of the effects on solute segregation of microgavity solidification and of applied magnetic fields.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA as a non-invasive biomarker: Accurate quantification using real time quantitative PCR without co-amplification of pseudogenes and dilution bias

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Afshan N.; Shahni, Rojeen; Rodriguez-de-Ledesma, Ana; Laftah, Abas; Cunningham, Phil

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial dysfunction is central to many diseases of oxidative stress. {yields} 95% of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome. {yields} Dilution of untreated genomic DNA leads to dilution bias. {yields} Unique primers and template pretreatment are needed to accurately measure mitochondrial DNA content. -- Abstract: Circulating mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) is a potential non-invasive biomarker of cellular mitochondrial dysfunction, the latter known to be central to a wide range of human diseases. Changes in MtDNA are usually determined by quantification of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (Mt/N) using real time quantitative PCR. We propose that the methodology for measuring Mt/N needs to be improved and we have identified that current methods have at least one of the following three problems: (1) As much of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome, many commonly used MtDNA primers co-amplify homologous pseudogenes found in the nuclear genome; (2) use of regions from genes such as {beta}-actin and 18S rRNA which are repetitive and/or highly variable for qPCR of the nuclear genome leads to errors; and (3) the size difference of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes cause a 'dilution bias' when template DNA is diluted. We describe a PCR-based method using unique regions in the human mitochondrial genome not duplicated in the nuclear genome; unique single copy region in the nuclear genome and template treatment to remove dilution bias, to accurately quantify MtDNA from human samples.

  4. Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

  5. Thermophysical analysis of II-VI semiconductors by PPE calorimetry and lock-in thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Streza, M.; Dadarlat, D.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2013-11-13

    An accurate determination of thermophysical properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and thermal conductivity is extremely important for characterization and quality assurance of semiconductors. Thermal diffusivity and effusivity of some binary semiconductors have been investigated. Two experimental techniques were used: a contact technique (PPE calorimetry) and a non contact technique (lock-in thermography). When working with PPE, in the back (BPPE) configuration and in the thermally thick regim of the pyroelectric sensor, we can get the thermal diffusivity of the sample by performing a scanning of the excitation frequency of radiation. Thermal effusivity is obtained in front configuration (sensor directly irradiated and sample in back position) by performing a thickness scan of a coupling fluid. By using the lock-in thermography technique, the thermal diffusivity of the sample is obtained from the phase image. The results obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement. Nevertheless, for the determination of thermal diffusivity, lock-in thermography is preferred.

  6. High- and Reproducible-Performance Graphene/II-VI Semiconductor Film Hybrid Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fan; Jia, Feixiang; Cai, Caoyuan; Xu, Zhihao; Wu, Congjun; Ma, Yang; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    High- and reproducible-performance photodetectors are critical to the development of many technologies, which mainly include one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure based and film based photodetectors. The former suffer from a huge performance variation because the performance is quite sensitive to the synthesis microenvironment of 1D nanostructure. Herein, we show that the graphene/semiconductor film hybrid photodetectors not only possess a high performance but also have a reproducible performance. As a demo, the as-produced graphene/ZnS film hybrid photodetector shows a high responsivity of 1.7 × 107 A/W and a fast response speed of 50 ms, and shows a highly reproducible performance, in terms of narrow distribution of photocurrent (38–65 μA) and response speed (40–60 ms) for 20 devices. Graphene/ZnSe film and graphene/CdSe film hybrid photodetectors fabricated by this method also show a high and reproducible performance. The general method is compatible with the conventional planar process, and would be easily standardized and thus pay a way for the photodetector applications. PMID:27349692

  7. Development of MBE II-VI Epilayers on GaAs(211)B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, R. N.; Nozaki, C.; Almeida, L. A.; Jaime-Vasquez, M.; Lennon, C.; Markunas, J. K.; Benson, D.; Smith, P.; Zhao, W. F.; Smith, D. J.; Billman, C.; Arias, J.; Pellegrino, J.

    2012-10-01

    Large-area, low-cost substrates are envisioned for next-generation HgCdTe infrared focal-plane arrays (IRFPA). Si, GaAs, Ge, and InSb have been previously examined as potential candidates. Fabrication of IRFPAs based on these substrates is limited by fundamental materials properties that potentially lead to lower detector performance and operability. Lattice and thermal mismatch between the substrate and epilayer are just two of several material factors that must be considered. We have reviewed these factors in the context of more recent data, and determined it worthwhile to revisit the use of GaAs substrates for epitaxial growth of HgCdTe. Our study starts with an evaluation of the surface quality (epireadiness) of commercially available (211) B-oriented GaAs substrates. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of CdTe buffer layers and subsequent HgCdTe absorber layers are performed in separate vacuum-interconnected chambers. The importance of optimization of the CdTe buffer layer growth for high-quality HgCdTe is detailed through surface morphology and x-ray studies. x-Ray diffraction rocking-curve full-width at half-maximum values as low as 52 arcsec have been obtained. Long-wave infrared Hg1- x Cd x Te ( x = 0.23) has been grown on these buffer layers, producing cross-hatch-dominated surface morphologies, with dislocation densities as low as ˜3 × 106 cm-2. We have also obtained (for optimized layers), 80-K Hall-effect n-type carrier concentration and electron mobility of approximately ~1.5 × 1015 cm-3 and 1 × 105 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Finally, we briefly compare GaAs and Si in light of our preliminary investigation.

  8. Electronic and optical properties of exciton, trions and biexciton in II-VI parabolic quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujanah, P.; John Peter, A.; Woo Lee, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Binding energies of exciton, trions and biexciton and their interband optical transition energies are studied in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot nanostructure taking into consideration the geometrical confinement effect. The radial spread of the wavefunctions, binding energies, optical transition energies, oscillator strength, radiative life time and the absorption coefficients of exciton, positively and negatively charged excitons and biexciton are carried out. It is found that the ratio of the radiative life time of exciton with the trions and biexciton enhances with the reduction of geometrical confinement. The results show that (i) the binding energies of exciton, positive and negative trions and the biexciton have strong influence on the reduction of geometrical confinement effect, (ii) the binding energy is found to decrease from the binding energies of exciton to positive trion through biexciton and negative trion binding energies, (iii) the oscillator strength of trions is found to be lesser than exciton and the biexciton and (iv) the electronic and optical properties of exciton, trions and the biexciton are considerably dependent on the spatial confinement, incident photon energy and the radiative life time. The obtained results are in good agreement with the other existing literature.

  9. Control of physical and optical properties of II-VI quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooklal, Kelly Sonja

    This thesis primarily concentrates on two semiconductors, CdS and ZnS, both of which have been widely used in the fabrication of electrical devices. Nanoparticles of CdS and ZnS have both been prepared using a variety of synthetic methods. These "quantum confined" particles exhibit a wide range of size dependent properties which can be modified by either altering their size and/or surface chemistry. In one set of experiments, it was found that the location of Mn 2+ profoundly affects the photophysics of ZnS nanoclusters. Mn 2+ substituted for Zn2+ in the ZnS lattice produced orange emission with lifetimes that were intermediate between those found for micron clusters and smaller nanoclusters. The addition of Mn2+ to the outside of the preformed ZnS nanoclusters showed near-band gap emission in the ultraviolet with even shorter lifetimes. We have also used these Mn2+ doped nanoclusters to fabricate electroluminescent devices. In another set of experiments, the effects of different ions on the photophysics of ZnS nanoclusters was investigated. Depending on the cation, we have been able to produce ZnS nanoclusters that emit in the blue, green, yellow and orange regions of the visible spectrum by incorporating Cu2+, Pb2+ and Mn2+. Quantum dots of CdS have also been prepared using several different stabilizing agents. CdS nanoparticles that have been synthesized using dendrimers as hosts exhibit striking optical and electronic features. Intense blue-green emission is observed when the CdS-dendrimer nanocomposites are formed in methanol and/or acidified methanol solutions. Bright yellow emission is observed when the semiconductor-dendrimer nanocomposites are prepared in water and/or basic methanol solutions. One additional experiment was performed using capping groups to modify the photophysics of CdS. Nanometer-sized CdS were prepared using a series of 4-substituted thiophenols as capping agents. The 4-substituents included both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups. We have found that it is possible to turn CdS luminescence off depending on the nature of the capping thiophenol ligand, illustrating that chemical control of the surface of the nanoclusters exerts a profound effect on their optical properties.

  10. Time-resolved optical studies of wide-gap II-VI semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong

    ZnSe and ZnSe-based quantum well and superlattice structures are potential candidates for light emitting devices and other optical devices such as switches and modulators working in the blue-green wavelength range. Carrier dynamics studies of these structures are important in evaluating device performance as well as understanding the underlying physical processes. In this thesis, a carrier dynamics investigation is conducted for temperature from 77K to 295K on CdZnSSe/ZnSSe single quantum well structure (SQW) and ZnSe/ZnSTe superlattice fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Two experimental techniques with femtosecond time resolution are used in this work: up-conversion technique for time- resolved photoluminescence (PL) and pump-probe technique for time-resolved differential absorption studies. For both heterostructures, the radiative recombination is dominated by exciton transition due to the large exciton binding energy as a result of quantum confinement effect. The measured decay time of free exciton PL in CdZnSSe/ZnSSe SQW increases linearly with increasing temperature which agrees with the theoretical prediction by considering the conservation of momentum requirement for radiative recombination. However, the recombination of free carriers is also observed in CdZnSSe/ZnSSe SQW for the whole temperature range studied. On the other hand, in ZnSe/ZnSTe superlattice structures, the non- radiative recombination processes are non-negligible even at 77K and become more important in higher temperature range. The relaxation processes such as spectral hole burning, carrier thermalization and hot-carrier cooling are observed in ZnSe/ZnSTe superlattices at room temperature (295K) by the femtosecond pump-probe measurements. A rapid cooling of the thermalized hot- carrier from 763K to 450K within 4ps is deduced. A large optical nonlinearity (i.e., the induced absorption change) around the heavy-hole exciton energy is also obtained.

  11. High Resolution Triple Axis X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of II-VI Semiconductor Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, H. M.; Matyi, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to develop methods of structural analysis based on high resolution triple axis X-ray diffractometry (HRTXD) and to carry out detailed studies of defect distributions in crystals grown in both microgravity and ground-based environments. HRTXD represents a modification of the widely used double axis X-ray rocking curve method for the characterization of grown-in defects in nearly perfect crystals. In a double axis rocking curve experiment, the sample is illuminated by a monochromatic X-ray beam and the diffracted intensity is recorded by a fixed, wide-open detector. The intensity diffracted by the sample is then monitored as the sample is rotated through the Bragg reflection condition. The breadth of the peak, which is often reported as the full angular width at half the maximum intensity (FWHM), is used as an indicator of the amount of defects in the sample. This work has shown that high resolution triple axis X-ray diffraction is an effective tool for characterizing the defect structure in semiconductor crystals, particularly at high defect densities. Additionally, the technique is complimentary to X-ray topography for defect characterization in crystals.

  12. MTF performance: measurements, modelisation, and optimization for Sofradir II-VI IR photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthoz, Jocelyn; Rubaldo, Laurent; Maillard, Magalie; Taalat, Rachid; Grille, Romain; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Kerlain, Alexandre; Ferron, Alexandre; Gravrand, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    SOFRADIR is widely present on the IR detector market for high-performance space, military and security applications thanks to a well mastered Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology, and to the recent acquisition of the III-V InSb, InGaAs, and QWIP technologies. As a result, strong and continuous development efforts are deployed to deliver cutting edge products with improved performances in terms of sensitivity, spatial and thermal resolution. The actual trend in quantum IR detector development is the design of very small pixel, with high operating temperature. The selfconfinement of neighboring diodes may not be efficient enough to maintain optimal modulation transfert function (MTF). This paper presents the recent developments achieved in Sofradir in terms of MTF measurements protocol challenged by the pitch reduction. An overview of state of the art MTF results with optimized measurement technic will be shown, from SWIR to VLWIR MCT focal plane. In order to optimize device performances and reduce development cycle time, this experimental approach has been coupled with finite elements modelisation (FEM). Optimized MTF results for 10μm pitch and HOT MCT technology will be exposed.

  13. Crystal growth of selected II-VI semiconducting alloys by directional solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, D. C.; Cobb, S. D.; Su, C.-H.; Sha, Y.-G.; Andrews, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    A Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te alloy crystal was back-melted and partially resolidified during the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission in the Marshall Space Flight Center's Crystal Growth Furnace. The experiment was inadvertently terminated at about 30% of planned completion. Nonetheless, it was successfully demonstrated that HgZnTe alloy ingots partially grown and quenched on the ground can be back-melted and regrown in space under nearly steady state growth conditions. An identical 'ground-truth' experiment was performed following the mission. Preliminary results are presented for both crystals, as well as for a series of other crystals grown prior to the mission for the purposes of optimizing in-flight growth conditions.

  14. Ground state of the holes localized in II-VI quantum dots with Gaussian potential profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semina, M. A.; Golovatenko, A. A.; Rodina, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the hole states in II-IV quantum dots of spherical and ellipsoidal shapes, described by smooth potential confinement profiles that can be modeled by Gaussian functions in all three dimensions. The universal dependencies of the hole energy, g factor, and localization length on the quantum dot barrier height, as well as the ratio of effective masses of the light and heavy holes are presented for the spherical quantum dots. The splitting of the fourfold degenerate ground state into two doublets is derived for anisotropic (oblate or prolate) quantum dots. Variational calculations are combined with numerical ones in the framework of the Luttinger Hamiltonian. Constructed trial functions are optimized by comparison with the numerical results. The effective hole g factor is found to be independent of the quantum dot size and barrier height and is approximated by a simple universal expression depending only on the effective mass parameters. The results can be used for interpreting and analyzing experimental spectra measured in various structures with quantum dots of different semiconductor materials.

  15. Asymmetric topological interfaces and charge transfer in epitaxial Bi2 Se3 /II-VI superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyi; Zhao, Lukasf; Korzhovska, Inna; Garcia, Thor; Tamargo, Maria; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Park, Kyungwha

    Access to charge transport through Dirac surface states in topological insulators (TIs) can be challenging due to their intermixing with the bulk or with non-topological subsurface two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) quantum well states. Formed by bending of bulk electronic bands near the surface, 2DEG states arise via charge transfer to the topological surfaces, so the choice of layers abutting these surfaces is critical. Here we report molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi2Se3/ZnxCd1-xSe superlattices that support only one topological surface channel per TI layer. The topological nature of conducting channels is evidenced by π-Berry phase and by the two-dimensional weak antilocalization. Both density functional theory calculations and transport measurements suggest that a single topological Dirac cone per TI layer arises from the asymmetry between the Se-terminated and Zn-terminated interfaces of ZnxCd1-xSe with Bi2Se3. Our findings suggest that topological transport could be controlled by adjusting charge transfer from non-topological spacers in hybrid structures. Supported by NSF-DMR-1420634, NSF-DMR-1312483, DOD-W911NF-13-1-0159, NSF DMR-1206354 and computer resources from SDSC under DMR060009N and VT ARC.

  16. Large Exciton Energy Shifts by Reversible Surface Exchange in 2D II-VI Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2015-12-01

    Reaction of n-octylamine-passivated {CdSe[n-octylamine](0.53±0.06)} quantum belts with anhydrous metal carboxylates M(oleate)2 (M = Cd, Zn) results in a rapid exchange of the L-type amine passivation for Z-type M(oleate)2 passivation. The cadmium-carboxylate derivative is determined to have the composition {CdSe[Cd(oleate)2](0.19±0.02)}. The morphologies and crystal structures of the quantum belts are largely unaffected by the exchange processes. Addition of n-octylamine or oleylamine to the M(oleate)2-passivated quantum belts removes M(oleate)2 and restores the L-type amine passivation. Analogous, reversible surface exchanges are also demonstrated for CdS quantum platelets. The absorption and emission spectra of the quantum belts and platelets are reversibly shifted to lower energy by M(oleate)2 passivation vs amine passivation. The largest shift of 140 meV is observed for the Cd(oleate)2-passivated CdSe quantum belts. These shifts are attributed entirely to changes in the strain states in the Zn(oleate)2-passivated nanocrystals, whereas changes in strain states and confinement dimensions contribute roughly equally to the shifts in the Cd(oleate)2-passivated nanocrystals. Addition of Cd(oleate)2, which electronically couples to the nanocrystal lattices, increases the effective thickness of the belts and platelets by approximately a half of a monolayer, thus increasing the confinement dimension. PMID:26568026

  17. Atomic layer epitaxy of II-VI quantum wells and superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faschinger, W.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE) under ultra high vacuum conditions is a variation of MBE which makes use of a self-regulating growth process, leading to digital growth in steps of monolayers or even fractions of monolayers. We report on fundamental aspects of the ALE growth of tellurides and selenides, and give three examples on the physics of ALE-grown structures: (a) Phonon confinement in CdTe/ZnTe superlattices (b) "Spin Sheet" superlattices of cubic MnTe with CdTe and (c) Luminescence tuning in ultra-thin CdSe quantum wells embedded in ZnSe.

  18. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Lehoczky, Sandor; Mook, Herb A.; Scripa, Rose; Zhu, Shen

    2001-01-01

    Recently, in support of the microgravity experiment entitled "Crystal Growth of Selected 11-VI Semiconducting Alloys by Directional Solidification," the viscosity of HgZnTe pseudobinary melt was measured using an oscillating-cup viscometer at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An unexpected time drift of the measured viscosity, which shows a slow relaxation phenomena at temperatures near the liquidus point, was reproducibly observed. Two sets of data were obtained by cooling the Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te melt from 850 C and stabilizing at temperatures of 790 C, which is just above the liquidus temperature, and stabilizing at temperature of 810 C. While it took one day to reach equilibration at 810 C, five days were required at 790 C A similar relaxation phenomenon was also observed in the measured density of the same liquid. Furthermore, in the density measurements of the HgCdTe melts, which is the pseudobinary system studied in another flight experiment entitled "Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals," a negative thermal expansion was reported. The liquid density increases from the liquidus point to a maximum value at a temperature approximately 700 C above the liquidus, where normal thermal expansion progressively resumes.

  19. Assessment of subsurface damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca, D. A.; Wetteland, C. J.; Misra, A.; Klopfstein, M. J.; Nastasi, M.; Maggiore, C. J.; Tesmer, J. R.

    2004-06-01

    Surfaces of bulk single crystal CdS, ZnSe and ZnO were prepared by mechanical polishing with 1 and 1/4 μm diamond abrasive slurries and by chemomechanical polishing with sodium hypochlorite:colloidal silica. Etched surfaces, indicative of original crystalline quality were also prepared. Near surface damage was investigated by ion channeling with He ions using incident beam energies of 2 and 5 MeV and detector positions of 75° and 13°. Damage depths were found to be significantly higher for ZnSe when compared to CdS or ZnO. The chemomechanical polishing process was seen to introduce small but measurable subsurface damage in CdS and ZnSe. However, channeling was unable to detect any damage for the chemomechanically polished ZnO surfaces, a result which was supported by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The presence of damage beyond that identified by the surface peak for the mechanically polished ZnSe surfaces was indicated by the dechanneling behavior below the surface.

  20. High- and Reproducible-Performance Graphene/II-VI Semiconductor Film Hybrid Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fan; Jia, Feixiang; Cai, Caoyuan; Xu, Zhihao; Wu, Congjun; Ma, Yang; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    High- and reproducible-performance photodetectors are critical to the development of many technologies, which mainly include one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure based and film based photodetectors. The former suffer from a huge performance variation because the performance is quite sensitive to the synthesis microenvironment of 1D nanostructure. Herein, we show that the graphene/semiconductor film hybrid photodetectors not only possess a high performance but also have a reproducible performance. As a demo, the as-produced graphene/ZnS film hybrid photodetector shows a high responsivity of 1.7 × 10(7) A/W and a fast response speed of 50 ms, and shows a highly reproducible performance, in terms of narrow distribution of photocurrent (38-65 μA) and response speed (40-60 ms) for 20 devices. Graphene/ZnSe film and graphene/CdSe film hybrid photodetectors fabricated by this method also show a high and reproducible performance. The general method is compatible with the conventional planar process, and would be easily standardized and thus pay a way for the photodetector applications. PMID:27349692