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Sample records for dimensional compressible hydrodynamic

  1. VH-1: Multidimensional ideal compressible hydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John; Blondin, John; Lindahl, Greg; Lufkin, Eric

    2012-04-01

    VH-1 is a multidimensional ideal compressible hydrodynamics code written in FORTRAN for use on any computing platform, from desktop workstations to supercomputers. It uses a Lagrangian remap version of the Piecewise Parabolic Method developed by Paul Woodward and Phil Colella in their 1984 paper. VH-1 comes in a variety of versions, from a simple one-dimensional serial variant to a multi-dimensional version scalable to thousands of processors.

  2. Scaling relations in two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan; Lehner, Luis; Oz, Yaron

    2015-12-01

    We derive exact scaling relations for two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic turbulence in the inertial range of scales. We consider both the energy cascade towards large scales and the enstrophy cascade towards small scales. We illustrate these relations by numerical simulations of turbulent weakly compressible flows. Intriguingly, the fluid-gravity correspondence implies that the gravitational field in black hole/black brane spacetimes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics should exhibit similar scaling relations.

  3. Superresonant instability of a compressible hydrodynamic vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Leandro A.; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luís C. B.

    2016-06-01

    We show that a purely circulating and compressible system, in an adiabatic regime of acoustic propagation, presents superresonant instabilities. To show the existence these instabilities, we compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system numerically using two different frequency domain methods.

  4. Reliable estimation of shock position in shock-capturing compressible hydrodynamics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    The displacement method for estimating shock position in a shock-capturing compressible hydrodynamics code is introduced. Common estimates use simulation data within the captured shock, but the displacement method uses data behind the shock, making the estimate consistent with and as reliable as estimates of material parameters obtained from averages or fits behind the shock. The displacement method is described in the context of a steady shock in a one-dimensional lagrangian hydrodynamics code, and demonstrated on a piston problem and a spherical blast wave.The displacement method's estimates of shock position are much better than common estimates in such applications.

  5. Compressible Lagrangian hydrodynamics without Lagrangian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robert A.

    The partial differential Eqs [2.1, 2.2, and 2.3], along with the equation of state 2.4, which describe the time evolution of compressible fluid flow can be solved without the use of a Lagrangian mesh. The method follows embedded fluid points and uses finite difference approximations to ěc nablaP and ěc nabla · ěc u to update p, ěc u and e. We have demonstrated that the method can accurately calculate highly distorted flows without difficulty. The finite difference approximations are not unique, improvements may be found in the near future. The neighbor selection is not unique, but the one being used at present appears to do an excellent job. The method could be directly extended to three dimensions. One drawback to the method is the failure toexplicitly conserve mass, momentum and energy. In fact, at any given time, the mass is not defined. We must perform an auxiliary calculation by integrating the density field over space to obtain mass, energy and momentum. However, in all cases where we have done this, we have found the drift in these quantities to be no more than a few percent.

  6. CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. II. GRAY RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.; Howell, L.; Burrows, A.

    2011-10-01

    We describe the development of a flux-limited gray radiation solver for the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses an Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. The gray radiation solver is based on a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics. In our approach, the system is split into two parts, one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, and another parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem is solved explicitly with a high-order Godunov scheme, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method.

  7. Pencil: Finite-difference Code for Compressible Hydrodynamic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    The Pencil code is a high-order finite-difference code for compressible hydrodynamic flows with magnetic fields. It is highly modular and can easily be adapted to different types of problems. The code runs efficiently under MPI on massively parallel shared- or distributed-memory computers, like e.g. large Beowulf clusters. The Pencil code is primarily designed to deal with weakly compressible turbulent flows. To achieve good parallelization, explicit (as opposed to compact) finite differences are used. Typical scientific targets include driven MHD turbulence in a periodic box, convection in a slab with non-periodic upper and lower boundaries, a convective star embedded in a fully nonperiodic box, accretion disc turbulence in the shearing sheet approximation, self-gravity, non-local radiation transfer, dust particle evolution with feedback on the gas, etc. A range of artificial viscosity and diffusion schemes can be invoked to deal with supersonic flows. For direct simulations regular viscosity and diffusion is being used. The code is written in well-commented Fortran90.

  8. CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. III. MULTIGROUP RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.; Howell, L.; Burrows, A.; Dolence, J.

    2013-01-15

    We present a formulation for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics that is correct to order O(v/c) using the comoving-frame approach and the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We describe a numerical algorithm for solving the system, implemented in the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses a Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. In our multigroup radiation solver, the system is split into three parts: one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, another part that advects the radiation in frequency space, and a parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem and the frequency space advection are solved explicitly with high-order Godunov schemes, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method. Our multigroup radiation solver works for both neutrino and photon radiation.

  9. CASTRO: A New Compressible Astrophysical Solver. III. Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Howell, L.; Almgren, A.; Burrows, A.; Dolence, J.; Bell, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a formulation for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics that is correct to order O(v/c) using the comoving-frame approach and the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We describe a numerical algorithm for solving the system, implemented in the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses a Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. In our multigroup radiation solver, the system is split into three parts: one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, another part that advects the radiation in frequency space, and a parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem and the frequency space advection are solved explicitly with high-order Godunov schemes, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method. Our multigroup radiation solver works for both neutrino and photon radiation.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic instabilities in stellar core collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Lian, Biao

    2012-03-01

    A spherically symmetric hydrodynamic stellar core collapse process under gravity is time-dependent and may become unstable once disturbed. Subsequent non-linear evolutions of such growth of hydrodynamic instabilities may lead to various physical consequences. Specifically for a homologous collapse of a stellar core characterized by a polytropic exponent Γ= 4/3, we examine oscillations and/or instabilities of three-dimensional (3D) general polytropic perturbations. Being incompressible, the radial component of vorticity perturbation always grows unstably during the same homologous core collapse. For compressible 3D perturbations, the polytropic index γ of perturbations can differ from Γ= 4/3 of the general polytropic hydrodynamic background flow, where the background specific entropy is conserved along streamlines and can vary in radius and time. Our model formulation here is more general than previous ones. The Brunt-Väisälä buoyancy frequency ? does not vanish, allowing for the existence of internal gravity g- modes and/or g+ modes, depending on the sign of ? respectively. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of various oscillatory and unstable perturbation modes are computed, given asymptotic boundary conditions. As studied in several specialized cases of Goldreich & Weber and of Lou & Cao and Cao & Lou, we further confirm that acoustic p modes and surface f modes remain stable in the current more general situations. In comparison, g- modes and sufficiently high radial order g+ modes are unstable, leading to inevitable convective motions within the collapsing stellar interior; meanwhile, sufficiently low radial order g+ modes remain stably trapped in the collapsing core. Unstable growths of 3D g-mode disturbances are governed dominantly by the angular momentum conservation and modified by the gas pressure restoring force. We note in particular that unstable temporal growths of 3D vortical perturbations exist even when the specific entropy distribution becomes

  11. Hydrodynamic stability of three-dimensional homogeneous flow topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Aashwin A.; Girimaji, Sharath S.

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the hydrodynamic stability of various homogeneous three-dimensional flow topologies. The influence of inertial and pressure effects on the stability of flows undergoing strain, rotation, convergence, divergence, and swirl are isolated. In marked contrast to two-dimensional topologies, for three-dimensional flows the inertial effects are always destabilizing, whereas pressure effects are always stabilizing. In streamline topologies with a negative velocity-gradient third invariant, inertial effects prevail leading to instability. Vortex-stretching is identified as the underlying instability mechanism. In flows with positive velocity-gradient third derivative, pressure overcomes inertial effects to stabilize the flow.

  12. One-dimensional XY model: Ergodic properties and hydrodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuhov, A. G.; Suhov, Yu. M.

    1986-11-01

    We prove theorems on convergence to a stationary state in the course of time for the one-dimensional XY model and its generalizations. The key point is the well-known Jordan-Wigner transformation, which maps the XY dynamics onto a group of Bogoliubov transformations on the CAR C *-algebra over Z 1. The role of stationary states for Bogoliubov transformations is played by quasifree states and for the XY model by their inverse images with respect to the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The hydrodynamic limit for the one-dimensional XY model is also considered. By using the Jordan-Wigner transformation one reduces the problem to that of constructing the hydrodynamic limit for the group of Bogoliubov transformations. As a result, we obtain an independent motion of "normal modes," which is described by a hyperbolic linear differential equation of second order. For the XX model this equation reduces to a first-order transfer equation.

  13. Analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth

    2014-12-17

    To help guide our intuition, summarize important features, and point out essential elements, we review the analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics and exhibit the full evolution of the dynamics from the very beginning to subsequent times. Special emphasis is placed on the matching and the interplay between the Khalatnikov solution and the Riemann simple wave solution at the earliest times and in the edge regions at later times.

  14. Analytical Solutions of Landau (1+1)-Dimensional Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Jr, Kenneth F

    2014-01-01

    To help guide our intuition, summarize important features, and point out essential elements, we review the analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics and exhibit the full evolution of the dynamics from the very beginning to subsequent times. Special emphasis is placed on the matching and the interplay between the Khalatnikov solution and the Riemann simple wave solution at the earliest times and in the edge regions at later times.

  15. Second-order (2 +1 ) -dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazow, Dennis; Heinz, Ulrich; Strickland, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We present a complete formulation of second-order (2 +1 ) -dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The resulting framework generalizes leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics by allowing for deviations of the one-particle distribution function from the spheroidal form assumed at leading order. We derive complete second-order equations of motion for the additional terms in the macroscopic currents generated by these deviations from their kinetic definition using a Grad-Israel-Stewart 14-moment ansatz. The result is a set of coupled partial differential equations for the momentum-space anisotropy parameter, effective temperature, the transverse components of the fluid four-velocity, and the viscous tensor components generated by deviations of the distribution from spheroidal form. We then perform a quantitative test of our approach by applying it to the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant expansion in the relaxation time approximation (RTA) in which case it is possible to numerically solve the Boltzmann equation exactly. We demonstrate that the second-order anisotropic hydrodynamics approach provides an excellent approximation to the exact (0+1)-dimensional RTA solution for both small and large values of the shear viscosity.

  16. Scaling and self-similarity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent

    2015-07-01

    The conditions under which depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic equations system as an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) becomes self-similar are investigated by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. Self-similarity conditions due to the 2D k-ε turbulence model are also investigated. The self-similarity conditions for the depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamics are found for the flow variables including the time, the longitudinal length, the transverse length, the water depth, the flow velocities in x- and y-directions, the bed shear stresses in x- and y-directions, the bed shear velocity, the Manning's roughness coefficient, the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, the eddy viscosity, the turbulent kinetic energy, the turbulent dissipation, and the production and the source terms in the k-ε model. By the numerical simulations, it is shown that the IBVP of depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamic flow process in a prototype domain can be self-similar with that of a scaled domain. In fact, by changing the scaling parameter and the scaling exponents of the length dimensions, one can obtain several different scaled domains. The proposed scaling relations obtained by the Lie group scaling approach may provide additional spatial, temporal, and economical flexibility in setting up physical hydraulic models in which two-dimensional flow components are important. PMID:26232977

  17. Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Choi, Hyunho; Liang, Hong

    2015-12-21

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}). However, the R{sub h} represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.

  18. Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Choi, Hyunho; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (Rh). However, the Rh represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.

  19. Advanced three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, W.J.; Kothe, D.B.; Mosso, S.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project is to investigate, implement, and evaluate algorithms that have high potential for improving the robustness, fidelity and accuracy of three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations. Eulerian computations are necessary to simulate a number of important physical phenomena ranging from the molding process for metal parts to nuclear weapons safety issues to astrophysical phenomena such as that associated with a Type 2 supernovae. A number of algorithmic issues were explored in the course of this research including interface/volume tracking, surface physics integration, high resolution integration techniques, multilevel iterative methods, multimaterial hydrodynamics and coupling radiation with hydrodynamics. This project combines core strengths of several Laboratory divisions. The project has high institutional benefit given the renewed emphasis on numerical simulations in Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship and the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative and LANL`s tactical goals related to high performance computing and simulation.

  20. Adaptive rezoner in a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect

    Pyun, J.J.; Saltzman, J.S.; Scannapieco, A.J.; Carroll, D.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to increase spatial resolution without adding additional meshes, an adaptive mesh was incorporated into a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics code along with two-dimensional flux corrected (FCT) remapper. The adaptive mesh automatically generates a mesh based on smoothness and orthogonality, and at the same time also tracks physical conditions of interest by focusing mesh points in regions that exhibit those conditions; this is done by defining a weighting function associated with the physical conditions to be tracked. The FCT remapper calculates the net transportive fluxes based on a weighted average of two fluxes computed by a low-order scheme and a high-order scheme. This averaging procedure produces solutions which are conservative and nondiffusive, and maintains positivity. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  2. Low Mach number two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence - Energy budgets and density fluctuations in a polytropic fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Theory suggests that three distinct types of turbulence can occur in the low Mach number limit of polytropic flow: nearly incompressible flows dominated by vorticity, nearly pure acoustic turbulence dominated by compression, and flows characterized by near statistical equipartition of vorticity and compressions. Distinctions between these kinds of turbulence are investigated here by direct numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic turbulence. Dynamical scalings of density fluctuations, examination of the ratio of transverse to longitudinal velocity fluctuations, and spectral decomposition of the fluctuations are employed to distinguish the nature of these low Mach number solutions. A strong dependence on the initial data is observed, as well as a tendency for enhanced effects of compressibility at later times and at higher wave numbers, as suggested by theories of nearly incompressible flows.

  3. Developing a Multi-Dimensional Hydrodynamics Code with Astrochemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Yang, Seungwon

    2015-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) revealed high resolution molecular lines some of which are still unidentified yet. Because formation of these astrochemical molecules has been seldom studied in traditional chemistry, observations of new molecular lines drew a lot of attention from not only astronomers but also chemists both experimental and theoretical. Theoretical calculations for the formation of these astrochemical molecules have been carried out providing reaction rates for some important molecules, and some of theoretical predictions have been measured in laboratories. The reaction rates for the astronomically important molecules are now collected to form databases some of which are publically available. By utilizing these databases, we develop a multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code that includes the reaction rates of astrochemical molecules. Because this type of hydrodynamics code is able to trace the molecular formation in a non-equilibrium fashion, it is useful to study the formation history of these molecules that affects the spatial distribution of some specific molecules. We present the development procedure of this code and some test problems in order to verify and validate the developed code.

  4. 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics at high baryon densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu; Bleicher, M.; Huovinen, P.; Petersen, H.

    2015-05-01

    A 3+1 dimensional event-by-event viscous hydrodynamic + cascade model is applied for the simulation of heavy ion collision reactions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 6.3... 200 GeV. UrQMD cascade is used for the pre-thermal (pre-hydro) and final (post-hydro) stages of the reaction. The baryon, as well as electric charge densities are consistently taken into account in the model. For this aim the equation of state based on a Chiral model coupled to the Polyakov loop is used in hydrodynamic phase of evolution. As a result of the model adjustment to the experimental data, the effective values of the shear viscosity over entropy density η/s are obtained for different collision energies in the BES region. A decrease of the effective values of η/s from 0.2 to 0.08 is observed as collision energy increases from \\sqrt{s} ≈ 7 to 39 GeV.

  5. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a tidal estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element model is described which is used in the computation of tidal currents in an estuary. This numerical model is patterned after an existing algorithm and has been carefully tested in rectangular and curve-sided channels with constant and variable depth. One of the common uncertainties in this class of two-dimensional hydrodynamic models is the treatment of the lateral boundary conditions. Special attention is paid specifically to addressing this problem. To maintain continuity within the domain of interest, ‘smooth’ curve-sided elements must be used at all shoreline boundaries. The present model uses triangular, isoparametric elements with quadratic basis functions for the two velocity components and a linear basis function for water surface elevation. An implicit time integration is used and the model is unconditionally stable. The resultant governing equations are nonlinear owing to the advective and the bottom friction terms and are solved iteratively at each time step by the Newton-Raphson method. Model test runs have been made in the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, California (South Bay) as well as in the Bay west of Carquinez Strait. Owing to the complex bathymetry, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Bay system are dictated by the generally shallow basins which contain deep, relict river channels. Great care must be exercised to ensure that the conservation equations remain locally as well as globally accurate. Simulations have been made over several representative tidal cycles using this finite element model, and the results compare favourably with existing data. In particular, the standing wave in South Bay and the progressive wave in the northern reach are well represented.

  6. Two-dimensional symmetrical inlets with external compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruden, P

    1950-01-01

    The purpose of inlets like, for instance, those of air-cooled radiators and scoops is to take a certain air quantity out of the free stream and to partly convert the free-stream velocity into pressure. In the extreme case this pressure conversion may occur either entirely in the interior of the inlet (inlet with internal compression) or entirely in the free stream ahead of the inlet (inlet with external compression). In this report a theory for two-dimensional inlets with external compression is developed and illustrated by numerical examples. Intermediary forms between inlets with internal and external compression which can be derived from the latter are briefly discussed.

  7. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing in a microfluidic Coulter counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Sethu, P.; Harnett, C. K.

    2008-04-01

    Electrical impedance-based particle detection or Coulter counting, offers a lab-on-chip compatible method for flow cytometry. Developments in this area will produce devices with greater portability, lower cost, and lower power requirements than fluorescence-based flow cytometry. Because conventional Coulter apertures are prone to clogging, hydrodynamic focusing improves the device by creating fluid-walled channels with variable width to increase sensitivity without the associated risk of blocking the channel. We describe a device that focuses the sample in three dimensions, creating a narrow sample stream on the floor of the channel for close interaction with sensing electrodes. The key to this design is a stepped outlet channel fabricated in a single layer with soft lithography. In contrast to previous impedance-based designs, the new design requires minimal alignment with the substrate. Three-dimensional focusing maximizes the sensitivity of the device to cell-size particles within much larger channels. Impedance-based particle sensing experiments within this device show an increase in percentage conductivity change by a factor of 2.5 over devices that only focus the sample in the horizontal direction.

  8. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Nordhaus, Jason; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Balick, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that this Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, thought be a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with ASTROBEAR. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to construct the broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images from our simulations. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could result from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  9. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Nordhaus, Jason; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Balick, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that this Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula. As one of nearest and brightest asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, thought be a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with ASTROBEAR. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to construct the broad-band spectral energy distribution and synthetic observational images from our simulations. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could result from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  10. A Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing Method for Polyplex Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengqian; Ho, Yi-Ping; Grigsby, Christopher L.; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Leong, Kam W.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Successful intracellular delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics relies on multi-aspect optimization, one of which is formulation. While there has been ample innovation on chemical design of polymeric gene carriers, the same cannot be said for physical processing of polymer-DNA nanocomplexes (polyplexes). Conventional synthesis of polyplexes by bulk mixing depends on the operators’ experience. The poorly controlled bulk-mixing process may also lead to batch-to-batch variation and consequent irreproducibility. Here, we synthesize polyplexes by using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF) technique in a single-layered, planar microfluidic device. Without any additional chemical treatment or post processing, the polyplexes prepared by the 3D-HF method show smaller size, slower aggregation rate, and higher transfection efficiency, while exhibiting reduced cytotoxicity compared to the ones synthesized by conventional bulk mixing. In addition, by introducing external acoustic perturbation, mixing can be further enhanced, leading to even smaller nanocomplexes. The 3D-HF method provides a simple and reproducible process for synthesizing high-quality polyplexes, addressing a critical barrier in the eventual translation of nucleic acid therapeutics. PMID:24341632

  11. Incompressible-compressible flows with a transient discontinuous interface using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, S. J.; Stansby, P. K.; Rogers, B. D.

    2016-03-01

    A new two-phase incompressible-compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been developed where the interface is discontinuous in density. This is applied to water-air problems with a large density difference. The incompressible phase requires surface pressure from the compressible phase and the compressible phase requires surface velocity from the incompressible phase. Compressible SPH is used for the air phase (with the isothermal stiffened ideal gas equation of state for low Mach numbers) and divergence-free (projection based) incompressible SPH is used for the water phase, with the addition of Fickian shifting to produce sufficiently homogeneous particle distributions to enable stable, accurate, converged solutions without noise in the pressure field. Shifting is a purely numerical particle regularisation device. The interface remains a true material discontinuity at a high density ratio with continuous pressure and velocity at the interface. This approach with the physics of compressibility and incompressibility represented is novel within SPH and is validated against semi-analytical results for a two-phase elongating and oscillating water drop, analytical results for low amplitude inviscid standing waves, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and a dam break problem with high interface distortion and impact on a vertical wall where experimental and other numerical results are available.

  12. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation II: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Makito; Umemura, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (106-7 M⊙) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation suppresses the formation of hydrogen molecules in the shadowed regions and the regions are compressed by UV heated ambient gas. The properties of resultant star clusters match those of GCs. On the other hand, in weak UV radiation fields, dark matter-dominated star clusters with low stellar density form due to the self-shielding effect as well as the positive feedback by ionizing photons. Thus, we conclude that the "supersonic infall" under a strong UV background is a potential mechanism to form GCs.

  13. Gaseous laser targets and optical diagnostics for studying compressible hydrodynamic instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J M; Robey, H; Mackinnon, A

    2001-06-29

    Explore the combination of optical diagnostics and gaseous targets to obtain important information about compressible turbulent flows that cannot be derived from traditional laser experiments for the purposes of V and V of hydrodynamics models and understanding scaling. First year objectives: Develop and characterize blast wave-gas jet test bed; Perform single pulse shadowgraphy of blast wave interaction with turbulent gas jet as a function of blast wave Mach number; Explore double pulse shadowgraphy and image correlation for extracting velocity spectra in the shock-turbulent flow interaction; and Explore the use/adaptation of advanced diagnostics.

  14. Hydrodynamics of rotating stars and close binary interactions: Compressible ellipsoid models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Dong; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to study the dynamics of fluid polytropes in three dimensions. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids, and the hydrodynamic equations are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes and other global quantities. Both viscous dissipation and the gravitational radiation reaction are incorporated. We establish the validity of our approximations and demonstrate the simplicity and power of the method by rederiving a number of known results concerning the stability and dynamical oscillations of rapidly rotating polytropes. In particular, we present a generalization to compressible fluids of Chandrasekhar's classical results for the secular and dynamical instabilities of incompressible Maclaurin spheroids. We also present several applications of our method to astrophysical problems of great current interest, such as the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole, the coalescence of compact binaries driven by the emission of gravitational waves, and the development of instabilities in close binary systems.

  15. Implementation of the Turn Function Method in a three-dimensional, parallelized hydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orourke, P. J.; Fairfield, M. S.

    1992-08-01

    The implementation of the Turn Function Method in KIVA-F90, a version of the KIVA computer program written in the FORTRAN 90 programming language that is used on some massively parallel computers is described. The Turn Function Method solves both linear momentum and vorticity equations in numerical calculations of compressible fluid flow. Solving a vorticity equation allows vorticity to be both conserved and transported more accurately than in traditional methods for computing compressible flow. This first implementation of the Turn Function Method in a three-dimensional hydrodynamics code involved some modification of the original method and some numerical difference approximations. In particular, a penalty method is used to keep the divergence of the computed vorticity field close to zero. Difference operators are also defined in such a way that the finite difference analog of del(del x u) = 0 is exactly satisfied. Three example problems show the increased computational cost and the accuracy to be gained by using the Turn Function Method in calculations of flows with rotational motion. Use of the Method can increase by 60 percent the computational times of the Euler equation solver in KIVA-F90, but it is concluded that this increased cost is justified by the increased accuracy.

  16. The core helium flash revisited. II. Two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocák, M.; Müller, E.; Weiss, A.; Kifonidis, K.

    2009-07-01

    Context: We study turbulent convection during the core helium flash close to its peak by comparing the results of two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Aims: In a previous study we found that the temporal evolution and the properties of the convection inferred from two-dimensional hydrodynamic studies are similar to those predicted by quasi-hydrostatic stellar evolutionary calculations. However, as vorticity is conserved in axisymmetric flows, two-dimensional simulations of convection are characterized by incorrect dominant spatial scales and exaggerated velocities. Here, we present three-dimensional simulations that eliminate the restrictions and flaws of two-dimensional models and that provide a geometrically unbiased insight into the hydrodynamics of the core helium flash. In particular, we study whether the assumptions and predictions of stellar evolutionary calculations based on the mixing-length theory can be confirmed by hydrodynamic simulations. Methods: We used a multidimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code based on state-of-the-art numerical techniques to simulate the evolution of the helium core of a 1.25 M⊙ Pop I star. Results: Our three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of a star during the peak of the core helium flash do not show any explosive behavior. The convective flow patterns developing in the three-dimensional models are structurally different from those of the corresponding two-dimensional models, and the typical convective velocities are lower than those found in their two-dimensional counterparts. Three-dimensional models also tend to agree more closely with the predictions of mixing length theory. Our hydrodynamic simulations show the turbulent entrainment that leads to a growth of the convection zone on a dynamic time scale. In contrast to mixing length theory, the outer part of the convection zone is characterized by a subadiabatic temperature gradient.

  17. Secondary three-dimensional instability in compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1989-01-01

    Three dimensional linear secondary instability theory is extended for compressible boundary layers on a flat plate in the presence of finite amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for strong growth of subharmonics in low disturbance environment.

  18. A 3-dimensional mass conserving element for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, G.; Suri, M.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of finite element schemes has been used in the numerical approximation of compressible flows particularly in underwater acoustics. In many instances instabilities have been generated due to the lack of mass conservation. Two- and three-dimensional elements are developed which avoid these problems.

  19. Magneto-hydrodynamic calculation of magnetic flux compression using imploding cylindrical liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jibo; Sun, Chengwei; Gu, Zhuowei

    2015-06-01

    Based on the one-dimensional elastic-plastic reactive hydrodynamic code SSS, the one-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamics code SSS/MHD is developed successfully, and calculation is carried for cylindrical magneto cumulative generators (MC-1 device). The magnetic field diffusion into liner and sample tuber is analyzed, and the result shows that the maximum value of magnetic induction intensity to cavity 0.2 mm in liner is only sixteen Tesla, while the one in sample tuber is several hundred Tesla, which is caused by balancing of electromagnetism force and imploding one for the different velocity of liner and sample tuber. The curves of magnetic induction intensity on axes of cavity and the velocity history on the wall of sample tuber are calculated, which accord with the experiment results. The works in this paper account for that code SSS/MHD can be applied in experiment configures of detonation, shock and electromagnetism load and improve of parameter successfully. The experiment data can be estimated, analyzed and checked validly, and the physics course of correlative device can be understood deeply, according to SSS/MHD. This work was supported by the special funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 11176002.

  20. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for pressures induced near the coating-water interface during laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benxin; Shin, Yung C.

    2007-01-01

    In laser shock peening (LSP) under a water-confinement regime, laser-matter interaction near the coating-water interface can induce very high pressures in the order of gigapascal, which can impart compressive residual stresses into metal workpieces to improve fatigue and corrosion properties. However, self-closed models with spatial distribution considerations for the induced pressures near the coating-water interface in LSP are rarely reported in literature. In this paper, a self-closed model is developed by numerically solving the one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations, supplemented with appropriate equations of state of water and the coating material. The model can produce the one-dimensional spatial distributions of the material responses near the water-coating interface in LSP. The model-predicted pressures have been compared with experimental measurements under a variety of conditions typical for LSP, and good agreements have been found for both the transient pressure history and the peak pressure magnitude.

  1. A 2-dimensional MHD code & survey of the ``buckling'' phenomenon in cylindrical magnetic flux compression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Wang, Ganghua; Gu, Zhuowei; Computational Physics Team

    2015-11-01

    We made a 2-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamics Lagrangian code. The code handles two kinds of magnetic configuration, a (x-y) plane with z-direction magnetic field Bz and a (r-z) plane with θ-direction magnetic field Bθ. The solving of the MHD equations is split into a pure dynamical step (i.e., ideal MHD) and a diffusion step. In the diffusion step, the Joule heat is calculated with a numerical scheme based on an specific form of the Joule heat production equation, ∂eJ/∂t = ∇ . (η/μ0 º × (∇ × º)) -∂/∂t (1/2μ0 B2) , where the term ∂/∂t (1/2μ0 B2) is the magnetic field energy variation caused solely by diffusion. This scheme insures the equality of the total Joule heat produced and the total electromagnetic energy lost in the system. Material elastoplasticity is considered in the code. An external circuit is coupled to the magneto-hydrodynamics and a detonation module is also added to enhance the code's ability for simulating magnetically-driven compression experiments. As a first application, the code was utilized to simulate a cylindrical magnetic flux compression experiment. The origin of the ``buckling'' phenomenon observed in the experiment is explored.

  2. CASTRO: A New AMR Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code for Compressible Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almgren, Ann; Bell, J.; Day, M.; Howell, L.; Joggerst, C.; Myra, E.; Nordhaus, J.; Singer, M.; Zingale, M.

    2010-01-01

    CASTRO is a new, multi-dimensional, Eulerian AMR radiation-hydrodynamics code designed for astrophysical simulations. The code includes routines for various equations of state and nuclear reaction networks, and can be used with Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical coordinates. Time integration of the hydrodynamics equations is based on a higher-order, unsplit Godunov scheme. Self-gravity can be calculated on the adaptive hierarchy using a simple monopole approximation or a full Poisson solve for the potential. CASTRO includes gray and multigroup radiation diffusion. Multi-species neutrino diffusion for supernovae is nearing completion. The adaptive framework of CASTRO is based on an time-evolving hierarchy of nested rectangular grids with refinement in both space and time; the entire implementation is designed to run on thousands of processors. We describe in more detail how CASTRO is implemented and can be used for a number of different simulations. Our initial applications of CASTRO include Type Ia and Type II supernovae. This work has been supported by the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under contracts No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC), and No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL); and LLNL contracts B582735 and B574691(Stony Brook). Calculations shown were carried out on Franklin at NERSC.

  3. Three-dimensional compressible and stretchable conductive composites.

    PubMed

    Yu, You; Zeng, Jifang; Chen, Chaojian; Xie, Zhuang; Guo, Ruisheng; Liu, Zhilu; Zhou, Xuechang; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) conductive composites with remarkable flexibility, compressibility, and stretchability are fabricated by solution deposition of thin metal coatings on chemically modified, macroscopically continuous, 3D polyurethane sponges, followed by infiltration of the metallic sponges with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These low-cost conductive composites are used as high-performance interconnects for flexible and stretchable light-emitting diode (LED) arrays, even with severe surface abrasion or cutting. PMID:24307070

  4. Developing a weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for biological flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Yaroslav; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless particle method originally developed for astrophysics applications in 1977. Over the years, limitations of the original formulations have been addressed by different groups to extend the domain of SPH application. In biologically relevant internal flows, two of the several challenges still facing SPH are 1) treatment of inlet, outlet, and no slip boundary conditions and 2) treatment of second derivatives present in the viscous terms. In this work, we develop a 2D weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) for simulating viscous internal flows which incorporates some of the recent advancements made by groups in the above two areas. The method is validated against several analytical and experimental benchmark solutions for both steady and unsteady laminar flows. In particular, the 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration benchmark test case for medical devices - steady forward flow through a nozzle with a sudden contraction and conical diffuser - is simulated for different Reynolds numbers in the laminar region and results are validated against the published experimental and CFD datasets. Support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS AT SCALES OF ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE. (R825760)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling of flow features that are important in assessing stream habitat conditions has been a long-standing interest of stream biologists. Recently, they have begun examining the usefulness of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic models in attaining this objective. Current modelin...

  6. ONE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC/SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR STREAM NETWORKS: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report describes a new sediment transport model and the supporting post-processor, and sampling procedures for sediments in streams. Specifically, the following items are described herein:

    EFDC1D - This is a new one-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment tr...

  7. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  8. Dimensional similitude and the hydrodynamics of three- phase fluidized beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safoniuk, Michael

    It is proposed that scaling of three-phase fluidized bed hydrodynamics can be carried out based on geometric similarity and matching of a set of five dimensionless groups: (i)the M-group, M = g.Δρ.μ L4/(ρL2.σ 3); (ii)an Eötvös number, Eo = g.Δρ.d p2/σ (iii)the liquid Reynolds number, Re L = ρL.dp.UL/μ L; (iv)a density ratio, βd = ρp/ρ L; and (v)a superficial velocity ratio, βu = U g/UL. These were varied in an experimental study where four dimensionless hydrodynamic parameters were measured: (i)gas hold-up, ɛ g; (ii)bed expansion ratio, βbe (iii)the ratio of mean bubble diameter to particle diameter, db/dp ; and (iv)the ratio of mean bubble rise velocity to gas superficial velocity, Ub/Ug. This approach was validated experimentally by matching the dimensionless operating conditions from a kerosene-nitrogen-ceramic three-phase system with those in an aqueous magnesium sulphate solution-air-aluminum particle fluidized bed. There was good agreement between the gas hold-ups and bed expansion ratios in the two systems. A pilot-plant scale cold-flow co-current upwards-flowing three-phase fluidized bed column of inside diameter 292 mm was built and operated using three different liquids (tap water, an aqueous 44 mass % glycerol solution, and an aqueous 60 mass % glycerol solution), air, and cylindrical aluminum particles of diameter 4 mm and length 10 mm. The fluids and solids were carefully selected to result in dimensionless group values in the range of those of an industrial hydroprocessor. Specially built conductivity probes and pressure transducers were used to measure the hydrodynamic properties for different gas and liquid superficial velocities. Special attention was required to provide for drift and calibration when recording and analyzing data from the conductivity probes. Gas hold-ups were in the range of 5 to 20% by volume and were correlated as a function of liquid-phase Reynolds number and superficial velocity ratio. The gas hold-ups were a

  9. Three Dimensional Simulations of Compressible Hall MHD Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    We have developed three dimensional, time dependent, compressible, non-adiabatic, driven and massively parallelized Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate turbulent spectral cascades in a regime where characteristic lengthscales associated with plasma fluctuations are smaller than ion gyro radii. Such regime is ubiquitously present in solar wind and many other collisionless space plasmas. Particularly in the solar wind, the high time resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high frequency regime. In the regime, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD models. With the help of our 3D Hall MHD code, we find that characteristic turbulent interactions in the high frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic Alfven time scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic Alfven interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of kinetic and magnetic energies.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a bubbling fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.; Soong, Y.; Gidaspow, D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed starting from an ill-posed model. The new model has predicted a roughly-spheroidal bubble shape and computed porosity distributions consistent with experimental observations with no disturbing ``fountain`` as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of gas-solids flows of practical interest such as fluidization, pneumatic conveying, and two-phase jets, as well as liquid-solids flows.

  11. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Collapsing Prolate Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. P.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    1993-12-01

    We present the results of collapse calculations for elongated clouds performed using the numerical method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The clouds considered are isothermal, prolate spheroids with different axial ratios (a/b). Results are obtained for different values of a/b and mbarL, the mean mass per unit length. It is found that initially uniform clouds undergo fragmentation when the collapse is preferentially down on to the major axis, due to the intrinsic instability of a linear configuration. This occurs when the value of mbarL is sufficiently large. A criterion for elongated clouds to undergo linear collapse is derived using the tensor virial theorem, and it is found that the numerically obtained value of mbarL for which fragmentation occurs corresponds closely to that expected from analytical considerations. The addition of small density perturbations simply results in clouds that fragment more easily, particularly for cases in which a/b is close to unity. Previous calculations, presented by other authors for the case of finite cylinders, show that clouds with cylindrical geometries are highly unstable to the formation of two fragments that occur at the ends of the cylinder. We find that collapsing, prolate spheroids show qualitatively different behaviour, with no preferred tendency to form fragments at the ends of the cloud. Instead fragmentation appears to occur more readily towards the centre of the cloud where the local mass per unit length is greatest. Our implementation of SPH employs spatially variable smoothing lengths, h. In order to obtain a Hamiltonian system, we incorporate terms involving the spatial variability of h in the particle equations of motion, not included in previous implementations. We find that inclusion of these ∇h terms results in much improved energy conservation, but has little effect on the qualitative outcome of the calculations presented here. (fset 'queer "∇")

  12. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-17

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore » of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less

  13. Plasmas in particle accelerators: a hydrodynamic model of three-dimensional electrostatic instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.; Krafft, G.A.; Wang, T.S.F.

    1981-12-01

    A hydrodynamic model is used to help isolate possible three dimensional space charge instabilities in beam plasmas of concern in designing heavy ion accelerators for inertial confinement fusion energy applications. The model provides an economic means for searching the large parameter space relevant to problems in which coupling of longitudinal and transverse motions is allowed. It is shown that the equilibrium axial hydrodynamic pressure of the beam plasma has a significant effect on the stability boundaries of a two-rotating-stream instability. When considering the resistive wall effect, this model shows a kink instability. The growth rate of some modes could be enhanced by increasing the equilibrium axial pressure.

  14. Multi-dimensional high-order numerical schemes for Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, William W; Woodward, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    An approximate solver for multi-dimensional Riemann problems at grid points of unstructured meshes, and a numerical scheme for multi-dimensional hydrodynamics have been developed in this paper. The solver is simple, and is developed only for the use in numerical schemes for hydrodynamics. The scheme is truely multi-dimensional, is second order accurate in both space and time, and satisfies conservation laws exactly for mass, momentum, and total energy. The scheme has been tested through numerical examples involving strong shocks. It has been shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of high-order Codunov schemes; robust operation in the presence of very strong shocks and thin shock fronts.

  15. On two-dimensional flows of compressible fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Stefan

    1945-01-01

    This report is devoted to the study of two-dimensional steady motion of a compressible fluid. It is shown that the complete flow pattern around a closed obstacle cannot be obtained by the method of Chaplygin. In order to overcome this difficulty, a formula for the stream-function of a two-dimensional subsonic flow is derived. The formula involves an arbitrary function of a complex variable and yields all possible subsonic flow patterns of certain types. Conditions are given so that the flow pattern in the physical plane will represent a flow around a closed curve. The formula obtained can be employed for the approximate determination of a subsonic flow around an obstacle. The method can be extended to partially supersonic flows.

  16. Three-dimensional active imaging using compressed gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Huidong; He, Weiji; Miao, Zhuang; Chen, Yunfei; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    Due to the numerous applications employed 3D data such as target detection and recognition, three-dimensional (3D) active imaging draws great interest recently. Employing a pulsed laser as the illumination source and an intensified sensor as the image sensor, the 3D active imaging method emits and then records laser pulses to infer the distance between the target and the sensor. One of the limitations of the 3D active imaging is that acquiring depth map with high depth resolution requires a full range sweep, as well as a large number of detections, which limits the detection speed. In this work, a compressed gating method combining the 3D active imaging and compressive sensing (CS) is proposed on the basis of the random gating method to achieve the depth map reconstruction from a significantly reduced number of detections. Employing random sequences to control the sensor gate, this method estimates the distance and reconstructs the depth map in the framework of CS. A simulation was carried out to estimate the performance of the proposed method. A scene generated by the 3ds Max was employed as target and a reconstruction algorithm was used to recover the depth map in the simulation. The simulation results have shown that the proposed method can reconstruct the depth map with slight reconstruction error using as low as 7% detections that the conventional method requires and achieve perfect reconstruction from about 10% detections under the same depth resolution. It has also indicated that the number of detections required is affected by depth resolution, noise generated by a variety of reasons and complexity of the target scene. According to the simulation results, the compressed gating method is able to be used in the case of long range with high depth resolution and robust to various types of noise. In addition, the method is able to be used for multiple-return signals measurement without increase in the number of detections.

  17. Compressibility sum rule for the two-dimensional electron gas.

    PubMed

    Das, M P; Golden, K I; Green, F

    2001-07-01

    The authors establish formulas for the isothermal compressibility and long-wavelength static density-density response function of a weakly correlated two-dimensional electron gas in the 1

  18. Parallelization of a three-dimensional compressible transition code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    The compressible, three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a 20 processor Flex/32 computer. The code is a parallel implementation of an existing code operational on the Cray-2 at NASA Ames, which performs direct simulations of the initial stages of the transition process of wall-bounded flow at supersonic Mach numbers. Spectral collocation in all three spatial directions (Fourier along the plate and Chebyshev normal to it) ensures high accuracy of the flow variables. By hiding most of the parallelism in low-level routines, the casual user is shielded from most of the nonstandard coding constructs. Speedups of 13 out of a maximum of 16 are achieved on the largest computational grids.

  19. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade. PMID:12935242

  20. Three dimensional inviscid compressible calculations around axial flow turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmaux, Antoine; Petot, Bertrand

    1991-12-01

    The application of a three dimensional (3D) method to the prediction of steady inviscid compressible flows in highly loaded stator bladings is presented. The complete set of Euler equations is solved by a finite difference method using a time marching two step Lax-Wendorff algorithm. The treatment of the boundary conditions is based on the use of the characteristic relations. This technique offers a great versatility and allows to prescribe conditions close to the physics of flows encountered in turbomachines. The code was adapted in order to build a 3D design tool able to run in different types of turbine blade geometries. Two types of multidomain structured meshes were tested (H+0+H and H+C). The H+C type of grid was finally choosen for industrial applications. Two applications to turbine nozzles are presented. The first is a low pressure turbine vane with evolutive flow path outer diameter. The results demonstrate the ability to predict flow features that cannot be computed via the classical two dimensional approach. The second is a high pressure inlet guide vane at transonic conditions. The strong radial evolution of pressure distribution and the trailing edge flow pattern are correctly predicted.

  1. Two dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of high pressures induced by high power nanosecond laser-matter interactions under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benxin; Shin, Yung C.

    2007-05-01

    In laser shock peening (LSP) under a water-confinement regime, laser-matter interaction near the coating-water interface can induce very high pressures in the order of gigapascals, which can impart compressive residual stresses into metal workpieces to improve fatigue and corrosion properties. For axisymmetric laser spots with finite size, the pressure generation near the water-coating interface is a two dimensional process in nature. This is in particular the case for microscale LSP performed with very small laser spots, which is a very promising technique to improve the reliability performance of microdevices. However, models capable of predicting two dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of the induced pressures near the coating-water interface in LSP have rarely been reported in literature. In this paper, a predictive 2D axisymmetric model is developed by numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations, supplemented with appropriate equations of state of water and the coating material. The model can produce 2D spatial distributions of material responses near the water-coating interface in LSP, and is verified through comparisons with experimental measurements. The model calculation shows that the effect of radial release wave on pressure spatial distributions becomes more significant as the laser spot size decreases, indicating the importance of a 2D model, particularly for microscale LSP.

  2. Two dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of high pressures induced by high power nanosecond laser-matter interactions under water

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Benxin; Shin, Yung C.

    2007-05-15

    In laser shock peening (LSP) under a water-confinement regime, laser-matter interaction near the coating-water interface can induce very high pressures in the order of gigapascals, which can impart compressive residual stresses into metal workpieces to improve fatigue and corrosion properties. For axisymmetric laser spots with finite size, the pressure generation near the water-coating interface is a two dimensional process in nature. This is in particular the case for microscale LSP performed with very small laser spots, which is a very promising technique to improve the reliability performance of microdevices. However, models capable of predicting two dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of the induced pressures near the coating-water interface in LSP have rarely been reported in literature. In this paper, a predictive 2D axisymmetric model is developed by numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations, supplemented with appropriate equations of state of water and the coating material. The model can produce 2D spatial distributions of material responses near the water-coating interface in LSP, and is verified through comparisons with experimental measurements. The model calculation shows that the effect of radial release wave on pressure spatial distributions becomes more significant as the laser spot size decreases, indicating the importance of a 2D model, particularly for microscale LSP.

  3. A 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamic code for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Huovinen, P.; Bleicher, M.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the details of 3+1 dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code for the simulations of quark-gluon/hadron matter expansion in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The code solves the equations of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics in the Israel-Stewart framework. With the help of ideal-viscous splitting, we keep the ability to solve the equations of ideal hydrodynamics in the limit of zero viscosities using a Godunov-type algorithm. Milne coordinates are used to treat the predominant expansion in longitudinal (beam) direction effectively. The results are successfully tested against known analytical relativistic inviscid and viscous solutions, as well as against existing 2+1D relativistic viscous code. Catalogue identifier: AETZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 825 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 92 750 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: any with a C++ compiler and the CERN ROOT libraries. Operating system: tested on GNU/Linux Ubuntu 12.04 x64 (gcc 4.6.3), GNU/Linux Ubuntu 13.10 (gcc 4.8.2), Red Hat Linux 6 (gcc 4.4.7). RAM: scales with the number of cells in hydrodynamic grid; 1900 Mbytes for 3D 160×160×100 grid. Classification: 1.5, 4.3, 12. External routines: CERN ROOT (http://root.cern.ch), Gnuplot (http://www.gnuplot.info/) for plotting the results. Nature of problem: relativistic hydrodynamical description of the 3-dimensional quark-gluon/hadron matter expansion in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Solution method: finite volume Godunov-type method. Running time: scales with the number of hydrodynamic cells; typical running times on Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770 CPU @ 3.40 GHz, single thread mode, 160

  4. Development of a Three-Dimensional PSE Code for Compressible Flows: Stability of Three-Dimensional Compressible Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.; Jeyasingham, Samarasingham

    1999-01-01

    A program is developed to investigate the linear stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows over bodies of revolutions. The problem is formulated as a two dimensional (2D) eigenvalue problem incorporating the meanflow variations in the normal and azimuthal directions. Normal mode solutions are sought in the whole plane rather than in a line normal to the wall as is done in the classical one dimensional (1D) stability theory. The stability characteristics of a supersonic boundary layer over a sharp cone with 50 half-angle at 2 degrees angle of attack is investigated. The 1D eigenvalue computations showed that the most amplified disturbances occur around x(sub 2) = 90 degrees and the azimuthal mode number for the most amplified disturbances range between m = -30 to -40. The frequencies of the most amplified waves are smaller in the middle region where the crossflow dominates the instability than the most amplified frequencies near the windward and leeward planes. The 2D eigenvalue computations showed that due to the variations in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the most amplified disturbances are shifted to 120 degrees compared to 90 degrees for the parallel theory. It is also observed that the nonparallel amplification rates are smaller than that is obtained from the parallel theory.

  5. Effect of Hydrodynamic Interactions on Self-Diffusion of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Colloidal Hard Spheres.

    PubMed

    Thorneywork, Alice L; Rozas, Roberto E; Dullens, Roel P A; Horbach, Jürgen

    2015-12-31

    We compare experimental results from a quasi-two-dimensional colloidal hard sphere fluid to a Monte Carlo simulation of hard disks with small particle displacements. The experimental short-time self-diffusion coefficient D(S) scaled by the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution, D(0), strongly depends on the area fraction, pointing to significant hydrodynamic interactions at short times in the experiment, which are absent in the simulation. In contrast, the area fraction dependence of the experimental long-time self-diffusion coefficient D(L)/D(0) is in quantitative agreement with D(L)/D(0) obtained from the simulation. This indicates that the reduction in the particle mobility at short times due to hydrodynamic interactions does not lead to a proportional reduction in the long-time self-diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, the quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation at long times indicates that hydrodynamic interactions effectively do not affect the dependence of D(L)/D(0) on the area fraction. In light of this, we discuss the link between structure and long-time self-diffusion in terms of a configurational excess entropy and do not find a simple exponential relation between these quantities for all fluid area fractions. PMID:26765032

  6. Effect of Hydrodynamic Interactions on Self-Diffusion of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Colloidal Hard Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorneywork, Alice L.; Rozas, Roberto E.; Dullens, Roel P. A.; Horbach, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We compare experimental results from a quasi-two-dimensional colloidal hard sphere fluid to a Monte Carlo simulation of hard disks with small particle displacements. The experimental short-time self-diffusion coefficient DS scaled by the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution, D0, strongly depends on the area fraction, pointing to significant hydrodynamic interactions at short times in the experiment, which are absent in the simulation. In contrast, the area fraction dependence of the experimental long-time self-diffusion coefficient DL/D0 is in quantitative agreement with DL/D0 obtained from the simulation. This indicates that the reduction in the particle mobility at short times due to hydrodynamic interactions does not lead to a proportional reduction in the long-time self-diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, the quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation at long times indicates that hydrodynamic interactions effectively do not affect the dependence of DL/D0 on the area fraction. In light of this, we discuss the link between structure and long-time self-diffusion in terms of a configurational excess entropy and do not find a simple exponential relation between these quantities for all fluid area fractions.

  7. Sub-micrometer-precision, three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing via “microfluidic drifting”

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhang, Xiangjun; Mao, Xiaole; Rufo, Joseph; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Yanhui; Lapsley, Michael; Li, Peng; McCoy, J. Philip; Levine, Stewart J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate single-layered, “microfluidic drifting” based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing devices with particle/cell focal positioning approaching submicron precision along both lateral and vertical directions. By systematically optimizing channel geometries and sample/sheath flow rates, a series of “microfluidic drifting” based 3D hydrodynamic focusing devices with different curvature angles are designed and fabricated. Their performances are then evaluated by confocal microscopy, fast camera imaging, and side-view imaging techniques. Using a device with a curvature angle of 180°, we have achieved a standard deviation of ±0.45 µm in particle focal position and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.37% in flow cytometric measurements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best CV that has been achieved by a microfluidic flow cytometry device. Moreover, the device showed the capability to distinguish 8 peaks when subjected to a stringent 8-peak rainbow calibration test, signifying the ability to perform sensitive, accurate tests similar to commercial flow cytometers. We have further tested and validated our device by detection of HEK-293 cells. With its advantages in simple fabrication (i.e., single-layered device), precise 3D hydrodynamic focusing (i.e., submicrometer precision along both lateral and vertical directions), and high detection resolution (i.e., low CV), our method could serve as an important basis for high-performance, mass-producible microfluidic flow cytometry. PMID:24287742

  8. Sub-micrometer-precision, three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing via "microfluidic drifting".

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhang, Xiangjun; Mao, Xiaole; Rufo, Joseph; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Yanhui; Lapsley, Michael; Li, Peng; McCoy, J Philip; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-21

    In this article, we demonstrate single-layered, "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing devices with particle/cell focal positioning approaching submicron precision along both lateral and vertical directions. By systematically optimizing channel geometries and sample/sheath flow rates, a series of "microfluidic drifting" based 3D hydrodynamic focusing devices with different curvature angles are designed and fabricated. Their performances are then evaluated using confocal microscopy, fast camera imaging, and side-view imaging techniques. Using a device with a curvature angle of 180°, we have achieved a standard deviation of ±0.45 μm in particle focal position and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.37% in flow cytometric measurements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best CV that has been achieved using a microfluidic flow cytometry device. Moreover, the device showed the capability to distinguish 8 peaks when subjected to a stringent 8-peak rainbow calibration test, signifying the ability to perform sensitive, accurate tests similar to commercial flow cytometers. We have further tested and validated our device by detection of HEK-293 cells. With its advantages in simple fabrication (i.e., single-layered device), precise 3D hydrodynamic focusing (i.e., submicrometer precision along both lateral and vertical directions), and high detection resolution (i.e., low CV), our method could serve as an important basis for high-performance, mass-producible microfluidic flow cytometry. PMID:24287742

  9. High-energy particle transport in three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of colliding-wind binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Dubus, G.

    2014-02-20

    Massive stars in binary systems (such as WR 140, WR 147, or η Carinae) have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy γ-rays. The emission is thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and produce relativistic particles that subsequently might be able to emit γ-rays. Detailed numerical hydrodynamic simulations have already offered insight into the complex dynamics of the wind collision region (WCR), while independent analytical studies, albeit with simplified descriptions of the WCR, have shed light on the spectra of charged particles. In this paper, we describe a combination of these two approaches. We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model for colliding stellar winds and compute spectral energy distributions of relativistic particles for the resulting structure of the WCR. The hydrodynamic part of our model incorporates the line-driven acceleration of the winds, gravity, orbital motion, and the radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. In our treatment of charged particles, we consider diffusive shock acceleration in the WCR and the subsequent cooling via inverse Compton losses (including Klein-Nishina effects), bremsstrahlung, collisions, and other energy loss mechanisms.

  10. High-energy Particle Transport in Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Models of Colliding-wind Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Dubus, G.

    2014-02-01

    Massive stars in binary systems (such as WR 140, WR 147, or η Carinae) have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy γ-rays. The emission is thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and produce relativistic particles that subsequently might be able to emit γ-rays. Detailed numerical hydrodynamic simulations have already offered insight into the complex dynamics of the wind collision region (WCR), while independent analytical studies, albeit with simplified descriptions of the WCR, have shed light on the spectra of charged particles. In this paper, we describe a combination of these two approaches. We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model for colliding stellar winds and compute spectral energy distributions of relativistic particles for the resulting structure of the WCR. The hydrodynamic part of our model incorporates the line-driven acceleration of the winds, gravity, orbital motion, and the radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. In our treatment of charged particles, we consider diffusive shock acceleration in the WCR and the subsequent cooling via inverse Compton losses (including Klein-Nishina effects), bremsstrahlung, collisions, and other energy loss mechanisms.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of dilute and concentrated suspensions using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Bian, Xin; Ellero, Marco

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional model for a suspension of rigid spherical particles in a Newtonian fluid is presented. The solvent is modeled with smoothed particle hydrodynamics method, which takes into account exactly the long-range multi-body hydrodynamic interactions between suspended spheres. Short-range lubrication forces which are necessary to simulate concentrated suspensions, are introduced pair-wisely based on the analytical solution of Stokes equations for approaching/departing objects. Given that lubrication is singular at vanishing solid particle separations, an implicit splitting integration scheme is used to obtain accurate results and at the same time to avoid prohibitively small simulation time steps. Hydrodynamic interactions between solid particles, at both long-range and short-range limits, are verified against theory in the case of two approaching spheres in a quiescent medium and under bulk shear flow, where good agreements are obtained. Finally, numerical results for the suspension viscosity of a many-particle system are shown and compared with analytical solutions available in the dilute and semi-dilute case as well as with previous numerical results obtained in the concentrated limit.

  12. Onset of hydrodynamic mix in high-velocity, highly compressed inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Springer, P T; Key, M H; Atherton, L J; Benedetti, L R; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Glenn, S; Grim, G; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Hicks, D; Hsing, W W; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Meezan, N B; Moody, J D; Pak, A; Parham, T; Park, H-S; Ralph, J E; Regan, S P; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Ross, J S; Spears, B K; Smalyuk, V; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Weber, S V; Lindl, J D; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Moses, E I

    2013-08-23

    Deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated yields ranging from 0.8 to 7×10(14), and record fuel areal densities of 0.7 to 1.3 g/cm2. These implosions use hohlraums irradiated with shaped laser pulses of 1.5-1.9 MJ energy. The laser peak power and duration at peak power were varied, as were the capsule ablator dopant concentrations and shell thicknesses. We quantify the level of hydrodynamic instability mix of the ablator into the hot spot from the measured elevated absolute x-ray emission of the hot spot. We observe that DT neutron yield and ion temperature decrease abruptly as the hot spot mix mass increases above several hundred ng. The comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling indicates that low mode asymmetries and increased ablator surface perturbations may be responsible for the current performance. PMID:24010449

  13. Three-dimensional Hybrid Continuum-Atomistic Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, S; Hornung, R; Garcia, A; Hadjiconstantinou, N

    2004-04-15

    We present an adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme for modeling multi-scale hydrodynamics. The AMAR approach extends standard conservative adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms by providing a robust flux-based method for coupling an atomistic fluid representation to a continuum model. The atomistic model is applied locally in regions where the continuum description is invalid or inaccurate, such as near strong flow gradients and at fluid interfaces, or when the continuum grid is refined to the molecular scale. The need for such ''hybrid'' methods arises from the fact that hydrodynamics modeled by continuum representations are often under-resolved or inaccurate while solutions generated using molecular resolution globally are not feasible. In the implementation described herein, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) provides an atomistic description of the flow and the compressible two-fluid Euler equations serve as our continuum-scale model. The AMR methodology provides local grid refinement while the algorithm refinement feature allows the transition to DSMC where needed. The continuum and atomistic representations are coupled by matching fluxes at the continuum-atomistic interfaces and by proper averaging and interpolation of data between scales. Our AMAR application code is implemented in C++ and is built upon the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) framework developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SAMRAI provides the parallel adaptive gridding algorithm and enables the coupling between the continuum and atomistic methods.

  14. One-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of imploding spherical plasma liners with detailed equation-of-state modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Cassibry, J. T.

    2012-10-15

    This work extends the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic imploding spherical argon plasma liner simulations of Awe et al.[Phys. Plasmas 18, 072705 (2011)] by using a detailed tabular equation-of-state (EOS) model, whereas Awe et al. used a polytropic EOS model. Results using the tabular EOS model give lower stagnation pressures by a factor of 3.9-8.6 and lower peak ion temperatures compared to the polytropic EOS results. Both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE EOS models were used in this work, giving similar results on stagnation pressure. The lower stagnation pressures using a tabular EOS model are attributed to a reduction in the liner's ability to compress arising from the energy sink introduced by ionization and electron excitation, which are not accounted for in a polytropic EOS model. Variation of the plasma liner species for the same initial liner geometry, mass density, and velocity was also explored using the LTE tabular EOS model, showing that the highest stagnation pressure is achieved with the highest atomic mass species for the constraints imposed.

  15. Implications for the electron distribution from the stationary hydrodynamic model of a one-dimensional plasma expansion into vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Thomas; Schlegel, Theodor

    2012-10-15

    It is shown that the hydrodynamic model of a one-dimensional collisionless plasma expansion is contained in the kinetic description as a special case. This belongs to a specific choice for the electron distribution function. Moreover, the consequences of the use of the hydrodynamic approach regarding the temporal evolution of the electron phase space density are investigated. It turns out that only the case of a hydrodynamic description with the adiabatic constant {kappa}=3 is physically self-consistent. Numerical simulations confirm this argumentation. The analysis for the case {kappa}=3 is extended to the kinetics of a relativistic electron gas.

  16. Mechanisms and effects of mechanical compression and dimensional change in polymer electrolyte fuel cells - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millichamp, Jason; Mason, Thomas J.; Neville, Tobias P.; Rajalakshmi, Natarajan; Jervis, Rhodri; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2015-06-01

    Conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) require a means of placing the series of laminar components that make up cells under mechanical compression so as to ensure effective electrical conduction, mass transport and gas-tight operation. This review describes the effect of mechanical compression and dimensional change on the components of PEFCs and reviews the range of methods used to achieve desired stack compression. The case is made for improved understanding of the mechanisms of fuel cell component compression and greater attention to the development of technological approaches for stack compression.

  17. Three-dimensional modeling of hydrodynamic processes in the St. Lucie Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Hu, Guangdou; Shen, Jian; Wan, Yongshan

    2007-06-01

    Comparing with the studies on large estuarine systems, such as the Chesapeake Bay and the San Francisco Bay, the processes of stratification and transport in small and shallow estuaries are relatively less studied. The St. Lucie Estuary (SLE) is a riverine estuary located on the east coast of south Florida. It is small and shallow, with mean depth of 2.4 m. To study the estuarine processes in the SLE, a hydrodynamic model was developed based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) [Hamrick, J.M., 1992. A three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamics computer code: theoretical and computational aspects. The College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Special Report 317, 63 pp.]. The model was calibrated and verified using observational data obtained in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The model variables used for model data-comparisons are water elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity. The model is then applied to study the hydrodynamic processes in the SLE. It is found that freshwater inflow plays a major role in the stratification and net flushing of the SLE. Stratification generally increases with freshwater inflow. But when the inflow is persistently large for a relatively long period, the estuary can suddenly change from very stratified to well mixed within a few tidal cycles and the stratification collapses. This finding suggests that large and persistent freshwater inflows do not always increase estuarine stratification. Instead, it may cause the stratification to collapse within a short period of time. In addition to gauged tributaries, ungauged lateral inflows can also be important to small and shallow estuaries like the SLE. Although small individually, the ungauged streams and surface runoffs can be a significant portion of the total inflow and affect salinity distribution significantly. Flushing time affects a wide range of hydrodynamic and water quality processes in the estuary. The model results indicate that commonly

  18. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic Bondi-Hoyle accretion. 1: Code validation and stationary accretors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffert, Maximilian

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of three-dimensional classical Bondi-Hoyle accretion. Totally absorbing stationary spheres of varying sizes (from 10.0 down to 0.02 Bondi radii) accrete matter from a homogeneous and slightly perturbed medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas (gamma = 5/3 or 1.2). To accommodate the long-range gravitational forces, the extent of the computational volume is typically a factor of 100 larger than the radius of the accretor. We compare the numerical mass accretion rates with the theoretical predictions of Bondi, to assess the validity of the code. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the piecewise parabolic method. No energy sources (nuclear burning) or sinks (radiation, conduction) are included. The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several (6-8) grids around the stationary sphere, each finer grid being a factor of 2 smaller spatially than the next coarser grid. This allows us to include a coarse model for the surface of the accretor (vacuum sphere) on the finest grid while at the same time evolving the gas on the coarser grids. The accretion rates derived numerically are in in very good agreement (to about 10% over several orders of magnitude) with the values given by Bondi for a stationary accretor within a hydrodynamic medium. However, the equations have to be changed in order to include the finite size of the accretor (in some cases very large compared to the sonic point or even to the Bondi radius).

  19. Time-dependent two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics of accreting matter onto highly magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. . Dept. of Astronomy Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Los Angeles, CA . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics); Arons, J. . Dept. of Astronomy California Univ., Los Angeles, CA . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -

    1989-11-24

    We present for the first time, the self-consistent solution of the two-dimensional, time-dependent equations of radiation-hydrodynamics governing the accretion of matter onto the highly magnetized polar caps of luminous x-ray pulsars. The calculations show a structure in the accretion column very different from previous one-zone uniform models. We have included all the relevant magnetic field corrections to both the hydrodynamics and the radiative transport. We include a new theory for the diffusion and advection of both radiation energy density and photon number density. For initially uniformly accreting models with super-Eddington flows, we have uncovered evidence of strong radiation-driven outflowing optically thin radiation filled regions of the accretion column embedded in optically-thick inflowing plasma. The development of these photon bubbles'' have growth times on the order of a millisecond and show fluctuations on sub-millisecond timescales. The photon bubbles are likely to be a consequence of convective over-stability and may result in observable fluctuations in the emitted luminosity leading to luminosity dependent changes in the pulse profile. This may provide important new diagnostics for conditions in accreting x-ray pulsars. 13 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Time-dependent two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics of accreting matter onto highly magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. . Dept. of Astronomy Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Arons, J. . Dept. of Astronomy California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-20

    We present for the first time, the self-consistent solution of the two-dimensional, time-dependent equations of radiation-hydrodynamics governing the accretion of matter onto the highly magnetized polar caps of luminous x-ray pulsars. The calculations show a structure in the accretion column very different from previous one-zone uniform models. We have included all the relevant magnetic field corrections to both the hydrodynamics and the radiative transport. We include a new theory for the diffusion and advection of both radiation energy density and photon number density. For initially uniformly accreting models with super-Eddington flows, we have uncovered evidence of strong radiation-driven outflowing optically thin radiation filled regions of the accretion column embedded in optically-thick inflowing plasma. We follow the evolution of these photon bubbles for several dynamical timescales. The development of these photon bubbles'' indicates growth times on the order of a millisecond and show fluctuations on sub-millisecond timescales in agreement with a linear stability analysis. The photon bubbles are a consequence of the effect of radiative heat flux on the internal gravity waves in the strongly magnetized atmosphere and may result in observable fluctuations in the emitted luminosity leading to luminosity dependent changes in the pulse profile. This may provide important new diagnostics for conditions in accreting x-ray pulsars. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Hybrid Nanomaterials via Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials through a simple, continuous, and low-cost method is essential to nanomaterials research toward practical applications. Hydrodynamic focusing, with its advantages of simplicity, low-cost, and precise control over reaction conditions, has been used for nanomaterial synthesis. While most studies have focused on improving the uniformity and size control, few have addressed the potential of tuning the shape of the synthesized nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize hybrid materials by three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF). While keeping the flow rates of the reagents constant and changing only the flow rate of the buffer solution, the molar ratio of two reactants (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and HAuCl4) within the reaction zone varies. The synthesized TTF–Au hybrid materials possess very different and predictable morphologies. The reaction conditions at different buffer flow rates are studied through computational simulation, and the formation mechanisms of different structures are discussed. This simple one-step method to achieve continuous shape-tunable synthesis highlights the potential of 3D-HF in nanomaterials research. PMID:25268035

  2. Three-dimensional effects of the linear hydrodynamic instability on the plane wake flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, P.; Morganti, M.; Attili, F.

    The LINEAR hydrodynamic stability for plane shear flows considers planar disturbances super-imposed over the main flow. Squire transforms justify the use of disturbances of this kind in order to detect the critical Reynolds number. In this way the behavior of the onset of oscillations of the flow field is well described, especially for flows with a profile of the basic velocity with points of inflexion like wake profile flows. A tentative approach is pursued for the study of the behavior of the flow for a Reynolds number slightly greater than the critical value using the Squire transforms to obtain new solutions of the flow field, with disturbances neither amplified nor damped but of three-dimensional character. The two-dimensional mode is obtained as an eigenfunction of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation by an already tested Galerkin procedure. Hence the Poisson equation is solved in order to obtain the pressure field of the disturbance. The presence of more than one mode is analyzed with their influence on the two- and three-dimensional organized structures of large eddies. Numerical and experimental results are compared.

  3. Hydrodynamics of a cold one-dimensional fluid: the problem of strong shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.

    2005-03-01

    We study a shock wave induced by an infinitely massive piston propagating into a one-dimensional cold gas. The cold gas is modelled as a collection of hard rods which are initially at rest, so the temperature is zero. Most of our results are based on simulations of a gas of rods with binary mass distribution, and we partcularly focus on the case of spatially alternating masses. We find that the properties of the resulting shock wave are in striking contrast with those predicted by hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches, e.g., the flow-field profiles relax algebraically toward their equilibrium values. In addition, most relevant observables characterizing local thermodynamic equilibrium and equipartition decay as a power law of the distance to the shock layer. The exponents of these power laws depend non-monotonously on the mass ratio. Similar interesting dependences on the mass ratio also characterize the shock width, density and temperature overshoots, etc.

  4. Massively parallel fast elliptic equation solver for three dimensional hydrodynamics and relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Sholl, P.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G.J.; Avila, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Through the work proposed in this document we expect to advance the forefront of large scale computational efforts on massively parallel distributed-memory multiprocessors. We will develop tools for effective conversion to a parallel implementation of sequential numerical methods used to solve large systems of partial differential equations. The research supported by this work will involve conversion of a program which does state of the art modeling of multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, general relativity and particle transport in energetic astrophysical environments. The proposed parallel algorithm development, particularly the study and development of fast elliptic equation solvers, could significantly benefit this program and other applications involving solutions to systems of differential equations. We shall develop a data communication manager for distributed memory computers as an aid in program conversions to a parallel environment and implement it in the three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics program discussed below; develop a concurrent system/concurrent subgrid multigrid method. Currently, five systems are approximated sequentially using multigrid successive overrelaxation. Results from an iteration cycle of one multigrid system are used in following multigrid systems iterations. We shall develop a multigrid algorithm for simultaneous computation of the sets of equations. In addition, we shall implement a method for concurrent processing of the subgrids in each of the multigrid computations. The conditions for convergence of the method will be examined. We`ll compare this technique to other parallel multigrid techniques, such as distributed data/sequential subgrids and the Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid of Frederickson and McBryan. We expect the results of these studies to offer insight and tools both for the selection of new algorithms as well as for conversion of existing large codes for massively parallel architectures.

  5. Three-dimensional compression scheme based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wu; Xu, Hui; Liao, Mengyang

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, a 3D compression method based on separable wavelet transform is discussed in detail. The most commonly used digital modalities generate multiple slices in a single examination, which are normally anatomically or physiologically correlated to each other. 3D wavelet compression methods can achieve more efficient compression by exploring the correlation between slices. The first step is based on a separable 3D wavelet transform. Considering the difference between pixel distances within a slice and those between slices, one biorthogonal Antoninin filter bank is applied within 2D slices and a second biorthogonal Villa4 filter bank on the slice direction. Then, S+P transform is applied in the low-resolution wavelet components and an optimal quantizer is presented after analysis of the quantization noise. We use an optimal bit allocation algorithm, which, instead of eliminating the coefficients of high-resolution components in smooth areas, minimizes the system reconstruction distortion at a given bit-rate. Finally, to remain high coding efficiency and adapt to different properties of each component, a comprehensive entropy coding method is proposed, in which arithmetic coding method is applied in high-resolution components and adaptive Huffman coding method in low-resolution components. Our experimental results are evaluated by several image measures and our 3D wavelet compression scheme is proved to be more efficient than 2D wavelet compression.

  6. Numerical investigation of fluid mud motion using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and two-dimensional fluid mud coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Hao, Linnan

    2015-03-01

    A water-fluid mud coupling model is developed based on the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate the fluid mud motion. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the overlying water column are solved using the original three-dimensional ocean model. A horizontal two-dimensional fluid mud model is integrated into the FVCOM model to simulate the underlying fluid mud flow. The fluid mud interacts with the water column through the sediment flux, current, and shear stress. The friction factor between the fluid mud and the bed, which is traditionally determined empirically, is derived with the assumption that the vertical distribution of shear stress below the yield surface of fluid mud is identical to that of uniform laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in the open channel. The model is validated by experimental data and reasonable agreement is found. Compared with numerical cases with fixed friction factors, the results simulated with the derived friction factor exhibit the best agreement with the experiment, which demonstrates the necessity of the derivation of the friction factor.

  7. Compression Shocks in Two-Dimensional Gas Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, A.

    1949-01-01

    The following are arguments on the compression shocks in gas flow start with a simplified representation of the results of the study made by Th. Meyer as published in the Forschungsheft 62 of the VDI, supplemented by several amplifications for the application.In the treatment of compression shocks, the equation of energy, the equation of continuity, the momentum equation, the equation of state of the particular gas, as well as the condition Of the second law of thermodynamics that no decrease of entropy is possible in an isolated system, must be taken into consideration. The result is that, in those cases where the sudden change of state according to the second law of thermodynamics is possible, there always occurs a compression of the gas which is uniquely determined by the other conditions.

  8. Compression and Progressive Retrieval of Multi-Dimensional Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorkowski, P.; Brinkhoff, T.

    2016-06-01

    Since the emergence of sensor data streams, increasing amounts of observations have to be transmitted, stored and retrieved. Performing these tasks at the granularity of single points would mean an inappropriate waste of resources. Thus, we propose a concept that performs a partitioning of observations by spatial, temporal or other criteria (or a combination of them) into data segments. We exploit the resulting proximity (according to the partitioning dimension(s)) within each data segment for compression and efficient data retrieval. While in principle allowing lossless compression, it can also be used for progressive transmission with increasing accuracy wherever incremental data transfer is reasonable. In a first feasibility study, we apply the proposed method to a dataset of ARGO drifting buoys covering large spatio-temporal regions of the world's oceans and compare the achieved compression ratio to other formats.

  9. A variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics: Discussion of the multi-dimensional theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prozan, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics previously introduced is extended to two dimensional flow. The analysis is stable, exactly conservative, adaptable to coarse or fine grids, and very fast. Solutions for two dimensional problems are included. The excellent behavior and results lend further credence to the variational concept and its applicability to the numerical analysis of complex flow fields.

  10. A two-dimensional Segmented Boundary Algorithm for complex moving solid boundaries in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasanizade, Sh.; Sousa, J. M. M.

    2016-03-01

    A Segmented Boundary Algorithm (SBA) is proposed to deal with complex boundaries and moving bodies in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Boundaries are formed in this algorithm with chains of lines obtained from the decomposition of two-dimensional objects, based on simple line geometry. Various two-dimensional, viscous fluid flow cases have been studied here using a truly incompressible SPH method with the aim of assessing the capabilities of the SBA. Firstly, the flow over a stationary circular cylinder in a plane channel was analyzed at steady and unsteady regimes, for a single value of blockage ratio. Subsequently, the flow produced by a moving circular cylinder with a prescribed acceleration inside a plane channel was investigated as well. Next, the simulation of the flow generated by the impulsive start of a flat plate, again inside a plane channel, has been carried out. This was followed by the study of confined sedimentation of an elliptic body subjected to gravity, for various density ratios. The set of test cases was completed with the simulation of periodic flow around a sunflower-shaped object. Extensive comparisons of the results obtained here with published data have demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, namely in cases involving complex geometries and moving bodies.

  11. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood modelling for populated valley areas of Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, V. V.; Krylenko, I. N.; Alabyan, A. M.; Sazonov, A. A.; Glotko, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of flood modelling for three cities located in different parts of Russia: (1) Veliky Ustyug at the Northern Dvina river (Europe); (2) Mezhdurechensk at the Tom river (Siberia); and (3) Blagoveschensk at the Amur river (Far East) are presented. The two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of flow in channels and on floodplain STREAM_2D on the basis of the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh was used for the simulations. Verification of the model through a comparison of simulated inundated areas with outlines of flooded zones from satellite images for known hydrologic situations demonstrate close correspondence (relative errors of 7-12% in terms of the area for peaks of the analysed floods). Analyses of embankment influence of large-scale levees on the water flow demonstrate that, in some cases, water levels could rise by more than 1 m and the patterns of the flooding zones could significantly differ.

  12. Impacts of Rotation on Three-dimensional Hydrodynamics of Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ko; Kuroda, Takami; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2014-09-01

    We perform a series of simplified numerical experiments to explore how rotation impacts the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. For our systematic study, we employ a light-bulb scheme to trigger explosions and a three-flavor neutrino leakage scheme to treat deleptonization effects and neutrino losses from the proto-neutron-star interior. Using a 15 M ⊙ progenitor, we compute 30 models in 3D with a wide variety of initial angular momentum and light-bulb neutrino luminosity. We find that the rotation can help the onset of neutrino-driven explosions for the models in which the initial angular momentum is matched to that obtained in recent stellar evolutionary calculations (~0.3-3 rad s-1 at the center). For the models with larger initial angular momentum, the shock surface deforms to be more oblate due to larger centrifugal force. This not only makes the gain region more concentrated around the equatorial plane, but also makes the mass larger in the gain region. As a result, buoyant bubbles tend to be coherently formed and rise in the equatorial region, which pushes the revived shock toward ever larger radii until a global explosion is triggered. We find that these are the main reasons that the preferred direction of the explosion in 3D rotating models is often perpendicular to the spin axis, which is in sharp contrast to the polar explosions around the axis that were obtained in previous two-dimensional simulations.

  13. Efficient three-dimensional reconstruction of aquatic vegetation geometry: Estimating morphological parameters influencing hydrodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liénard, Jean; Lynn, Kendra; Strigul, Nikolay; Norris, Benjamin K.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin, R.; Henderson, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic vegetation can shelter coastlines from energetic waves and tidal currents, sometimes enabling accretion of fine sediments. Simulation of flow and sediment transport within submerged canopies requires quantification of vegetation geometry. However, field surveys used to determine vegetation geometry can be limited by the time required to obtain conventional caliper and ruler measurements. Building on recent progress in photogrammetry and computer vision, we present a method for reconstructing three-dimensional canopy geometry. The method was used to survey a dense canopy of aerial mangrove roots, called pneumatophores, in Vietnam's Mekong River Delta. Photogrammetric estimation of geometry required 1) taking numerous photographs at low tide from multiple viewpoints around 1 m2 quadrats, 2) computing relative camera locations and orientations by triangulation of key features present in multiple images and reconstructing a dense 3D point cloud, and 3) extracting pneumatophore locations and diameters from the point cloud data. Step 3) was accomplished by a new 'sector-slice' algorithm, yielding geometric parameters every 5 mm along a vertical profile. Photogrammetric analysis was compared with manual caliper measurements. In all 5 quadrats considered, agreement was found between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem number, and of number × mean diameter, which is a key parameter appearing in hydrodynamic models. In two quadrats, pneumatophores were encrusted with numerous barnacles, generating a complex geometry not resolved by hand measurements. In remaining cases, moderate agreement between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem diameter and solid volume fraction was found. By substantially reducing measurement time in the field while capturing in greater detail the 3D structure, photogrammetry has potential to improve input to hydrodynamic models, particularly for simulations of flow through large-scale, heterogenous canopies.

  14. Six-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum cohomology of instanton moduli spaces and gl( N) Quantum Intermediate Long Wave Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr

    2014-07-01

    We show that the exact partition function of U( N) six-dimensional gauge theory with eight supercharges on ℂ2 × S 2 provides the quantization of the integrable system of hydrodynamic type known as gl( N) periodic Intermediate Long Wave (ILW). We characterize this system as the hydrodynamic limit of elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable system. We compute the Bethe equations from the effective gauged linear sigma model on S 2 with target space the ADHM instanton moduli space, whose mirror computes the Yang-Yang function of gl( N) ILW. The quantum Hamiltonians are given by the local chiral ring observables of the six-dimensional gauge theory. As particular cases, these provide the gl( N) Benjamin-Ono and Korteweg-de Vries quantum Hamiltonians. In the four dimensional limit, we identify the local chiral ring observables with the conserved charges of Heisenberg plus W N algebrae, thus providing a gauge theoretical proof of AGT correspondence.

  15. Gaseous Laser Targets and Optical Dignostics for Studying Compressible Turbulent Hydrodynamic Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M J; Hansen, J; Miles, A R; Froula, D; Gregori, G; Glenzer, S; Edens, A; Dittmire, T

    2005-02-08

    The possibility of studying compressible turbulent flows using gas targets driven by high power lasers and diagnosed with optical techniques is investigated. The potential advantage over typical laser experiments that use solid targets and x-ray diagnostics is more detailed information over a larger range of spatial scales. An experimental system is described to study shock - jet interactions at high Mach number. This consists of a mini-chamber full of nitrogen at a pressure {approx} 1 atms. The mini-chamber is situated inside a much larger vacuum chamber. An intense laser pulse ({approx}100J in {approx} 5ns) is focused on to a thin {approx} 0.3{micro}m thick silicon nitride window at one end of the mini-chamber. The window acts both as a vacuum barrier, and laser entrance hole. The ''explosion'' caused by the deposition of the laser energy just inside the window drives a strong blast wave out into the nitrogen atmosphere. The spherical shock expands and interacts with a jet of xenon introduced though the top of the mini-chamber. The Mach number of the interaction is controlled by the separation of the jet from the explosion. The resulting flow is visualized using an optical schlieren system using a pulsed laser source at a wavelength of 0.53 {micro}m. The technical path leading up to the design of this experiment is presented, and future prospects briefly considered. Lack of laser time in the final year of the project severely limited experimental results obtained using the new apparatus.

  16. Spatial three-dimensional secondary instability compressible boundary-layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional linear secondary instability theory is extended for compressible and high Mach number boundary layer flows. The small but finite amplitude compressible Tollmien-Schlichting wave effect on the growth of 3-D perturbations is investigated. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for the strong growth of subharmonic in low disturbance environment. The effect of increasing Mach number on the onset, growth, the shape of eigenfunctions of the subharmonic is assessed, and the resulting vortical structure is examined.

  17. Two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow past elliptic cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1938-01-01

    The method of Poggi is used to calculate, for perfect fluids, the effect of compressibility upon the flow on the surface of an elliptic cylinder at zero angle of attack and with no circulation. The result is expressed in a closed form and represents a rigorous determination of the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the obstacle insofar as the second approximation is concerned. Comparison is made with Hooker's treatment of the same problem according to the method of Janzen and Rayleight and it is found that, for thick elliptic cylinders, the two methods agree very well. The labor of computation is considerably reduced by the present solution.

  18. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    required. Nature of problem: In inertial confinement fusion and related experiments with lasers and particle beams, energy transport by thermal radiation becomes important. Under these conditions, the radiation field strongly interacts with the hydrodynamic motion through emission and absorption processes. Solution method: The equations of radiation transfer coupled with Lagrangian hydrodynamics, heat diffusion and beam tracing (laser or ions) are solved, in two-dimensional axial-symmetric geometry ( R-Z coordinates) using a fractional step scheme. Radiation transfer is solved with angular resolution. Matter properties are either interpolated from tables (equations-of-state and opacities) or computed by user routines (conductivities and beam attenuation). Restrictions: The code has been designed for typical conditions prevailing in inertial confinement fusion (ns time scale, matter states close to local thermodynamical equilibrium, negligible radiation pressure, …). Although a wider range of situations can be treated, extrapolations to regions beyond this design range need special care. Unusual features: A special computer language, called r94, is used at top levels of the code. These parts have to be converted to standard C by a translation program (supplied as part of the package). Due to the complexity of code (hydro-code, grid generation, user interface, graphic post-processor, translator program, installation scripts) extensive manuals are supplied as part of the package. Running time: 567 seconds for the example supplied.

  19. Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure

    PubMed Central

    Flammang, Brooke E.; Lauder, George V.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how moving organisms generate locomotor forces is fundamental to the analysis of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow patterns that are generated during body and appendage oscillation. In the past, this has been accomplished using two-dimensional planar techniques that require reconstruction of three-dimensional flow patterns. We have applied a new, fully three-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem in functional vertebrate biology: the function of the asymmetrical (heterocercal) tail of swimming sharks to capture the vorticity field within the volume swept by the tail. These data were used to test a previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the shark vortex wake estimated from two-dimensional flow analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously reconstructed from two-dimensional slices. The hydrodynamic wake consists of one set of dual-linked vortex rings produced per half tail beat. In addition, we use a simple passive shark-tail model under robotic control to show that the three-dimensional wake flows of the robotic tail differ from the active tail motion of a live shark, suggesting that active control of kinematics and tail stiffness plays a substantial role in the production of wake vortical patterns. PMID:21543357

  20. Three dimensional hydrodynamic calculations with adaptive mesh refinement of the evolution of Rayleigh Taylor and Richtmyer Meshkov instabilities in converging geometry: Multi-mode perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. |; Bell, J.; Pember, R.; Kelleher, T.

    1993-04-01

    The authors present results for high resolution hydrodynamic calculations of the growth and development of instabilities in shock driven imploding spherical geometries in both 2D and 3D. They solve the Eulerian equations of hydrodynamics with a high order Godunov approach using local adaptive mesh refinement to study the temporal and spatial development of the turbulent mixing layer resulting from both Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. The use of a high resolution Eulerian discretization with adaptive mesh refinement permits them to study the detailed three-dimensional growth of multi-mode perturbations far into the non-linear regime for converging geometries. They discuss convergence properties of the simulations by calculating global properties of the flow. They discuss the time evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and compare its development to a simple theory for a turbulent mix model in spherical geometry based on Plesset`s equation. Their 3D calculations show that the constant found in the planar incompressible experiments of Read and Young`s may not be universal for converging compressible flow. They show the 3D time trace of transitional onset to a mixing state using the temporal evolution of volume rendered imaging. Their preliminary results suggest that the turbulent mixing layer loses memory of its initial perturbations for classical Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities in spherically imploding shells. They discuss the time evolution of mixed volume fraction and the role of vorticity in converging 3D flows in enhancing the growth of a turbulent mixing layer.

  1. Quasi-three-dimensional analysis for composite cylinder under lateral compressive loading

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiwaki, Tsuyoshi |; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Maekawa, Zenichiro; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Sadaki

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a lateral compressive analytical method for CFRP cylinders using a quasi-three-dimensional model. This numerical model was constructed by shell and beam elements which represent fiber and resin respectively. The lateral compressive behaviors of CFRP cylinders with [{theta}/{minus}{theta}]sym ({theta} = 15{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree}) were experimentally evaluated. The damage propagation was simulated using the quasi-three-dimensional model. The transverse cracking and interlaminar delamination were simulated independently. Furthermore comparing the analytical and experimental results, it is confirmed that the proposed analytical method is precise.

  2. The topology and vorticity dynamics of a three-dimensional plane compressible wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jacqueline H.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Mansour, Nagi N.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional aspects of transition in a low Mach number plane compressible wake are studied numerically. Comparisons are made between the topology of the velocity field and the vorticity dynamics of the flow based on results from direct numerical simulations of the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The velocity field is integrated to obtain instantaneous streamlines at different stages in the evolution. A generalized three-dimensional critical point theory is applied to classify the critical points of the velocity field.

  3. Verification of coronal loop diagnostics using realistic three-dimensional hydrodynamic models

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Mok, Yung E-mail: lionel@predsci.com E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com

    2014-11-10

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure distributions. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the background. We then determine the density, temperature, and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare these with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to a limitation of the analysis methods, but also to inadequate background subtraction.

  4. Anisotropic characteristics of the kraichnan direct cascade in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.; Sereshchenko, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The statistical characteristics of the Kraichnan direct cascade for two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence are numerically studied (with spatial resolution 8192 × 8192) in the presence of pumping and viscous-like damping. It is shown that quasi-shocks of vorticity and their Fourier partnerships in the form of jets introduce an essential influence in turbulence leading to strong angular dependencies for correlation functions. The energy distribution as a function of modulus k for each angle in the inertial interval has the Kraichnan behavior, ~ k -4, and simultaneously a strong dependence on angles. However, angle average provides with a high accuracy the Kraichnan turbulence spectrum E k = C Kη2/3k-3, where η is the enstrophy flux and the Kraichnan constant C K ≃ 1.3, in correspondence with the previous simulations. Familiar situation takes place for third-order velocity structure function S 3 L which, as for the isotropic turbulence, gives the same scaling with respect to the separation length R and η, S 3 L = C 3η R 3, but the average over the angles and time differs from its isotropic value.

  5. Galactic scale gas flows in colliding galaxies: 3-dimensional, N-body/hydrodynamics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Gerber, Richard A.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.

    1994-01-01

    We present some results from three dimensional computer simulations of collisions between models of equal mass galaxies, one of which is a rotating, disk galaxy containing both gas and stars and the other is an elliptical containing stars only. We use fully self consistent models in which the halo mass is 2.5 times that of the disk. In the experiments we have varied the impact parameter between zero (head on) and 0.9R (where R is the radius of the disk), for impacts perpendicular to the disk plane. The calculations were performed on a Cray 2 computer using a combined N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) program. The results show the development of complicated flows and shock structures in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the disk and the propagation outwards of a density wave in both the stars and the gas. The collisional nature of the gas results in a sharper ring than obtained for the star particles, and the development of high volume densities and shocks.

  6. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Matthias; Roepke, Friedrich K.

    2011-10-15

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent combustion converting a neutron star into a quark star. Hadronic matter, described by a microphysical finite-temperature equation of state, is converted into strange quark matter. We assume this phase, represented by a bag-model equation of state, to be absolutely stable. Following the example of thermonuclear burning in white dwarfs leading to type Ia supernovae, we treat the conversion process as a potentially turbulent deflagration. Solving the nonrelativistic Euler equations using established numerical methods we conduct large eddy simulations including an elaborate subgrid scale model, while the propagation of the conversion front is modeled with a level-set method. Our results show that for large parts of the parameter space the conversion becomes turbulent and therefore significantly faster than in the laminar case. Despite assuming absolutely stable strange quark matter, in our hydrodynamic approximation an outer layer remains in the hadronic phase, because the conversion front stops when it reaches conditions under which the combustion is no longer exothermic.

  7. Field evaluation of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model near boulders for habitat calculation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are now widely used in aquatic habitat studies. To test the sensitivity of calculated habitat outcomes to limitations of such a model and of typical field data, bathmetry, depth and velocity data were collected for three discharges in the vicinity of two large boulders in the South Platte River (Colorado) and used in the River2D model. Simulated depth and velocity were compared with observed values at 204 locations and the differences in habitat numbers produced by observed and simulated conditions were calculated. The bulk of the differences between simulated and observed depth and velocity values were found to lie within the likely error of measurement. However, the effect of flow simulation outliers on potential habitat outcomes must be considered when using 2D models for habitat simulation. Furthermore, the shape of the habitat suitability relation can influence the effects of simulation errors. Habitat relations with steep slopes in the velocity ranges found in similar study areas are expected to be sensitive to the magnitude of error found here. Comparison of habitat values derived from simulated and observed depth and velocity revealed a small tendency to under-predict habitat values.

  8. Two new three-dimensional contact algorithms for staggered Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zupeng; Gong, Xiangfei; Zhang, Shudao; Liu, Jun

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents two new three-dimensional contact algorithms for staggered Lagrangian Hydrodynamics, named discrete accurate matching method and discrete Lagrangian multiplier method. These new contact algorithms utilize the unified contact algorithm for contact searching. Contact segments from all potential contact surfaces are treated as a single set. The basic idea of these new methods is to partition all contact segments into triangular facets firstly; then for each pair of two triangular facets which correspond to a hitting node and a target node respectively, these two triangular facets are projected to one plane and their intersection area is calculated; the nodal masses and nodal forces of the hitting node and the target node are distributed to the intersection portions of these two triangular facets respectively according to the proportion of the intersection area to corresponding nodal area. In the discrete accurate matching method, the masses and forces of the intersection portions of these two triangular facets are added to corresponding contact nodes of each other, and then the accelerations and velocities of the contact nodes are updated; while in the discrete Lagrangian multiplier method, the intersection portions of these two triangular facets are considered as a 1D contact pair in the normal direction for which the contact force is explicitly calculated by the Lagrangian multiplier method for a 1D contact pair of one hitting point and one target point, then the contact force being added to corresponding contact nodes. These new contact algorithms are assessed through several numerical tests performed on three-dimensional structured and unstructured meshes. The results of these tests show the accuracy and robustness of these new methods.

  9. Impacts of rotation on three-dimensional hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ko; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2014-09-20

    We perform a series of simplified numerical experiments to explore how rotation impacts the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. For our systematic study, we employ a light-bulb scheme to trigger explosions and a three-flavor neutrino leakage scheme to treat deleptonization effects and neutrino losses from the proto-neutron-star interior. Using a 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor, we compute 30 models in 3D with a wide variety of initial angular momentum and light-bulb neutrino luminosity. We find that the rotation can help the onset of neutrino-driven explosions for the models in which the initial angular momentum is matched to that obtained in recent stellar evolutionary calculations (∼0.3-3 rad s{sup –1} at the center). For the models with larger initial angular momentum, the shock surface deforms to be more oblate due to larger centrifugal force. This not only makes the gain region more concentrated around the equatorial plane, but also makes the mass larger in the gain region. As a result, buoyant bubbles tend to be coherently formed and rise in the equatorial region, which pushes the revived shock toward ever larger radii until a global explosion is triggered. We find that these are the main reasons that the preferred direction of the explosion in 3D rotating models is often perpendicular to the spin axis, which is in sharp contrast to the polar explosions around the axis that were obtained in previous two-dimensional simulations.

  10. Linear stability analysis of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Orszag, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    A compressible stability analysis computer code is developed. The code uses a matrix finite-difference method for local eigenvale solution when a good guess for the eigenvalue is available and is significantly more computationally efficient than the commonly used inital-value approach. The local eigenvalue search procedure also results in eigenfunctions and, at little extra work, group velocities. A globally convergent eigenvalue procedure is also developed that may be used when no guess for the eigenvalue is available. The global problem is formulated in such a way that no unstable spurious modes appear so that the method is suitable for use in a black-box stability code. Sample stability calculations are presented for the boundary layer profiles of an LFC swept wing.

  11. Self-assembled three-dimensional and compressible interdigitated thin-film supercapacitors and batteries.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Gustav; Marais, Andrew; Karabulut, Erdem; Wågberg, Lars; Cui, Yi; Hamedi, Mahiar M

    2015-01-01

    Traditional thin-film energy-storage devices consist of stacked layers of active films on two-dimensional substrates and do not exploit the third dimension. Fully three-dimensional thin-film devices would allow energy storage in bulk materials with arbitrary form factors and with mechanical properties unique to bulk materials such as compressibility. Here we show three-dimensional energy-storage devices based on layer-by-layer self-assembly of interdigitated thin films on the surface of an open-cell aerogel substrate. We demonstrate a reversibly compressible three-dimensional supercapacitor with carbon nanotube electrodes and a three-dimensional hybrid battery with a copper hexacyanoferrate ion intercalating cathode and a carbon nanotube anode. The three-dimensional supercapacitor shows stable operation over 400 cycles with a capacitance of 25 F g(-1) and is fully functional even at compressions up to 75%. Our results demonstrate that layer-by-layer self-assembly inside aerogels is a rapid, precise and scalable route for building high-surface-area 3D thin-film devices. PMID:26021485

  12. Self-assembled three-dimensional and compressible interdigitated thin-film supercapacitors and batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, Gustav; Marais, Andrew; Karabulut, Erdem; Wågberg, Lars; Cui, Yi; Hamedi, Mahiar M.

    2015-05-01

    Traditional thin-film energy-storage devices consist of stacked layers of active films on two-dimensional substrates and do not exploit the third dimension. Fully three-dimensional thin-film devices would allow energy storage in bulk materials with arbitrary form factors and with mechanical properties unique to bulk materials such as compressibility. Here we show three-dimensional energy-storage devices based on layer-by-layer self-assembly of interdigitated thin films on the surface of an open-cell aerogel substrate. We demonstrate a reversibly compressible three-dimensional supercapacitor with carbon nanotube electrodes and a three-dimensional hybrid battery with a copper hexacyanoferrate ion intercalating cathode and a carbon nanotube anode. The three-dimensional supercapacitor shows stable operation over 400 cycles with a capacitance of 25 F g-1 and is fully functional even at compressions up to 75%. Our results demonstrate that layer-by-layer self-assembly inside aerogels is a rapid, precise and scalable route for building high-surface-area 3D thin-film devices.

  13. Self-assembled three-dimensional and compressible interdigitated thin-film supercapacitors and batteries

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Gustav; Marais, Andrew; Karabulut, Erdem; Wågberg, Lars; Cui, Yi; Hamedi, Mahiar M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional thin-film energy-storage devices consist of stacked layers of active films on two-dimensional substrates and do not exploit the third dimension. Fully three-dimensional thin-film devices would allow energy storage in bulk materials with arbitrary form factors and with mechanical properties unique to bulk materials such as compressibility. Here we show three-dimensional energy-storage devices based on layer-by-layer self-assembly of interdigitated thin films on the surface of an open-cell aerogel substrate. We demonstrate a reversibly compressible three-dimensional supercapacitor with carbon nanotube electrodes and a three-dimensional hybrid battery with a copper hexacyanoferrate ion intercalating cathode and a carbon nanotube anode. The three-dimensional supercapacitor shows stable operation over 400 cycles with a capacitance of 25 F g−1 and is fully functional even at compressions up to 75%. Our results demonstrate that layer-by-layer self-assembly inside aerogels is a rapid, precise and scalable route for building high-surface-area 3D thin-film devices. PMID:26021485

  14. Analytic solutions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, I. F.; Mátyás, L.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) and the continuity equations in Cartesian coordinates for Newtonian fluids. The problem has an importance in different fields of science and engineering like fluid, aerospace dynamics or transfer processes. Finding an analytic solution may bring considerable progress in understanding the transport phenomena and in the design of different equipments where the NS equation is applicable. For solving the equation the polytropic equation of state is used as a closing condition. The key idea is the three-dimensional generalization of the well-known self-similar ansatz which was already used for non-compressible viscous flow in our former study. The geometrical interpretations of the trial function is also discussed. We compared our recent results to the former non-compressible ones.

  15. Secondary instability of compressible boundary layer to subharmonic three-dimensional disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El Hady, Nabil M.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional linear secondary instability theory is extended for compressible boundary layers on a flat plate in the presence of finite amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for the strong growth of harmonics in a low disturbance environment.

  16. Secondary instability of compressible boundary layer to subharmonic three-dimensional disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional linear secondary instability theory is extended for compressible boundary layers on a flat plate in the presence of finite amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for the strong growth of harmonics in a low disturbance environment.

  17. Quasi One-Dimensional Unsteady Modeling of External Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Kratz, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of an axisymmetric external compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes compressible flow computational fluid dynamics to model the internal inlet segment as well as the external inlet portion between the cowl lip and normal shock, and compressible flow relations with flow propagation delay to model the oblique shocks upstream of the normal shock. The external compression portion between the cowl-lip and the normal shock is also modeled with leaking fluxes crossing the sonic boundary, with a moving CFD domain at the normal shock boundary. This model has been verified in steady state against tunnel inlet test data and it s a first attempt towards developing a more comprehensive model for inlet dynamics.

  18. Acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere. IV. Three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The quiet solar chromosphere in the interior of supergranulation cells is believed to be heated by the dissipation of acoustic waves that originate with a typical period of 3 min in the photosphere. Aims: We investigate how the horizontal expansion with height of acoustic waves traveling upward into an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere depends on the size of the source region. Methods: We have solved the three-dimensional, nonlinear, time-dependent hydrodynamic equations for impulsively-generated, upward-propagating acoustic waves, assuming cylindrical symmetry. Results: When the diameter of the source of acoustic waves is small, the pattern of the upward-propagating waves is that of a point source, for which the energy travels upward in a vertical cone, qualitatively matching the observed pattern of bright-point expansion with height. For the largest plausible size of a source region, i.e., with granular size of 1 Mm, wave propagation in the low chromosphere is approximately that of plane waves, but in the middle and upper chromosphere it is also that of a point source. The assumption of plane-wave propagation is not a good approximation in the solar chromosphere. The upward-directed energy flux is larger than that of the solar chromosphere, at least in the middle and upper chromosphere, and probably throughout. Conclusions: Simulations of impulsively generated acoustic waves emitted from source regions with diameters that are small compared to the pressure scale height of the atmosphere qualitatively reproduce the upward expansion observed in chromospheric bright points. The emission features in the cores of the H and K lines are predicted to be blueshifted for a pulse and redshifted for the waves in its wake. The contribution of internal gravity waves to the upward energy flux is small and decreases with increasing size of the source region.

  19. A global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of super-eddington accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2014-12-01

    We study super-Eddington accretion flows onto black holes using a global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamical simulation. We solve the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for the specific intensities to accurately calculate the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability provides self-consistent angular momentum transfer. The simulation reaches inflow equilibrium with an accretion rate ∼220 L {sub Edd}/c {sup 2} and forms a radiation-driven outflow along the rotation axis. The mechanical energy flux carried by the outflow is ∼20% of the radiative energy flux. The total mass flux lost in the outflow is about 29% of the net accretion rate. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ∼10 L {sub Edd}. This yields a radiative efficiency ∼4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in most models, such as the slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. Our inferred radiative efficiencies also exceed published results from previous global numerical simulations, which did not attribute a significant role to vertical advection. We briefly discuss the implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe and describe how these results provided a basis for explaining the spectrum and population statistics of ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  20. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model for TMDL development of Lake Fuxian, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Liu, Yong; He, Bin; Zhu, Xiang; Zou, Rui; Zhu, Yuanguan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Fuxian is the largest deep freshwater lake in China. Although its average water quality meets Class I of the China National Water Quality Standard (CNWQS), i.e., GB3838-2002, monitoring data indicate that the water quality approaches the Class II threshold in some areas. Thus it is urgent to reduce the watershed load through the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed for Lake Fuxian, simulating flow circulation and pollutant fate and transport. The model development process consists of several steps, including grid generation, initial and boundary condition configurations, and model calibration processes. The model accurately reproduced the observed water surface elevation, spatiotemporal variations in temperature, and total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations, suggesting a reasonable numerical representation of the prototype system for further TMDL analyses. The TMDL was calculated using two interpretations of the water quality standards for Class I of the CNWQS based on the maximum instantaneous surface and annual average surface water concentrations. Analysis of the first scenario indicated that the TN, TP and COD loads should be reduced by 66%, 68% and 57%, respectively. Water quality was the highest priority; however, local economic development and cost feasibility for load reduction can pose significant issues. In the second interpretation, the model results showed that, under the existing conditions, the average water quality meets the Class I standard and therefore load reduction is unnecessary. Future studies are needed to conduct risk and cost assessments for realistic decision-making. PMID:23513675

  1. SPIRALING OUT OF CONTROL: THREE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELING OF THE COLLIDING WINDS IN {eta} CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, E. R.; Pittard, J. M.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.

    2011-01-10

    Three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical simulations of the wind-wind collision between the enigmatic supermassive star {eta} Car and its mysterious companion star are presented which include radiative driving of the stellar winds, gravity, optically thin radiative cooling, and orbital motion. Simulations with static stars with a periastron passage separation reveal that the preshock companion star's wind speed is sufficiently reduced so that radiative cooling in the postshock gas becomes important, permitting the runaway growth of nonlinear thin-shell instabilities (NTSIs) which massively distort the wind-wind collision region (WCR). However, large-scale simulations, which include the orbital motion of the stars, show that orbital motion reduces the impact of radiative inhibition and thus increases the acquired preshock velocities. As such, the postshock gas temperature and cooling time see a commensurate increase, and sufficient gas pressure is preserved to stabilize the WCR against catastrophic instability growth. We then compute synthetic X-ray spectra and light curves and find that, compared to previous models, the X-ray spectra agree much better with XMM-Newton observations just prior to periastron. The narrow width of the 2009 X-ray minimum can also be reproduced. However, the models fail to reproduce the extended X-ray minimum from previous cycles. We conclude that the key to explaining the extended X-ray minimum is the rate of cooling of the companion star's postshock wind. If cooling is rapid then powerful NTSIs will heavily disrupt the WCR. Radiative inhibition of the companion star's preshock wind, albeit with a stronger radiation-wind coupling than explored in this work, could be an effective trigger.

  2. One-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic scaling studies of imploding spherical plasma liners

    SciTech Connect

    Awe, T. J.; Adams, C. S.; Davis, J. S.; Hanna, D. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Cassibry, J. T.

    2011-07-15

    One-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations are performed to develop insight into the scaling of stagnation pressure with initial conditions of an imploding spherical plasma shell or ''liner.'' Simulations reveal the evolution of high-Mach-number (M), annular, spherical plasma flows during convergence, stagnation, shock formation, and disassembly, and indicate that cm- and {mu}s-scale plasmas with peak pressures near 1 Mbar can be generated by liners with initial kinetic energy of several hundred kilo-joules. It is shown that radiation transport and thermal conduction must be included to avoid non-physical plasma temperatures at the origin which artificially limit liner convergence and, thus, the peak stagnation pressure. Scalings of the stagnated plasma lifetime ({tau}{sub stag}) and average stagnation pressure (P{sub stag}, the pressure at the origin, averaged over {tau}{sub stag}) are determined by evaluating a wide range of liner initial conditions. For high-M flows, {tau}{sub stag} {approx} {Delta}R/v{sub 0}, where {Delta}R and v{sub 0} are the initial liner thickness and velocity, respectively. Furthermore, for argon liners, P{sub stag} scales approximately as v{sub 0}{sup 15/4} over a wide range of initial densities (n{sub 0}) and as n{sub 0}{sup 1/2} over a wide range of v{sub 0}. The approximate scaling P{sub stag} {approx} M{sup 3/2} is also found for a wide range of liner-plasma initial conditions.

  3. Hydrodynamic instability experiments with three-dimensional modulations at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-06-08

    The first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements with three-dimensional (3D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on CH shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng.43, 2841 (2004)]. The initial capsule outer-surface amplitudes were increased approximately four times, compared with the standard specifications, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, helping to qualify a technique for measuring small 3D modulations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray through-foil radiography based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 15 similar images significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3D simulations. At a convergence ratio of${\\sim}2.4$, the measured modulation levels were${\\sim}3$times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. Several hypotheses are discussed, including increased instability growth due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. Future experiments will be focused on measurements with standard 3D ‘native-roughness’ capsules as well as with deliberately imposed oxygen modulations.

  4. Verification of the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, Alexey; Mikhailukova, Polina; Krylenko, Inna; Frolova, Natalya; Kireeva, Mariya

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical modeling methods are used more and more actively to evaluate possible damage, identify potential flood zone and the influence of individual factors affecting the river during the passage of the flood. Calculations were performed by means of domestic software complex «STREAM-2D» which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional St. Venant equations. One of the major challenges in mathematical modeling is the verification of the model. This is usually made using data on water levels from hydrological stations: the smaller the difference of the actual level and the simulated one, the better the quality of the model used. Data from hydrological stations are not always available, so alternative sources of verification, such as remote sensing, are increasingly used. The aim of this work is to develop a method of verification of hydrodynamic model based on a comparison of actual flood zone area, which in turn is determined on the basis of the automated satellite image interpretation methods for different imaging systems and flooded area obtained in the course of the model. The study areas are Lena River, The North Dvina River, Amur River near Blagoveshchensk. We used satellite images made by optical and radar sensors: SPOT-5/HRG, Resurs-F, Radarsat-2. Flooded area were calculated using unsupervised classification (ISODATA and K-mean) for optical images and segmentation for Radarsat-2. Knowing the flow rate and the water level at a given date for the upper and lower limits of the model, respectively, it is possible to calculate flooded area by means of program STREAM-2D and GIS technology. All the existing vector layers with the boundaries of flooding are included in a GIS project for flood area calculation. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project no. 14-17-00155.

  5. Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Accretion in High-mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, Eric John

    Wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) often results in highly variable X-ray behavior, the nature of which is not well understood. Most models of wind accretion are based on the analytical predictions of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion (HLA), which assumes a steady axisymmetric flow. Surprisingly little is known about the structure, stability, and time-evolution of HLA in three dimensions, particularly in the presence of non-uniform winds. This work describes hydrodynamic simulations of idealized HLA in three-dimensions, then applies these simulations to two HMXB subclasses that exhibit unexplained X-ray behavior. Our idealized HLA models show that the accretion flow remains steady and stable in two-dimensional axisymmetric and three dimensional grid geometries, assuming a uniform upstream flow. We test the stability of the model with linear upstream density gradients and find that they are able to induce rotational flow around the accretor that reduces the mass accretion rate by up to an order of magnitude. We apply our 3D model to accretion in the context of Be/X-ray binaries, in which the accreting neutron star is immersed in the dense decretion disk of the Be donor star. These systems have traditionally been described with 2D models that exhibit the flip-flop instability. This instability results in the formation and destruction of transient accretion disks with accompanying bursts of mass accretion. Our 3D models show no sign of the flip-flop instability, but instead display rotation about the neutron star directed primarily out of the plane of the decretion disk. This rotation generates large-scale asymmetries in the bow shock and suppresses mass accretion by up to two orders of magnitude. The accretion of a clumped stellar wind is one of the primary mechanisms proposed to explain the high-luminosity X-ray flares of supergiant fast X-ray transients. We model clump accretion in 3D to determine whether the impact of a clump can produce flares with a

  6. Calculation of three-dimensional compressible laminar and turbulent boundary flows. Three-dimensional compressible boundary layers of reacting gases over realistic configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, R. M.; Bonnett, W. S.; Nardo, C. T.; Abbett, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A three-dimensional boundary-layer code was developed for particular application to realistic hypersonic aircraft. It is very general and can be applied to a wide variety of boundary-layer flows. Laminar, transitional, and fully turbulent flows of compressible, reacting gases are efficiently calculated by use of the code. A body-oriented orthogonal coordinate system is used for the calculation and the user has complete freedom in specifying the coordinate system within the restrictions that one coordinate must be normal to the surface and the three coordinates must be mutually orthogonal.

  7. Frequency Spectrum of Exact Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrashkin, A. A.; Yakubovich, E. I.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the discrete frequency spectrum of a plane hydrodynamic flow of ideal incompressible liquid with localized trajectories of the liquid particles can contain only one, two, or an infinite number of harmonics.

  8. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  9. Three-Dimensional Parallel Lattice Boltzmann Hydrodynamic Simulations of Turbulent Flows in Interstellar Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, Dirk

    1995-08-01

    Exploring the clumpy and filamentary structure of interstellar molecular clouds is one of the key problems of modern astrophysics. So far, we have little knowledge of the physical processes that cause the structure, but turbulence is suspected to be essential. In this thesis I study turbulent flows and how they contribute to the structure of interstellar dark clouds. To this end, three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations are needed since the detailed turbulent spatial and velocity structure cannot be analytically calculated. I employ the ``Lattice Boltzmann Method'', a recently developed numerical method which solves the Boltzmann equation in a discretized phase space. Mesoscopic particle packets move with fixed velocities on a Cartesian lattice and at each time step they exchange mass according to given rules. Because of its mainly local operations the method is well suited for application on parallel or clustered computers. As part of my thesis I have developed a parallelized ``Lattice Boltzmann Method'' hydrodynamics code. I have improved the numerical stability for Reynolds numbers of up to 104.5 and Mach numbers of up to 0.9 and I have extended the method to include a second miscible fluid phase. The code has been used on the three currently most powerful workstations at the ``Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie'' in Bonn and on the massively parallel mainframe CM-5 at the ``Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung'' in St. Augustin. The simulations consist of collimated shear flows and the motion of molecular clumps through an ambient medium. The dependence of the emerging structure on Reynolds and Mach numbers is studied. The main results are (1) that distinct clumps and filaments appear only at the transition between laminar and fully turbulent flow at Reynolds numbers between 500 and 5000 and (2) that subsonic viscous shear flows are capable of producing the dark cloud velocity structure. The unexpectedly low Reynolds numbers can

  10. BEM-based numerical study of three-dimensional compressible bubble dynamics in stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, O. A.; Akhatov, I. Sh.; Gumerov, N. A.; Itkulova, Yu. A.

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of compressible gas bubbles in a viscous shear flow and an acoustic field at low Reynolds numbers is studied. The numerical approach is based on the boundary element method (BEM), which is effective as applied to the three-dimensional simulation of bubble deformation. However, the application of the conventional BEM to compressible bubble dynamics faces difficulties caused by the degeneration of the resulting algebraic system. Additional relations based on the Lorentz reciprocity principle are used to cope with this problem. Test computations of the dynamics of a single bubble and bubble clusters in acoustic fields and shear flows are presented.

  11. One-Dimensional Lagrangian Code for Plasma Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Fusion Pellet Driven by Ion Beams.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 The MEDUSA-IB code performs implosion and thermonuclear burn calculations of an ion beam driven ICF target, based on one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics and transport theory. It can calculate the following values in spherical geometry through the progress of implosion and fuel burnup of a multi-layered target. (1) Hydrodynamic velocities, density, ion, electron and radiation temperature, radiation energy density, Rs and burn rate of target as a function of coordinates and time, (2) Fusion gainmore » as a function of time, (3) Ionization degree, (4) Temperature dependent ion beam energy deposition, (5) Radiation, -particle and neutron spectra as a function of time.« less

  12. Three-dimensional nonlinear ideal MHD equilibria with field-aligned incompressible and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.

  13. Three-dimensional supersonic flow around double compression ramp with finite span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, G.; Park, S. H.; Byun, Y. H.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional flows of Mach number 3 around a double-compression ramp with finite span have been investigated numerically. Shadowgraph visualisation images obtained in a supersonic wind tunnel are used for comparison. A three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver was used to obtain steady numerical solutions. Two-dimensional numerical results are also compared. Four different cases were studied: two different second ramp angles of 30° and 45° in configurations with and without sidewalls, respectively. Results showed that there is a leakage of mass and momentum fluxes heading outwards in the spanwise direction for three-dimensional cases without sidewalls. The leakage changed the flow characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer and resulted in the discrepancy between the experimental data and two-dimensional numerical results. It is found that suppressing the flow leakage by attaching the sidewalls enhances the two-dimensionality of the experimental data for the double-compression ramp flow.

  14. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic models at scales of ecological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, D. W.; Diplas, P.

    2000-05-01

    Modeling of flow features that are important in assessing stream habitat conditions has been a long-standing interest of stream biologists. Recently, they have begun examining the usefulness of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic models in attaining this objective. Current modeling practices consider relatively long channel sections with their bathymetry represented in terms of large, macro-scale, topographic features. Meso-scale topographic features, such as boulders, root-wads and other obstructions are typically not considered in the modeling process. Instead, the overall effects of these flow obstructions are captured through increased values in the channel roughness parameters. Such an approach to 2-D modeling allows one to accurately predict average depth and velocity values; however, it is not capable of providing any information about the flow patterns in the vicinity of these obstructions. Biologists though have known that such meso-scale features and the complex velocity patterns generated by their presence, play an important role in the ecology of streams, and thus cannot be ignored. It is therefore evident that there is a need to develop better tools, capable of modeling flow characteristics at scales of ecological importance. The purpose of this study is to expand the utility of 2-D hydraulic models to capture these flow features that are critical for characterizing stream habitat conditions. There exists a paucity of research addressing what types of topographic features should be included in 2-D model studies and to what extent a boulder or series of exposed boulders can influence predicted flow conditions and traditional useable habitat computations. Moreover, little research has been performed to evaluate the impact mesh refinement has on model results in natural streams. Numerical simulations, based on a natural river channel containing several large boulders, indicate that explicitly modeling local obstructions/boulders can significantly impact

  15. Three-Dimensional Inverse Transport Solver Based on Compressive Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuxiong; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi

    2013-09-01

    According to the direct exposure measurements from flash radiographic image, a compressive sensing-based method for three-dimensional inverse transport problem is presented. The linear absorption coefficients and interface locations of objects are reconstructed directly at the same time. It is always very expensive to obtain enough measurements. With limited measurements, compressive sensing sparse reconstruction technique orthogonal matching pursuit is applied to obtain the sparse coefficients by solving an optimization problem. A three-dimensional inverse transport solver is developed based on a compressive sensing-based technique. There are three features in this solver: (1) AutoCAD is employed as a geometry preprocessor due to its powerful capacity in graphic. (2) The forward projection matrix rather than Gauss matrix is constructed by the visualization tool generator. (3) Fourier transform and Daubechies wavelet transform are adopted to convert an underdetermined system to a well-posed system in the algorithm. Simulations are performed and numerical results in pseudo-sine absorption problem, two-cube problem and two-cylinder problem when using compressive sensing-based solver agree well with the reference value.

  16. Out-of-Core Compression and Decompression of Large n-Dimensional Scalar Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J; Szymczak, A

    2003-05-07

    We present a simple method for compressing very large and regularly sampled scalar fields. Our method is particularly attractive when the entire data set does not fit in memory and when the sampling rate is high relative to the feature size of the scalar field in all dimensions. Although we report results for R{sup 3} and R{sup 4} data sets, the proposed approach may be applied to higher dimensions. The method is based on the new Lorenzo predictor, introduced here, which estimates the value of the scalar field at each sample from the values at processed neighbors. The predicted values are exact when the n-dimensional scalar field is an implicit polynomial of degree n-1. Surprisingly, when the residuals (differences between the actual and predicted values) are encoded using arithmetic coding, the proposed method often outperforms wavelet compression in an L{infinity} sense. The proposed approach may be used both for lossy and lossless compression and is well suited for out-of-core compression and decompression, because a trivial implementation, which sweeps through the data set reading it once, requires maintaining only a small buffer in core memory, whose size barely exceeds a single n-1 dimensional slice of the data.

  17. Two-Dimensional Microfluidics: hydrodynamics of drops and interfaces in flowing smectic liquid crystal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom; Park, Cheol; Maclennan, Joe; Maclennan, Matt; Clark, Noel

    2012-02-01

    The quantization of film thickness in freely suspended fluid smectic liquid crystal film enables the study of the hydrodynamics of drops and interfaces in 2D. We report microfluidic experiments, in which we observe the hydrodynamics of 2D drops flowing in channels. Using high-speed video microscopy, we track the shape of 2D drops and interfaces, visualizing the deterministic lateral displacement-based separation and pinched flow separation phenomena previously observed only in 3D. Finally, we demonstrate techniques for 2D drop generation and sorting, which will be used for 2D microfluidic applications.

  18. Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 2: Computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction across face seals and through narrow slots. The computer program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions for parallel surfaces. The program is written in FORTRAN IV. The input and output variables are in either the International System of Units (SI) or the U.S. customary system.

  19. Three-dimensional plastic flow of anisotropic layer compressed by flat dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, Ljudmila A.

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional flow of anisotropic plastic layer compressed by parallel rough flat dies is considered. Ideal plastic material model with Hill anisotropic yield criterion modification of Mises isotropic model is used with associated plastic flow rule. General solution of a thin layer plastic flow problem with Prandtl linear velocity and shear stress variation in layer thickness direction is presented. Effects of contact friction force vector module and direction on the layer pressure on the dies and the layer plastic flow are considered.

  20. Simulating hydrodynamics in a spring-fed estuary using a three-dimensional unstructured Cartesian grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, XinJian

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an application of a three-dimensional unstructured Cartesian grid model (Chen, 2011) to a real-world case, namely the Crystal River/Kings Bay system located on the Gulf coast of the Florida peninsula of the United States. Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system which is believed to be the largest natural refuge in the United States for manatees during the coldest days in winter because of the existence of a large amount of discharge out of numerous spring vents at the bottom of Kings Bay. The unstructured Cartesian grid model was used to simulate hydrodynamics, including salinity transport processes and thermodynamics, in the estuary during a 34-month period from April 2007 to February 2010. Although there are some unidentified uncertainties in quantifying flow rates from the spring vents and salinity variations in spring flows, simulated water elevations, salinities, temperatures, and cross-sectional flux all match well or very well with measured real-time field data. This suggests that the unstructured Cartesian grid model can adequately simulate hydrodynamics in a complex shallow water system such as Crystal River/Kings Bay and the numerical theory for the unstructured Cartesian grid model works properly. The successful simulation of hydrodynamics in the estuarine system also suggests that an empirical formula that relates the spring discharge with the water level in Kings Bay and the groundwater level measured in a nearby well is reasonable.

  1. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm2, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 1014 and 5.5 × 1014) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the "high-foot" experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3-10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm2. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  2. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    SciTech Connect

    Milovich, J. L. Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  3. Experimental reconstruction of three-dimensional hydrodynamic loading in water entry problems through particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalisendi, Mohammad; Shams, Adel; Panciroli, Riccardo; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Predicting the hydrodynamic loading during water impact is of fundamental importance for the design of offshore and aerospace structures. Here, we experimentally characterize the 3D hydrodynamic loading on a rigid wedge vertically impacting a quiescent water surface. Planar particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field on several planes, along the width and the length of the impacting wedge. Such data are ultimately utilized to estimate the 3D velocity field in the whole fluid domain, where the pressure field is reconstructed from the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Experimental results confirm that the velocity field is nearly 2D at the mid-span of the wedge, while the axial velocity along the length of the wedge becomes significant in the proximity of the edges. The variation of the fluid flow along the length of the wedge regulates the hydrodynamic loading experienced during the impact. Specifically, the hydrodynamic loading is maximized at the mid-span of the wedge and considerably decreases toward the edges. The method proposed in this study can find application in several areas of experimental fluid mechanics, where the analysis of unsteady 3D fluid-structure interactions is of interest.

  4. Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.

    2005-11-01

    The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.

  5. Effects of thermal fluctuations and fluid compressibility on hydrodynamic synchronization of microrotors at finite oscillatory Reynolds number: a multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

    2014-08-28

    We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors by means of multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) simulations. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. Comparing simulations to theoretical results based on linearized hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. Thermal noise implies large fluctuations of the phase-angle difference between the rotors, but synchronization prevails and the ensemble-averaged time dependence of the phase-angle difference agrees well with analytical predictions. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressibility effects lead to longer synchronization times. In addition, the relevance of the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation are discussed, specifically the linear unsteady acceleration term characterized by the oscillatory Reynolds number ReT. We illustrate the continuous breakdown of synchronization with the Reynolds number ReT, in analogy to the continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with decreasing Reynolds number. PMID:25011003

  6. Utilizing dimensional analysis with observed data to determine the significance of hydrodynamic solutions in coastal hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.

  7. Full-coverage film cooling: 3-dimensional measurements of turbulence structure and prediction of recovery region hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrodynamic measurements were made with a triaxial hot-wire in the full-coverage region and the recovery region following an array of injection holes inclined downstream, at 30 degrees to the surface. The data were taken under isothermal conditions at ambient temperature and pressure for two blowing ratios: M = 0.9 and M = 0.4. Profiles of the three main velocity components and the six Reynolds stresses were obtained at several spanwise positions at each of the five locations down the test plate. A one-equation model of turbulence (using turbulent kinetic energy with an algebraic mixing length) was used in a two-dimensional computer program to predict the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the recovery region. A new real-time hotwire scheme was developed to make measurements in the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer over the full-coverage surface.

  8. Predicting typhoon-induced storm surge tide with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and artificial neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.-B.; Liu, W.-C.; Hsu, M.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Precise predictions of storm surges during typhoon events have the necessity for disaster prevention in coastal seas. This paper explores an artificial neural network (ANN) model, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) algorithms used to correct poor calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in predicting storm surge height during typhoon events. The two-dimensional model has a fine horizontal resolution and considers the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which can be applied for describing the complicated physical properties of storm surges along the east coast of Taiwan. The model is driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries using a global ocean tidal model and is forced by the meteorological conditions using a cyclone model. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model indicate that this model fails to predict storm surge height during the model calibration and verification phases as typhoons approached the east coast of Taiwan. The BPNN model can reproduce the astronomical tide level but fails to modify the prediction of the storm surge tide level. The ANFIS model satisfactorily predicts both the astronomical tide level and the storm surge height during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error and root-mean-square error compared to the simulated results at the different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison results showed that the ANFIS techniques could be successfully applied in predicting water levels along the east coastal of Taiwan during typhoon events.

  9. Predicted macroinvertebrate response to water diversion from a montane stream using two-dimensional hydrodynamic models and zero flow approximation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.

  10. Thermal compression and characterization of three-dimensional nonwoven PET matrices as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ma, T; Yang, S T; Kniss, D A

    2001-03-01

    Nonwoven fibrous matrices have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering, and modification of microstructure of these matrices is needed to organize cells in three-dimensional space with spatially balanced proliferation and differentiation required for functional tissue development. The method of thermal compression of nonwoven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics was developed and key parameters of temperature, pressure, and compression duration were evaluated in this study. The permanent deformation was obtained at elevated temperature under pressure and the viscoelastic compressional behaviors were observed, characterized by a distinct apparent modulus change in glass transition temperature region. A liquid extrusion method was further employed to analyze both pore size and its distribution for matrices with porosity ranging from 84 to 93%. It is also found that a more uniformly distributed pore size was resulted from thermal compression and the isotropic nature of nonwoven fabrics was preserved because of the proportional reduction of the pore by compression. The thermally compressed fabric matrices with two different pore sizes (15 and 20 microm in pore radius) were used to culture human trophoblast ED27 and NIH 3T3 cells. It was found that cells cultured in the different pore-size PET matrices had different cell spatial organization and proliferation rates. The smaller pores in the matrix allowed cells to spread better and proliferate faster, while cells in the larger pores tended to form large aggregates and had lower proliferation rate. The thermal compression technique also can be applied to other synthetic fibrous matrices including biodegradable polymers used in tissue engineering to modify the microstructure according to their viscoelastic properties. PMID:11219726

  11. Three-dimensional evolution of magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities in a compressible magnetized jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bettarini, Lapo; Landi, Simone; Velli, Marco; Londrillo, Pasquale

    2009-06-15

    The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.

  12. Three-dimensional evolution of magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities in a compressible magnetized jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettarini, Lapo; Landi, Simone; Velli, Marco; Londrillo, Pasquale

    2009-06-01

    The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.

  13. Small-Scale Structures in Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneguzzi, Maurice; Pouquet, Annick; Sulem, Pierre-Louis

    Small-scale structures in turbulent flows appear as a subtle mixture of order and chaos that could play an important role in the energetics. The aim here is a better understanding of the similarities and differences between vortex and current dynamics, and of the influence of these structures on the statistical and transport properties of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, with special concern for fusion plasmas, and solar or magnetospheric environments. Special emphasis is given to the intermittency at inertial scales and to the coherent structures at small scales. Magnetic reconnection and the dynamo effect are also discussed, together with the effect of stratification and inhomogeneity. The impact of hydrodynamic concepts on astro and geophysical observations are reviewed.

  14. On deformations of one-dimensional Poisson structures of hydrodynamic type with degenerate metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoldi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We provide a complete list of two- and three-component Poisson structures of hydrodynamic type with degenerate metric, and study their homogeneous deformations. In the non-degenerate case any such deformation is trivial, that is, can be obtained via Miura transformations. We demonstrate that in the degenerate case this class of deformations is non-trivial, and depends on a certain number of arbitrary functions. This shows that the second Poisson-Lichnerowicz cohomology group does not vanish.

  15. Reconstructing high-dimensional two-photon entangled states via compressive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tonolini, Francesco; Chan, Susan; Agnew, Megan; Lindsay, Alan; Leach, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accurately establishing the state of large-scale quantum systems is an important tool in quantum information science; however, the large number of unknown parameters hinders the rapid characterisation of such states, and reconstruction procedures can become prohibitively time-consuming. Compressive sensing, a procedure for solving inverse problems by incorporating prior knowledge about the form of the solution, provides an attractive alternative to the problem of high-dimensional quantum state characterisation. Using a modified version of compressive sensing that incorporates the principles of singular value thresholding, we reconstruct the density matrix of a high-dimensional two-photon entangled system. The dimension of each photon is equal to d = 17, corresponding to a system of 83521 unknown real parameters. Accurate reconstruction is achieved with approximately 2500 measurements, only 3% of the total number of unknown parameters in the state. The algorithm we develop is fast, computationally inexpensive, and applicable to a wide range of quantum states, thus demonstrating compressive sensing as an effective technique for measuring the state of large-scale quantum systems. PMID:25306850

  16. Revisiting pyramid compression to quantify flexoelectricity: A three-dimensional simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Amir; Millán, Daniel; Peco, Christian; Arroyo, Marino; Arias, Irene

    2015-03-01

    Flexoelectricity is a universal property of all dielectrics by which they generate a voltage in response to an inhomogeneous deformation. One of the controversial issues in this field concerns the magnitude of flexoelectric coefficients measured experimentally, which greatly exceed theoretical estimates. Furthermore, there is a broad scatter amongst experimental measurements. The truncated pyramid compression method is one of the common setups to quantify flexoelectricity, the interpretation of which relies on simplified analytical equations to estimate strain gradients. However, the deformation fields in three-dimensional pyramid configurations are highly complex, particularly around its edges. In the present work, using three-dimensional self-consistent simulations of flexoelectricity, we show that the simplified analytical estimations of strain gradients in compressed pyramids significantly overestimate flexoelectric coefficients, thus providing a possible explanation to reconcile different estimates. In fact, the interpretation of pyramid compression experiments is highly nontrivial. We systematically characterize the magnitude of this overestimation, of over one order of magnitude, as a function of the truncated pyramid configuration. These results are important to properly characterize flexoelectricity, and provide design guidelines for effective electromechanical transducers exploiting flexoelectricity.

  17. Large-eddy simulation of a three-dimensional compressible tornado vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianjun

    Large-Eddy simulation (LES) has become a very useful tool for investigating tornadoes, one of the more spectacular and destructive phenomena of nature. A new three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible model is generated to determine how significant the differences between compressible and incompressible LES simulations may be in some extremely violent tornadoes. In particular, this study seeks to determine how high the Mach number within the tornado may become before significant changes occur due to compressibility, and what the major effects of these changes may be expected to be. After developing and verifying the compressible LES model, three different patterns of tornadic corner flows cataloged by local swirl ratio are simulated under quasisteady conditions for different Mach numbers. Simulation comparisons have demonstrated that the compressibility effects are different for different corner flow structures. At peak average Mach numbers less than approximately 0.5, the compressibility effects are not very significant and may be accounted for to leading order by an appropriate isentropic transformation applied to the incompressible results. As the maximum Mach number is increased to more than 1.0, the compressibility effects for low-swirl-ratio corner flows are dramatic, with significant increase in peak vertical velocity and the height of the vortex breakdown above the surface. The effects are much weaker for medium swirl conditions, and expected to be still weaker for high swirl corner flow where the effects are essentially limited to influencing the secondary vortices. In general, compressibility effects would not change the basic dynamics of tornadic corner flows even if Mach numbers greater than one are achieved. This study also shows that during the sharp temporal overshoot in near-surface intensity that can sometimes occur during a tornado's evolution, the maximum pressure drop will tend to be restricted by supersonic velocities, and thus limit the

  18. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834

  19. Compression of digital holograms for three-dimensional object reconstruction and recognition.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Thomas J; Frauel, Yann; Javidi, Bahram; Tajahuerce, Enrique

    2002-07-10

    We present the results of applying lossless and lossy data compression to a three-dimensional object reconstruction and recognition technique based on phase-shift digital holography. We find that the best lossless (Lempel-Ziv, Lempel-Ziv-Welch, Huffman, Burrows-Wheeler) compression rates can be expected when the digital hologram is stored in an intermediate coding of separate data streams for real and imaginary components. The lossy techniques are based on subsampling, quantization, and discrete Fourier transformation. For various degrees of speckle reduction, we quantify the number of Fourier coefficients that can be removed from the hologram domain, and the lowest level of quantization achievable, without incurring significant loss in correlation performance or significant error in the reconstructed object domain. PMID:12141512

  20. Compression of digital holograms for three-dimensional object reconstruction and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Thomas J.; Frauel, Yann; Javidi, Bahram; Tajahuerce, Enrique

    2002-07-01

    We present the results of applying lossless and lossy data compression to a three-dimensional object reconstruction and recognition technique based on phase-shift digital holography. We find that the best lossless (Lempel-Ziv, Lempel-Ziv-Welch, Huffman, Burrows-Wheeler) compression rates can be expected when the digital hologram is stored in an intermediate coding of separate data streams for real and imaginary components. The lossy techniques are based on subsampling, quantization, and discrete Fourier transformation. For various degrees of speckle reduction, we quantify the number of Fourier coefficients that can be removed from the hologram domain, and the lowest level of quantization achievable, without incurring significant loss in correlation performance or significant error in the reconstructed object domain.

  1. Study of Two-Dimensional Compressible Non-Acoustic Modeling of Stirling Machine Type Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) computer code was developed for modeling enclosed volumes of gas with oscillating boundaries, such as Stirling machine components. An existing 2-D incompressible flow computer code, CAST, was used as the starting point for the project. CAST was modified to use the compressible non-acoustic Navier-Stokes equations to model an enclosed volume including an oscillating piston. The devices modeled have low Mach numbers and are sufficiently small that the time required for acoustics to propagate across them is negligible. Therefore, acoustics were excluded to enable more time efficient computation. Background information about the project is presented. The compressible non-acoustic flow assumptions are discussed. The governing equations used in the model are presented in transport equation format. A brief description is given of the numerical methods used. Comparisons of code predictions with experimental data are then discussed.

  2. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-10-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium.

  3. A variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics. Discussion of the one-dimensional theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prozan, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is used as a variational statement to derive a numerical procedure to satisfy the governing equations of motion. The procedure, based on numerical experimentation, appears to be stable provided the CFL condition is satisfied. This stability is manifested no matter how severe the gradients (compression or expansion) are in the flow field. For reasons of simplicity only one dimensional inviscid compressible unsteady flow is discussed here; however, the concepts and techniques are not restricted to one dimension nor are they restricted to inviscid non-reacting flow. The solution here is explicit in time. Further study is required to determine the impact of the variational principle on implicit algorithms.

  4. Efficient computation of the stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.; Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Methods for the computer analysis of the stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers are discussed and the user-oriented Compressible Stability Analysis (COSAL) computer code is described. The COSAL code uses a matrix finite-difference method for local eigenvalue solution when a good guess for the eigenvalue is available and is significantly more computationally efficient than the commonly used initial-value approach. The local eigenvalue search procedure also results in eigenfunctions and, at little extra work, group velocities. A globally convergent eigenvalue procedure is also developed which may be used when no guess for the eigenvalue is available. The global problem is formulated in such a way that no unstable spurious modes appear so that the method is suitable for use in a black-box stability code. Sample stability calculations are presented for the boundary layer profiles of an LFC swept wing.

  5. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834

  6. Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the formation of waves in polarized two-dimensional systems of charged and neutral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I.

    2011-12-15

    In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

  7. Multiscale molecular dynamics/hydrodynamics implementation of two dimensional "Mercedes Benz" water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, A.; Nerukh, D.; Pavlov, E.; Karabasov, S.; Markesteijn, A.

    2015-09-01

    A multiscale Molecular Dynamics/Hydrodynamics implementation of the 2D Mercedes Benz (MB or BN2D) [1] water model is developed and investigated. The concept and the governing equations of multiscale coupling together with the results of the two-way coupling implementation are reported. The sensitivity of the multiscale model for obtaining macroscopic and microscopic parameters of the system, such as macroscopic density and velocity fluctuations, radial distribution and velocity autocorrelation functions of MB particles, is evaluated. Critical issues for extending the current model to large systems are discussed.

  8. Processing and properties of ceramic composites with three-dimensional architectures of thin compressive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Geoff Eric

    Threshold strength behavior and flaw insensitivity have recently been observed in laminar ceramic composites containing thick stress-free layers and thin layers in residual compression (due to thermal expansion mismatch). The threshold strength behavior is due to a crack tip shielding effect in which the stress intensity factor cracks initiating in the thick layers and propagating through the thin layers is reduced by the compressive stresses. Consequently, a well-defined level of stress (the threshold strength) is required to cause the cracks to propagate entirely through the compressive layers to cause failure of the specimens regardless of the initial flaw size. The threshold strength behavior is only observed in one loading orientation relative to the layers. The current work describes the processing procedures and fracture behavior of ceramic composites with three-dimensional architectures of thin compressive layers which are expected to exhibit threshold strength behavior in any tensile loading orientation and possess higher threshold strengths than laminates of similar architectural dimensions. Processing of the composites consists of producing spherical agglomerates, coating these agglomerates with a thin layer of material which upon heat treatment develops a residual compressive stress, and consolidating the coated agglomerates into bars suitable for mechanical testing. Finite element modeling of the residual stresses in the composite architecture is used to explain fracture behavior of the composites which is shown to depend on the architectural variables. Fractography of failed specimens is instrumental in elucidating the processing flaws within the architectures, one of the most pervasive of which is inter-agglomerate voids due to incomplete consolidation; additional processing steps are developed to remove these flaws and produce flaw-free composites suitable for a study of a flaw-insensitivity through the introduction of controlled flaws. Mechanical

  9. VALIDITY OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR VARIABLE-DENSITY HYDRODYNAMIC CIRCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-dimensional model of temperatures and currents has been formulated to assist in the analysis and interpretation of the dynamics of stratified lakes. In this model, nonlinear eddy coefficients for viscosity and conductivities are included. A two-dimensional model (one vert...

  10. Multi-dimensional modeling of the application of catalytic combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wen; Xie, Maozhao

    2006-12-01

    The detailed surface reaction mechanism of methane on rhodium catalyst was analyzed. Comparisons between numerical simulation and experiments showed a basic agreement. The combustion process of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine whose piston surface has been coated with catalyst (rhodium and platinum) was numerically investigated. A multi-dimensional model with detailed chemical kinetics was built. The effects of catalytic combustion on the ignition timing, the temperature and CO concentration fields, and HC, CO and NOx emissions of the HCCI engine were discussed. The results showed the ignition timing of the HCCI engine was advanced and the emissions of HC and CO were decreased by the catalysis.

  11. Quasiconservation laws for compressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, J D; Holm, D D

    2012-10-01

    We formulate the quasi-Lagrangian fluid transport dynamics of mass density ρ and the projection q=ω·∇ρ of the vorticity ω onto the density gradient, as determined by the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for an ideal gas, although the results apply for an arbitrary equation of state. It turns out that the quasi-Lagrangian transport of q cannot cross a level set of ρ. That is, in this formulation, level sets of ρ (isopycnals) are impermeable to the transport of the projection q. PMID:23214709

  12. Three-dimensional compressible turbulent computations for a nondiffusing S-duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.; Debonis, J. R.; Smith, C. F.; Bruns, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The PARC3D code was used to compute the compressible turbulent flow within a three dimensional, nondiffusing S-duct. A frame of reference is provided for future computational fluid dynamics studies of internal flows with strong secondary flows and provides an understanding of the performance characteristics of a typical S-duct with attached flow. The predicted results, obtained with both H- and O-grids, are compared with the experimental wall pressure, static and total pressure fields, and velocity vectors. Additionally, computed boundary layer thickness, velocity profiles in wall coordinates, and skin friction values are presented.

  13. An implicit three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver for compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Kwak, Dochan

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical method based on the lower-upper symmetric-Gauss-Seidel implicit scheme in conjunction with the flux-limited dissipation model is developed for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A new computer code which is based on this method requires only 9 microsec per grid-point per iteration on a single processor of a Cray YMP computer and executes at the sustained rate of 170 MFLOPS. A reduction of 4 orders of magnitude in the residual for a high Reynolds number flow using 230 K grid points is obtained in 24 minutes. The computational results compare well with available experimental data.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity in geothermally-influenced lakes derived from atmospherically corrected Landsat thermal imagery and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Mathew G.; Hamilton, David P.; Trolle, Dennis; Muraoka, Kohji; McBride, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric correction of Landsat 7 thermal data was carried out for the purpose of retrieval of lake skin water temperature in Rotorua lakes, and Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. The effect of the atmosphere was modelled using four sources of atmospheric profile data as input to the MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN) radiative transfer model. The retrieved skin water temperatures were validated using a high-frequency temperature sensor deployed from a monitoring buoy at the water surface of Lake Rotorua. The most accurate atmospheric correction method was with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric profile data (root-mean-square-error, RMSE, 0.48 K), followed by radiosonde (0.52 K), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 3 (0.54 K), and the NASA atmospheric correction parameter calculator (0.94 K). Retrieved water temperature was used for assessing spatial heterogeneity and accuracy of surface water temperature simulated with a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model of Lake Rotoehu, located approximately 20 km east of Lake Rotorua. This comparison indicated that the model was suitable for reproducing the dominant horizontal variations in surface water temperature in the lake. This study demonstrated the potential of accurate satellite-based thermal monitoring to validate temperature outputs from 3-D hydrodynamic model simulations. It also provided atmospheric correction options for local and global applications of Landsat thermal data.

  15. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of hydrodynamic interactions between pectoral-fin vortices and body undulation in a swimming fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cheng-Lun; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yeh, Meng-Kao; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2011-09-01

    We investigated numerically the hydrodynamic interactions between pectoral-fin vortices and body undulation in a fish swimming with carangiform locomotion at a Reynolds number of 3.3 × 104; the three-dimensional, viscous, incompressible, Navier-Stokes equations were solved with a finite-volume method. For a fish swimming with the pectoral fins abducted, we characterized the wake flow structures, forces, and power consumption with respect to various Strouhal numbers. The numerical results reveal that a pair of vortices is formed immediately behind the abducted pectoral fins of a swimming fish. There exist hydrodynamic interactions between the pectoral-fin vortices and the undulating fish body. For Strouhal numbers in a range 0.2-0.8, the body undulation impedes the shedding of pectoral-fin vortices, resulting in vortices closely attached to the pectoral fins. In contrast, for Strouhal number = 0.1, the pectoral-fin vortices are shed from the pectoral fins and drift downstream. The low-pressure suction forces arising from the shed pectoral-fin vortices facilitate lateral movements of the fish body, decreasing the power consumption. This phenomenon indicates the possibility for an actual fish to harvest energy from the shed pectoral-fin vortices.

  16. Calibration and validation of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Ohio River, Jefferson County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C.R.; Mueller, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The quantification of current patterns is an essential component of a Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) application in a riverine environment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided a field validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates-2 (RMA-2) hydrodynamic model capable of quantifying the steady-flowpatterns in the Ohio River extending from river mile 590 to 630 for the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) water-quality modeling efforts on that reach. Because of the hydrodynamic complexities induced by McAlpine Locks and Dam (Ohio River mile 607), the model was split into two segments: an upstream reach, which extended from the dam upstream to the upper terminus of the study reach at Ohio River mile 590; and a downstream reach, which extended from the dam downstream to a lower terminus at Ohio River mile 636. The model was calibrated to a low-flow hydraulic survey (approximately 35,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s)) and verified with data collected during a high-flow survey (approximately 390,000 ft3/s). The model calibration and validation process included matching water-surface elevations at 10 locations and velocity profiles at 30 cross sections throughout the study reach. Based on the calibration and validation results, the model is a representative simulation of the Ohio River steady-flow patterns below discharges of approximately 400,000 ft3/s.

  17. WIND: Computer program for calculation of three dimensional potential compressible flow about wind turbine rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program is presented which numerically solves an exact, full potential equation (FPE) for three dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three dimensional, boundary conforming grid and iteratively solves the FPE while fully accounting for both the rotating cascade and Coriolis effects. The numerical techniques incorporated involve rotated, type dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive line overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, the WIND program is capable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. The program can also be used to analyze the flow around isolated aircraft propellers and helicopter rotors in hover as long as the total relative Mach number of the oncoming flow is subsonic.

  18. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Three-Dimensional Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  19. Entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-07-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  20. Numerical simulation of compressible Couette flow stability: Non-linear and three-dimensional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saati, Abdulmannan Abdulhamid

    1991-02-01

    The direct numerical simulation of the stability and transition of compressible Couette flow is studied. The effects of a constant body force along the vertical direction are also studied. Cartesian geometry is adopted to approximate Couette flow produced in the gap between two coaxial cylinders rotating at high-speed, with the body force representing the effects of the centrifugal force. A new, compressible flow solver for two- and three-dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations, using both the MacCormack and the high-order Two-Four methods was developed. In order to facilitate the simulations with greater detail and accuracy, a high-speed supercomputer with large core memory is required. Thus, the computer code was written in FORTRAN for its execution on the CRAY2, at NASA Langley. In a concurrent effort, in order to study the feasibility and efficiency of massively parallel super-computers and to speed up the computations, the work was further extended by rewriting the computer code in both C* and PARIS languages, for execution on the massively parallel Connection Machine CM 2 at the University of Colorado. Extensive testing of this new computer code was performed using wave propagation problems involving small- and large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional disturbances. Numerical simulations on the stability of compressible Couette flow between two infinite, parallel plates, with the inclusion of (1) a sudden body force, and (2) a body force in equilibrium, were performed. First, two-dimensional disturbances were considered and then the work was extended by considering three-dimensional disturbances on the rectangular Couette flow problem. Effects of body force magnitude, Mach number, and Reynolds number were also investigated. The simulations provide excellent agreement with the linear theory, thus documenting the phase and amplitude accuracy of the computed results; the overall amplitude error remains less than one percent. The results show that

  1. A three-dimensional model of co-rotating streams in the solar wind. 2: Hydrodynamic streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, V. J.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of corotating solar wind dynamics on a global scale are explored by means of numerical simulations executed with a nonlinear, inviscid, adiabatic, single-fluid, three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic formulation. A simple, hypothetical 3-D stream structure is defined on a source surface located at 35 solar radius and carefully documents its evolution to 1 AU under the influence of solar rotation. By manipulating the structure of this prototype configuration at the source surface, it is possible to elucidate the factors most strongly affecting stream evolution: (1) the intrinsic correlations among density, temperature, and velocity existing near the source; (2) the amplitude of the stream; (3) the longitudinal breadth of the stream; (4) the latitudinal breadth of the stream; and (5) the heliographic latitude of the centroid of the stream.

  2. User's manual for DYNA2D: an explicit two-dimensional hydrodynamic finite-element code with interactive rezoning

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1982-02-01

    This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.

  3. Two-dimensional electromagnetic quantum-hydrodynamic simulations of isochoric heating of a solid target by proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-02-15

    Isochoric heating of an aluminum target by proton beams has been studied with a two-dimensional self-consistent electromagnetic quantum-hydrodynamic model, including the nonlinear quantum effects. It is shown that most protons deposit their energy within several micrometers near the surface, and the aluminum metal target is heated up to several electron volts in tens of Mbar pressure regime within one picosecond. Comparison between electrostatic and electromagnetic cases shows that the strength of electromagnetic field is much smaller than that of the electrostatic field at initial stage but increases more rapidly and becomes larger at later time. The results show that the time evolution of electric field has a significant influence on the interaction of intense beams with a solid target, while the effect of the self-magnetic field is small for non-relativistic beams considered here.

  4. Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.

  5. Compressed simulation of thermal and excited states of the one-dimensional X Y model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, W. L.; Kraus, B.

    2015-09-01

    Since several years, the preparation and manipulation of a small number of quantum systems in a controlled and coherent way is feasible in many experiments. In fact, these experiments are nowadays commonly used for quantum simulation and quantum computation. As recently shown, such a system can, however, also be utilized to simulate specific behaviors of exponentially larger systems. That is, certain quantum computations can be performed by an exponentially smaller quantum computer. This compressed quantum computation can be employed to observe, for instance, the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional (1D) X Y model using very few qubits. We extend here this notion to simulate the behavior of thermal as well as excited states of the 1D X Y model. In particular, we consider the 1D X Y model of a spin chain of n qubits and derive a quantum circuit processing only log(n ) qubits which simulates the original system. We demonstrate how the behavior of thermal as well as any eigenstate of the system can be efficiently simulated in this compressed fashion and present a quantum circuit on log(n ) qubits to measure the magnetization, the number of kinks, and correlations occurring in the thermal as well as any excited state of the original systems. Moreover, we derive compressed circuits to study time evolutions.

  6. Multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations aimed at characterizing heavily aluminized RDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoh, Jack J.; Kim, Bohoon; Kim, Minsung

    2015-06-01

    An accurate and reliable prediction of reactive flow is a challenging task for an energetic material subjected to an external shock impact. The present study aims at simulating the shock induced detonation of heavily aluminized RDX which contains 35% of aluminum. A series of gap tests with the longitudinal simulations involving gap substances are conducted to understand the inherent initiation process that depends on the shock propagation through multi-material domain and the high strain dynamics of nearby confinement materials. A pressure chamber test is used to validate the blast wave calculation of the sample charge, and a full 3-D hydrodynamic simulation is performed to predict fragmentation of an explosively loaded steel casing. The paper provides an elaborate description of how a heavily aluminized RDX is characterized in terms of its thermo-chemical response and multi-material interaction with inert confinement materials.

  7. Three-dimensional model of a plasma railgun using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Lloyd M.

    Pulsed plasma accelerators are utilized for in-space propulsion and drivers for inertial fusion concepts. Theoretical models are necessary to assist in diagnostic analysis and for developing scaling laws. SPFMax is a new 3D code which uses smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate fluid flow, and has been designed specifically for modeling plasmas produced by these pulsed devices. A set of gasdynamic test cases were established and utilized to verify the accuracy of SPFMax for modeling the gas dynamics in a railgun. The free expansion confirmed that the gas expands supersonically without exceeding the predicted maximum value. With the square wave test, SPFMax advected the waves with floating point accuracy. Shocks, expansion waves, and contact surfaces were resolved in both 1D and 3D tests with a relatively low number of particles.

  8. Radiological image compression using error-free irreversible two-dimensional direct-cosine-transform coding techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Lo, S C; Ho, B K; Lou, S L

    1987-05-01

    Some error-free and irreversible two-dimensional direct-cosine-transform (2D-DCT) coding, image-compression techniques applied to radiological images are discussed in this paper. Run-length coding and Huffman coding are described, and examples are given for error-free image compression. In the case of irreversible 2D-DCT coding, the block-quantization technique and the full-frame bit-allocation (FFBA) technique are described. Error-free image compression can achieve a compression ratio from 2:1 to 3:1, whereas the irreversible 2D-DCT coding compression technique can, in general, achieve a much higher acceptable compression ratio. The currently available block-quantization hardware may lead to visible block artifacts at certain compression ratios, but FFBA may be employed with the same or higher compression ratios without generating such artifacts. An even higher compression ratio can be achieved if the image is compressed by using first FFBA and then Huffman coding. The disadvantages of FFBA are that it is sensitive to sharp edges and no hardware is available. This paper also describes the design of the FFBA technique. PMID:3598750

  9. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic Bondi-Hoyle accretion. 2: Homogeneous medium at Mach 3 with gamma = 5/3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffert, Maximilian; Arnett, David

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of three-dimensional classical Bondi-Hoyle accretion. Totally absorbing spheres of varying sizes (from 10 down to 0.01 accretion radii) move at Mach 3 relative to a homogeneous and slightly perturbed medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas (gamma = 5/3). To accommodate the long-range gravitational forces, the extent of the computational volume is 32(exp 3) accretion radii. We examine the influence of numerical procedure on physical behavior. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the 'piecewise parabolic method.' No energy sources (nuclear burning) or sinks (radiation, conduction) are included. The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several (5-10) grids around the sphere, each finer grid being a factor of 2 smaller in zone dimension that the next coarser grid. The largest dynamic range (ratio of size of the largest grid to size of the finest zone) is 16,384. This allows us to include a coarse model for the surface of the accretor (vacuum sphere) on the finest grid, while at the same time evolving the gas on the coarser grids. Initially (at time t = 0-10), a shock front is set up, a Mach cone develops, and the accretion column is observable. Eventually the flow becomes unstable, destroying axisymmetry. This happens approximately when the mass accretion rate reaches the values (+/- 10%) predicted by the Bondi-Hoyle accretion formula (factor of 2 included). However, our three-dimensional models do not show the highly dynamic flip-flop flow so prominent in two-dimensional calculations performed by other authors. The flow, and thus the accretion rate of all quantities, shows quasi-periodic (P approximately equals 5) cycles between quiescent and active states. The interpolation formula proposed in an accompanying paper is found to follow the collected numerical data to within approximately 30%. The specific angular momentum accreted is of the same order of magnitude as the values previously found for

  10. Geothermal well behaviour prediction after air compress stimulation using one-dimensional transient numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusman, W.; Viridi, S.; Rachmat, S.

    2016-01-01

    The non-discharges geothermal wells have been a main problem in geothermal development stages and well discharge stimulation is required to initiate a flow. Air compress stimulation is one of the methods to trigger a fluid flow from the geothermal reservoir. The result of this process can be predicted by using by the Af / Ac method, but sometimes this method shows uncertainty result in several geothermal wells and also this prediction method does not take into account the flowing time of geothermal fluid to discharge after opening the well head. This paper presents a simulation of non-discharges well under air compress stimulation to predict well behavior and time process required. The component of this model consists of geothermal well data during heating-up process such as pressure, temperature and mass flow in the water column and main feed zone level. The one-dimensional transient numerical model is run based on the Single Fluid Volume Element (SFVE) method. According to the simulation result, the geothermal well behavior prediction after air compress stimulation will be valid under two specific circumstances, such as single phase fluid density between 1 - 28 kg/m3 and above 28.5 kg/m3. The first condition shows that successful well discharge and the last condition represent failed well discharge after air compress stimulation (only for two wells data). The comparison of pf values between simulation and field observation shows the different result according to the success discharge well. Time required for flow to occur as observed in well head by using the SFVE method is different with the actual field condition. This model needs to improve by updating more geothermal well data and modified fluid phase condition inside the wellbore.

  11. EFDC1D - A ONE DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR RIVER AND STREAM NETWORKS: MODEL THEORY AND USERS GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...

  12. Horizontally propagating three-dimensional chemo-hydrodynamic patterns in the chlorite-tetrathionate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pópity-Tóth, Éva; Horváth, Dezső; Tóth, Ágota

    2012-09-01

    Planar reaction fronts resulting from the coupling of exothermic autocatalytic reactions and transport processes can be deformed by convection in the presence of gravity field. We have experimentally investigated how buoyancy affects the spatiotemporal pattern formation at various solution thicknesses in three-dimensional medium. In the chlorite-tetrathionate reaction, a stable structure propagating horizontally with constant velocity and geometry develops when appropriately thick solutions are studied. Both the horizontal and the vertical projections of the resulting three-dimensional structures are quantitatively characterized: the smooth leading edge of the front is independent of the solution thickness and the structured trailing edge ends in a center cusp with a constant angle.

  13. Improved non-local electron thermal transport model for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-08-15

    An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.

  14. A numerical study of the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients for two-dimensional granular hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazán, Lidia; Carrillo, José A.; Salueña, Clara; Garzó, Vicente; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    A numerical study that aims to analyze the thermal mechanisms of unsteady, supersonic granular flow by means of hydrodynamic simulations of the Navier-Stokes granular equation is reported in this paper. For this purpose, a paradigmatic problem in granular dynamics such as the Faraday instability is selected. Two different approaches for the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients for granular materials are considered, namely the traditional Jenkins-Richman theory for moderately dense quasi-elastic grains and the improved Garzó-Dufty-Lutsko theory for arbitrary inelasticity, which we also present here. Both the solutions are compared with event-driven simulations of the same system under the same conditions, by analyzing the density, temperature and velocity field. Important differences are found between the two approaches, leading to interesting implications. In particular, the heat transfer mechanism coupled to the density gradient, which is a distinctive feature of inelastic granular gases, is responsible for a major discrepancy in the temperature field and hence in the diffusion mechanisms.

  15. Improved non-local electron thermal transport model for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.

  16. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the St. Clair-Detroit River waterway in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    The St. Clair-Detroit River waterway connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie in the Great Lakes basin to form part of the international boundary between the United States and Canada. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is developed to compute flow velocities and water levels as part of a source water assessment of public water intakes. The model, which uses the generalized finite-element code RMA2, discretizes the waterway into a mesh formed by 13,783 quadratic elements defined by 42,936 nodes. Seven steady-state scenarios are used to calibrate the model by adjusting parameters associated with channel roughness in 25 material zones. An inverse modeling code is used to systematically adjust model parameters and to determine their associated uncertainty by use of nonlinear regression. Calibration results show close agreement between simulated and expected flows in major channels and water levels at gaging stations. Sensitivity analyses describe the amount of information available to estimate individual model parameters, and quantify the utility of flow measurements at selected cross sections and water-level measurements at gaging stations. Further data collection, model calibration analysis, and grid refinements are planned to assess and enhance two-dimensional flow simulation capabilities describing the horizontal flow distributions in St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and circulation patterns in Lake St. Clair.

  17. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Mold Filling Process in Compression Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Jin, Tianguo; Li, Jianguang; Bi, Fengyang

    2015-04-01

    Compression resin transfer molding (CRTM) is an effective process for the manufacturing of composite parts with large size and high fiber content, while the existence of open gap, the dynamically changing dimensions of cavity geometry and the deformation of preform during filling process bring great difficulties to the three-dimensional simulation of resin flow in CRTM. In order to develop a convenient and efficient three-dimensional simulation approach for CRTM filling process, a unified mathematical model for resin flow in both open gap and preform is established instead of considering the gap as high permeability preform, then the analysis of the clamping force and stress distribution are presented. In order to avoid direct solving the coupled equations of resin flow and cavity deformation, volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase flow technology and dynamic mesh model are applied to track the resin flow front and update the cavity geometry during filling simulation, respectively. The master-slave element method is used to modify the amount of resin release and ensure the resin mass conservation. The validity of the numerical approach is verified by comparison with analytical and experimental results, three-dimensional simulation examples are also presented.

  18. An implicit method for two-dimensional hydrodynamics. [in stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livne, Eli

    1993-01-01

    An implicit method for compressible multidimensional flows is presented. The method, which is strongly oriented toward astrophysical applications, enables one to simulate very subsonic flows by removing the Courant condition upon time steps. It consists of an implicit purely Lagrangian step, followed by an explicit and second-order accurate (at least in one dimension) remapping step, which is optional. When the remapping step is performed the time step is limited by the 'particle crossing time' and otherwise it is limited only by accuracy considerations. The suggested method, which results from a compromise between accuracy and efficiency, is very efficient relative to other methods. It enables the computation of many multidimensional problems in stellar evolution, such as those governed by very subsonic flows, which were not calculable with existing explicit methods.

  19. SOLA-STAR: a one-dimensional ICED-ALE hydrodynamics program for spherically symmetric flows

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes a simple, general-purpose, and efficient algorithm for solving one-dimensional spherically symmetric, transient fluid-dynamics problems using a variation of the ICED-ALE technique. Included are the finite difference equations, three test problems that illustrate various capabilities of the program, and a complete code description, including a listing, sample data decks and output, a summary of important variable names, and hints for conversion to other operating systems.

  20. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  1. Hydrodynamics of paper making: Streamwise vortices generated upstream of a two-dimensional jet nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tsun-Ya

    The hydrodynamic stability of initially laminar flow in a 2D jet was investigated. The motivation for this study was understanding the effects of jet geometry and turbulence in the papermaking process. Utilizing the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, eight experimental cases were conducted in a 2D jet. The jet exit had a vertical blockage as much as 50% of the jet height. Two grid size screens, 0.73 x 0.73cm2 and 1.11 x 1.11 cm2, were used as turbulence generators. The Reynolds number range, based on the momentum thickness and the free stream velocity 1-2ms , varied from 960 to 5500. Streamwise vortices occurred due to shear induced by the presence of the blockage. The size of the vortices was 0.5--1 cm, which is nearly proportional to the streak spacing found in a sheet of paper. With the presence of a turbulence generator, streamwise vortices still exist. The 0.73 x 0.73cm2 size turbulence generator had a greater effect on reducing the strength of the streamwise vortices than the 1.11 x 1.11cm2 size turbulence generator. The size of a mean spanwise vortex, located at the corner formed by the upper wall and the blockage, was found to be one half the length of the blockage. The study suggests that the streamwise vortices do not result from the streaks in the turbulent boundary layer, nor from the Gortler vortices. The spanwise and streamwise vortices are likely the product of inflexional instability.

  2. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of superluminous interacting supernovae of Type IIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasis, Alkiviadis; Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard

    2016-05-01

    Some interacting supernovae (SNe) of Type IIn show a sizeable continuum polarization suggestive of a large-scale asymmetry in the circumstellar medium (CSM) and/or the SN ejecta. Here, we extend the recent work of Dessart et al. on superluminous SNe IIn and perform axially-symmetric (i.e. 2D) multigroup radiation hydrodynamics simulations to explore the impact of an imposed large-scale density asymmetry. When the CSM is asymmetric, the latitudinal variation of the radial optical depth τ introduces a strong flux redistribution from the higher density CSM regions, where the shock luminosity is larger, towards the lower density CSM regions where photons escape more freely - this redistribution ceases when τ ≲ 1. Along directions where the CSM density is larger, the shock deceleration is stronger and its progression slower, producing a non-spherical cold-dense shell (CDS). For an oblate CSM density distribution, the photosphere (CDS) has an oblate (prolate) morphology when τ ≳ 1. When the CSM is symmetric and the ejecta asymmetric, the flux redistribution within the CSM now tends to damp the latitudinal variation of the luminosity at the shock. It then requires a larger ejecta asymmetry to produce a sizeable latitudinal variation in the emergent flux. When the interaction is between a SN ejecta and a relic disc, the luminosity boost at early times scales with the disc opening angle - forming a superluminous SN IIn this way requires an unrealistically thick disc. In contrast, interaction with a disc of modest thickness/mass can yield a power that rivals radioactive decay of a standard SN II at nebular times.

  3. Three-dimensional simulations of ablative hydrodynamic instabilities in indirectly driven targets

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Remington, B.A.

    1996-06-01

    To model ignition in a National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule implosion, the authors must understand the behavior of instabilities that can cause breakup of the pellet shell. During a capsule implosion, shocks that transit the shell cause growth of perturbations at the surface or at an interface because of a Richtmyer-Meshkov type of instability. Following shock breakout, or earlier for a shaped pulse, the low-density ablated plasma accelerates the pusher, and the ablation front is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable. Ablation and finite density gradients have the effect of stabilizing the short wavelength modes. Unstable modes present on the outer surface grow and feed through to the inner surface. Once the shell encounters the rebounding shock from the capsule center, it decelerates and the inner surface becomes RT unstable. If perturbations grow large enough, pusher material mixes into the core, degrading implosion performance. Capsule designs for the NIF depend on ablative stabilization and saturation to prevent perturbations initially present on the capsule surface from growing large enough to quench ignition. Here, the authors examine the first simulations and experiments to study the effect of 3-D perturbation shape on instability growth and saturation in indirectly driven targets. The first section discusses HYDRA, the radiation hydrodynamics code developed for these simulations. The subsequent section examines 3-D shape effects in single-mode perturbations in planar foil simulations and experiments. A discussion of the evolution of multimode perturbations on planar foils is followed by a discussion of 3-D simulations of instability growth in Nova capsule implosions.

  4. Chemistry in the First Hydrostatic Core Stage by Adopting Three-dimensional Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Tomida, Kengo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya; Tomisaka, Kohji; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2012-10-01

    We investigate molecular evolution from a molecular cloud core to a first hydrostatic core in three spatial dimensions. We perform a radiation hydrodynamic simulation in order to trace fluid parcels, in which molecular evolution is investigated, using a gas-phase and grain-surface chemical reaction network. We derive spatial distributions of molecular abundances and column densities in the molecular cloud core harboring the first core. We find that the total gas and ice abundances of many species in a cold era (10 K) remain unaltered until the temperature reaches ~500 K. The gas abundances in the warm envelope and the outer layer of the first core (T <~ 500 K) are mainly determined via the sublimation of ice-mantle species. Above 500 K, the abundant molecules, such as H2CO, start to be destroyed, and simple molecules, such as CO, H2O, and N2, are reformed. On the other hand, some molecules are effectively formed at high temperature; carbon chains, such as C2H2 and cyanopolyynes, are formed at temperatures >700 K. We also find that large organic molecules, such as CH3OH and HCOOCH3, are associated with the first core (r <~ 10 AU). Although the abundances of these molecules in the first core stage are comparable to or less than in the protostellar stage (hot corino), reflecting the lower luminosity of the central object, their column densities in our model are comparable to the observed values toward the prototypical hot corino, IRAS 16293-2422. We propose that these large organic molecules can be good tracers of the first cores.

  5. CHEMISTRY IN THE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE STAGE BY ADOPTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Tomida, Kengo; Tomisaka, Kohji; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2012-10-20

    We investigate molecular evolution from a molecular cloud core to a first hydrostatic core in three spatial dimensions. We perform a radiation hydrodynamic simulation in order to trace fluid parcels, in which molecular evolution is investigated, using a gas-phase and grain-surface chemical reaction network. We derive spatial distributions of molecular abundances and column densities in the molecular cloud core harboring the first core. We find that the total gas and ice abundances of many species in a cold era (10 K) remain unaltered until the temperature reaches {approx}500 K. The gas abundances in the warm envelope and the outer layer of the first core (T {approx}< 500 K) are mainly determined via the sublimation of ice-mantle species. Above 500 K, the abundant molecules, such as H{sub 2}CO, start to be destroyed, and simple molecules, such as CO, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}, are reformed. On the other hand, some molecules are effectively formed at high temperature; carbon chains, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and cyanopolyynes, are formed at temperatures >700 K. We also find that large organic molecules, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HCOOCH{sub 3}, are associated with the first core (r {approx}< 10 AU). Although the abundances of these molecules in the first core stage are comparable to or less than in the protostellar stage (hot corino), reflecting the lower luminosity of the central object, their column densities in our model are comparable to the observed values toward the prototypical hot corino, IRAS 16293-2422. We propose that these large organic molecules can be good tracers of the first cores.

  6. Flame four-dimensional deflection tomography with compressed-sensing-revision reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Minmin; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Zhaohang

    2016-08-01

    Deflection tomography with limited angle projections was investigated to visualize a premixed flame. A projection sampling system for deflection tomography was used to obtain chronological deflectogram arrays at six view angles with only a pair of gratings. A new iterative reconstruction algorithm with deflection angle compressed-sensing revision was developed to improve reconstruction-distribution quality from incomplete projection data. Numerical simulation and error analysis provided a good indication of algorithm precision and convergence. In the experiment, 150 fringes were processed, and temperature distributions in 20 cross-sections were reconstructed from projection data in four instants. Four-dimensional flame structures and temperature distributions in the flame interior were visualized using the visualization toolkit. The experimental reconstruction was then compared with the result obtained from computational fluid dynamic analysis.

  7. Computation of Three-Dimensional Compressible Flow From a Rectangular Nozzle with Delta Tabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, D. R.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis is performed using a time-marching Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code for a 3:1 rectangular nozzle with two delta tabs located at the nozz1e exit plane to enhance mixing. Two flow configurations, a subsonic jet case and a supersonic jet case using the same rate configuration, which were previously studied experimentally, are computed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data include streamwise velocity and vorticity distributions for the subsonic case, and Mach number distributions for the supersonic case, at various axial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. The computational results show very good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the effect of compressibility on vorticity dynamics is examined by comparing the vorticity contours of the subsonic jet case with those of the supersonic jet case which were not measured in the experiment.

  8. Assembly of micro/nanomaterials into complex, three-dimensional architectures by compressive buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Yan, Zheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Huang, Wen; Fu, Haoran; Kim, Jeonghyun; Wei, Zijun; Flavin, Matthew; McCracken, Joselle; Wang, Renhan; Badea, Adina; Liu, Yuhao; Xiao, Dongqing; Zhou, Guoyan; Lee, Jungwoo; Chung, Ha Uk; Cheng, Huanyu; Ren, Wen; Banks, Anthony; Li, Xiuling; Paik, Ungyu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) structures in biology (e.g., cytoskeletal webs, neural circuits, and vasculature networks) form naturally to provide essential functions in even the most basic forms of life. Compelling opportunities exist for analogous 3D architectures in human-made devices, but design options are constrained by existing capabilities in materials growth and assembly. We report routes to previously inaccessible classes of 3D constructs in advanced materials, including device-grade silicon. The schemes involve geometric transformation of 2D micro/nanostructures into extended 3D layouts by compressive buckling. Demonstrations include experimental and theoretical studies of more than 40 representative geometries, from single and multiple helices, toroids, and conical spirals to structures that resemble spherical baskets, cuboid cages, starbursts, flowers, scaffolds, fences, and frameworks, each with single- and/or multiple-level configurations.

  9. Pressure, compressibility, and contact of the two-dimensional attractive fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E R; Drut, J E

    2015-09-11

    Using ab initio lattice methods, we calculate the finite temperature thermodynamics of homogeneous two-dimensional spin-1/2 fermions with attractive short-range interactions. We present results for the density, pressure, compressibility, and quantum anomaly (i.e., Tan's contact) for a wide range of temperatures (mostly above the superfluid phase, including the pseudogap regime) and coupling strengths, focusing on the unpolarized case. Within our statistical and systematic uncertainties, our prediction for the density equation of state differs quantitatively from the prediction by Luttinger-Ward theory in the strongly coupled region of parameter space, but otherwise agrees well with it. We also compare our calculations with the second- and third-order virial expansion, with which they are in excellent agreement in the low-fugacity regime. PMID:26406837

  10. Materials science. Assembly of micro/nanomaterials into complex, three-dimensional architectures by compressive buckling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Yan, Zheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Huang, Wen; Fu, Haoran; Kim, Jeonghyun; Wei, Zijun; Flavin, Matthew; McCracken, Joselle; Wang, Renhan; Badea, Adina; Liu, Yuhao; Xiao, Dongqing; Zhou, Guoyan; Lee, Jungwoo; Chung, Ha Uk; Cheng, Huanyu; Ren, Wen; Banks, Anthony; Li, Xiuling; Paik, Ungyu; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2015-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) structures in biology (e.g., cytoskeletal webs, neural circuits, and vasculature networks) form naturally to provide essential functions in even the most basic forms of life. Compelling opportunities exist for analogous 3D architectures in human-made devices, but design options are constrained by existing capabilities in materials growth and assembly. We report routes to previously inaccessible classes of 3D constructs in advanced materials, including device-grade silicon. The schemes involve geometric transformation of 2D micro/nanostructures into extended 3D layouts by compressive buckling. Demonstrations include experimental and theoretical studies of more than 40 representative geometries, from single and multiple helices, toroids, and conical spirals to structures that resemble spherical baskets, cuboid cages, starbursts, flowers, scaffolds, fences, and frameworks, each with single- and/or multiple-level configurations. PMID:25574018

  11. An experimental investigation of compressible three-dimensional boundary layer flow in annular diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Om, Deepak; Childs, Morris E.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study is described in which detailed wall pressure measurements have been obtained for compressible three-dimensional unseparated boundary layer flow in annular diffusers with and without normal shock waves. Detailed mean flow-field data were also obtained for the diffuser flow without a shock wave. Two diffuser flows with shock waves were investigated. In one case, the normal shock existed over the complete annulus whereas in the second case, the shock existed over a part of the annulus. The data obtained can be used to validate computational codes for predicting such flow fields. The details of the flow field without the shock wave show flow reversal in the circumferential direction on both inner and outer surfaces. However, there is a lag in the flow reversal between the inner nad the outer surfaces. This is an interesting feature of this flow and should be a good test for the computational codes.

  12. Pressure, Compressibility, and Contact of the Two-Dimensional Attractive Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Drut, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    Using ab initio lattice methods, we calculate the finite temperature thermodynamics of homogeneous two-dimensional spin-1 /2 fermions with attractive short-range interactions. We present results for the density, pressure, compressibility, and quantum anomaly (i.e., Tan's contact) for a wide range of temperatures (mostly above the superfluid phase, including the pseudogap regime) and coupling strengths, focusing on the unpolarized case. Within our statistical and systematic uncertainties, our prediction for the density equation of state differs quantitatively from the prediction by Luttinger-Ward theory in the strongly coupled region of parameter space, but otherwise agrees well with it. We also compare our calculations with the second- and third-order virial expansion, with which they are in excellent agreement in the low-fugacity regime.

  13. Experimental and computational studies of two-dimensional compressible vortex-shock interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chun-Teh

    The problem of two-dimensional compressible vortex-shock interaction is studied both experimentally and numerically. On the experimental side, a strong compressible vortex and a shock wave are produced in the open test section of a shock tube. The shock wave of strength M ≈ 1.2 then collides with the vortex that possesses a density drop at the vortex center exceeding 60% of the free stream value. Shadowgraphs and schlieren pictures of the event are taken in a sequence of experiments with progressive time delays. The pictures show that the shock profile is significantly modified by the interaction, with substantial distortion, disconnection, and a local nonlinear focusing structure. In the computational work, both the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes equations are solved to simulate the problem. Two flux-splitting techniques are employed: (1) first-order-accurate Modified Steger-Warming method and (2) second-order-accurate variable-extrapolation method satisfying the total-variation-diminishing (TVD) condition. Based on the numerical data, the respective behaviors of the vortex, the shock wave, and the secondary wave generated during the interaction are analyzed. The simulation also reveals that the focal region of the distorted shock structure is bounded by a Mach stem and two slipstreams, in which local intensified pressure, density, and temperature peaks occur. It is found that the local intensification of fluid properties and the secondary wave possess essentially nonlinear characteristics at their early stages. The computational results agree well, qualitatively, with the experimental observations.

  14. SASI ACTIVITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEUTRINO-HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: amarek@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-06-10

    The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, {+-}1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M{sub Sun} progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.

  15. Magnetic dynamo action in two-dimensional turbulent magneto-hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fyfe, D.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.

    1977-01-01

    Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is explored by means of numerical simulation. Previous analytical theory, based on non-dissipative constants of the motion in a truncated Fourier representation, is verified by following the evolution of highly non-equilibrium initial conditions numerically. Dynamo action (conversion of a significant fraction of turbulent kinetic energy into long-wavelength magnetic field energy) is observed. It is conjectured that in the presence of dissipation and external forcing, a dual cascade will be observed for zero-helicity situations. Energy will cascade to higher wavenumbers simultaneously with a cascade of mean square vector potential to lower wavenumbers, leading to an omni-directional magnetic energy spectrum.

  16. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the deceleration stage in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C. R. Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-03-15

    The deceleration stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions is modeled in detail using three-dimensional simulations designed to match experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In this final stage of the implosion, shocks rebound from the center of the capsule, forming the high-temperature, low-density hot spot and slowing the incoming fuel. The flow field that results from this process is highly three-dimensional and influences many aspects of the implosion. The interior of the capsule has high-velocity motion, but viscous effects limit the range of scales that develop. The bulk motion of the hot spot shows qualitative agreement with experimental velocity measurements, while the variance of the hot spot velocity would broaden the DT neutron spectrum, increasing the inferred temperature by 400–800 eV. Jets of ablator material are broken apart and redirected as they enter this dynamic hot spot. Deceleration stage simulations using two fundamentally different rad-hydro codes are compared and the flow field is found to be in good agreement.

  17. Magnetic dynamo action in two-dimensional turbulent magneto-hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fyfe, D.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is explored by means of numerical simulation. Previous analytical theory, based on non-dissipative constants of the motion in a truncated Fourier representation, is verified by following the evolution of highly non-equilibrium initial conditions numerically. Dynamo action (conversion of a significant fraction of turbulent kinetic energy into long-wavelength magnetic field energy) is observed. It is conjectured that in the presence of dissipation and external forcing, a dual cascade will be observed for zero-helicity situations. Energy will cascade to higher wave numbers simultaneously with a cascade of mean square vector potential to lower wave numbers, leading to an omni-directional magnetic energy spectrum which varies as 1/k 3 at lower wave numbers, simultaneously with a buildup of magnetic excitation at the lowest wave number of the system. Equipartition of kinetic and magnetic energies is expected at the highest wave numbers in the system.

  18. Radiation hydrodynamics modeling of the highest compression inertial confinement fusion ignition experiment from the National Ignition Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies and that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.

  19. Radiation hydrodynamics modeling of the highest compression inertial confinement fusion ignition experiment from the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-02-15

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies and that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.

  20. OFF-AXIS GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW MODELING BASED ON A TWO-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eerten, Hendrik; Zhang Weiqun; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2010-10-10

    Starting as highly relativistic collimated jets, gamma-ray burst outflows gradually slow down and become nonrelativistic spherical blast waves. Although detailed analytical solutions describing the afterglow emission received by an on-axis observer during both the early and late phases of the outflow evolution exist, a calculation of the received flux during the intermediate phase and for an off-axis observer requires either a more simplified analytical model or direct numerical simulations of the outflow dynamics. In this paper, we present light curves for off-axis observers covering the long-term evolution of the blast wave, calculated from a high-resolution two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulation using a synchrotron radiation model. We compare our results to earlier analytical work and calculate the consequence of the observer angle with respect to the jet axis both for the detection of orphan afterglows and for jet break fits to the observational data. We confirm earlier results in the literature finding that only a very small number of local type Ibc supernovae can harbor an orphan afterglow. For off-axis observers, the observable jet break can be delayed up to several weeks, potentially leading to overestimation of the beaming-corrected total energy. In addition we find that, when using our off-axis light curves to create synthetic Swift X-ray data, jet breaks are likely to remain hidden in the data.

  1. Three-dimensional Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Supernovae-driven Gas Loss in the Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Ursa Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Lanfranchi, G. A.; da Silva, A. Luiz; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.

    2015-06-01

    As is usual in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, today the Local Group galaxy Ursa Minor is depleted of its gas content. How this galaxy lost its gas is still a matter of debate. To study the history of gas loss in Ursa Minor, we conducted the first three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of this object, assuming that the gas loss was driven by galactic winds powered only by type II supernovae (SNe II). The initial gas setup and supernova (SN) rates used in our simulations are mainly constrained by the inferred star formation history and the observed velocity dispersion of Ursa Minor. After 3 Gyr of evolution, we found that the gas removal efficiency is higher when the SN rate is increased, and also when the initial mean gas density is lowered. The derived mass-loss rates are systematically higher in the central regions (\\lt 300 pc), even though such a relationship has not been strictly linear in time and in terms of the galactic radius. The filamentary structures induced by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and the concentric shells related to the acoustic waves driven by SNe can account for the inferred mass losses from the simulations. Our results suggest that SNe II are able to transfer most of the gas from the central region outward to the galactic halo. However, other physical mechanisms must be considered in order to completely remove the gas at larger radii.

  2. Three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the envelopes of young planets embedded in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Bodenheimer, Peter E-mail: peter@ucolick.org

    2013-11-20

    We perform global three-dimensional (3D) radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the envelopes surrounding young planetary cores of 5, 10, and 15 Earth masses, located in a protoplanetary disk at 5 and 10 AU from a solar-mass star. We apply a nested-grid technique to resolve the thermodynamics of the disk at the orbital-radius length scale and that of the envelope at the core-radius length scale. The gas is modeled as a solar mixture of molecular and atomic hydrogen, helium, and their ions. The equation of state accounts for both gas and radiation, and gas energy includes contributions from rotational and vibrational states of molecular hydrogen and from ionization of atomic species. Dust opacities are computed from first principles, applying the full Mie theory. One-dimensional (1D) calculations of planet formation are used to supplement the 3D calculations by providing energy deposition rates in the envelope due to solids accretion. We compare 1D and 3D envelopes and find that masses and gas accretion rates agree within factors of 2, and so do envelope temperatures. The trajectories of passive tracers are used to define the size of 3D envelopes, resulting in radii much smaller than the Hill radius and smaller than the Bondi radius. The moments of inertia and angular momentum of the envelopes are determined and the rotation rates are derived from the rigid-body approximation, resulting in slow bulk rotation. We find that the polar flattening is ≲ 0.05. The dynamics of the accretion flow are examined by tracking the motion of tracers that move into the envelope. The anisotropy of this flow is characterized in terms of both its origin and impact site at the envelope surface. Gas merges with the envelope preferentially at mid- to high latitudes.

  3. Assessing factors affecting the thermal properties of a passive thermal refuge using three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.

  4. Uniform Regularity and Vanishing Dissipation Limit for the Full Compressible Navier-Stokes System in Three Dimensional Bounded Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, we study the uniform regularity and vanishing dissipation limit for the full compressible Navier-Stokes system whose viscosity and heat conductivity are allowed to vanish at different orders. The problem is studied in a three dimensional bounded domain with Navier-slip type boundary conditions. It is shown that there exists a unique strong solution to the full compressible Navier-Stokes system with the boundary conditions in a finite time interval which is independent of the viscosity and heat conductivity. The solution is uniformly bounded in {W^{1,infty}} and is a conormal Sobolev space. Based on such uniform estimates, we prove the convergence of the solutions of the full compressible Navier-Stokes to the corresponding solutions of the full compressible Euler system in {L^infty(0,T; L^2)}, {L^infty(0,T; H1)} and {L^infty([0,T]×Ω)} with a rate of convergence.

  5. Classification of neurovascular compression in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: Three-dimensional visualization of the glossopharyngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Tanrikulu, Levent; Hastreiter, Peter; Dörfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Naraghi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: We introduce a method of noninvasive topographical analysis of the neurovascular relationships of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) by three-dimensional (3D) visualization. Patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) resulting from neurovascular compression (NVC) were studied. Methods: 15 patients with GN were prospectively examined with 3D visualization using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging with constructive interference in steady state (MR-CISS). The datasets were segmented and visualized with the real, individual neurovascular relationships by direct volume rendering. Segmentation and 3D visualization of the CN IX and corresponding blood vessels were performed. The 3D visualizations were interactively compared with the intraoperative setup during microvascular decompression (MVD) in order to verify the results by the observed surgical-anatomical findings. Results: 15 patients (female/male: 5/10) were examined. All of them underwent MVD (100%). Microvascular details were documented. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) was the most common causative vessel in 12 of 15 patients (80%), the vertebral artery (VA) alone in one case (6.7%), and the combination of compression by the VA and PICA in 3 patients (13.3%). We identified three distinct types of NVC within the root entry zone of CN IX. Conclusion: 3D visualization by direct volume rendering of MR-CISS data offers the opportunity of noninvasive exploration and anatomical categorization of the CN IX. It proves to be advantageous in supporting to establish the diagnosis and microneurosurgical interventions by representing original, individual patient data in a 3D fashion. It provides an excellent global individual view over the entire neurovascular relationships of the brainstem and corresponding nerves in each case. PMID:26759734

  6. Calibration of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for parts of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, developed a validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates2 (RMA2) hydrodynamic model of parts of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) to help assess the effects of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) on the rivers. The hydrodynamic model was used to drive a water-quality model of the study area that was capable of simulating the transport and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria and chemical constituents under open-water conditions. The study area includes 14 tributary streams and parts of the Three Rivers where they enter and exit Allegheny County, an area of approximately 730 square miles (mi2). The city of Pittsburgh is near the center of the county, where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers join to form the headwaters of the Ohio River. The Three Rivers are regulated by a series of fixed-crest dams, gated dams, and radial (tainter) gates and serve as the receiving waters for tributary streams, CSOs, and SSOs. The RMA2 model was separated into four individual segments on the basis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigational pools in the study area (Dashields; Emsworth; Allegheny River, Pool 2; and Braddock), which were calibrated individually using measured water-surface slope, velocity, and discharge during high- and low-flow conditions. The model calibration process included the comparison of water-surface elevations at five locations and velocity profiles at more than 80 cross sections in the study area. On the basis of the calibration and validation results that included water-surface elevations and velocities, the model is a representative simulation of the Three Rivers flow patterns for discharges ranging from 4,050 to 47,400 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on the Allegheny River, 2,550 to 40,000 ft3/s on the Monongahela River, and 10,900 to 99,000 ft3/s on the Ohio River. The Monongahela River was

  7. WIND- THREE DIMENSIONAL POTENTIAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ABOUT WIND TURBINE ROTOR BLADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program, WIND, was developed to numerically solve the exact, full-potential equation for three-dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves the full-potential equation while fully accounting for both the rotating and Coriolis effects. WIND is capable of numerically analyzing the flow field about a given blade shape of the horizontal-axis type wind turbine. The rotor hub is assumed representable by a doubly infinite circular cylinder. An arbitrary number of blades may be attached to the hub and these blades may have arbitrary spanwise distributions of taper and of the twist, sweep, and dihedral angles. An arbitrary number of different airfoil section shapes may be used along the span as long as the spanwise variation of all the geometeric parameters is reasonably smooth. The numerical techniques employed in WIND involve rotated, type-dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, WIND is cabable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. Along with the three-dimensional results, WIND provides the results of the two-dimensional calculations to aid the user in locating areas of possible improvement in the aerodynamic design of the blade. Output from WIND includes the chordwise distribution of the coefficient of pressure, the Mach number, the density, and the relative velocity components at spanwise stations along the blade. In addition, the results specify local values of the lift coefficient and the tangent and axial aerodynamic force components. These are also given in integrated form expressing the total torque and the total axial

  8. Global well-posedness of strong solutions to the two-dimensional barotropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations with vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li; Guo, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the global well-posedness and large-time asymptotic behavior of the strong solution to the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations with vacuum. It is proved that if the shear viscosity {μ} is a positive constant and the bulk viscosity {λ} is the power function of the density, that is, {λ=ρ^{β}} with {β in [0,1],} then the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations admits a unique global strong solution provided that the initial data are of small total energy. This result can be regarded as the extension of the well-posedness theory of classical compressible Navier-Stokes equations [such as Huang et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 65:549-585, 2012) and Li and Xin (http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.1673) respectively]. Furthermore, the large-time behavior of the strong solution to the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional barotropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations had been also obtained.

  9. Application of the Analogy Between Water Flow with a Free Surface and Two-dimensional Compressible Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J; Bitterly, Jack G

    1947-01-01

    The theory of hydraulic analogy, that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test run was made using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders at various diameters at subsonic velocities extending to the super critical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and airflow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.

  10. COSAL: A black-box compressible stability analysis code for transition prediction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A fast computer code COSAL for transition prediction in three dimensional boundary layers using compressible stability analysis is described. The compressible stability eigenvalue problem is solved using a finite difference method, and the code is a black box in the sense that no guess of the eigenvalue is required from the user. Several optimization procedures were incorporated into COSAL to calculate integrated growth rates (N factor) for transition correlation for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings using the well known e to the Nth power method. A user's guide to the program is provided.

  11. Application of the Analogy Between Water Flow with a Free Surface and Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J; Butterly, Jack G

    1947-01-01

    The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and air flow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.

  12. Two-dimensional compressible flow in centrifugal compressors with straight blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanitz, John D; Ellis, Gaylord O

    1950-01-01

    Six numerical examples are presented for steady, two-dimensional, compressible, nonviscous flow in centrifugal compressors with thin straight blades, the center lines of which generate the surface of a right circular cone when rotated about the axis of the compressor. A seventh example is presented for incompressible flow. The solutions were obtained in a region of the compressors, including the impeller tip, that was considered to be unaffected by the diffuser vanes or by the impeller-inlet configuration. Each solution applies to radial and mixed flow compressors with various cone angles but with the same angle between blades on the conic flow surface. The solution also apply to radial and mixed flow turbines with the rotation and the flow direction reversed. The effects of variations in the following parameters were investigated: (1) flow rate, (2) impeller-tip speed, (3) variation of passage height with radius, and (4) angle between blades on conic flow surface. The numerical results are presented in plots of the streamlines and constant Mach number lines. Correlation equations are developed whereby the flow conditions in any impeller with straight blades can be determined (in the region investigated by this analysis) for all operating conditions.

  13. A three dimensional lattice model for thermal compressible flow on standard lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongliang; Sagaut, Pierre; Tao, Wenquan

    2015-12-01

    A three-dimensional double distribution function thermal lattice Boltzmann model has been developed for simulation of thermal compressible flows in the low Mach number limit. Both the flow field and energy conservation equation are solved by LB approach. A higher order density distribution function on standard lattices is used to solve the flow field, while an energy distribution function is employed to compute the temperature field. The equation of state of thermal perfect gas is recovered by higher order Hermite polynomial expansions in Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. The equilibrium distribution functions of D3Q15, D3Q19 and D3Q27 lattices are obtained from the Hermite expansion. They exhibit slight differences originating in differences in the discrete lattice symmetries. The correction terms in LB models for third order derivation are added using an external force in orthogonal polynomials form. Present models are successfully assessed considering several test cases, namely the thermal Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard convection, natural convection in square cavity and a spherical explosion in a 3D enclosed box. The numerical results are in good agreement with both analytical solution and results given by previous authors.

  14. Nonstandard Analysis and Shock Wave Jump Conditions in a One-Dimensional Compressible Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Hargreaves, John

    2007-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is a relatively new area of mathematics in which infinitesimal numbers can be defined and manipulated rigorously like real numbers. This report presents a fairly comprehensive tutorial on nonstandard analysis for physicists and engineers with many examples applicable to generalized functions. To demonstrate the power of the subject, the problem of shock wave jump conditions is studied for a one-dimensional compressible gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. To use conservations laws, smooth pre-distributions of the Dirac delta measure are applied whose supports are contained within the shock thickness. Furthermore, smooth pre-distributions of the Heaviside function are applied which vary from zero to one across the shock wave. It is shown that if the equations of motion are expressed in nonconservative form then the relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters may be found unambiguously. The analysis yields the classical Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for an inviscid shock wave. Moreover, non-monotonic entropy jump conditions are obtained for both inviscid and viscous flows. The report shows that products of generalized functions may be defined consistently using nonstandard analysis; however, physically meaningful products of generalized functions must be determined from the physics of the problem and not the mathematical form of the governing equations.

  15. Nonstandard Analysis and Shock Wave Jump Conditions in a One-Dimensional Compressible Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Roy S. Baty, F. Farassat, John A. Hargreaves

    2007-05-25

    Nonstandard analysis is a relatively new area of mathematics in which infinitesimal numbers can be defined and manipulated rigorously like real numbers. This report presents a fairly comprehensive tutorial on nonstandard analysis for physicists and engineers with many examples applicable to generalized functions. To demonstrate the power of the subject, the problem of shock wave jump conditions is studied for a one-dimensional compressible gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. To use conservations laws, smooth pre-distributions of the Dirac delta measure are applied whose supports are contained within the shock thickness. Furthermore, smooth pre-distributions of the Heaviside function are applied which vary from zero to one across the shock wave. It is shown that if the equations of motion are expressed in nonconservative form then the relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters may be found unambiguously. The analysis yields the classical Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for an inviscid shock wave. Moreover, non-monotonic entropy jump conditions are obtained for both inviscid and viscous flows. The report shows that products of generalized functions may be defined consistently using nonstandard analysis; however, physically meaningful products of generalized functions must be determined from the physics of the problem and not the mathematical form of the governing equations.

  16. The Formation of Rotational Discontinuities in Compressive Three-dimensional MHD Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Shaohua; Feng, Xueshang

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of solar wind turbulence reveal the ubiquity of discontinuities. In this study we investigate how the discontinuities, especially rotational discontinuities (RDs), are formed in MHD turbulence. In a simulation of the decaying compressive three-dimensional (3D) MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform background magnetic field, we detect RDs with sharp field rotations and little variations of magnetic field intensity, as well as mass density. At the same time, in the de Hoffman–Teller frame, the plasma velocity is nearly in agreement with the Alfvén speed, and is field-aligned on both sides of the discontinuity. We take one of the identified RDs to analyze its 3D structure and temporal evolution in detail. By checking the magnetic field and plasma parameters, we find that the identified RD evolves from the steepening of the Alfvén wave with moderate amplitude, and that steepening is caused by the nonuniformity of the Alfvén speed in the ambient turbulence.

  17. Efficient compression of motion-compensated sub-images with Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ho-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2010-03-01

    An approach to highly enhance the compression efficiency of the integral images by applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) algorithm to the motion-compensated sub-images is proposed. The sub-images transformed from the elemental images picked-up from the three-dimensional (3D) object might represent the different perspectives of the object. Thus, the similarity among the sub-images gets better than that among the elemental images, so that an improvement of compression efficiency of the sub-images could be obtained. However, motion vectors occurred among the sub-images might result in an additional increase of image data to be compressed. Accordingly, in this paper, motion vectors have been estimated and compensated in all sub-image in advance. Then the KLT algorithm was applied to these motion-compensated sub-images for compression. It is shown from some experimental results that compression efficiency of the proposed method has been improved up to 24.44%, 40.62%, respectively, on the average compared to that of the conventional KLT compression method and that of the JPEG.

  18. Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Multiphase Galactic Disks with Star Formation Feedback. I. Regulation of Star Formation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2013-10-01

    The energy and momentum feedback from young stars has a profound impact on the interstellar medium (ISM), including heating and driving turbulence in the neutral gas that fuels future star formation. Recent theory has argued that this leads to a quasi-equilibrium self-regulated state, and for outer atomic-dominated disks results in the surface density of star formation ΣSFR varying approximately linearly with the weight of the ISM (or midplane turbulent + thermal pressure). We use three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations to test the theoretical predictions for thermal, turbulent, and vertical dynamical equilibrium, and the implied functional dependence of ΣSFR on local disk properties. Our models demonstrate that all equilibria are established rapidly, and that the expected proportionalities between mean thermal and turbulent pressures and ΣSFR apply. For outer disk regions, this results in ΣSFR ∝ Σ&sqrt;{ρsd}, where Σ is the total gas surface density and ρsd is the midplane density of the stellar disk (plus dark matter). This scaling law arises because ρsd sets the vertical dynamical time in our models (and outer disk regions generally). The coefficient in the star formation law varies inversely with the specific energy and momentum yield from massive stars. We find proportions of warm and cold atomic gas, turbulent-to-thermal pressure, and mean velocity dispersions that are consistent with solar-neighborhood and other outer disk observations. This study confirms the conclusions of a previous set of simulations, which incorporated the same physics treatment but was restricted to radial-vertical slices through the ISM.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF MULTIPHASE GALACTIC DISKS WITH STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK. I. REGULATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: eco@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-10-10

    The energy and momentum feedback from young stars has a profound impact on the interstellar medium (ISM), including heating and driving turbulence in the neutral gas that fuels future star formation. Recent theory has argued that this leads to a quasi-equilibrium self-regulated state, and for outer atomic-dominated disks results in the surface density of star formation Σ{sub SFR} varying approximately linearly with the weight of the ISM (or midplane turbulent + thermal pressure). We use three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations to test the theoretical predictions for thermal, turbulent, and vertical dynamical equilibrium, and the implied functional dependence of Σ{sub SFR} on local disk properties. Our models demonstrate that all equilibria are established rapidly, and that the expected proportionalities between mean thermal and turbulent pressures and Σ{sub SFR} apply. For outer disk regions, this results in Σ{sub SFR}∝Σ√(ρ{sub sd}), where Σ is the total gas surface density and ρ{sub sd} is the midplane density of the stellar disk (plus dark matter). This scaling law arises because ρ{sub sd} sets the vertical dynamical time in our models (and outer disk regions generally). The coefficient in the star formation law varies inversely with the specific energy and momentum yield from massive stars. We find proportions of warm and cold atomic gas, turbulent-to-thermal pressure, and mean velocity dispersions that are consistent with solar-neighborhood and other outer disk observations. This study confirms the conclusions of a previous set of simulations, which incorporated the same physics treatment but was restricted to radial-vertical slices through the ISM.

  20. X-ray radiographic imaging of hydrodynamic phenomena in radiation driven materials -- shock propagation, material compression and shear flow. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.; Remington, B.A.; Kornblum, H.N.; Perry, T.S.; Phillion, D.W.; Wallace, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional, time resolved x-ray radiographic imaging at high photon energy (5-7 keV) is used to study shock propagation, material motion and compression, and the effects of shear flow in solid density samples which are driven by x-ray ablation with the Nova laser. By backlighting the samples with x-rays and observing the increase in sample areal density due to shock compression, the authors directly measure the trajectory of strong shocks ({approx}40 Mbar) in flight, in solid density plastic samples. Doping a section of the samples with high-Z material (Br) provides radiographic contrast, allowing the measurement of the shock induced particle motion. Instability growth due to shear flow at an interface is investigated by imbedding a metal wire in a cylindrical plastic sample and launching a shock in the axial direction. Time resolved radiographic measurements are made with either a slit-imager coupled to an x-ray streak camera or a pinhole camera coupled to a gated microchannel plate detector, providing {approx} 10-{mu}m spatial and {approx} 100-ps temporal resolution.

  1. X-ray radiographic imaging of hydrodynamic phenomena in radiation-driven materials---Shock propagation, material compression, and shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.; Remington, B.A.; Kornblum, H.N.; Perry, T.S.; Phillion, D.W.; Wallace, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    One- and two-dimensional, time-resolved x-ray radiographic imaging at high photon energy (5--7 keV) is used to study shock propagation, material motion and compression, and the effects of shear flow in solid density samples which are driven by x-ray ablation with the Nova laser. By backlighting the samples with x rays and observing the increase in sample areal density due to shock compression, the trajectories of strong shocks ([similar to]40 Mbars) in flight are directly measured in solid density plastic samples. Doping a section of the samples with high-[ital Z] material (Br) provides radiographic contrast, allowing a measurement of the shock-induced particle motion. Instability growth due to shear flow at an interface is investigated by imbedding a metal wire in a cylindrical plastic sample and launching a shock in the axial direction. Time-resolved radiographic measurements are made with either a slit-imager coupled to an x-ray streak camera or a pinhole camera coupled to a gated microchannel plate detector, providing [similar to]10 [mu]m spatial and [similar to]100 ps temporal resolution.

  2. The role of molecular motors in the mechanics of active gels and the effects of inertia, hydrodynamic interaction and compressibility in passive microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Andres Cordoba

    The mechanical properties of soft biological materials are essential to their physiological function and cannot easily be duplicated by synthetic materials. The study of the mechanical properties of biological materials has lead to the development of new rheological characterization techniques. In the technique called passive microbead rheology, the positional autocorrelation function of a micron-sized bead embedded in a viscoelastic fluid is used to infer the dynamic modulus of the fluid. Single particle microrheology is limited to fluids were the microstructure is much smaller than the size of the probe bead. To overcome this limitation in two-bead microrheology the cross-correlated thermal motion of pairs of tracer particles is used to determine the dynamic modulus. Here we present a time-domain data analysis methodology and generalized Brownian dynamics simulations to examine the effects of inertia, hydrodynamic interaction, compressibility and non-conservative forces in passive microrheology. A type of biological material that has proven specially challenging to characterize are active gels. They are formed by semiflexible polymer filaments driven by motor proteins that convert chemical energy from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to mechanical work and motion. Active gels perform essential functions in living tissue. Here we introduce a single-chain mean-field model to describe the mechanical properties of active gels. We model the semiflexible filaments as bead-spring chains and the molecular motors are accounted for by using a mean-field approach. The level of description of the model includes the end-to-end length and attachment state of the filaments, and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The model allows accounting for physics that are not available in models that have been postulated on coarser levels of description. Moreover it allows

  3. Radiation hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1982-12-31

    This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.

  4. Compression of ultra-short light pulses using the graded refractive index one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiri, R.; Bananej, A.; Safari, E.

    2016-09-01

    The one-dimensional photonic crystals (1D PCs) containing a graded refractive index layer have been theoretically utilized to compress the positively chirped ultra-short pulses of light. Two types of simple and graded index multi-layer structures consisting alternating layers of TiO2 and SiO2 with the same total thicknesses and periodicity have been investigated and compared. For the graded structure, three different refractive index distributions including linear, exponential and parabolic profiles have been considered. The results revealed that replacing one of the homogeneous layers of the unit cells in simple photonic crystal with a graded material having parabolic refractive index profile efficiently improves compression behavior of the structure. The compress factors of as much as 47% and 78% depending on the pulse's initial chirp rate obtained with parabolic profile of such the structures.

  5. A three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary-layer method for general fuselages. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Yong-Sun

    1990-01-01

    This user's manual contains a complete description of the computer programs developed to calculate three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary layers for perfect gas flow on general fuselage shapes. These programs include the 3-D boundary layer program (3DBLC), the body-oriented coordinate program (BCC), and the streamline coordinate program (SCC). Subroutine description, input, output and sample case are discussed. The complete FORTRAN listings of the computer programs are given.

  6. One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a cylindrical liner imploded by an azimuthal magnetic field and compressing an axial field

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, F. Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2015-08-15

    The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a plasma cylindrical liner is addressed in the case of a two components magnetic field. The azimuthal component is responsible for the implosion of the liner and the axial field is compressed inside the liner. A complete set of analytical profiles for the magnetic field components, the density, and the local velocity are proposed at the scale of the liner thickness. Numerical simulations are also presented to test the validity of the analytical formulas.

  7. Statistics of active and passive scalars in one-dimensional compressible turbulence.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qionglin; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-12-01

    Statistics of the active temperature and passive concentration advected by the one-dimensional stationary compressible turbulence at Re_{λ}=2.56×10^{6} and M_{t}=1.0 is investigated by using direct numerical simulation with all-scale forcing. It is observed that the signal of velocity, as well as the two scalars, is full of small-scale sawtooth structures. The temperature spectrum corresponds to G(k)∝k^{-5/3}, whereas the concentration spectrum acts as a double power law of H(k)∝k^{-5/3} and H(k)∝k^{-7/3}. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the two scalar increments show that both δT and δC are strongly intermittent at small separation distance r and gradually approach the Gaussian distribution as r increases. Simultaneously, the exponent values of the PDF tails for the large negative scalar gradients are q_{θ}=-4.0 and q_{ζ}=-3.0, respectively. A single power-law region of finite width is identified in the structure function (SF) of δT; however, in the SF of δC, there are two regions with the exponents taken as a local minimum and a local maximum. As for the scalings of the two SFs, they are close to the Burgers and Obukhov-Corrsin scalings, respectively. Moreover, the negative filtered flux at large scales and the time-increasing total variance give evidences to the existence of an inverse cascade of the passive concentration, which is induced by the implosive collapse in the Lagrangian trajectories. PMID:23368038

  8. Lattice Boltzmann study of hydrodynamic effects in lamellar ordering process of two-dimensional quenched block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kai-Xu; Jia, Yu-Xi; Sun, Zhao-Yan; An, Li-Jia

    2008-10-01

    By incorporating self-consistent field theory with lattice Boltzmann method, a model for polymer melts is proposed. Compared with models based on Ginzburg-Landau free energy, our model does not employ phenomenological free energies to describe systems and can consider the chain topological details of polymers. We use this model to study the effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the dynamics of microphase separation for block copolymers. In the early stage of phase separation, an exponential growth predicted by Cahn-Hilliard treatment is found. Simulation results also show that the effect of hydrodynamic interactions can be neglected in the early stage. For the late stage of phase separation, it is easy to see the effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the ordering process of lamellae phase. From the analysis of structure factor curves, we find that the growth of domains is faster if hydrodynamic interactions are introduced. Furthermore, the scaling of the pattern dynamics is investigated for the late stage at zero thermal noise. By studying the behavior of scaling exponents of the structure factor and the nematic order-parameter correlation function Cnn, we can see that the effects of hydrodynamic interactions lead to bigger growth exponent for both functions.

  9. Three dimensional numerical modeling of Hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the Mississippi River Diversion at West Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadid, K. M.; Meselhe, E. A.; Roth, B.; Allison, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The coastal wetlands of Louisiana have been experiencing high rates of land subsidence and erosion for decades. Anthropogenic alterations to the hydrology and geology, powerful hurricanes, and relative sea level rise have caused major coastal land loss in Louisiana. After years of research and discussions, the use of sediment diversions from the Mississippi River to adjacent embayment areas were proposed and further authorized as a solution for land building. To this end, the West Bay diversion (WBD) was constructed in 2003 to restore approximately 9,831 acres of wetlands in the West Bay area under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA). The WBD is located along the right-descending bank of the Mississippi River south of Venice, LA near River Mile (RM) 4.7. The initial size of the channel post-construction was designed to convey 20,000 cubic feet per second (cfs), and over time it was anticipated to support a maximum of 50,000 cfs. This sediment diversion provides an opportunity to examine and analyze the impact of such diversion on the morphology of the river channel, and the retention characteristics and rate of delta growth in the receiving basin. Additionally, the WBD serve as analogue to fully validate morphologic models that could consequently be used to model proposed land building sediment diversions in the Lower Mississippi River. In this study a three-dimensional numerical model is developed for the WBD which includes the main channel of the Mississippi River as well as the receiving basin. The model is being calibrated and validated for hydrodynamics and morphology using detailed field observations. Since 2003 regular monitoring has taken place as per the CWPPRA project guidelines. This includes bathymetric surveys of the receiving basin from 2002 (pre-construction), 2003, 2006, and 2009. A recent monitoring survey has been completed and will be available in the near future. In addition to this monitoring data, the U

  10. Weakly compressible turbulence in local interstellar medium. Three-dimensional modeling using Large Eddy Simulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Karelsky, Kirill V.; Petrosyan, Arakel S.

    2010-06-16

    Using advantages of large eddy simulation method, nontrivial regime of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of space plasma when initially supersonic fluctuations become weakly compressible is studied. Establishment of weakly compressible limit with Kolmogorov-like density fluctuations spectrum is shown in present work. We use our computations results to study dynamics of the turbulent plasma beta and anisotropic properties of the magnetoplasma fluctuations in the local interstellar medium. An outstanding, as yet unexplained, observation is that density fluctuations in the local interstellar medium exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum over an extraordinary range of scales with a spectral index close to -5/3. In spite of the compressibility and the presence of magnetic field in the local interstellar medium, density fluctuations nevertheless admit a Kolmogorov-like power law. Supersonic flows with high value of large-scale Mach numbers are characterized in interstellar medium, nevertheless, there are subsonic fluctuations of weakly compressible components of interstellar medium. These weakly compressible subsonic fluctuations are responsible for emergence of a Kolmogorov-type spectrum in interstellar turbulence which is observed from experimental data. It is shown that density fluctuations are a passive scalar in a velocity field in weakly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and demonstrate Kolmogorov-like spectrum.

  11. A Navier-Stokes solution of the three-dimensional viscous compressible flow in a centrifugal compressor impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, J. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent computer code was utilized to calculate the three-dimensional steady flow within the impeller blading. The numerical method is an explicit time marching scheme in two spatial dimensions. Initially, an inviscid solution is generated on the hub blade-to-blade surface by the method of Katsanis and McNally (1973). Starting with the known inviscid solution, the viscous effects are calculated through iteration. The approach makes it possible to take into account principal impeller fluid-mechanical effects. It is pointed out that the second iterate provides a complete solution to the three-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations for flow in a centrifugal impeller. The problems investigated are related to the study of a radial impeller and a backswept impeller.

  12. Geometric and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Three-dimensional Saturated Prefractal Porous Media Determined with Lattice Boltzmann Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fractal and prefractal geometric models have substantial potential of contributing to the analysis of flow and transport in porous media such as soils and reservoir rocks. In this study, geometric and hydrodynamic parameters of saturated 3D mass and pore-solid prefractal porous media were characteri...

  13. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.

    1943-01-01

    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  14. Compressive sensing based high-speed time-stretch optical microscopy for two-dimensional image acquisition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Chen, Hongwei; Weng, Zhiliang; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-11-16

    In this paper, compressive sensing based high-speed time-stretch optical microscopy for two-dimensional (2D) image acquisition is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. A section of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is used to perform wavelength-to-time conversion and then ultrafast spectral shaping of broadband optical pulses can be achieved via high-speed intensity modulation. A 2D spatial disperser comprising a pair of orthogonally oriented dispersers is employed to produce spatially structured illumination for 2D image acquisition and a section of single mode fiber (SMF) is utilized for pulse compression in the optical domain. In our scheme, a 1.2-GHz photodetector and a 50-MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC) are used to acquire the energy of the compressed pulses. Image reconstructions are demonstrated at a frame rate of 500 kHz and a sixteen-fold image compression is achieved in our proof-of-concept demonstration. PMID:26698446

  15. Three-dimensionally bonded spongy graphene material with super compressive elasticity and near-zero Poisson's ratio.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingpeng; Yi, Ningbo; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Tengfei; Fang, Shaoli; Chang, Huicong; Li, Na; Oh, Jiyoung; Lee, Jae Ah; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chipara, Alin C; Terrones, Humberto; Xiao, Peishuang; Long, Guankui; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Long; Lepró, Xavier; Haines, Carter; Lima, Márcio Dias; Lopez, Nestor Perea; Rajukumar, Lakshmy P; Elias, Ana L; Feng, Simin; Kim, Seon Jeong; Narayanan, N T; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Terrones, Mauricio; Aliev, Ali; Chu, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhong; Baughman, Ray H; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge to fabricate graphene bulk materials with properties arising from the nature of individual graphene sheets, and which assemble into monolithic three-dimensional structures. Here we report the scalable self-assembly of randomly oriented graphene sheets into additive-free, essentially homogenous graphene sponge materials that provide a combination of both cork-like and rubber-like properties. These graphene sponges, with densities similar to air, display Poisson's ratios in all directions that are near-zero and largely strain-independent during reversible compression to giant strains. And at the same time, they function as enthalpic rubbers, which can recover up to 98% compression in air and 90% in liquids, and operate between -196 and 900 °C. Furthermore, these sponges provide reversible liquid absorption for hundreds of cycles and then discharge it within seconds, while still providing an effective near-zero Poisson's ratio. PMID:25601131

  16. Four-dimensional compression of fMRI using JPEG2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G.; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W.; Tabesh, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S.; Trouard, Theodore P.

    2005-04-01

    Many medical imaging techniques available today generate 4D data sets. One such technique is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) which aims to determine regions of the brain that are activated due to various cognitive and/or motor functions or sensory stimuli. These data sets often require substantial resources for storage and transmission and hence call for efficient compression algorithms. fMRI data can be seen as a time-series of 3D images of the brain. Many different strategies can be employed for compressing such data. One possibility is to treat each 2D slice independently. Alternatively, it is also possible to compress each 3D image independently. Such methods do not fully exploit the redundancy present in 4D data. In this work, methods using 4D wavelet transforms are proposed. They are compared to different 2D and 3D methods. The proposed schemes are based on JPEG2000, which is included in the DICOM standard as a transfer syntax. Methodologies to test the effects of lossy compression on the end result of fMRI analysis are introduced and used to compare different compression algorithms.

  17. A splitting scheme based on the space-time CE/SE method for solving multi-dimensional hydrodynamical models of semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisar, Ubaid Ahmed; Ashraf, Waqas; Qamar, Shamsul

    2016-08-01

    Numerical solutions of the hydrodynamical model of semiconductor devices are presented in one and two-space dimension. The model describes the charge transport in semiconductor devices. Mathematically, the models can be written as a convection-diffusion type system with a right hand side describing the relaxation effects and interaction with a self consistent electric field. The proposed numerical scheme is a splitting scheme based on the conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method for hyperbolic step, and a semi-implicit scheme for the relaxation step. The numerical results of the suggested scheme are compared with the splitting scheme based on Nessyahu-Tadmor (NT) central scheme for convection step and the same semi-implicit scheme for the relaxation step. The effects of various parameters such as low field mobility, device length, lattice temperature and voltages for one-space dimensional hydrodynamic model are explored to further validate the generic applicability of the CE/SE method for the current model equations. A two dimensional simulation is also performed by CE/SE method for a MESFET device, producing results in good agreement with those obtained by NT-central scheme.

  18. Shear and Compression Bioreactor for Cartilage Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Kifah; Doran, Pauline M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical forces, including hydrodynamic shear, hydrostatic pressure, compression, tension, and friction, can have stimulatory effects on cartilage synthesis in tissue engineering systems. Bioreactors capable of exerting forces on cells and tissue constructs within a controlled culture environment are needed to provide appropriate mechanical stimuli. In this chapter, we describe the construction, assembly, and operation of a mechanobioreactor providing simultaneous dynamic shear and compressive loading on developing cartilage tissues to mimic the rolling and squeezing action of articular joints. The device is suitable for studying the effects of mechanical treatment on stem cells and chondrocytes seeded into three-dimensional scaffolds. PMID:26445842

  19. Second order symmetry-preserving conservative Lagrangian scheme for compressible Euler equations in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Juan; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2014-09-01

    In applications such as astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion, there are many three-dimensional cylindrical-symmetric multi-material problems which are usually simulated by Lagrangian schemes in the two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. For this type of simulation, a critical issue for the schemes is to keep spherical symmetry in the cylindrical coordinate system if the original physical problem has this symmetry. In the past decades, several Lagrangian schemes with such symmetry property have been developed, but all of them are only first order accurate. In this paper, we develop a second order cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving compressible Euler equations in cylindrical coordinates, based on the control volume discretizations, which is designed to have uniformly second order accuracy and capability to preserve one-dimensional spherical symmetry in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry when computed on an equal-angle-zoned initial grid. The scheme maintains several good properties such as conservation for mass, momentum and total energy, and the geometric conservation law. Several two-dimensional numerical examples in cylindrical coordinates are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the scheme in terms of accuracy, symmetry, non-oscillation and robustness. The advantage of higher order accuracy is demonstrated in these examples.

  20. Computer program for quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow with area change and friction - Application to gas film seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction and area change. The program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions. The program was written to be applied to gas film seals. The area-change analysis should prove useful for choked flow conditions with small mean thickness, as well as for face seals where radial area change is significant. The program is written in FORTRAN 4.

  1. Numerical study of a quasi-hydrodynamic system of equations for flow computation at small mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, V. A.; Savenkov, E. B.

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of numerical algorithms based on a quasi-hydrodynamic system of equations for computing viscous heat-conducting compressible gas flows at Mach numbers M = 10-2-10-1 is studied numerically. The numerical algorithm is briefly described, and the results obtained for a number of two- and three-dimensional test problems are presented and compared with earlier numerical data.

  2. Considerations on the effect of wind-tunnel walls on oscillating air forces for two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, Harry L; Watkins, Charles E

    1953-01-01

    This report treats the effect of wind-tunnel walls on the oscillating two-dimensional air forces in a compressible medium. The walls are simulated by the usual method of placing images at appropriate distances above and below the wing. An important result shown is that, for certain conditions of wing frequency, tunnel height, and Mach number, the tunnel and wing may form a resonant system so that the forces on the wing are greatly changed from the condition of no tunnel walls. It is pointed out that similar conditions exist for three-dimensional flow in circular and rectangular tunnels and apparently, within certain Mach number ranges, in tunnels of nonuniform cross section or even in open tunnels or jets.

  3. Numerical solution of multi-dimensional compressible reactive flow using a parallel wavelet adaptive multi-resolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenga, Temistocle

    The aim of this research is to further develop a dynamically adaptive algorithm based on wavelets that is able to solve efficiently multi-dimensional compressible reactive flow problems. This work demonstrates the great potential for the method to perform direct numerical simulation (DNS) of combustion with detailed chemistry and multi-component diffusion. In particular, it addresses the performance obtained using a massive parallel implementation and demonstrates important savings in memory storage and computational time over conventional methods. In addition, fully-resolved simulations of challenging three dimensional problems involving mixing and combustion processes are performed. These problems are particularly challenging due to their strong multiscale characteristics. For these solutions, it is necessary to combine the advanced numerical techniques applied to modern computational resources.

  4. Effect of Compressibility on the Flow past a Two-dimensional Bump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W F; Daley, Bernard N

    1952-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine experimentally the effects of compressibility on the flow past a bump and to compare the experimentally determined results with theory. Pressure measurements and Schlieren photographs were made of the flow past two bumps having thickness-chord ratios of 0.10 and 0.30 at Mach numbers between 0.20 and 0.84

  5. Full potential solution of transonic quasi-three-dimensional flow through a cascade using artificial compressibility

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, C.; Adamczyk, J.

    1982-01-01

    A reliable method is presented for calculating the flowfield about a cascade of arbitrary two-dimensional airfoils. The method approximates the three-dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for streamtube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. 12 refs.

  6. Three-dimensional evaluation of the compression and recovery behavior in a flexible graphite sheet by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Toda, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2012-07-15

    The compression and unloading behavior of flexible graphite sheets was investigated using synchrotron radiation microtomography with 1 {mu}m voxel size. The recovery ratio of the flexible graphite sheet was measured accurately by in-situ observation. The three-dimensional strain distribution in the interior of the specimen was obtained using the microstructural tracking method. The inner strain distribution with micrometer scale indicated inhomogeneous deformation. The microstructural tracking analysis revealed that deformation units exist in the flexible graphite sheet. The units seem to deform, affecting the neighboring units with each other. The units had a similar size and shape with compacted exfoliated graphite worms that constitute the flexible graphite sheet. Microscopic deformations during compression and unloading are surely affected by the microstructure of the sheet. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compression and recovery behavior was investigated using microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tracking analysis revealed that deformation units exist in the specimen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each unit deforms in relation to the neighboring unit.

  7. Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for the supersonic laminar flow over a two-dimensional compression corner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Numerical solutions have been obtained for the supersonic, laminar flow over a two-dimensional compression corner. These solutions were obtained as steady-state solutions to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the finite difference method of Brailovskaya, which has second-order accuracy in the spatial coordinates. Good agreement was obtained between the computed results and wall pressure distributions measured experimentally for Mach numbers of 4 and 6.06, and respective Reynolds numbers, based on free-stream conditions and the distance from the leading edge to the corner. In those calculations, as well as in others, sufficient resolution was obtained to show the streamline pattern in the separation bubble. Upstream boundary conditions to the compression corner flow were provided by numerically solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for the flat plate flow field, beginning at the leading edge. The compression corner flow field was enclosed by a computational boundary with the unknown boundary conditions supplied by extrapolation from internally computed points.

  8. CS²-Collector: A New Approach for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Two-Dimensional Compressive Sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Zhuoshi; Zhang, Jianpei; Li, Feng; Wen, Hongkai; Shen, Yiran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of reconstructing the temporal and spatial profile of some physical phenomena monitored by large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in an energy efficient manner. Compressive sensing is one of the popular choices to reduce the energy consumption of the data collection in WSNs. The existing solutions only consider sparsity of sensors' data from either temporal or spatial dimensions. In this paper, we propose a novel data collection strategy, CS²-collector, for WSNs based on the theory of Two Dimensional Compressive Sensing (2DCS). It exploits both temporal and spatial sparsity, i.e., 2D-sparsity of WSNs and achieves significant gain on the tradeoff between the compression ratio and reconstruction accuracy as the numerical simulations and evaluations on different types of sensors' data. More intuitively, with the same given energy budget, CS²-collector provides significantly more accurate reconstruction of the profile of the physical phenomena that are temporal-spatially sparse. PMID:27548180

  9. Three-Dimensional Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulation of Hot Compressive Deformation Behaviors of 7075 Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei-Ting; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Ling; Shen, Lu-Ming; Wen, Dong-Xu

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) method is used to investigate the hot compressive deformation behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Based on the grain morphology and crystallographic texture of 7075 aluminum alloy, the microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) model was established by the pole figure inversion approach. In order to study the macroscopic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution, the CPFE simulations are performed on the established microstructure-based RVE model. It is found that the simulated stress-strain curves and deformation texture well agree with the measured results of 7075 aluminum alloy. With the increasing deformation degree, the remained initial weak Goss texture component tends to be strong and stable, which may result in the steady flow stress. The grain orientation and grain misorientation have significant effects on the deformation heterogeneity during hot compressive deformation. In the rolling-normal plane, the continuity of strain and misorientation can maintain across the low-angle grain boundaries, while the discontinuity of strain and misorientation is observed at the high-angle grain boundaries. The simulated results demonstrate that the developed CPFE model can well describe the hot compressive deformation behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy under elevated temperatures.

  10. Transonic Shocks for the Full Compressible Euler System in a General Two-Dimensional De Laval Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Xin, Zhouping; Yin, Huicheng

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study the transonic shock problem for the full compressible Euler system in a general two-dimensional de Laval nozzle as proposed in Courant and Friedrichs (Supersonic flow and shock waves, Interscience, New York, 1948): given the appropriately large exit pressure p e( x), if the upstream flow is still supersonic behind the throat of the nozzle, then at a certain place in the diverging part of the nozzle, a shock front intervenes and the gas is compressed and slowed down to subsonic speed so that the position and the strength of the shock front are automatically adjusted such that the end pressure at the exit becomes p e( x). We solve this problem completely for a general class of de Laval nozzles whose divergent parts are small and arbitrary perturbations of divergent angular domains for the full steady compressible Euler system. The problem can be reduced to solve a nonlinear free boundary value problem for a mixed hyperbolic-elliptic system. One of the key ingredients in the analysis is to solve a nonlinear free boundary value problem in a weighted Hölder space with low regularities for a second order quasilinear elliptic equation with a free parameter (the position of the shock curve at one wall of the nozzle) and non-local terms involving the trace on the shock of the first order derivatives of the unknown function.

  11. Density measurement of shock compressed foam using two-dimensional x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pape, Sebastien; Macphee, Andrew; Hey, Daniel; Patel, Pravesh; Mackinnon, Andrew; Key, Mike; Pasley, John; Wei, Mingsheng; Chen, Sophia; Ma, Tammy; Beg, Farhat; Alexander, N.; Stephens, Rich; Offerman, Dustin; Link, A.; Van-Woerkom, Lynn; Freeman, R.

    2008-10-15

    We have used spherically bent quartz crystal to image a laser-generated shock in a foam medium. The foam targets had a density of 0.16 g/cm{sup 3} and thickness of 150 {mu}m, an aluminum/copper pusher drove the shock. The experiment was performed at the Titan facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a 2 ns, 250 J laser pulse to compress the foam target, and a short pulse (10 ps, 350 J) to generate a bright Ti K{alpha} x-ray source at 4.5 keV to radiograph the shocked target. The crystal used gives a high resolution ({approx}20 {mu}m) monochromatic image of the shock compressed foam.

  12. Compressibility of the Two-Dimensional Infinite-U Hubbard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, A.; Wang, Z.; Tandon, A.; Kotliar, G.

    1999-09-01

    We study the interactions between the coherent quasiparticles and the incoherent Mott-Hubbard excitations and their effects on the low-energy properties in the U={infinity} Hubbard model. Within the framework of a systematic large-N expansion, these effects first occur in the next-to-leading order in 1/N . We calculate the scattering phase shift and the free energy, and determine the quasiparticle weight Z , mass renormalization, and the compressibility. It is found that the compressibility is strongly renormalized and diverges at a critical doping {delta}{sub c}=0.07{plus_minus}0.01 . We discuss the nature of this zero-temperature phase transition and its connection to phase separation and superconductivity. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Leading edge sweep effects in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozart, Aaron B.; Holland, Scott D.; Trexler, Carl A.; Perkins, John N.

    1992-01-01

    A computational and experimental study of generic 3D sidewall compression inlets is conducted to examine the effects of fore and aft leading edge sweep on the internal shock structure. Inlets with leading edge sweeps of +30 deg and -30 deg with sidewall compression angles of 6 deg were tested in the NASA Langley Mach 4 air tunnel at a geometric contraction ratio of 1.87. The principal difference in performance was determined to be in the mass capture. Spillage was identified as having two components: a pressure induced component and a sweep induced component. It was found that while the direction of the leading edge sweep had a large influence on the spillage, the pressure effects were more important.

  14. Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.; Ludwig, L. P.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented for compressible fluid flow across shaft face seals and narrow slots. The analysis includes fluid inertia, viscous friction, and entrance losses. Subsonic and choked flow conditions can be predicted and analyzed. The model is valid for both laminar and turbulent flows. Results agree with experiment and with solutions which are more limited in applicability. Results show that a parallel film can have a positive film stiffness under choked flow conditions.

  15. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  16. One-dimensional patterning of cells in silicone wells via compression-induced fracture

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Angela R.; Moraes, Christopher; Csete, Marie E.; Thouless, M. D.; Philbert, Martin A.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    We have adapted our existing compression-induced fracture technology to cell culture studies, by generating linear patterns on a complex cell culture well structure, rather than on simple solid constructs. We present a simple method to create 1D, submicron, linear patterns of extracellular matrix on a multilayer silicone material. We identified critical design parameters necessary to optimize compression-induced fracture patterning on the wells, and applied stresses using compression Hoffman clamps. Finite-element analyses show that the incorporation of the well improves stress homogeneity (stress variation = 25%), and, thus, crack uniformity over the patterned region. Notably, a shallow well with a thick base (vs. deeper wells with thinner bases) reduces out-of-plane deflections by greater than a sixth in the cell culture region, improving clarity for optical imaging. The comparison of cellular and nuclear shape indices of a neuroblast line cultured on patterned 1D lines and unpatterned 2D surfaces reveals significant differences in cellular morphology, which could impact many cellular functions. Since 1D cell cultures recapitulate many important phenotypical traits of 3D cell cultures, our culture system offers a simple means to further study the relationship between 1D and 3D cell culture environments, without demanding expensive engineering techniques and expertise. PMID:23733484

  17. An extension of the TV-HLL scheme for multi-dimensional compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiam Kapen, Pascalin; Tchuen, Ghislain

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates a very simple method to numerically approximate the solution of the multi-dimensional Riemann problem for gas dynamics, using the literal extension of the Toro Vazquez-Harten Lax Leer (TV-HLL) scheme as its basis. Indeed, the present scheme is obtained by following the Toro-Vazquez splitting, and using the HLL algorithm with modified wave speeds for the pressure system. An essential feature of the TV-HLL scheme is its simplicity and its accuracy in computing multi-dimensional flows. The proposed scheme is carefully designed to simplify its eventual numerical implementation. It has been applied to numerical tests and its performances are demonstrated for some two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems.

  18. Fluctuations in relativistic causal hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Ananta P.

    2014-05-01

    Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of Müller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation functions remain the same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and do not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation functions remains the same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.

  19. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Time-Varying Hydrodynamics and Juvenile Chinook Salmon Habitat in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2007-10-10

    The Hanford Reach is the only remaining unimpounded reach of the Columbia River in the United States above Bonneville Dam. Discharge in the Hanford Reach is regulated by several dams and is often subject to rapid changes. Sharp flow reductions have led to the stranding or entrapment, and subsequent mortality, of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and other important fish species within the Hanford Reach. A multi-block two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model was used to simulate time-varying river velocity and stage in a 37~km portion of the Hanford Reach. Simulation results were used to estimate time-varying juvenile chinook salmon habitat area, and the part of that habitat affected by discharge fluctuations. Affected habitat area estimates were made for the chinook salmon rearing period of four years. These estimates were used, along with other important factors, to establish a statistical relationship between discharge fluctuation and juvenile chinook salmon mortality.

  20. Two- and three-dimensional extended solids and metallization of compressed XeF[subscript 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minseob; Debessai, Mathew; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2010-10-22

    The application of pressure, internal or external, transforms molecular solids into extended solids with more itinerant electrons to soften repulsive interatomic interactions in a tight space. Examples include insulator-to-metal transitions in O{sub 2}, Xe and I{sub 2}, as well as molecular-to-non-molecular transitions in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Here, we present new discoveries of novel two- and three-dimensional extended non-molecular phases of solid XeF{sub 2} and their metallization. At {approx}50 GPa, the transparent linear insulating XeF{sub 2} transforms into a reddish two-dimensional graphite-like hexagonal layered structure of semiconducting XeF{sub 4}. Above 70 GPa, it further transforms into a black three-dimensional fluorite-like structure of the first observed metallic XeF{sub 8} polyhedron. These simultaneously occurring molecular-to-non-molecular and insulator-to-metal transitions of XeF{sub 2} arise from the pressure-induced delocalization of non-bonded lone-pair electrons to sp{sup 3}d{sup 2} hybridization in two-dimensional XeF{sub 4} and to p{sup 3}d{sup 5} in three-dimensional XeF{sub 8} through the chemical bonding of all eight valence electrons in Xe and, thereby, fulfilling the octet rule at high pressures.

  1. A New Multi-dimensional General Relativistic Neutrino Hydrodynamics Code for Core-collapse Supernovae. II. Relativistic Explosion Models of Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the COCONUT hydrodynamics code in combination with the VERTEX solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the space-time metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M ⊙ progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the PROMETHEUS hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models, the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50%-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.

  2. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. II. RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION MODELS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2012-09-01

    We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the COCONUT hydrodynamics code in combination with the VERTEX solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the space-time metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M{sub Sun} progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the PROMETHEUS hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models, the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50%-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.

  3. Global Low-Energy Weak Solutions of the Equations of Three-Dimensional Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Anthony; Hoff, David

    2012-07-01

    We prove the global-in-time existence of weak solutions of the equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics in three space dimensions with initial data small in L 2 and initial density positive and essentially bounded. A great deal of information concerning partial regularity is obtained: velocity, vorticity, and magnetic field become relatively smooth in positive time ( H 1 but not H 2) and singularities in the pressure cancel those in a certain multiple of the divergence of the velocity, thus giving concrete expression to conclusions obtained formally from the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions.

  4. High-order ENO schemes applied to two- and three-dimensional compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.; Whitaker, David; Osher, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    High order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes are applied to the 2-D and 3-D compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Practical issues, such as vectorization, efficiency of coding, cost comparison with other numerical methods, and accuracy degeneracy effects, are discussed. Numerical examples are provided which are representative of computational problems of current interest in transition and turbulence physics. These require both nonoscillatory shock capturing and high resolution for detailed structures in the smooth regions and demonstrate the advantage of ENO schemes.

  5. Compressively Characterizing High-Dimensional Entangled States with Complementary, Random Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Gregory A.; Knarr, Samuel H.; Schneeloch, James; Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.

    2016-04-01

    The resources needed to conventionally characterize a quantum system are overwhelmingly large for high-dimensional systems. This obstacle may be overcome by abandoning traditional cornerstones of quantum measurement, such as general quantum states, strong projective measurement, and assumption-free characterization. Following this reasoning, we demonstrate an efficient technique for characterizing high-dimensional, spatial entanglement with one set of measurements. We recover sharp distributions with local, random filtering of the same ensemble in momentum followed by position—something the uncertainty principle forbids for projective measurements. Exploiting the expectation that entangled signals are highly correlated, we use fewer than 5000 measurements to characterize a 65,536-dimensional state. Finally, we use entropic inequalities to witness entanglement without a density matrix. Our method represents the sea change unfolding in quantum measurement, where methods influenced by the information theory and signal-processing communities replace unscalable, brute-force techniques—a progression previously followed by classical sensing.

  6. Experimental investigation of generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets at Mach 6 in tetrafluoromethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweeps of 30 deg and 70 deg were tested in the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel at Mach 6 and with a ratio of specific heats of 1.2. The parametric effects of leading-edge sweep, cowl position, contraction ratio, and Reynolds number were investigated. The models were instrumented with 42 static pressure orifices that were distributed on the sidewalls, base plate, and cowl. Schlieren movies were made of each test for flow visualization of the effects of the internal flow spillage on the external flow field. To obtain an approximate characterization of the flow field, a modification to two-dimensional, inviscid, oblique shock theory was derived to accommodate the three-dimensional effects of leading-edge sweep. This theory qualitatively predicted the reflected shock structure (i.e., sidewall impingement locations) and the observed increase in spillage with increasing leading-edge sweep. The primary effect of moving the cowl forward was capturing the flow that would have otherwise spilled out ahead of the cowl. Increasing the contraction ratio increases the number of internal shock reflections and hence incrementally increases the sidewall pressure distribution. Significant Reynolds number effects were noted over a small range of Reynolds number.

  7. A three-dimensional explicit sphere function-based gas-kinetic flux solver for simulation of inviscid compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wu, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a truly three-dimensional (3D) flux solver is presented for simulation of inviscid compressible flows. Like the conventional multi-dimensional gas-kinetic scheme, in the present work, the local solution of 3D Boltzmann equation at the cell interface is used to evaluate the flux. On the other hand, different from most of the existing gas-kinetic schemes, which are constructed from Maxwellian distribution function, the present flux solver is derived from a simple distribution function defined on the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. As a result, the explicit expression of flux vector at the cell interface can be simply given. Since the simple distribution function is defined on the spherical surface, for simplicity, it is termed as sphere function hereafter. In addition, to simulate fluid flow problems with strong shock waves, the non-equilibrium part of the distribution function is regarded as numerical dissipation and involved in evaluating the inviscid flux at the cell interface. The weight of the non-equilibrium part is controlled by introducing a switch function which ranges from 0 to 1. In the smooth region, the switch function takes a value close to zero, while around the strong shock wave, it tends to one. To validate the proposed flux solver, several transonic, supersonic and hypersonic inviscid flows are simulated. Numerical results showed that the present solver can provide accurate numerical results for three-dimensional inviscid flows with strong shock waves.

  8. An implicit finite volume nodal point scheme for the solution of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Vimala

    1993-07-01

    An implicit finite volume nodal point scheme has been developed for solving the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is evolved by efficiently combining the basic ideas of the implicit finite-difference scheme of Beam and Warming (1978) with those of nodal point schemes due to Hall (1985) and Ni (1982). The 2-D Navier-Stokes solver is implemented for steady, laminar/turbulent flows past airfoils by using C-type grids. Turbulence closure is achieved by employing the algebraic eddy-viscosity model of Baldwin and Lomax (1978). Results are presented for the NACA-0012 and RAE-2822 airfoil sections. Comparison of the aerodynamic coefficients with experimental results for the different test cases presented here establishes the validity and efficiency of the method.

  9. Wall interference in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel, with consideration of the effect of compressibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, H Julian; Vincenti, Walter G

    1944-01-01

    Theoretical tunnel-wall corrections are derived for an airfoil of finite thickness and camber in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake of the airfoil and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small in comparison with the height of the tunnel. Consideration is given to the phenomenon of choking at high speeds and its relation to the tunnel-wall corrections. The theoretical results are compared with the small amount of low-speed experimental data available and the agreement is seen to be satisfactory, even for relatively large values of the chord-height ratio.

  10. Global classical solutions to the one-dimensional compressible fluid models of Korteweg type with large initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengzheng; Chai, Xiaojuan; Dong, Boqing; Zhao, Huijiang

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the global existence of classical solutions with large initial data away from vacuum to the Cauchy problem of the one-dimensional isothermal compressible fluid models of Korteweg type with density-dependent viscosity coefficient and capillarity coefficient. The case when the viscosity coefficient μ (ρ) =ρα and the capillarity coefficient κ (ρ) =ρβ for some parameters α, β ∈ R is considered. Under some conditions on α, β, we first show the global existence of large solutions around constant states if the far-fields of the initial data are the same, while if the far-fields of the initial data are different, we prove the global stability of rarefaction waves with large strength. Here global stability means the initial perturbation can be arbitrarily large. Our analysis is based on the elementary energy method and the technique developed by Y. Kanel' [29].

  11. An efficient user-oriented method for calculating compressible flow in an about three-dimensional inlets. [panel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. L.; Mack, D. P.; Stockman, N. O.

    1979-01-01

    A panel method is used to calculate incompressible flow about arbitrary three-dimensional inlets with or without centerbodies for four fundamental flow conditions: unit onset flows parallel to each of the coordinate axes plus static operation. The computing time is scarcely longer than for a single solution. A linear superposition of these solutions quite rigorously gives incompressible flow about the inlet for any angle of attack, angle of yaw, and mass flow rate. Compressibility is accounted for by applying a well-proven correction to the incompressible flow. Since the computing times for the combination and the compressibility correction are small, flows at a large number of inlet operating conditions are obtained rather cheaply. Geometric input is aided by an automatic generating program. A number of graphical output features are provided to aid the user, including surface streamline tracing and automatic generation of curves of curves of constant pressure, Mach number, and flow inclination at selected inlet cross sections. The inlet method and use of the program are described. Illustrative results are presented.

  12. Development of a discrete gas-kinetic scheme for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows.

    PubMed

    Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme. PMID:27078488

  13. Development of a compression molding process for three-dimensional tailored free-form glass optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Allen Y.; Huang, Chunning; Klocke, Fritz; Brecher, Christian; Pongs, Guido; Winterschladen, Markus; Demmer, Axel; Lange, Sven; Bergs, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Niehaus, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Because of the limitation of manufacturing capability, free-form glass optics cannot be produced in a large volume using traditional processes such as grinding, lapping, and polishing. Very recently compression molding of glass optics became a viable manufacturing process for the high-volume production of precision glass optical components. An ultraprecision diamond-turning machine retrofitted with a fast tool servo was used to fabricate a free-form optical mold on a nickel-plated surface. A nonuniform rational B-spline trajectory generator was developed to calculate the computer numerical control machine tool path. A specially formulated glass with low transition temperature (Tg) was used, since the nickel alloy mold cannot withstand the high temperatures required for regular optical glasses. We describe the details of this process, from optical surface geometry, mold making, molding experiment, to lens measurement.

  14. Development of a compression molding process for three-dimensional tailored free-form glass optics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Allen Y; Huang, Chunning; Klocke, Fritz; Brecher, Christian; Pongs, Guido; Winterschladen, Markus; Demmer, Axel; Lange, Sven; Bergs, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Niehaus, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Because of the limitation of manufacturing capability, free-form glass optics cannot be produced in a large volume using traditional processes such as grinding, lapping, and polishing. Very recently compression molding of glass optics became a viable manufacturing process for the high-volume production of precision glass optical components. An ultraprecision diamond-turning machine retrofitted with a fast tool servo was used to fabricate a free-form optical mold on a nickel-plated surface. A nonuniform rational B-spline trajectory generator was developed to calculate the computer numerical control machine tool path. A specially formulated glass with low transition temperature (Tg) was used, since the nickel alloy mold cannot withstand the high temperatures required for regular optical glasses. We describe the details of this process, from optical surface geometry, mold making, molding experiment, to lens measurement. PMID:16912790

  15. A pressure relaxation closure model for one-dimensional, two-material Lagrangian hydrodynamics based on the Riemann problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, James R; Shashkov, Mikhail J

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of development, Lagrangian hydrodynamics of strengthfree materials presents numerous open issues, even in one dimension. We focus on the problem of closing a system of equations for a two-material cell under the assumption of a single velocity model. There are several existing models and approaches, each possessing different levels of fidelity to the underlying physics and each exhibiting unique features in the computed solutions. We consider the case in which the change in heat in the constituent materials in the mixed cell is assumed equal. An instantaneous pressure equilibration model for a mixed cell can be cast as four equations in four unknowns, comprised of the updated values of the specific internal energy and the specific volume for each of the two materials in the mixed cell. The unique contribution of our approach is a physics-inspired, geometry-based model in which the updated values of the sub-cell, relaxing-toward-equilibrium constituent pressures are related to a local Riemann problem through an optimization principle. This approach couples the modeling problem of assigning sub-cell pressures to the physics associated with the local, dynamic evolution. We package our approach in the framework of a standard predictor-corrector time integration scheme. We evaluate our model using idealized, two material problems using either ideal-gas or stiffened-gas equations of state and compare these results to those computed with the method of Tipton and with corresponding pure-material calculations.

  16. Supernova Hydrodynamics on the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2004-01-16

    (B204)The fundamental motivation for our work is that supernovae are not well understood. Recent observations have clarified the depth of our ignorance, by producing observed phenomena that current theory and computer simulations cannot reproduce. Such theories and simulations involve, however, a number of physical mechanisms that have never been studied in isolation. We perform experiments, in compressible hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics, relevant to supernovae and supernova remnants. These experiments produce phenomena in the laboratory that are believed, based on simulations, to be important to astrophysics but that have not been directly observed in either the laboratory or in an astrophysical system. During the period of this grant, we have focused on the scaling of an astrophysically relevant, radiative-precursor shock, on preliminary studies of collapsing radiative shocks, and on the multimode behavior and the three-dimensional, deeply nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at a decelerating, embedded interface. These experiments required strong compression and decompression, strong shocks (Mach {approx}10 or greater), flexible geometries, and very smooth laser beams, which means that the 60-beam Omega laser is the only facility capable of carrying out this program.

  17. The solution of the three-dimensional viscous-compressible Navier-Stokes equations on a vector computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Pitts, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a vectorized computer code for the solution of the three-dimensional viscous-compressible Navier-Stokes equations is described. The code is applied on the CDC STAR-100 vector computer which is capable of achieving high result rates when a high degree of parallelism is present in the computations. The computational technique is an explicit time-split MacCormack predictor-corrector algorithm. Since a large volume of data is processed and virtual memory utilized, a data management scheme based on interleaving is used. The program has been applied to obtain the solution of the laminar supersonic flow about a family of three-dimensional corners. The equations of motion are expressed in a generalized form relative to a uniform rectangular computational domain. The metric coefficient and boundary conditions must be supplied for the corresponding physical domain. For calculations with 30,000 grid points, a computational rate of 0.00015 seconds per grid point per time step is observed.

  18. The one-dimensional compression method for extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff and effects on pore-water chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.D.; Burger, P.A.; Yang, L.C.

    1997-12-31

    Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires extraction of pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff bedrock. Two generations of compression cells have been designed and tested for extracting representative, unaltered pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff cores. The one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 552 MPa. Results from 86 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 14% for non welded tuff and about 61% for densely welded tuff. The high-pressure, one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 827 MPa. Results from 109 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 7.5% for non welded tuff and about 34% for densely welded tuff. Geochemical analyses show that, in general, there is a decrease in ion concentration of pore waters as extraction pressures increase. Only small changes in pore-water composition occur during the one-dimensional extraction test.

  19. A strategy for reducing stagnation phase hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Encouraging progress is being made in demonstrating control of ablation front hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. Even once ablation front stabilities are controlled, however, instability during the stagnation phase of the implosion can still quench ignition. A scheme is proposed to reduce the growth of stagnation phase instabilities through the reverse of the "adiabat shaping" mechanism proposed to control ablation front growth. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations confirm that improved stagnation phase stability should be possible without compromising fuel compression.

  20. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  1. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional, "native-roughness" modulations in x-ray driven, spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications ("native roughness") used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ˜3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ˜15%-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ˜3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have prompted

  2. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional, “native-roughness” modulations in x-ray driven, spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-07-15

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15%–20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3–4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have

  3. Hydrodynamic Efficiency of Ablation Propulsion with Pulsed Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Buttapeng, Chainarong; Yazawa, Masaru; Harada, Nobuhiro; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2006-05-02

    This paper presents the hydrodynamic efficiency of ablation plasma produced by pulsed ion beam on the basis of the ion beam-target interaction. We used a one-dimensional hydrodynamic fluid compressible to study the physics involved namely an ablation acceleration behavior and analyzed it as a rocketlike model in order to investigate its hydrodynamic variables for propulsion applications. These variables were estimated by the concept of ablation driven implosion in terms of ablated mass fraction, implosion efficiency, and hydrodynamic energy conversion. Herein, the energy conversion efficiency of 17.5% was achieved. In addition, the results show maximum energy efficiency of the ablation process (ablation efficiency) of 67% meaning the efficiency with which pulsed ion beam energy-ablation plasma conversion. The effects of ion beam energy deposition depth to hydrodynamic efficiency were briefly discussed. Further, an evaluation of propulsive force with high specific impulse of 4000s, total impulse of 34mN and momentum to energy ratio in the range of {mu}N/W was also analyzed.

  4. A three-dimensional neural recording microsystem with implantable data compression circuitry.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Roy H., III; Wise, Kensall D.

    2005-01-01

    A 256-site, fully implantable, 3-D neural recording microsystem has been developed. The microsystem incorporates four active neural probes with integrated circuitry for site selection, amplification, and multiplexing. The probes drive an embedded data-compression ASIC that successfully detects neural spikes in the presence of neural and circuit noise. The spike detection ASIC achieves a factor of 12 bandwidth reduction while preserving the key features of the action potential waveshape necessary for spike discrimination. This work extends the total number of neural channels that can be recorded across a transcutaneous inductively coupled wireless link from 25 to 312. When a spike is detected, this ASIC serially shifts the 5-bit amplitude and 5-bit address of the spike off of the chip over a single 2.5 Mb/s wired or wireless line. The spike detection ASIC occupies 6 mm{sup 2} in 0.5 {micro}m features and consumes 2.6 mW while the entire microsystem consumes 5.4 mW of power from a 3-V supply.

  5. Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael

    2009-04-15

    We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.

  6. A numerical study of unsteady two-dimensional subsonic compressible base flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, David Henry

    In subsonic flow, the wake behind a two dimensional body with a blunt trailing edge is dominated by a regular array of alternately shed vortices. This separated flow produces a low pressure on the base of the body, resulting in a drag component known as the base drag, which can constitute a major portion of the total drag of the body in many cases. One of the devices that was found to reduce the base drag in wind-tunnel experiments is a trailing-edge cavity. However, the flow mechanisms responsible for this drag reduction were not determined from the limited experimental data available. Therefore, the unsteady flow past a slender two-dimensional body with and without a trailing-edge cavity were studied using numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure utilized an explicit finite-difference scheme with second or fourth order accuracy in a space and second order accuracy in time. A major element in the solution procedure was the selection of an outflow boundary condition which minimized reflection from the boundary back into the solution domain. This solution was verified in computations of subsonic flow past square and circular cylinders, for which excellent agreement was obtained between computed shedding frequencies and experimental data. Solutions for the slender body were obtained. The computed shedding frequency was found to increase with increasing Reynolds numbers.

  7. DETECTION OF THE COMPRESSED PRIMARY STELLAR WIND IN {eta} CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Teodoro, M.; Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.

    2013-08-10

    A series of three Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopic mappings, spaced approximately one year apart, reveal three partial arcs in [Fe II] and [Ni II] emissions moving outward from {eta} Carinae. We identify these arcs with the shell-like structures, seen in the three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, formed by compression of the primary wind by the secondary wind during periastron passages.

  8. A New Multi-dimensional General Relativistic Neutrino Hydrodynamics Code for Core-collapse Supernovae. IV. The Neutrino Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Considering six general relativistic, two-dimensional (2D) supernova (SN) explosion models of progenitor stars between 8.1 and 27 M ⊙, we systematically analyze the properties of the neutrino emission from core collapse and bounce to the post-explosion phase. The models were computed with the VERTEX-COCONUT code, using three-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport in the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. Our results confirm the close similarity of the mean energies, langErang, of \\bar{\

  9. MESA meets MURaM. Surface effects in main-sequence solar-like oscillators computed using three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, W. H.; Beeck, B.; Cameron, R. H.; Gizon, L.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Space-based observations of solar-like oscillators have identified large numbers of stars in which many individual mode frequencies can be precisely measured. However, current stellar models predict oscillation frequencies that are systematically affected by simplified modelling of the near-surface layers. Aims: We use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to better model the near-surface equilibrium structure of dwarfs with spectral types F3, G2, K0 and K5, and examine the differences between oscillation mode frequencies computed in stellar models with and without the improved near-surface equilibrium structure. Methods: We precisely match stellar models to the simulations' gravities and effective temperatures at the surface, and to the temporally- and horizontally-averaged densities and pressures at their deepest points. We then replace the near-surface structure with that of the averaged simulation and compute the change in the oscillation mode frequencies. We also fit the differences using several parametric models currently available in the literature. Results: The surface effect in the stars of solar-type and later is qualitatively similar and changes steadily with decreasing effective temperature. In particular, the point of greatest frequency difference decreases slightly as a fraction of the acoustic cut-off frequency and the overall scale of the surface effect decreases. The surface effect in the hot, F3-type star follows the same trend in scale (i.e. it is larger in magnitude) but shows a different overall variation with mode frequency. We find that a two-term fit using the cube and inverse of the frequency divided by the mode inertia is best able to reproduce the surface terms across all four spectral types, although the scaled solar term and a modified Lorentzian function also match the three cooler simulations reasonably well. Conclusions: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of near-surface convection can be

  10. A high-order vertex-based central ENO finite-volume scheme for three-dimensional compressible flows

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, Marc R.J.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-03-11

    High-order discretization methods offer the potential to reduce the computational cost associated with modeling compressible flows. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate high-order discretizations of conservation laws that do not produce spurious oscillations near discontinuities, especially on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. A novel, high-order, central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) finite-volume method that does not have these difficulties is proposed for tetrahedral meshes. The proposed unstructured method is vertex-based, which differs from existing cell-based CENO formulations, and uses a hybrid reconstruction procedure that switches between two different solution representations. It applies a high-order k-exact reconstruction in smooth regions and a limited linear reconstruction when discontinuities are encountered. Both reconstructions use a single, central stencil for all variables, making the application of CENO to arbitrary unstructured meshes relatively straightforward. The new approach was applied to the conservation equations governing compressible flows and assessed in terms of accuracy and computational cost. For all problems considered, which included various function reconstructions and idealized flows, CENO demonstrated excellent reliability and robustness. Up to fifth-order accuracy was achieved in smooth regions and essentially non-oscillatory solutions were obtained near discontinuities. The high-order schemes were also more computationally efficient for high-accuracy solutions, i.e., they took less wall time than the lower-order schemes to achieve a desired level of error. In one particular case, it took a factor of 24 less wall-time to obtain a given level of error with the fourth-order CENO scheme than to obtain the same error with the second-order scheme.

  11. A high-order vertex-based central ENO finite-volume scheme for three-dimensional compressible flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charest, Marc R.J.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-03-11

    High-order discretization methods offer the potential to reduce the computational cost associated with modeling compressible flows. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate high-order discretizations of conservation laws that do not produce spurious oscillations near discontinuities, especially on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. A novel, high-order, central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) finite-volume method that does not have these difficulties is proposed for tetrahedral meshes. The proposed unstructured method is vertex-based, which differs from existing cell-based CENO formulations, and uses a hybrid reconstruction procedure that switches between two different solution representations. It applies a high-order k-exact reconstruction in smooth regions and a limited linearmore » reconstruction when discontinuities are encountered. Both reconstructions use a single, central stencil for all variables, making the application of CENO to arbitrary unstructured meshes relatively straightforward. The new approach was applied to the conservation equations governing compressible flows and assessed in terms of accuracy and computational cost. For all problems considered, which included various function reconstructions and idealized flows, CENO demonstrated excellent reliability and robustness. Up to fifth-order accuracy was achieved in smooth regions and essentially non-oscillatory solutions were obtained near discontinuities. The high-order schemes were also more computationally efficient for high-accuracy solutions, i.e., they took less wall time than the lower-order schemes to achieve a desired level of error. In one particular case, it took a factor of 24 less wall-time to obtain a given level of error with the fourth-order CENO scheme than to obtain the same error with the second-order scheme.« less

  12. Development of a discrete gas-kinetic scheme for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014), 10.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.033]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.

  13. Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-03-01

    We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, SU(N c) super Yang-Mills theory with N f flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density N q. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of N c color D2-branes and N f flavor D6-branes with N q units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination ρ = N c 2 N q/ λ 2 N f 4 , with λ = g YM 2 N c the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents z = 5 and θ = 1, respectively. If ρ ≪ 1 then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS4 region, dual to a conformal Chern-Simons-Matter theory, in which the flow exhibits quasi-conformal dynamics. At zero temperature we compute the chemical potential and the equation of state and extract the speed of sound. At low temperature we compute the entropy density and extract the number of low-energy degrees of freedom. For quarks of non-zero mass M q the physics depends non-trivially on ρ and M q N c /λ N f.

  14. A theory for the compression of two dimensional strongly aggregated colloidal packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirumkudulu, Mahesh; Roy, Saikat

    2014-11-01

    The consolidation of suspended particulate matter under external forces such as pressure or gravity is of widespread interest. We derive a constitutive relation to describe the deformation of a two-dimensional strongly aggregated colloidal system by incorporating the inter-particle colloidal forces and contact dynamics. The theory accounts for the plastic events that occur in the form of rolling/sliding during the deformation along with elastic deformation. The theory predicts a yield stress that is a function of area fraction of the colloidal packing, the coordination number, the inter-particle potential, coefficient of friction and the normal and tangential stiffness coefficients. The predicted yield stress scales linearly with area fraction for low area fractions, and diverges at random close packing. Increasing the normal stiffness coefficient or the friction coefficient increases the yield stress. For stresses greater than the yield stress, both elastic and plastic deformations contribute to the overall stress. Authors acknowledge support from IIT Bombay and Dept of Science and Technology, India.

  15. [Motion-compensated compressed sensing four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Hua; He, Ji; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Bian, Zhao-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2016-06-20

    Restriction by hardware caused the very low projection number at a single phase for 4-dimensional cone beam (4D-CBCT) CT imaging, and reconstruction using conventional reconstruction algorithms is thus constrained by serious streak artifacts and noises. To address this problem, we propose an approach to reconstructing 4D-CBCT images with multi-phase projections based on the assumption that the image at one phase can be viewed as the motion-compensated image at another phase. Specifically, we formulated a cost function using multi-phase projections to construct the fidelity term and the TV regularization method. For fidelity term construction, the projection data of the current phase and those at other phases were jointly used by reformulating the imaging model. The Gradient-Projection-Barzilai-Line search (GPBL) method was used to optimize the complex cost function. Physical phantom and patient data results showed that the proposed approach could effectively reduce the noise and artifacts, and the introduction of additional temporal correlation did not introduce new artifacts or motion blur. PMID:27435778

  16. Three Dimensional Compressible Turbulent Flow Computations for a Diffusing S-Duct With/Without Vortex Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Greber, Isaac

    1994-01-01

    Numerical investigations on a diffusing S-duct with/without vortex generators and a straight duct with vortex generators are presented. The investigation consists of solving the full three-dimensional unsteady compressible mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit finite volume lower-upper time marching code (RPLUS3D) has been employed and modified. A three-dimensional Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model has been modified in conjunction with the flow physics. A model for the analysis of vortex generators in a fully viscous subsonic internal flow is evaluated. A vortical structure for modeling the shed vortex is used as a source term in the computation domain. The injected vortex paths in the straight duct are compared with the analysis by two kinds of prediction models. The flow structure by the vortex generators are investigated along the duct. Computed results of the flow in a circular diffusing S-duct provide an understanding of the flow structure within a typical engine inlet system. These are compared with the experimental wall static-pressure, static- and total-pressure field, and secondary velocity profiles. Additionally, boundary layer thickness, skin friction values, and velocity profiles in wall coordinates are presented. In order to investigate the effect of vortex generators, various vortex strengths are examined in this study. The total-pressure recovery and distortion coefficients are obtained at the exit of the S-duct. The numerical results clearly depict the interaction between the low velocity flow by the flow separation and the injected vortices.

  17. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    DOEpatents

    Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  18. Cross-ply laminates with holes in compression - Straight free-edge stresses determined by two- to three-dimensional global/local finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Danniella Muheim; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Vidussoni, Marco A.

    1990-01-01

    A practical example of applying two- to three-dimensional (2- to 3-D) global/local finite element analysis to laminated composites is presented. Cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates of 0.1-in. (0.254-cm) thickness with central circular holes ranging from 1 to 6 in. (2.54 to 15.2 cm) in diameter, subjected to in-plane compression were analyzed. Guidelines for full three-dimensional finite element analysis and two- to three-dimensional global/local analysis of interlaminar stresses at straight free edges of laminated composites are included. The larger holes were found to reduce substantially the interlaminar stresses at the straight free-edge in proximity to the hole. Three-dimensional stress results were obtained for thin laminates which require prohibitive computer resources for full three-dimensional analyses of comparative accuracy.

  19. Compressive Creep Performance and High Temperature Dimensional Stability of Conventional Silica Refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Karakus, M.; Kirkland, T.P.; Liu, K.C.; Moore, R.E.; Pint, B.A.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    1999-03-01

    Industrial Materials program is sponsoring work to conduct creep testing and analysis on refractories of interest to the glass industry. An earlier stage of the project involved identifying which refractories to test and this is described elsewhere. Conventional silica was one such identified refractory category, and the present report describes the creep behavior of this class of refractories. To portray a more complete understanding of how these refractories perform at service temperatures, their fundamental corrosion resistances, dimensional stabilities, and microstructure were characterized as well.

  20. A numerical study of flow-induced noise in a two-dimensional centrifugal pump. Part I. Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langthjem, M. A.; Olhoff, N.

    2004-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the simulation of the flow in a flat, `two-dimensional' laboratory centrifugal pump. The main concern of the study is the calculation of the flow-induced noise. The aim of the present paper is to develop a computationally simple and fast method which is capable of giving a useful estimate of the noise-generating `background-flow'. A companion paper describes the hydroacoustic part of the analysis. In the numerical flow model of the pump, the inlet is modelled by a point source and the blades of the impeller are covered with vortex elements with discrete, bound vortices. The casing is covered with source panels. Vortices are shed from the trailing edges of the impeller blades and convected with the streaming fluid in order to satisfy Kelvin's theorem. After computation of the velocity field, the fluid forces acting on the impeller blades are calculated by application of the unsteady Bernoulli equation. Some case studies of pump flows are presented. The acoustic properties of these flows is the subject of the second part of the paper.

  1. Three-dimensional compressible laminar boundary layers on sharp and blunt circular cones at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z.; Davis, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A method for solving the three-dimensional compressible laminar boundary layer equations for the case of a circular cone and a sphere-cone body at an angle of attack is presented. The governing equations are modified by a similarity type transformation and then transformed into a Crocco-type form. The resulting set of equations is solved simultaneously by an iterative method using an implicit finite difference scheme by means of an efficient algorithm for equations of tridiagonal form. The effects of streamline swallowing on a sharp cone are included by introducing the true inviscid edge conditions at the distance from the wall equal to the boundary layer thickness. The validity of the approach was established by comparison of the computational results with similar results by other methods and with experimental data. It was concluded that at sufficiently high Mach number and moderate to large angles of attack, the streamline swallowing effects on a sharp cone result in higher values of skin friction and heat transfer as compared with the classical results for constant entropy.

  2. VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, M.C.

    1981-08-01

    VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  3. VNAP2: A Computer Program for Computation of Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Compressible, Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, VNAP2, for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow is presented. It solves the two dimensional, time dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing length model, a one equation model, or the Jones-Launder two equation model. The geometry may be a single or a dual flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  4. A new multi-dimensional general relativistic neutrino hydrodynamics code for core-collapse supernovae. IV. The neutrino signal

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2014-06-10

    Considering six general relativistic, two-dimensional (2D) supernova (SN) explosion models of progenitor stars between 8.1 and 27 M {sub ☉}, we systematically analyze the properties of the neutrino emission from core collapse and bounce to the post-explosion phase. The models were computed with the VERTEX-COCONUT code, using three-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport in the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. Our results confirm the close similarity of the mean energies, (E), of ν-bar {sub e} and heavy-lepton neutrinos and even their crossing during the accretion phase for stars with M ≳ 10 M {sub ☉} as observed in previous 1D and 2D simulations with state-of-the-art neutrino transport. We establish a roughly linear scaling of 〈E{sub ν-bar{sub e}}〉 with the proto-neutron star (PNS) mass, which holds in time as well as for different progenitors. Convection inside the PNS affects the neutrino emission on the 10%-20% level, and accretion continuing beyond the onset of the explosion prevents the abrupt drop of the neutrino luminosities seen in artificially exploded 1D models. We demonstrate that a wavelet-based time-frequency analysis of SN neutrino signals in IceCube will offer sensitive diagnostics for the SN core dynamics up to at least ∼10 kpc distance. Strong, narrow-band signal modulations indicate quasi-periodic shock sloshing motions due to the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and the frequency evolution of such 'SASI neutrino chirps' reveals shock expansion or contraction. The onset of the explosion is accompanied by a shift of the modulation frequency below 40-50 Hz, and post-explosion, episodic accretion downflows will be signaled by activity intervals stretching over an extended frequency range in the wavelet spectrogram.

  5. Well-Posedness for the Motion of Physical Vacuum of the Three-dimensional Compressible Euler Equations with or without Self-Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Xin, Zhouping; Zeng, Huihui

    2014-09-01

    This paper concerns the well-posedness theory of the motion of a physical vacuum for the compressible Euler equations with or without self-gravitation. First, a general uniqueness theorem of classical solutions is proved for the three dimensional general motion. Second, for the spherically symmetric motions, without imposing the compatibility condition of the first derivative being zero at the center of symmetry, a new local-in-time existence theory is established in a functional space involving less derivatives than those constructed for three-dimensional motions in (Coutand et al., Commun Math Phys 296:559-587, 2010; Coutand and Shkoller, Arch Ration Mech Anal 206:515-616, 2012; Jang and Masmoudi, Well-posedness of compressible Euler equations in a physical vacuum, 2008) by constructing suitable weights and cutoff functions featuring the behavior of solutions near both the center of the symmetry and the moving vacuum boundary.

  6. Calculation of the flow field in supersonic mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack using the three-dimensional method of characteristics with discrete shock wave fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of molecular transport is included in the computation by treating viscous and thermal diffusion terms in the governing partial differential equations as correction terms in the method of characteristics scheme. The development of a production type computer program is reported which is capable of calculating the flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed-compression aircraft inlets. The results agreed well with those produced by the two-dimensional method characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are computed. For three-dimensional flow fields, the results agree well with experimental data except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal.

  7. Detection of Conveyance Changes in St. Clair River Using Historical Water-Level and Flow Data with Inverse One-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Hoard, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    St. Clair River is a connecting channel that transports water from Lake Huron to the St. Clair River Delta and Lake St. Clair. A negative trend has been detected in differences between water levels on Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair. This trend may indicate a combination of flow and conveyance changes within St. Clair River. To identify where conveyance change may be taking place, eight water-level gaging stations along St. Clair River were selected to delimit seven reaches. Positive trends in water-level fall were detected in two reaches, and negative trends were detected in two other reaches. The presence of both positive and negative trends in water-level fall indicates that changes in conveyance are likely occurring among some reaches because all reaches transmit essentially the same flow. Annual water-level fall in reaches and reach lengths was used to compute conveyance ratios for all pairs of reaches by use of water-level data from 1962 to 2007. Positive and negative trends in conveyance ratios indicate that relative conveyance is changing among some reaches. Inverse one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamic modeling was used to estimate a partial annual series of effective channel-roughness parameters in reaches forming the St. Clair River for 21 years when flow measurements were sufficient to support parameter estimation. Monotonic, persistent but non-monotonic, and irregular changes in estimated effective channel roughness with time were interpreted as systematic changes in conveyances in five reaches. Time-varying parameter estimates were used to simulate flow throughout the St. Clair River and compute changes in conveyance with time. Based on the partial annual series of parameters, conveyance in the St. Clair River increased about 10 percent from 1962 to 2002. Conveyance decreased, however, about 4.1 percent from 2003 to 2007, so that conveyance was about 5.9 percent higher in 2007 than in 1962.

  8. A New Multi-dimensional General Relativistic Neutrino Hydrodynamic Code for Core-collapse Supernovae. I. Method and Code Tests in Spherical Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Dimmelmeier, Harald

    2010-07-01

    We present a new general relativistic code for hydrodynamical supernova simulations with neutrino transport in spherical and azimuthal symmetry (one dimension and two dimensions, respectively). The code is a combination of the COCONUT hydro module, which is a Riemann-solver-based, high-resolution shock-capturing method, and the three-flavor, fully energy-dependent VERTEX scheme for the transport of massless neutrinos. VERTEX integrates the coupled neutrino energy and momentum equations with a variable Eddington factor closure computed from a model Boltzmann equation and uses the "ray-by-ray plus" approximation in two dimensions, assuming the neutrino distribution to be axially symmetric around the radial direction at every point in space, and thus the neutrino flux to be radial. Our spacetime treatment employs the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism with the conformal flatness condition for the spatial three metric. This approach is exact for the one-dimensional case and has previously been shown to yield very accurate results for spherical and rotational stellar core collapse. We introduce new formulations of the energy equation to improve total energy conservation in relativistic and Newtonian hydro simulations with grid-based Eulerian finite-volume codes. Moreover, a modified version of the VERTEX scheme is developed that simultaneously conserves energy and lepton number in the neutrino transport with better accuracy and higher numerical stability in the high-energy tail of the spectrum. To verify our code, we conduct a series of tests in spherical symmetry, including a detailed comparison with published results of the collapse, shock formation, shock breakout, and accretion phases. Long-time simulations of proto-neutron star cooling until several seconds after core bounce both demonstrate the robustness of the new COCONUT-VERTEX code and show the approximate treatment of relativistic effects by means of an effective relativistic gravitational potential as in

  9. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMIC CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. I. METHOD AND CODE TESTS IN SPHERICAL SYMMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Dimmelmeier, Harald E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.d

    2010-07-15

    We present a new general relativistic code for hydrodynamical supernova simulations with neutrino transport in spherical and azimuthal symmetry (one dimension and two dimensions, respectively). The code is a combination of the COCONUT hydro module, which is a Riemann-solver-based, high-resolution shock-capturing method, and the three-flavor, fully energy-dependent VERTEX scheme for the transport of massless neutrinos. VERTEX integrates the coupled neutrino energy and momentum equations with a variable Eddington factor closure computed from a model Boltzmann equation and uses the 'ray-by-ray plus' approximation in two dimensions, assuming the neutrino distribution to be axially symmetric around the radial direction at every point in space, and thus the neutrino flux to be radial. Our spacetime treatment employs the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism with the conformal flatness condition for the spatial three metric. This approach is exact for the one-dimensional case and has previously been shown to yield very accurate results for spherical and rotational stellar core collapse. We introduce new formulations of the energy equation to improve total energy conservation in relativistic and Newtonian hydro simulations with grid-based Eulerian finite-volume codes. Moreover, a modified version of the VERTEX scheme is developed that simultaneously conserves energy and lepton number in the neutrino transport with better accuracy and higher numerical stability in the high-energy tail of the spectrum. To verify our code, we conduct a series of tests in spherical symmetry, including a detailed comparison with published results of the collapse, shock formation, shock breakout, and accretion phases. Long-time simulations of proto-neutron star cooling until several seconds after core bounce both demonstrate the robustness of the new COCONUT-VERTEX code and show the approximate treatment of relativistic effects by means of an effective relativistic gravitational potential as in

  10. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. III. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNALS FROM SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-03-20

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.

  11. Three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe i lines. III. Line formation in magneto-hydrodynamic atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzreuter, R.; Solanki, S. K.

    2015-10-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects in diagnostically important solar Fe i lines are important because of the strong sensitivity of Fe i to ionizing UV radiation, which may lead to a considerable underpopulation of the Fe i levels in the solar atmosphere and, therefore, to a sizeable weakening of Fe i lines. These NLTE effects may be intensified or weakened by horizontal radiative transfer (RT) in a three-dimensionally (3D) structured atmosphere. We analyze the influence of horizontal RT on commonly used Fe i lines in a snapshot of a 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a plage region. NLTE and horizontal RT effects occur with considerable strength (up to 50% in line depth or equivalent width) in the analyzed snapshot. Because they may have either sign, and both signs occur with approximately the same frequency and strength, the net effects are small when considering spatially averaged quantities. The situation in the plage atmosphere turns out to be rather complex. Horizontal transfer leads to line weakening relative to 1D NLTE transfer near the boundaries of kG magnetic elements. Around the centers of these elements, however, we find line strengthening, which is often significant. This behavior contrasts with what is expected from previous 3D RT computations in idealized flux-tube models, which only display line weakening. The origin of this unexpected behavior lies in the fact that magnetic elements are surrounded by dense and relatively cool downflowing gas, which forms the walls of the magnetic elements. The continuum in these dense walls is often formed in colder gas than in the central part of the magnetic elements. Consequently, the central parts of the magnetic element experience a subaverage UV-irradiation leading to the observed 3D NLTE line strengthening.

  12. On the one-dimensional theory of steady compressible fluid flow in ducts with friction and heat addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Bruce L; Montgomery, Donald; Wasserman, Robert H

    1947-01-01

    Steady, diabatic (nonadiabatic), frictional, variable-area flow of a compressible fluid is treated in differential form on the basis of the one-dimensional approximation. The basic equations are first stated in terms of pressure, temperature, density, and velocity of the fluid. Considerable simplification and unification of the equations are then achieved by choosing the square of the local Mach number as one of the variables to describe the flow. The transformed system of equations thus obtained is first examined with regard to the existence of a solution. It is shown that, in general, a solution exists whose calculation requires knowledge only of the variation with position of any three of the dependent variables of the system. The direction of change of the flow variables can be obtained directly from the transformed equations without integration. As examples of this application of the equations, the direction of change of the flow variables is determined for two special flows. In the particular case when the local Mach number m = 1, a special condition must be satisfied by the flow if a solution is to exist. This condition restricts the joint rate of variation of heating, friction, and area at m = 1. Further analysis indicates that when a solution exists at this point it is not necessarily unique. Finally it is shown that the physical phenomenon of choking, which is known to occur in certain simple flow situations, is related to restrictions imposed on the variables by the form of the transformed equations. The phenomenon of choking is thus given a more general significance in that the transformed equations apply to a more general type of flow than has hitherto been treated. (author)

  13. Computer program for solving laminar, transitional, or turbulent compressible boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional and axisymmetric flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.; Blanchard, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical algorithm and computer program are presented for solving the laminar, transitional, or turbulent two dimensional or axisymmetric compressible boundary-layer equations for perfect-gas flows. The governing equations are solved by an iterative three-point implicit finite-difference procedure. The software, program VGBLP, is a modification of the approach presented in NASA TR R-368 and NASA TM X-2458, respectively. The major modifications are: (1) replacement of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique with a finite-difference procedure for numerically solving the equations required to initiate the parabolic marching procedure; (2) introduction of the Blottner variable-grid scheme; (3) implementation of an iteration scheme allowing the coupled system of equations to be converged to a specified accuracy level; and (4) inclusion of an iteration scheme for variable-entropy calculations. These modifications to the approach presented in NASA TR R-368 and NASA TM X-2458 yield a software package with high computational efficiency and flexibility. Turbulence-closure options include either two-layer eddy-viscosity or mixing-length models. Eddy conductivity is modeled as a function of eddy viscosity through a static turbulent Prandtl number formulation. Several options are provided for specifying the static turbulent Prandtl number. The transitional boundary layer is treated through a streamwise intermittency function which modifies the turbulence-closure model. This model is based on the probability distribution of turbulent spots and ranges from zero to unity for laminar and turbulent flow, respectively. Several test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the software.

  14. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  15. Two- and three-dimensional modeling and optimization applied to the design of a fast hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic mixer for protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivorra, Benjamin; Redondo, Juana L.; Santiago, Juan G.; Ortigosa, Pilar M.; Ramos, Angel M.

    2013-03-01

    We present a design of a microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing which is used to initiate the folding process (i.e., changes of the molecular structure) of a protein. The folding process is initiated by diluting (from 90% to 30%) the local denaturant concentration (initially 6 M GdCl solution) in a short time interval we refer to as mixing time. Our objective is to optimize this mixer by choosing suitable shape and flow conditions in order to minimize this mixing time. To this end, we first introduce a numerical model that enables computation of the mixing time of a mixer. This model is based on a finite element method approximation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the convective diffusion equation. To reduce the computational time, this model is implemented in both full three-dimensional (3D) and simplified two-dimensional (2D) versions; and we analyze the ability of the 2D model to approximate the mixing time predicted by the 3D model. We found that the 2D model approximates the mixing time predicted by the 3D model with a mean error of about 15%, which is considered reasonable. Then, we define a mixer optimization problem considering the 2D model and solve it using a hybrid global optimization algorithm. In particular, we consider geometrical variables and injection velocities as optimization parameters. We achieve a design with a predicted mixing time of 0.10 μs, approximately one order of magnitude faster than previous mixer designs. This improvement can be in part explained by the new mixer geometry including an angle of π/5 radians at the channel intersection and injections velocities of 5.2 m s-1 and 0.038 m s-1 for the side and central inlet channels, respectively. Finally, we verify the robustness of the optimized result by performing a sensitivity analysis of its parameters considering the 3D model. During this study, the optimized mixer was demonstrated to be robust by exhibiting mixing time variations of the same

  16. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    Basic Radiation Theory Specific Intensity Photon Number Density Photon Distribution Function Mean Intensity Radiation Energy Density Radiation Energy Flux Radiation Momentum Density Radiation Stress Tensor (Radiation Pressure Tensor) Thermal Radiation Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation and a Perfect Gas The Transfer Equation Absorption, Emission, and Scattering The Equation of Transfer Moments of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Photon 4-Momentum Lorentz Transformation of the Specific Intensity, Opacity, and - Emissivity Lorentz Transformation of the Radiation Stress Energy Tensor The Radiation 4-Force Density Vector Covariant Form of the Transfer Equation Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Inertial-Frame Radiation Equations Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Comoving-Frame Equation of Transfer Special Relativistic Derivation (D. Mihalas) Consistency Between Comoving-Frame and Inertial-Frame Equations Noninertial Frame Derivation (J. I. Castor) Analysis of O (v/c) Terms Lagrangian Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Momentum Equation Gas Energy Equation First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiation Field First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiating Fluid Mechanical Energy Equation Total Energy Equation Consistency of Different Forms of the Radiating-Fluid Energy - and Momentum Equations Consistency of Inertial-Frame and Comoving-Frame Radiation Energy - and Momentum Equations Radiation Diffusion Radiation Diffusion Nonequilibrium Diffusion The Problem of Flux Limiting Shock Propagation: Numerical Methods Acoustic Waves Numerical Stability Systems of Equations Implications of Shock Development Implications of Diffusive Energy Transport Illustrative Example Numerical Radiation Hydrodynamics Radiating Fluid Energy and Momentum Equations Computational Strategy Energy Conservation Formal Solution Multigroup Equations An Astrophysical Example Adaptive-Grid Radiation

  17. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish

  18. Lattice Uehling-Uhlenbeck Boltzmann-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook hydrodynamics of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Hung, Li-Hsin

    2009-05-01

    We present a semiclassical lattice Boltzmann method based on quantum kinetic theory. The method is directly derived by projecting the Uehling-Uhlenbeck Boltzmann-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equations onto the tensor Hermite polynomials following Grad’s moment expansion method. The intrinsic discrete nodes of the Gauss-Hermite quadrature provide the natural lattice velocities for the semiclassical lattice Boltzmann method. Gases of particles of arbitrary statistics can be considered. Simulation of one-dimensional compressible gas flow and two-dimensional hydrodynamic flows are shown. The results indicate distinct characteristics of the effects of quantum statistics.

  19. Isogeometric analysis of Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevs, Y.; Akkerman, I.; Benson, D. J.; Scovazzi, G.; Shashkov, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Isogeometric analysis of Lagrangian shock hydrodynamics is proposed. The Euler equations of compressible hydrodynamics in the weak form are discretized using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in space. The discretization has all the advantages of a higher-order method, with the additional benefits of exact symmetry preservation and better per-degree-of-freedom accuracy. An explicit, second-order accurate time integration procedure, which conserves total energy, is developed and employed to advance the equations in time. The performance of the method is examined on a set of standard 2D and 3D benchmark examples, where good quality of the computational results is attained.

  20. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  1. Spectral finite-element approach to three-dimensional viscoelastic relaxation in a spherical earth -extension for material compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Klemann, Volker; Martinec, Zdenek

    2010-05-01

    A physical model of a postglacial rebound has an important role to derive information about the mantle rheology and viscosity from observed data. In previous studies, the influence of material compressibility has been often neglected for the mantle rheology. This is due to the fact that for present-day time changes the influence of the compressibility mainly appears in the flexural rigidity of the elastic lithosphere, whereas the viscous mantle is assumed to relax to an incompressible reference state. Another reason is that a compressible fluid is much more difficult to handle in a numerical model, where in addition to the usual relaxation modes also infinite sets of compressible modes appear due to the improper chosen reference state. In this study, a spectral finite-element approach is presented to investigate the effect of compressibility. This approach is a useful method when interpreting displacement rates and gravity fields in a global scale, because it allows us to consider strong lateral heterogeneities in viscosity and the self-gravitation effect of a spherical model is studied in a natural manner, which has been already applied to an incompressible case. A mathematical formulation of how to include the effect of compressibility is shown in a transparent way. Computational results are validated with results obtained by an independent method for a 1-D viscosity model. The load Love numbers calculated by both the methods agree with each other within 2%, which indicates that the presented method is set up correctly and valid for a compressible model. In order to assess the influence of material compressibility on GIA, the present time rates are modeled induced by Peltier's (2004) ICE5G/VM2 earth-model/glaciation-history combination for a compressible and an incompressible structure, respectively, with the sea-level equation of Hagedoorn et al. (2006). The result shows that the influence on the vertical displacement and the geoid is almost negligible. In

  2. Modeling of Magma Dynamics Based on Two-Fluid Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-velocity multi-porous models are often used as a hydrodynamic basis to describe dynamics of fluid-magma systems. These models cover such problems as fast acoustic processes or large-scaled dynamics of magma systems having non-compressible magma. Nonlinear dynamics of magma as multiphase compressible medium has not been studied sufficiently. In this work we study nonlinear thermodynamically consistent two-liquid model of magma system dynamics, based on conservation law method. The model is restricted by short times of local heat balance between phases. Pressure balance between phases is absent. Two-fluid magma model have various rheological properties of the composing phases: viscous liquid and viscoelastic Maxwell medium. The dynamics of magna flows have been studied for two types of magma systems: magma channels and intraplate intermediate magma chambers. Numerical problem of the dynamics for such media is solved using the control volume method ensuring physical correctness of the solution. The solutions are successfully verified for benchmark one-velocity models. In this work we give the results of numerical modeling using CVM for a number of non-stationary problems of nonlinear liquid filtering through granulated medium in magma channels and problems two-liquid system convection in intraplate magma chambers for various parameters. In the last case the convection regimes vary depending on non-dimensional Rayleigh and Darcy numbers and the parameter field, where compressibility effects appear, is located. The given model can be used as a hydrodynamic basis to model the evolution of magma, fluid-magma systems to study thermo-acoustic influence on hydrodynamic flows in such systems. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant #12-05-00625.

  3. Some Uniform Estimates and Large-Time Behavior of Solutions to One-Dimensional Compressible Navier-Stokes System in Unbounded Domains with Large Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Liang, Zhilei

    2016-06-01

    We study the large-time behavior of solutions to the initial and initial boundary value problems with large initial data for the compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the one-dimensional motion of a viscous heat-conducting perfect polytropic gas in unbounded domains. The temperature is proved to be bounded from below and above, independent of both time and space. Moreover, it is shown that the global solution is asymptotically stable as time tends to infinity. Note that the initial data can be arbitrarily large. This result is proved by using elementary energy methods.

  4. Hydrodynamic supercontinuum.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N

    2013-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of multi-bound-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) in the context of hydrodynamic surface gravity waves. Higher-order N-soliton solutions with N=2, 3 are studied in detail and shown to be associated with self-focusing in the wave group dynamics and the generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. We also show that for larger input soliton numbers, the wave group experiences irreversible spectral broadening, which we refer to as a hydrodynamic supercontinuum by analogy with optics. This process is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multisoliton into individual fundamental solitons due to higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS. Numerical simulations using an extended NLS model described by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation, show excellent agreement with experiment and highlight the universal role that higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS play in supercontinuum generation. PMID:23952405

  5. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  6. Characterization of a two-dimensional temperature field within a rapid compression machine using a toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, Camille; Sotton, Julien; Mura, Arnaud; Bellenoue, Marc

    2009-12-01

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is an advanced operating mode for automotive engines. The self-ignition mechanisms that occur within the combustion chamber exhibit extreme temperature dependence. Therefore, the thorough understanding of corresponding phenomena requires the use of diagnostic methods featuring a sufficient thermal sensitivity, applicable in severe conditions similar to those encountered within engines. In this respect, toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to the inert compression flow generated within an optical rapid compression machine (RCM). A relatively simple diagnostic system is retained: a single wavelength excitation device (266 nm) and a single (filtered) collection system. This diagnostic system is associated with an image processing strategy specifically adapted to RCM devices. Despite the severe conditions under consideration (40 bar, 700-950 K), the method allows us to obtain relatively large two-dimensional temperature fields that display a level of description seldom achieved in such devices. In particular the temperature gradients, which play a crucial role in HCCI combustion processes, can be estimated. The present experimental results confirm the good reliability and accuracy of the method. The information gathered with this toluene PLIF method puts in evidence its high potentialities for the study of aero-thermal-reactive processes as they take place in real engine conditions. The retained strategy also brings new possibilities of non-intrusive analysis for flows practically encountered within industrial devices.

  7. Hydrodynamic water impact. [Apollo spacecraft waterlanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettleborough, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The hydrodynamic impact of a falling body upon a viscous incompressible fluid was investigated by numerically solving the equations of motion. Initially the mathematical model simulated the axisymmetric impact of a rigid right circular cylinder upon the initially quiescent free surface of a fluid. A compressible air layer exists between the falling cylinder and the liquid free surface. The mathematical model was developed by applying the Navier-Stokes equations to the incompressible air layer and the incompressible fluid. Assuming the flow to be one dimensional within the air layer, the average velocity, pressure and density distributions were calculated. The liquid free surface was allowed to deform as the air pressure acting on it increases. For the liquid the normalized equations were expressed in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations for the air layer and the liquid were expressed in finite difference form and solved numerically. For the liquid a modified version of the Marker-and-Cell method was used. The mathematical model has been reexamined and a new approach has recently been initiated. Essentially this consists of examining the impact of an inclined plate onto a quiesent water surface with the equations now formulated in cartesian coordinates.

  8. Augmenting two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with measured velocity data to identify flow paths as a function of depth on Upper St. Clair River in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.; Koschik, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Upper St. Clair River, which receives outflow from Lake Huron, is characterized by flow velocities that exceed 7 feet per second and significant channel curvature that creates complex flow patterns downstream from the Blue Water Bridge in the Port Huron, Michigan, and Sarnia, Ontario, area. Discrepancies were detected between depth-averaged velocities previously simulated by a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and surface velocities determined from drifting buoy deployments. A detailed ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler) survey was done on Upper St. Clair River during July 1-3, 2003, to help resolve these discrepancies. As part of this study, a refined finite-element mesh of the hydrodynamic model used to identify source areas to public water intakes was developed for Upper St. Clair River. In addition, a numerical procedure was used to account for radial accelerations, which cause secondary flow patterns near channel bends. The refined model was recalibrated to better reproduce local velocities measured in the ADCP survey. ADCP data also were used to help resolve the remaining discrepancies between simulated and measured velocities and to describe variations in velocity with depth. Velocity data from ADCP surveys have significant local variability, and statistical processing is needed to compute reliable point estimates. In this study, velocity innovations were computed for seven depth layers posited within the river as the differences between measured and simulated velocities. For each layer, the spatial correlation of velocity innovations was characterized by use of variogram analysis. Results were used with kriging to compute expected innovations within each layer at applicable model nodes. Expected innovations were added to simulated velocities to form integrated velocities, which were used with reverse particle tracking to identify the expected flow path near a sewage outfall as a function of flow depth. Expected particle paths generated by use of

  9. Two-dimensional compressed sensing using the cross-sampling approach for low-field MRI systems.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Daiki; Kose, Katsumi

    2014-09-01

    A compressed sensing method using a cross sampling and self-calibrated off-resonance correction is proposed. Estimation of the magnetic field inhomogeneity based on image registration enables the off-resonance correction with no additional radio-frequency pulses or acquisitions. In addition to this advantage, a fast and straightforward calculation was achieved by using the first-order components of the magnetic field inhomogeneity. Imaging experiments using a phantom and a chemically fixed mouse demonstrated practical benefits in improving blurring and artifacts in magnetic resonance images in low field magnetic resonance imaging systems. PMID:24879645

  10. A three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary-layer method for general fuselages. Volume 1: Numerical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Yong-Sun

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for calculating 3-D, compressible laminar boundary layer flow on general fuselage shapes is described. The boundary layer solutions can be obtained in either nonorthogonal 'body oriented' coordinates or orthogonal streamline coordinates. The numerical procedure is 'second order' accurate, efficient and independent of the cross flow velocity direction. Numerical results are presented for several test cases, including a sharp cone, an ellipsoid of revolution, and a general aircraft fuselage at angle of attack. Comparisons are made between numerical results obtained using nonorthogonal curvilinear 'body oriented' coordinates and streamline coordinates.

  11. pyro: Python-based tutorial for computational methods for hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingale, Michael

    2015-07-01

    pyro is a simple python-based tutorial on computational methods for hydrodynamics. It includes 2-d solvers for advection, compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number hydrodynamics, diffusion, and multigrid. It is written with ease of understanding in mind. An extensive set of notes that is part of the Open Astrophysics Bookshelf project provides details of the algorithms.

  12. Use of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to evaluate extreme flooding and transport of dissolved solids through Devils Lake and Stump Lake, North Dakota, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wood, Tamara M.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Transportation, North Dakota State Water Commission, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, developed a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Devils Lake and Stump Lake, North Dakota to be used as a hydrologic tool for evaluating the effects of different inflow scenarios on water levels, circulation, and the transport of dissolved solids through the lake. The numerical model, UnTRIM, and data primarily collected during 2006 were used to develop and calibrate the Devils Lake model. Performance of the Devils Lake model was tested using 2009 data. The Devils Lake model was applied to evaluate the effects of an extreme flooding event on water levels and hydrological modifications within the lake on the transport of dissolved solids through Devils Lake and Stump Lake. For the 2006 calibration, simulated water levels in Devils Lake compared well with measured water levels. The maximum simulated water level at site 1 was within 0.13 feet of the maximum measured water level in the calibration, which gives reasonable confidence that the Devils Lake model is able to accurately simulate the maximum water level at site 1 for the extreme flooding scenario. The timing and direction of winddriven fluctuations in water levels on a short time scale (a few hours to a day) were reproduced well by the Devils Lake model. For this application, the Devils Lake model was not optimized for simulation of the current speed through bridge openings. In future applications, simulation of current speed through bridge openings could be improved by more accurate definition of the bathymetry and geometry of select areas in the model grid. As a test of the performance of the Devils Lake model, a simulation of 2009 conditions from April 1 through September 30, 2009 was performed. Overall, errors in inflow estimates affected the results for the 2009 simulation; however, for the rising phase of the lakes, the Devils Lake model

  13. Flash Kα radiography of laser-driven solid sphere compression for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, H.; Lee, S.; Shiroto, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Ueda, T.; Shigemori, K.; Sunahara, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Pérez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Fujioka, S.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved compression of a laser-driven solid deuterated plastic sphere with a cone was measured with flash Kα x-ray radiography. A spherically converging shockwave launched by nanosecond GEKKO XII beams was used for compression while a flash of 4.51 keV Ti Kα x-ray backlighter was produced by a high-intensity, picosecond laser LFEX (Laser for Fast ignition EXperiment) near peak compression for radiography. Areal densities of the compressed core were inferred from two-dimensional backlit x-ray images recorded with a narrow-band spherical crystal imager. The maximum areal density in the experiment was estimated to be 87 ± 26 mg/cm2. The temporal evolution of the experimental and simulated areal densities with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code is in good agreement.

  14. Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2007-07-03

    This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.

  15. A method for computing synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from hydrodynamic simulations of supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obergaulinger, M.; Chimeno, J. M.; Mimica, P.; Aloy, M. A.; Iyudin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The observational signature of supernova remnants (SNRs) is very complex, in terms of both their geometrical shape and their spectral properties, dominated by non-thermal synchrotron and inverse-Compton scattering. We propose a post-processing method to analyse the broad-band emission of SNRs based on three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. From the hydrodynamical data, we estimate the distribution of non-thermal electrons accelerated at the shock wave and follow the subsequent evolution as they lose or gain energy by adiabatic expansion or compression and emit energy by radiation. As a first test case, we use a simulation of a bipolar supernova expanding into a cloudy medium. We find that our method qualitatively reproduces the main observational features of typical SNRs and produces fluxes that agree with observations to within a factor of a few allowing for further use in more extended sets of models.

  16. Computation of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers to fourth-order accuracy on wings and fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit

    1990-01-01

    A solution method, fourth-order accurate in the body-normal direction and second-order accurate in the stream surface directions, to solve the compressible 3-D boundary layer equations is presented. The transformation used, the discretization details, and the solution procedure are described. Ten validation cases of varying complexity are presented and results of calculation given. The results range from subsonic flow to supersonic flow and involve 2-D or 3-D geometries. Applications to laminar flow past wing and fuselage-type bodies are discussed. An interface procedure is used to solve the surface Euler equations with the inviscid flow pressure field as the input to assure accurate boundary conditions at the boundary layer edge. Complete details of the computer program used and information necessary to run each of the test cases are given in the Appendix.

  17. A general method for calculating three-dimensional compressible laminar and turbulent boundary layers on arbitrary wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.; Kaups, K.; Ramsey, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The method described utilizes a nonorthogonal coordinate system for boundary-layer calculations. It includes a geometry program that represents the wing analytically, and a velocity program that computes the external velocity components from a given experimental pressure distribution when the external velocity distribution is not computed theoretically. The boundary layer method is general, however, and can also be used for an external velocity distribution computed theoretically. Several test cases were computed by this method and the results were checked with other numerical calculations and with experiments when available. A typical computation time (CPU) on an IBM 370/165 computer for one surface of a wing which roughly consist of 30 spanwise stations and 25 streamwise stations, with 30 points across the boundary layer is less than 30 seconds for an incompressible flow and a little more for a compressible flow.

  18. Analysis of Three-Dimensional, Nonlinear Development of Wave-Like Structure in a Compressible Round Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of the nonlinear development of the large-scale structures or instability waves in compressible round jets was conducted using the integral energy method. The equations of motion were decomposed into two sets of equations; one set governing the mean flow motion and the other set governing the large-scale structure motion. The equations in each set were then combined to derive kinetic energy equations that were integrated in the radial direction across the jet after the boundary-layer approximations were applied. Following the application of further assumptions regarding the radial shape of the mean flow and the large structures, equations were derived that govern the nonlinear, streamwise development of the large structures. Using numerically generated mean flows, calculations show the energy exchanges and the effects of the initial amplitude on the coherent structure development in the jet.

  19. Transition to turbulence and effect of initial conditions on three-dimensional compressible mixing in planar blast-wave-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, A.R.; Blue, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Greenough, J.A.; Hansen, J.F.; Robey, H.F.; Drake, R.P.; Kuranz, C.; Leibrandt, D.R.

    2005-05-15

    Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, results from three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multiphysics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J. A. Greenough, J. Comput. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution, including transition to turbulence, is considered for various multimode perturbation spectra. The 3D post-transition state differs from the 2D result, but the process of transition proceeds similarly in both 2D and 3D. The turbulent mixing transition results in a reduction in the growth rate of the mixing layer relative to its pretransition value and, in the case of the bubble front, relative to the 2D result. The post-transition spike front velocity is approximately the same in 2D and 3D. Implications for hydrodynamic mixing in core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  20. Transition to turbulence and effect of initial conditions on three-dimensional compressible mixing in planar blast-wave-driven systemsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, A. R.; Blue, B.; Edwards, M. J.; Greenough, J. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Robey, H. F.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C.; Leibrandt, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, results from three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multiphysics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J. A. Greenough, J. Comput. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution, including transition to turbulence, is considered for various multimode perturbation spectra. The 3D post-transition state differs from the 2D result, but the process of transition proceeds similarly in both 2D and 3D. The turbulent mixing transition results in a reduction in the growth rate of the mixing layer relative to its pretransition value and, in the case of the bubble front, relative to the 2D result. The post-transition spike front velocity is approximately the same in 2D and 3D. Implications for hydrodynamic mixing in core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  1. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. This is mainly because only a few spectral lines are available for the abundance diagnostics. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O i] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O i] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~ 0.3-0.4 dex. Aims: We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Our ultimate goal is to clarify whether a realistic treatment of convection with state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres may help to bring the oxygen abundances obtained using the two indicators into closer agreement. Methods: We used high-resolution (R = 50 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 200-600) spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects, which was done by applying 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections that were determined using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres. Results: We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants

  2. Hydrodynamic phonon transport in suspended graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyeop; Broido, David; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of thermal transport in nanomaterials have demonstrated the breakdown of Fourier's law through observations of ballistic transport. Despite its unique features, another instance of the breakdown of Fourier's law, hydrodynamic phonon transport, has drawn less attention because it has been observed only at extremely low temperatures and narrow temperature ranges in bulk materials. Here, we predict on the basis of first-principles calculations that the hydrodynamic phonon transport can occur in suspended graphene at significantly higher temperatures and wider temperature ranges than in bulk materials. The hydrodynamic transport is demonstrated through drift motion of phonons, phonon Poiseuille flow and second sound. The significant hydrodynamic phonon transport in graphene is associated with graphene's two-dimensional features. This work opens a new avenue for understanding and manipulating heat flow in two-dimensional materials. PMID:25693180

  3. Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Donev, Aleksandar Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar; Nonaka, Andy; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2015-03-15

    We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure, which generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases [Balakrishnan et al., “Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies nonreactive mixtures,” Phys. Rev. E 89 013017 (2014)] and binary liquid mixtures [Donev et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusively mixing fluids,” Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 9(1), 47-105 (2014)]. In this formulation, we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. The formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a “solvent” species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature, and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We extend the semi-implicit staggered-grid finite-volume numerical method developed in our prior work on binary liquid mixtures [Nonaka et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of binary liquid mixtures,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2300 (2015)] and use it to study the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture subjected to a steady concentration gradient. We also numerically study the development of diffusion-driven gravitational instabilities in a ternary mixture and compare our numerical results to recent experimental measurements [Carballido-Landeira et al., “Mixed-mode instability of a

  4. Hydrodynamics of diatom chains and semiflexible fibres.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa; Fauci, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Diatoms are non-motile, unicellular phytoplankton that have the ability to form colonies in the form of chains. Depending upon the species of diatoms and the linking structures that hold the cells together, these chains can be quite stiff or very flexible. Recently, the bending rigidities of some species of diatom chains have been quantified. In an effort to understand the role of flexibility in nutrient uptake and aggregate formation, we begin by developing a three-dimensional model of the coupled elastic-hydrodynamic system of a diatom chain moving in an incompressible fluid. We find that simple beam theory does a good job of describing diatom chain deformation in a parabolic flow when its ends are tethered, but does not tell the whole story of chain deformations when they are subjected to compressive stresses in shear. While motivated by the fluid dynamics of diatom chains, our computational model of semiflexible fibres illustrates features that apply widely to other systems. The use of an adaptive immersed boundary framework allows us to capture complicated buckling and recovery dynamics of long, semiflexible fibres in shear. PMID:24789565

  5. Hydrodynamics of diatom chains and semiflexible fibres

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa; Fauci, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are non-motile, unicellular phytoplankton that have the ability to form colonies in the form of chains. Depending upon the species of diatoms and the linking structures that hold the cells together, these chains can be quite stiff or very flexible. Recently, the bending rigidities of some species of diatom chains have been quantified. In an effort to understand the role of flexibility in nutrient uptake and aggregate formation, we begin by developing a three-dimensional model of the coupled elastic–hydrodynamic system of a diatom chain moving in an incompressible fluid. We find that simple beam theory does a good job of describing diatom chain deformation in a parabolic flow when its ends are tethered, but does not tell the whole story of chain deformations when they are subjected to compressive stresses in shear. While motivated by the fluid dynamics of diatom chains, our computational model of semiflexible fibres illustrates features that apply widely to other systems. The use of an adaptive immersed boundary framework allows us to capture complicated buckling and recovery dynamics of long, semiflexible fibres in shear. PMID:24789565

  6. Rapid Fabrication of Living Tissue Models by Collagen Plastic Compression: Understanding Three-Dimensional Cell Matrix Repair In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Umber; Brown, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To produce biomimetic collagen scaffolds for tissue modeling and as tissue-engineered implants. Approach Control of collagen fibril material parameters in collagen hydrogel scaffolds by using plastic compression (PC), resulting in direct control of cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell–cell interaction. Results We were able to control the density of collagen in such scaffolds from between 0.2% and 30%, and controllably layer the fibrils in the Z-plane. Cell migration was observed in gels where a gradient of collagen density was present. In these gels, cells preferentially migrated toward the collagen-dense areas. Cell proliferation rates were measurably higher in dense collagen gels. Innovation The use of PC to control material properties of collagen hydrogels results in collagen scaffolds that are biomimetic. These collagen gels reproduce the relevant matrix-mechanical environment in which behavior is more representative of that found in vivo. Conclusion The material properties of native collagen type I gels can be engineered to match those found in tissues in vivo to elicit more biomimetic cell behavior. PMID:24527341

  7. Equalizing resolution in smoothed-particle hydrodynamics calculations using self-adaptive sinc kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Senz, Domingo; Cabezón, Rubén M.; Escartín, José A.; Ebinger, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Context. The smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique is a numerical method for solving gas-dynamical problems. It has been applied to simulate the evolution of a wide variety of astrophysical systems. The method has a second-order accuracy, with a resolution that is usually much higher in the compressed regions than in the diluted zones of the fluid. Aims: We propose and check a method to balance and equalize the resolution of SPH between high- and low-density regions. This method relies on the versatility of a family of interpolators called sinc kernels, which allows increasing the interpolation quality by varying only a single parameter (the exponent of the sinc function). Methods: The proposed method was checked and validated through a number of numerical tests, from standard one-dimensional Riemann problems in shock tubes, to multidimensional simulations of explosions, hydrodynamic instabilities, and the collapse of a Sun-like polytrope. Results: The analysis of the hydrodynamical simulations suggests that the scheme devised to equalize the accuracy improves the treatment of the post-shock regions and, in general, of the rarefacted zones of fluids while causing no harm to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is robust and easy to implement with a low computational overload. It conserves mass, energy, and momentum and reduces to the standard SPH scheme in regions of the fluid that have smooth density gradients.

  8. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. II. Spectral line formation in the atmosphere of a giant located near the RGB tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučinskas, A.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Dobrovolskas, V.; Ivanauskas, A.; Klevas, J.; Prakapavičius, D.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the role of convection in the formation of atomic and molecular lines in the atmosphere of a red giant star. For this purpose we study the formation properties of spectral lines that belong to a number of astrophysically important tracer elements, including neutral and singly ionized atoms (Li I, N I, O I, Na I, Mg I, Al I, Si I, Si II, S I, K I, Ca I, Ca II, Ti I, Ti II, Cr I, Cr II, Mn I, Fe I, Fe II, Co I, Ni I, Zn I, Sr II, Ba II, and Eu II), and molecules (CH, CO, C2, NH, CN, and OH). Methods: We focus our investigation on a prototypical red giant located close to the red giant branch (RGB) tip (Teff = 3660 K, log g = 1.0, [M/H] = 0.0). We used two types of model atmospheres, 3D hydrodynamical and classical 1D, calculated with the CO5BOLD and LHD stellar atmosphere codes, respectively. Both codes share the same atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, equation of state, and opacities, which allowed us to make a strictly differential comparison between the line formation properties predicted in 3D and 1D. The influence of convection on the spectral line formation was assessed with the aid of 3D-1D abundance corrections, which measure the difference between the abundances of chemical species derived with the 3D hydrodynamical and 1D classical model atmospheres. Results: We find that convection plays a significant role in the spectral line formation in this particular red giant. The derived 3D-1D abundance corrections rarely exceed ± 0.1 dex when lines of neutral atoms and molecules are considered, which is in line with the previous findings for solar-metallicity red giants located on the lower RGB. The situation is different with lines that belong to ionized atoms, or to neutral atoms with high ionization potential. In both cases, the corrections for high-excitation lines (χ > 8 eV) may amount to Δ3D-1D ~ -0.4 dex. The 3D-1D abundance corrections generally show a significant wavelength dependence; in most cases they are smaller in

  9. A Numerical Gamma-Ray Burst Simulation Using Three-Dimensional Relativistic Hydrodynamics: The Transition from Spherical to Jet-like Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John K.; Gehrels, Neil; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing 3D relativistic hydrodynamical calculations, we have examined the evolution of an expanding relativistic blob of gas intended to be representative of a jet associated with ejecta from an extremely energetic event such as a hypernova, that produces a gamma-ray burst (Aloy et al. 2000; Tan, Matzner, & McKee 2001; MacFadyen, Woosley, & Heger 2001, Zhang, Woosley, & Heger 2003, Zhang, Woosley, & MacFadyen 2003). Since these are the first such calculations applied to the blob during the time in which the afterglow radiation is produced, we have purposely kept them simple in an effort to concentrate on the most fundamental aspects of the physics. We restrict our attention to the transition from spherical to jetlike expansion that occurs during the time that the Lorentz factor becomes less than the reciprocal of the jet spreading angle. We have not yet attached specific numbers to our results. From the SRHD equations, one sees that the relevant quantities are the ratios of pressure to density, and of distance to time. If we specify either one of these two sets of numbers, the other one is also determined.

  10. FLOW FIELD IN SUPERSONIC MIXED-COMPRESSION INLETS AT ANGLE OF ATTACK USING THE THREE DIMENSIONAL METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS WITH DISCRETE SHOCK WAVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program calculates the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed-compression aircraft inlet at non-zero angle of attack. This approach is based on the method of characteristics for steady three-dimensional flow. The results of this program agree with those produced by the two-dimensional method of characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are calculated. Except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal, the results agree well with experimental data obtained for threedimensional flow fields. The flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed compression inlets can be calculated using this program. The bow shock wave and the internal shock wave system are calculated using a discrete shock wave fitting procedure. The internal flow field can be calculated either with or without the discrete fitting of the internal shock wave system. The influence of molecular transport can be included in the calculation of the external flow about the forebody and in the calculation of the internal flow when internal shock waves are not discretely fitted. The viscous and thermal diffussion effects are included by treating them as correction terms in the method of characteristics procedure. Dynamic viscosity is represented by Sutherland's law and thermal conductivity is represented as a quadratic function of temperature. The thermodynamic model used is that of a thermally and calorically perfect gas. The program assumes that the cowl lip is contained in a constant plane and that the centerbody contour and cowl contour are smooth and have continuous first partial derivatives. This program cannot calculate subsonic flow, the external flow field if the bow shock wave does not exist entirely around the forebody, or the internal flow field if the bow flow field is injected into the annulus. Input to the program consists of parameters to control execution, to define the geometry, and the vehicle orientation. Output consists of a list of parameters

  11. Supernova hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.; Wallace, R.J.; Rubenchik, A.; Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Drake, R.P.; McCray, R.

    1997-04-01

    We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate two areas of physics relevant to core-collapse supernovae (SN): (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing and (2) radiative shock hydrodynamics. In the former, we are examining the differences between the 2D and 3D evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an issue critical to the observables emerging from SN in the first year after exploding. In the latter, we are investigating the evolution of a colliding plasma system relevant to the ejecta-stellar wind interactions of the early stages of SN remnant formation. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.

  12. Compressive asymmetry evaluation for M-Band Radiation generated from the interaction of high energy laser and the hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Huang, Yunbao; Li, Liling; Jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    In indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, intense laser interacts with high-Z materials in the hohlraum and X-rays are generated to heat and drive the centrally located capsule. Most of these X-rays emitted from the wall of hohlraum are soft x-rays, but also a comparable fraction of them are high-energy X-rays (mainly from M band of wall material, >2keV for Au), which may lead to preheat and compressive asymmetry on the capsule, and affect final ignition result. Therefore, such preheat and compressive asymmetry needs to be characterized and evaluated, to enable it restrained or controlled. In this paper, by using one-dimensional multi-group radiation hydrodynamic codes and view-factor based radiation transport codes, we evaluate the compressive asymmetry on the centrally located capsule for various fractions of M-band X-rays. The result shows that: 1) The M-band X-rays may lead to significant compressive asymmetry when the thermal flux is symmetric,2) More fractions of M-band X-rays tends to result in more compressing asymmetry, and 3) 15% of M-band X-rays may result in 50% compressive asymmetry. Base on the above analysis, such significant compressive asymmetry due to M-band radiation may decrease the compressibility of the fuel or the capsule performance. Therefore, it motivates us to validate and measure such quantity of compressive asymmetry occurred on the capsule in recent experiments.

  13. Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, N.; Vamos, C.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.

    2003-04-01

    It was proved that balance equations for systems with corpuscular structure can be derived if a kinematic description by piece-wise analytic functions is available [1]. For example, the hydrodynamic equations for one-dimensional systems of inelastic particles, derived in [2], were used to prove the inconsistency of the Fourier law of heat with the microscopic structure of the system. The hydrodynamic description is also possible for single particle systems. In this case, averages of physical quantities associated with the particle, over a space-time window, generalizing the usual ``moving averages'' which are performed on time intervals only, were shown to be almost everywhere continuous space-time functions. Moreover, they obey balance partial differential equations (continuity equation for the 'concentration', Navier-Stokes equation, a. s. o.) [3]. Time series can be interpreted as trajectories in the space of the recorded parameter. Their hydrodynamic interpretation is expected to enable deterministic predictions, when closure relations can be obtained for the balance equations. For the time being, a first result is the estimation of the probability density for the occurrence of a given parameter value, by the normalized concentration field from the hydrodynamic description. The method is illustrated by hydrodynamic analysis of three types of time series: white noise, stock prices from financial markets and groundwater levels recorded at Krauthausen experimental field of Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany). [1] C. Vamoş, A. Georgescu, N. Suciu, I. Turcu, Physica A 227, 81-92, 1996. [2] C. Vamoş, N. Suciu, A. Georgescu, Phys. Rev E 55, 5, 6277-6280, 1997. [3] C. Vamoş, N. Suciu, W. Blaj, Physica A, 287, 461-467, 2000.

  15. An Experimental Parametric Study of Geometric, Reynolds Number, and Ratio of Specific Heats Effects in Three-Dimensional Sidewall Compression Scramjet Inlets at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    1993-01-01

    Since mission profiles for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane include single-stage-to-orbit requirements, real gas effects may become important with respect to engine performance. The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane (where gamma=1.22) and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air (where gamma=1.4). In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.

  16. Schlieren photographs and internal pressure distributions for three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets at a Mach number of 6 in CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweeps of 30 deg and 70 deg were tested in the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel at a Mach number of 6 and a free-stream ratio of specific heats of 1.2. The parametric effects of leading-edge sweep, cowl position, contraction ratio, and Reynolds number were investigated. The models were instrumented with static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls, baseplate, and cowl. Schlieren movies were made of selected tunnel runs for flow visualization of the entrance plane and cowl region. Although these movies could not show the internal flow, the effect of the internal flow on the external flow was evident by way of spillage. The purpose is to provide a preliminary data release for the investigation. The models, facility, and testing methods are described, and the test matrix and a tabulation of tunnel runs are provided. Line plots highlighting the stated parametric effects and a representative set of schlieren photographs are presented without analysis.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS Three-Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Model for High-Speed Compressible Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Li, Ying-Jun

    2010-12-01

    A highly efficient three-dimensional (3D) Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for high-speed compressible flows is proposed. This model is developed from the original one by Kataoka and Tsutahara [Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 056702]. The convection term is discretized by the Non-oscillatory, containing No free parameters and Dissipative (NND) scheme, which effectively damps oscillations at discontinuities. To be more consistent with the kinetic theory of viscosity and to further improve the numerical stability, an additional dissipation term is introduced. Model parameters are chosen in such a way that the von Neumann stability criterion is satisfied. The new model is validated by well-known benchmarks, (i) Riemann problems, including the problem with Lax shock tube and a newly designed shock tube problem with high Mach number; (ii) reaction of shock wave on droplet or bubble. Good agreements are obtained between LB results and exact ones or previously reported solutions. The model is capable of simulating flows from subsonic to supersonic and capturing jumps resulted from shock waves.

  18. Pressure-induced recovery of Fourier's law in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Dye SK

    2016-07-01

    We report the two typical models of normal heat conduction in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems. They show the Arrhenius and the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We construct the two corresponding phenomenologies, transition-state theory of thermally activated dissociation and the pressure-induced crossover between two fixed points in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Compressibility yields the ballistic fixed point, whose scaling is observed in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) β lattices.

  19. Pressure-induced recovery of Fourier's law in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems.

    PubMed

    Sato, Dye Sk

    2016-07-01

    We report the two typical models of normal heat conduction in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems. They show the Arrhenius and the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We construct the two corresponding phenomenologies, transition-state theory of thermally activated dissociation and the pressure-induced crossover between two fixed points in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Compressibility yields the ballistic fixed point, whose scaling is observed in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) β lattices. PMID:27575085

  20. Temperature measurements and hydrogen transformation under dynamic compression up to 150 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitry, Nikolaev; Vladimir, Ternovoi; Alexei, Pyalling; Sergey, Kvitov; Vladimir, Fortov

    2011-06-01

    Lithium fluoride single crystal window was used for registration of optical light emission during quasi-isentropic compression of hydrogen to the pressures 100-150 GPa. Initially gaseous hydrogen samples at 78 K temperature and different pressures in the range 4-30 MPa were investigated. Recorded brightness temperature profiles at near infrared wavelengths were analyzed to evaluate optical and transport properties of the investigated hydrogen sample and window. Different models of hydrogen EOS were used for one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of compression process and estimation of hydrogen temperature within compressed layer. The obtained data demonstrate abrupt change of final temperatures after heating higher then 3500K. Supported by program of Presidium RAS ``Investigation of matter under extreme conditions''

  1. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  2. TH-E-17A-06: Anatomical-Adaptive Compressed Sensing (AACS) Reconstruction for Thoracic 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R; Cooper, B; Kuncic, Z; Keall, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimization step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10{sup 4} vs. 1.4*10{sup 4}). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed AACS

  3. The hydrodynamics of lamprey locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan C.

    The lamprey, an anguilliform swimmer, propels itself by undulating most of its body. This type of swimming produces flow patterns that are highly three-dimensional in nature and not very well understood. However, substantial previous work has been done to understand two-dimensional unsteady propulsion, the possible wake structures and thrust performance. Limited studies of three-dimensional propulsors with simple geometries have displayed the importance of the third dimension in designing unsteady swimmers. Some of the results of those studies, primarily the ways in which vorticity is organized in the wake region, are seen in lamprey swimming as well. In the current work, the third dimension is not the only important factor, but complex geometry and body undulations also contribute to the hydrodynamics. Through dye flow visualization, particle induced velocimetry and pressure measurements, the hydrodynamics of anguilliform swimming are studied using a custom built robotic lamprey. These studies all indicate that the undulations of the body are not producing thrust. Instead, it is the tail which acts to propel the animal. This conclusion led to further investigation of the tail, specifically the role of varying tail flexibility on hydrodymnamics. It is found that by making the tail more flexible, one decreases the coherence of the vorticity in the lamprey's wake. Additional flexibility also yields less thrust.

  4. Hydrodynamical evolution of coalescing binary neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of the final merging of two neutron stars and the corresponding gravitational wave emission is studied in detail. Various test calculations are presented, including the compressible Roche and Darwin problems and the head-on collision of two polytropes. A complete coalescence calculation is presented for the simplest case of two identical neutron stars, represented by Gamma = 2 polytropes, in a circular orbit, with their spins aligned and synchronized with the orbital rotation.

  5. An Assessment of Pulsed Flows on Foothill Yellow-legged Frog Habitat Hydraulics in a Regulated River using Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S.; Lind, A.; Kupferberg, S.

    2007-12-01

    We used a freely available two-dimensional model, River2D, to evaluate changes in habitat suitability and availability for Foothill yellow-legged frog egg masses and tadpoles during pulsed flow events. Two study sites in Northern California, one on the unregulated South Fork Eel River and the other on the regulated North Fork Feather River, were selected for modeling. Simulated depths and velocities agreed well with measured field values. When coupled with a definition of breeding habitat suitability that encompassed the variability of field- measured values and the range of error within the model output, the model accurately predicted suitable breeding locations throughout the survey reach. Using data on percentages of egg mass and tadpole loss associated with increased velocities, we assessed several scenarios of how pulsed flows affected habitat availability and suitability. In a seasonal (spring) pulse scenario, lower discharges provided the greatest weighted usable area for breeding, but higher initial discharges provided the greatest buffering capacity against lethal increases in velocity. In an aseasonal (summer) pulse scenario, only 20-30% of the suitable tadpole habitat in the unregulated site and <5% of the suitable habitat in the regulated site remained suitable during the pulse regardless of initial flow level. In both scenarios, the unregulated study site provided 2-3 times the buffering capacity of the regulated site. This was likely due to differences in channel morphology; the regulated site had an entrenched channel with steep banks, while the unregulated site had an asymmetric cross-sectional shape where shallow overbank areas provided refuge from high velocities as flows fluctuated. This type of model-based methodology that can evaluate effects from flow fluctuation on individuals and local habitat conditions for multiple life stages would be useful for managing Foothill yellow-legged frog or similar aquatic species in regulated river systems.

  6. Evaluation of Floodplain Modifications to Reduce the Effect of Floods Using a Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Flint River at Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Potential flow characteristics of future flooding along a 4.8-mile reach of the Flint River in Albany, Georgia, were simulated using recent digital-elevation-model data and the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element surface-water modeling system for two-dimensional flow in the horizontal plane (FESWMS-2DH). The model was run at four water-surface altitudes at the Flint River at Albany streamgage (02352500): 181.5-foot (ft) altitude with a flow of 61,100 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 184.5-ft altitude with a flow of 75,400 ft3/s, 187.5-ft altitude with a flow of 91,700 ft3/s, and 192.5-ft altitude with a flow of 123,000 ft3/s. The model was run to measure changes in inundated areas and water-surface altitudes for eight scenarios of possible modifications to the 4.8-mile reach on the Flint River. The eight scenarios include removing a human-made peninsula located downstream from Oglethorpe Boulevard, increasing the opening under the Oakridge Drive bridge, adding culverts to the east Oakridge Drive bridge approach, adding culverts to the east and west Oakridge Drive bridge approaches, adding an overflow across the oxbow north of Oakridge Drive, making the overflow into a channel, removing the Oakridge Drive bridge, and adding a combination of an oxbow overflow and culverts on both Oakridge Drive bridge approaches. The modeled inundation and water-surface altitude changes were mapped for use in evaluating the river modifications. The most effective scenario at reducing inundated area was the combination scenario. At the 187.5-ft altitude, the inundated area decreased from 4.24 square miles to 4.00 square miles. The remove-peninsula scenario was the least effective with a reduction in inundated area of less than 0.01 square miles. In all scenarios, the inundated area reduction increased with water-surface altitude, peaking at the 187.5-ft altitude. The inundated area reduction then decreased at the gage altitude of 192.5 ft.

  7. Early hydrodynamic evolution of a stellar collision

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Doron; Katz, Boaz

    2014-04-20

    The early phase of the hydrodynamic evolution following the collision of two stars is analyzed. Two strong shocks propagate from the contact surface and move toward the center of each star at a velocity that is a small fraction of the velocity of the approaching stars. The shocked region near the contact surface has a planar symmetry and a uniform pressure. The density vanishes at the (Lagrangian) surface of contact, and the speed of sound diverges there. The temperature, however, reaches a finite value, since as the density vanishes, the finite pressure is radiation dominated. For carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) collisions, this temperature is too low for any appreciable nuclear burning shortly after the collision, which allows for a significant fraction of the mass to be highly compressed to the density required for efficient {sup 56}Ni production in the detonation wave that follows. This property is crucial for the viability of collisions of typical CO WD as progenitors of type Ia supernovae, since otherwise only massive (>0.9 M {sub ☉}) CO WDs would have led to such explosions (as required by all other progenitor models). The divergence of the speed of sound limits numerical studies of stellar collisions, as it makes convergence tests exceedingly expensive unless dedicated schemes are used. We provide a new one-dimensional Lagrangian numerical scheme to achieve this. A self-similar planar solution is derived for zero-impact parameter collisions between two identical stars, under some simplifying assumptions (including a power-law density profile), which is the planar version of previous piston problems that were studied in cylindrical and spherical symmetries.

  8. New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.

  9. The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. III. Line formation in the atmospheres of giants located close to the base of the red giant branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Prakapavičius, D.; Klevas, J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We utilize state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical and classical 1D stellar model atmospheres to study the influence of convection on the formation properties of various atomic and molecular spectral lines in the atmospheres of four red giant stars, located close to the base of the red giant branch, RGB (Teff ≈ 5000 K, log g = 2.5), and characterized by four different metallicities, [M/H] = 0.0, -1.0, -2.0, -3.0. Methods: The role of convection in the spectral line formation is assessed with the aid of abundance corrections, i.e., the differences in abundances predicted for a given equivalent width of a particular spectral line with the 3D and 1D model atmospheres. The 3D hydrodynamical and classical 1D model atmospheres used in this study were calculated with the CO5BOLD and 1D LHD codes, respectively. Identical atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, equation of state, and opacities were used with both codes, therefore allowing a strictly differential analysis of the line formation properties in the 3D and 1D models. Results: We find that for lines of certain neutral atoms, such as Mg i, Ti i, Fe i, and Ni i, the abundance corrections strongly depend both on the metallicity of a given model atmosphere and the line excitation potential, χ. While abundance corrections for all lines of both neutral and ionized elements tend to be small at solar metallicity (≤±0.1 dex), for lines of neutral elements with low ionization potential and low-to-intermediate χ they quickly increase with decreasing metallicity, reaching in their extremes -0.6 to -0.8 dex. In all such cases the large abundance corrections are due to horizontal temperature fluctuations in the 3D hydrodynamical models. Lines of neutral elements with higher ionization potentials (Eion ≳ 10 eV) generally behave very similarly to lines of ionized elements characterized by low ionization potentials (Eion ≲ 6 eV). In the latter case, the abundance corrections are small

  11. A point-centered arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamic approach for tetrahedral meshes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-02-24

    We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an approach is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new approach are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved atmore » the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less

  12. A point-centered arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamic approach for tetrahedral meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-02-24

    We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an approach is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new approach are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved at the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.

  13. Design of Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Hydrodynamic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Quiett, Carramah; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The science of optical hydrodynamics involves relating the optical properties to the fluid dynamic properties of a hydrodynamic system. Fiber-optic sensors are being designed for measuring the hydrodynamic parameters of various systems. As a flowing fluid makes an encounter with a flat surface, it forms a boundary layer near this surface. The region between the boundary layer and the flat plate contains information about parameters such as viscosity, compressibility, pressure, density, and velocity. An analytical model has been developed for examining the hydrodynamic parameters near the surface of a fiber-optic sensor. An analysis of the conservation of momentum, the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation for compressible flow were used to develop expressions for the velocity and the density as a function of the distance along the flow and above the surface. When examining the flow near the surface, these expressions are used to estimate the sensitivity required to perform direct optical measurements and to derive the shear force for indirect optical measurements. The derivation of this result permits the incorporation of better design parameters for other fiber-based sensors. Future work includes analyzing the optical parametric designs of fiber-optic sensors, modeling sensors to utilize the parameters for hydrodynamics and applying different mixtures of hydrodynamic flow. Finally, the fabrication of fiber-optic sensors for hydrodynamic flow applications of the type described in this presentation could enhance aerospace, submarine, and medical technology.

  14. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  15. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  16. Hydrodynamic Simulations with the Godunov SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.

    2012-07-01

    We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH). We carry out controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube and the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear flow test. The results of our tests demonstrate GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to SPH, and is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones.

  17. Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murante, G.; Borgani, S.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.

    2011-10-01

    We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka, in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b) the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear-flow test and the 'blob' test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha, Inutsuka & Nayakshin: (i) GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), thus avoiding the appearance of spurious pressure forces; (ii) GSPH is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones; (iii) as a result, GSPH describes the development of curl structures in the shear-flow test and the dissolution of the cold cloud in the 'blob' test. Besides comparing the results of GSPH with those from standard SPH implementations, we also discuss in detail the effect on the performances of GSPH of changing different aspects of its implementation: choice of the number of neighbours, accuracy of the interpolation procedure to locate the interface between two fluid elements (particles) for the solution of the Riemann problem, order of the reconstruction for the assignment of variables at the interface, choice of the limiter to prevent oscillations of

  18. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  19. Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to

  20. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  1. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  2. Hydrodynamic stellar interactions in dense star clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    1993-01-01

    Highly detailed HST observations of globular-cluster cores and galactic nuclei motivate new theoretical studies of the violent dynamical processes which govern the evolution of these very dense stellar systems. These processes include close stellar encounters and direct physical collisions between stars. Such hydrodynamic stellar interactions are thought to explain the large populations of blue stragglers, millisecond pulsars, X-ray binaries, and other peculiar sources observed in globular clusters. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics techniques now make it possible to perform realistic numerical simulations of these interactions. The results, when combined with those of N-body simulations of stellar dynamics, should provide for the first time a realistic description of dense star clusters. Here I review briefly current theoretical work on hydrodynamic stellar interactions, emphasizing its relevance to recent observations.

  3. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  4. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. PMID:21406855

  5. Three-dimensional free Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Trease, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the discussion is to describe the development of a 3-D free Lagrangian hyrodynamics algorithm. The 3-D algorithm is an outgrowth of an earlier 2-D free Lagrange model. Only the more pertinent issues of the free Lagrange algorithm are presented. A complete production code is being developed to support the free Lagrange algorithm described. 4 refs.

  6. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  7. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  8. Compressive Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Se Hoon

    Compressive holography estimates images from incomplete data by using sparsity priors. Compressive holography combines digital holography and compressive sensing. Digital holography consists of computational image estimation from data captured by an electronic focal plane array. Compressive sensing enables accurate data reconstruction by prior knowledge on desired signal. Computational and optical co-design optimally supports compressive holography in the joint computational and optical domain. This dissertation explores two examples of compressive holography: estimation of 3D tomographic images from 2D data and estimation of images from under sampled apertures. Compressive holography achieves single shot holographic tomography using decompressive inference. In general, 3D image reconstruction suffers from underdetermined measurements with a 2D detector. Specifically, single shot holographic tomography shows the uniqueness problem in the axial direction because the inversion is ill-posed. Compressive sensing alleviates the ill-posed problem by enforcing some sparsity constraints. Holographic tomography is applied for video-rate microscopic imaging and diffuse object imaging. In diffuse object imaging, sparsity priors are not valid in coherent image basis due to speckle. So incoherent image estimation is designed to hold the sparsity in incoherent image basis by support of multiple speckle realizations. High pixel count holography achieves high resolution and wide field-of-view imaging. Coherent aperture synthesis can be one method to increase the aperture size of a detector. Scanning-based synthetic aperture confronts a multivariable global optimization problem due to time-space measurement errors. A hierarchical estimation strategy divides the global problem into multiple local problems with support of computational and optical co-design. Compressive sparse aperture holography can be another method. Compressive sparse sampling collects most of significant field

  9. Scaling Laws for Hydrodynamically Equivalent Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masakatsu

    2001-10-01

    The EPOC (equivalent physics of confinement) scenario for the proof of principle of high gain inertial confinement fusion is presented, where the key concept "hydrodynamically equivalent implosions" plays a crucial role. Scaling laws on the target and confinement parameters are derived by applying the Lie group analysis to the PDE (partially differential equations) chain of the hydrodynamic system. It turns out that the conventional scaling law based on adiabatic approximation significantly differs from one which takes such energy transport effect as electron heat conduction into account. Confinement plasma parameters of the hot spot such as the central temperature and the areal mass density at peak compression are obtained with a self-similar solution for spherical implosions.

  10. Impact of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength.

    PubMed

    Paramonova, E; Kalmykowa, O J; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J; Sharma, P K

    2009-10-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of Streptococcus oralis J22, Actinomyces naeslundii TV14-J1, and full dental plaque at shear rates ranging from 0.1 to 50 1/sec and measured their compressive strength. Subsequently, biofilm architecture was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Multi-species biofilms were stronger than single-species biofilms, with strength values ranging from 6 to 51 Pa and from 5 to 17 Pa, respectively. In response to increased hydrodynamic shear, biofilm strength decreased, and architecture changed from uniform carpet-like to more "fluffy" with higher thickness. S. oralis biofilms grown under variable shear of 7 and 50 1/sec possessed properties intermediate of those measured at the respective single shears. PMID:19783800

  11. Multi-scale Godunov-type method for cell-centered discrete Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Pierre-Henri; Nkonga, Boniface

    2009-02-01

    This work presents a multi-dimensional cell-centered unstructured finite volume scheme for the solution of multimaterial compressible fluid flows written in the Lagrangian formalism. This formulation is considered in the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework with the constraint that the mesh velocity and the fluid velocity coincide. The link between the vertex velocity and the fluid motion is obtained by a formulation of the momentum conservation on a class of multi-scale encased volumes around mesh vertices. The vertex velocity is derived with a nodal Riemann solver constructed in such a way that the mesh motion and the face fluxes are compatible. Finally, the resulting scheme conserves both momentum and total energy and, it satisfies a semi-discrete entropy inequality. The numerical results obtained for some classical 2D and 3D hydrodynamic test cases show the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

  12. libpolycomp: Compression/decompression library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Libpolycomp compresses and decompresses one-dimensional streams of numbers by means of several algorithms. It is well-suited for time-ordered data acquired by astronomical instruments or simulations. One of the algorithms, called "polynomial compression", combines two widely-used ideas (namely, polynomial approximation and filtering of Fourier series) to achieve substantial compression ratios for datasets characterized by smoothness and lack of noise. Notable examples are the ephemerides of astronomical objects and the pointing information of astronomical telescopes. Other algorithms implemented in this C library are well known and already widely used, e.g., RLE, quantization, deflate (via libz) and Burrows-Wheeler transform (via libbzip2). Libpolycomp can compress the timelines acquired by the Planck/LFI instrument with an overall compression ratio of ~9, while other widely known programs (gzip, bzip2) reach compression ratios less than 1.5.

  13. Assessing temporal and spatial variability of hypoxia over the inner Louisiana-upper Texas shelf: Application of an unstructured-grid three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-water quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justić, Dubravko; Wang, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of temporal and spatial variability in hypoxia (<2 mg O2 l-1) on the inner Louisiana-upper Texas (LaTex) shelf were examined using FVCOM LaTex, an unstructured grid, three-dimensional, hydrodynamic-water quality model. Dynamics of dissolved oxygen were modeled using an expanded and revised version of the Water Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) that was fully coupled to a Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The coupled model was driven by surface wind forcing, tidal forcing, offshore remote forcing, heat fluxes, oxygen exchanges at the air-sea interface, solar radiation, and freshwater and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) fluxes from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The model simulations were carried out over a 9-month period, from January 1 to October 4, 2002, and the model skill was assessed using multiple sets of observational data that included time series of dissolved oxygen concentrations from a station within the core of the Gulf hypoxic zone (C6), dissolved oxygen measurements collected during the mid-summer shelfwide cruise, and vertical dissolved oxygen profiles through the year. The model results indicate that hypoxia originates in bottom waters on the mid-continental shelf, where isolated pockets of hypoxic water develop during early spring and later join into a larger continuous hypoxic zone. The model accurately described the seasonal cycle of hypoxia at station C6, including the episodes of intermittent hypoxia during May and June, persistent hypoxia during July and August, and dissipation of hypoxia during September. The onset of hypoxia coincided with high stability of the water column (i.e., Richardson number values>1) and the initial transition from normoxia (i.e., 6 mg O2 l-1) to hypoxia lasted about three weeks. The model results point to a significant short-term variability in the extent of hypoxic bottom waters, indicating that the size of the mid-summer hypoxic zone cannot be adequately captured by a single shelfwide

  14. Compressible Flow Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2006-01-01

    The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

  15. Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.

  16. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak shear

  17. Hybrid magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of a driven FRC

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, H. U. Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Conti, F.; Ney, P.

    2014-03-15

    We simulate a field-reversed configuration (FRC), produced by an “inductively driven” FRC experiment; comprised of a central-flux coil and exterior-limiter coil. To account for the plasma kinetic behavior, a standard 2-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic code is modified to preserve the azimuthal, two-fluid behavior. Simulations are run for the FRC's full-time history, sufficient to include: acceleration, formation, current neutralization, compression, and decay. At start-up, a net ion current develops that modifies the applied-magnetic field forming closed-field lines and a region of null-magnetic field (i.e., a FRC). After closed-field lines form, ion-electron drag increases the electron current, canceling a portion of the ion current. The equilibrium is lost as the total current eventually dissipates. The time evolution and magnitudes of the computed current, ion-rotation velocity, and plasma temperature agree with the experiments, as do the rigid-rotor-like, radial-profiles for the density and axial-magnetic field [cf. Conti et al. Phys. Plasmas 21, 022511 (2014)].

  18. Consistent Hydrodynamics for Phase Field Crystals.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, V; Achim, C V; Kosterlitz, J M; Ying, See-Chen; Lowengrub, J; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-01-15

    We use the amplitude expansion in the phase field crystal framework to formulate an approach where the fields describing the microscopic structure of the material are coupled to a hydrodynamic velocity field. The model is shown to reduce to the well-known macroscopic theories in appropriate limits, including compressible Navier-Stokes and wave equations. Moreover, we show that the dynamics proposed allows for long wavelength phonon modes and demonstrate the theory numerically showing that the elastic excitations in the system are relaxed through phonon emission. PMID:26824543

  19. Sensitivity analysis of hydrodynamic stability operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Peter J.; Henningson, Dan S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1992-01-01

    The eigenvalue sensitivity for hydrodynamic stability operators is investigated. Classical matrix perturbation techniques as well as the concept of epsilon-pseudoeigenvalues are applied to show that parts of the spectrum are highly sensitive to small perturbations. Applications are drawn from incompressible plane Couette, trailing line vortex flow and compressible Blasius boundary layer flow. Parametric studies indicate a monotonically increasing effect of the Reynolds number on the sensitivity. The phenomenon of eigenvalue sensitivity is due to the non-normality of the operators and their discrete matrix analogs and may be associated with large transient growth of the corresponding initial value problem.

  20. Hydrodynamic effects in the atmosphere of variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. G., Jr.; Bunker, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical models of variable stars are established, using a nonlinear radiative transfer coupled hydrodynamics code. The variable Eddington method of radiative transfer is used. Comparisons are for models of W Virginis, beta Doradus, and eta Aquilae. From these models it appears that shocks are formed in the atmospheres of classical Cepheids as well as W Virginis stars. In classical Cepheids, with periods from 7 to 10 days, the bumps occurring in the light and velocity curves appear as the result of a compression wave that reflects from the star's center. At the head of the outward going compression wave, shocks form in the atmosphere. Comparisons between the hydrodynamic motions in W Virginis and classical Cepheids are made. The strong shocks in W Virginis do not penetrate into the interior as do the compression waves formed in classical Cepheids. The shocks formed in W Virginis stars cause emission lines, while in classical Cepheids the shocks are weaker.

  1. Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger

    2013-12-01

    An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.

  2. Hydrodynamic Instability of Ionization Fronts in HII Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J; Ryutov, D; Remington, B; Takabe, H; Pound, M

    2003-08-21

    The authors investigate hydrodynamic instability of accelerating ionization fronts with two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. When recombination in the ionized region is turned off, Rayleigh-Taylor instability is effective. Perturbation grows up with classical Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate. In the case with recombination, the local difference of absorption profile works to smooth the surface. The perturbation does not grow and the amplitude follows a damped oscillations with time.

  3. Indirect-drive pre-compression of CH coated cone-in-shell target with guiding wire for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhang, Baohan

    2013-10-01

    Compared with central ignition of laser fusion, fast ignition separates compression and ignition thus it can relax the requirements on the implosion symmetry and the driven energy. The Research Center of Laser Fusion has begun the related experimental researches on fast ignition based on SHENGUANG II laser facility. The small scale cone-in-shell target with guiding wire for fast ignition was pre-compressed by the SHENGUANG II eight 260J/2ns/3 ω laser beams indirectly since beam smoothing was not available currently. To minimize the mixing of the compressed fuel and high-Z vapor produced by the M-line emission from the gold holhraum, a 3 μm CH foil was coated on the full outer surface of the cone and guiding wire. The maximum density of the compressed cone-in-shell target 1.3 ns after the lasers' irradiation on the inside wall of hohlraum is about 5.0 g/cm3 , and the implosion velocity is close to 1.9*107 cm/s, which are well consistent with the simulation results with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code. Experimental results and simulation results also demonstrated the coated CH foil could minimize the mixing effectively. By the appropriate design, target can remain robust before the maximum compression, that is, the time while the hot electrons produced by ignition laser pulse deposit energy in the compressed fuel.

  4. Compressible halftoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Peter G.; Liu, Changmeng

    2003-01-01

    We present a technique for converting continuous gray-scale images to halftone (black and white) images that lend themselves to lossless data compression with compression factor of three or better. Our method involves using novel halftone mask structures which consist of non-repeated threshold values. We have versions of both dispersed-dot and clustered-dot masks, which produce acceptable images for a variety of printers. Using the masks as a sort key allows us to reversibly rearrange the image pixels and partition them into groups with a highly skewed distribution allowing Huffman compression coding techniques to be applied. This gives compression ratios in the range 3:1 to 10:1.

  5. Zonal changes in the three-dimensional morphology of the chondron under compression: The relationship among cellular, pericellular, and extracellular deformation in articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Bong; Youn, Inchan; Cao, Li; Leddy, Holly A.; Gilchrist, Christopher L.; Setton, Lori A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    The pericellular matrix (PCM) is a narrow region of tissue that completely surrounds chondrocytes in articular cartilage. Previous theoretical models of the “chondron” (the PCM with enclosed cells) suggest that the structure and properties of the PCM may significantly influence the mechanical environment of the chondrocyte. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the 3D morphology of the chondron in situ at different magnitudes of compression applied to the cartilage extracellular matrix. Fluorescence immunolabeling for type VI collagen was used to identify the boundaries of the cell and PCM, and confocal microscopy was used to form 3D images of chondrons from superficial, middle, and deep zone cartilage in explants compressed to 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% surface-to-surface strain. Lagrangian tissue strain, determined locally using texture correlation, was highly inhomogeneous and revealed depth-dependent properties of the extracellular matrix. Compression significantly decreased cell and chondron height and volume, depending on the zone and magnitude of compression. In the superficial zone, cellular-level strains were always lower than tissue-level strains. In the middle and deep zones, however, tissue strains below 25% were amplified at the cellular level, while tissue strains above 25% were decreased at the cellular level. These findings are consistent with previous theoretical models of the chondron, suggesting that the PCM can serve as either a protective layer for the chondrocyte or a transducer that amplifies strain, such that cellular-level strains are more homogenous throughout the tissue depth despite large inhomogeneities in local ECM strains. PMID:17397851

  6. Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.

  7. The Quantum Hydrodynamic Description of Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, Brian K.

    2012-06-15

    The quantum hydrodynamic approach is based on the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics. The resulting fluid-like equations of motion describe the flow of probability and an accurate solution to these equations is equivalent to solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic approach provides new insight into the mechanisms as well as an alternative computational approach for treating tunneling phenomena. New concepts include well-defined 'quantum trajectories', 'quantum potential', and 'quantum force' all of which have classical analogues. The quantum potential and its associated force give rise to all quantum mechanical effects such as zero point energy, tunneling, and interference. A new numerical approach called the Iterative Finite Difference Method (IFDM) will be discussed. The IFDM is used to solve the set of non-linear coupled hydrodynamic equations. It is 2nd-order accurate in both space and time and exhibits exponential convergence with respect to the iteration count. The stability and computational efficiency of the IFDM is significantly improved by using a 'smart' Eulerian grid which has the same computational advantages as a Lagrangian or Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) grid. The IFDM is also capable of treating anharmonic potentials. Example calculations using the IFDM will be presented which include: a one-dimensional Gaussian wave packet tunneling through an Eckart barrier, a one-dimensional bound-state Morse oscillator, and a two-dimensional (2D) model collinear reaction using an anharmonic potential energy surface. Approximate treatments of the quantum hydrodynamic equations will also be discussed which could allow scaling of the calculations to hundreds of degrees of freedom which is important for treating tunneling phenomena in condensed phase systems.

  8. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Hydrodynamic Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Valentin I.

    We review derivations of the chiral magnetic effect (ChME) in hydrodynamic approximation. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the effect. The main challenge now is to account for the strong interactions between the constituents of the fluid. The main result is that the ChME is not renormalized: in the hydrodynamic approximation it remains the same as for non-interacting chiral fermions moving in an external magnetic field. The key ingredients in the proof are general laws of thermodynamics and the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the chiral anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamics represents a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum phenomenon (chiral anomaly). Moreover, one can argue that the current induced by the magnetic field is dissipation free and talk about a kind of "chiral superconductivity". More precise description is a quantum ballistic transport along magnetic field taking place in equilibrium and in absence of a driving force. The basic limitation is the exact chiral limit while temperature—excitingly enough—does not seemingly matter. What is still lacking, is a detailed quantum microscopic picture for the ChME in hydrodynamics. Probably, the chiral currents propagate through lower-dimensional defects, like vortices in superfluid. In case of superfluid, the prediction for the chiral magnetic effect remains unmodified although the emerging dynamical picture differs from the standard one.

  9. Hydrodynamically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Dip Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosqui, Carlos E.; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca2/3/Bo<0.7, where Ca and Bo are the capillary and Bond numbers, respectively. An analytical model and numerical simulations are presented for the case of two-dimensional flow with circular particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  10. Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M

    2008-09-03

    In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

  11. A one-dimensional numerical model for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pressurized air pockets in combined sewer systems is argued to produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows through vertical shafts. A 1D numerical model is developed for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft which in turn attempts to simulate geyser like flows. The vertical shaft is closed at the bottom and open to ambient pressure at the top. Initially, the lower section of the vertical shaft is filled with compressed air and the upper section with water. The interaction between the pressurized air pocket and the water column in the vertical shaft exhibits an oscillatory motion of the water column that decays over time. The model accounts for steady and unsteady friction to estimate the energy dissipation. The model also includes the falling flow of water around the external perimeter of the pressurized air pocket by assuming that any expansion in the pressurized air pocket would result in the falling volume of water. The acceleration of air-water interface is predicted through a force balance between the pressurized air pocket and the water column combined with the Method of Characteristics that resolves pressure and velocity within the water column. The expansion and compression of the pressurized air pocket is assumed to follow either isothermal process or adiabatic process. Results for both assumptions; isothermal and adiabatic processes, are presented. The performance of the developed 1D numerical model is compared with that of a commercial 3D CFD model. Overall, a good agreement between both models is obtained for pressure and velocity oscillations. The paper will also present a sensitivity analysis of the 3D CFD model.

  12. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  13. Global Existence of Weak Solution to the Compressible Prandtl Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Min; Gong, Shengbo

    2016-07-01

    We study the two dimensional boundary layer problem for compressible Navier-Stokes equations, provided that the density is favourable. We employ the viscous splitting method to establish global existence of weak solutions to the compressible Prandtl equations.

  14. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2015-12-18

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. PMID:26722945

  15. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  16. Video Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

  17. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  18. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  19. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  20. Dynamic compression combined with SOX-9 overexpression in rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional gradual porous PLGA composite scaffold upregulates HIF-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Enbo; Zhao, Qun; Kong, Zhan; Yuan, Xiangnan

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in how the fate of adipose-derived stem cells is determined. Physical stimuli play a crucial role in skeletogenesis and in cartilage repair and regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the comparative and interactive effects of dynamic compression and SRY-related high-mobility group box gene-9 (SOX-9) on chondrogenesis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells in three-dimensional gradual porous PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds. Articular cartilage is stratified into zones delineated by characteristic changes in cellular, matrix, and nutritive components. As a consequence, biochemical and biomechanical properties vary greatly between the different zones, giving the tissue its unique structure and, thus, the ability to cope with extreme loading. The effects on development of the cartilage were examined using a combination of computational modeling to predict alterations in biophysical stimuli, detailed morphometric analysis of 3D digital representations. In addition, early chondrogenic differentiation was assessed via real-time PCR of mRNA expression levels for bone- and cartilage-specific gene markers. Our findings define the important role of dynamic compression combined with SOX-9 overexpression during in vitro generation of tissue-engineering cartilage and suggest that a 3D gradual porous PLGA composite scaffold may benefit articular cartilage tissue engineering in cartilage regeneration for better force distribution. PMID:26123537

  1. Dynamic compression of solid HMX-based explosives under ramp wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. J.; Cai, J. T.; Zhang, H. P.; Zhao, F.; Tan, F. L.; Wu, G.

    2012-11-01

    By means of the new techniques of magnetically driven quasi-isentropic compression based on compact capacitor bank facility CQ-1.5 developed by us, the dynamic compression of two mixed HMX-based plastic bonded explosives (PBX) explosives is researched under ramp wave loading. A pressure of 5-8 GPa over 600-800 ns is realized on explosive samples by optimizing loading electrodes and controlling charging voltages of CQ-1.5. And loading strain rates vary from 105 1/s to 106 1/s along the thickness of explosive samples. For experiments, the particle velocities of interface between explosive samples with different thicknesses and LiF windows are measured to determine material response by a displacement interferometry technique of Doppler pins system (DPS), and the experimental compression isentropes of researched explosives are obtained using the data processing method of backward integration and Lagrangian analysis for quasi-isentropic compression experiments, which are in agreement with the theoretical isentropes based on Mie-Grüneisen equation of state (EOS) and the results by Baer. For simulations, one-dimensional hydrodynamics code SSS is used to analyze the dynamic process, and the calculated results of particle velocity of interfaces are consistent with the experimental ones. Finally, one of the explosive constituents, the binder fluoride rubber F2311, is also investigated using this technique, and some properties under ramp wave loading are gained.

  2. [Compression material].

    PubMed

    Perceau, Géraldine; Faure, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The compression of a venous ulcer is carried out with the use of bandages, and for less exudative ulcers, with socks, stockings or tights. The system of bandages is complex. Different forms of extension and therefore different types of models exist. PMID:22489428

  3. HADY-I, a FORTRAN program for the compressible stability analysis of three-dimensional boundary layers. [on swept and tapered wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, N. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program HADY-I for calculating the linear incompressible or compressible stability characteristics of the laminar boundary layer on swept and tapered wings is described. The eigenvalue problem and its adjoint arising from the linearized disturbance equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically using a combination of Newton-Raphson interative scheme and a variable step size integrator based on the Runge-Kutta-Fehlburh fifth-order formulas. The integrator is used in conjunction with a modified Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure. The computer program HADY-I calculates the growth rates of crossflow or streamwise Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities. It also calculates the group velocities of these disturbances. It is restricted to parallel stability calculations, where the boundary layer (meanflow) is assumed to be parallel. The meanflow solution is an input to the program.

  4. Numerical solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for compressible turbulent two/three dimensional flows in terminal shock region of an inlet/diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, N. S.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1983-01-01

    The multidimensional ensemble averaged compressible time dependent Navier Stokes equations in conjunction with mixing length turbulence model and shock capturing technique were used to study the terminal shock type of flows in various flight regimes occurring in a diffuser/inlet model. The numerical scheme for solving the governing equations is based on a linearized block implicit approach and the following high Reynolds number calculations were carried out: (1) 2 D, steady, subsonic; (2) 2 D, steady, transonic with normal shock; (3) 2 D, steady, supersonic with terminal shock; (4) 2 D, transient process of shock development and (5) 3 D, steady, transonic with normal shock. The numerical results obtained for the 2 D and 3 D transonic shocked flows were compared with corresponding experimental data; the calculated wall static pressure distributions agree well with the measured data.

  5. Combining Hydrodynamic and Evolution Calculations of Rotating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deupree, R. G.

    1996-12-01

    Rotation has two primary effects on stellar evolutionary models: the direct influence on the model structure produced by the rotational terms, and the indirect influence produced by rotational instabilities which redistribute angular momentum and composition inside the model. Using a two dimensional, fully implicit finite difference code, I can follow events on both evolutionary and hydrodynamic timescales, thus allowing the simulation of both effects. However, there are several issues concerning how to integrate the results from hydrodynamic runs into evolutionary runs that must be examined. The schemes I have devised for the integration of the hydrodynamic simulations into evolutionary calculations are outlined, and the positive and negative features summarized. The practical differences among the various schemes are small, and a successful marriage between hydrodynamic and evolution calculations is possible.

  6. Hydrodynamic and Salinity Intrusion Model in Selangor River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, N. F.; Tahir, W.

    2016-07-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been used to develop the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion model for Selangor River Estuary. Delft3D-FLOW was applied to the study area using a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid. External boundary forces included ocean water level, salinity, and stream flow. The hydrodynamic and salinity transport used for the simulation was calibrated and confirmed using data on November 2005 and from May to June 2014. A 13-day period for November 2005 data and a 6-day period of May to June 2014 data were chosen as the calibration and confirmation period because of the availability of data from the field-monitoring program conducted. From the calibration results, it shows that the model was well suited to predict the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion characteristics of the study area.

  7. The threshold for hydrodynamic behaviour in solids under extreme compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.

    2014-09-01

    Shock waves are known to display structure within their fronts. At lower stress amplitudes, elastic waves precede an inelastic rise to the final pressure whilst under more extreme loading there is a single inelastic shock to peak stress. These regimes are conventionally termed weak and strong shock behaviour and the transition stress between the two is called the weak shock limit (WSL) here. Shock speeds in an amorphous glass and a FCC metal are shown to change discontinuously as pulses of increasing peak pressure exceed this limit. Further this work correlates the stress at the WSL with the theoretical strength of ca. 40 solids and shows different dependence for close-packed and open structures in metals, polymers, ceramics, and ionic solids.

  8. Two-boundary grid generation for the solution of the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A grid generation technique called the two boundary technique is developed and applied for the solution of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed from a cartesian coordinate system to a computational coordinate system, and the grid generation technique provides the Jacobian matrix describing the transformation. The two boundary technique is based on algebraically defining two distinct boundaries of a flow domain and the distribution of the grid is achieved by applying functions to the uniform computational grid which redistribute the computational independent variables and consequently concentrate or disperse the grid points in the physical domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a MacCormack time-split technique. Grids and supersonic laminar flow solutions are obtained for a family of three dimensional corners and two spike-nosed bodies.

  9. Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, John; Tu Yuhai . E-mail: yuhai@us.ibm.com; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2005-07-01

    We review the past decade's theoretical and experimental studies of flocking: the collective, coherent motion of large numbers of self-propelled 'particles' (usually, but not always, living organisms). Like equilibrium condensed matter systems, flocks exhibit distinct 'phases' which can be classified by their symmetries. Indeed, the phases that have been theoretically studied to date each have exactly the same symmetry as some equilibrium phase (e.g., ferromagnets, liquid crystals). This analogy with equilibrium phases of matter continues in that all flocks in the same phase, regardless of their constituents, have the same 'hydrodynamic'-that is, long-length scale and long-time behavior, just as, e.g., all equilibrium fluids are described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Flocks are nonetheless very different from equilibrium systems, due to the intrinsically nonequilibrium self-propulsion of the constituent 'organisms'. This difference between flocks and equilibrium systems is most dramatically manifested in the ability of the simplest phase of a flock, in which all the organisms are, on average moving in the same direction (we call this a 'ferromagnetic' flock; we also use the terms 'vector-ordered' and 'polar-ordered' for this situation) to exist even in two dimensions (i.e., creatures moving on a plane), in defiance of the well-known Mermin-Wagner theorem of equilibrium statistical mechanics, which states that a continuous symmetry (in this case, rotation invariance, or the ability of the flock to fly in any direction) can not be spontaneously broken in a two-dimensional system with only short-ranged interactions. The 'nematic' phase of flocks, in which all the creatures move preferentially, or are simply oriented preferentially, along the same axis, but with equal probability of moving in either direction, also differs dramatically from its equilibrium counterpart (in this case, nematic liquid crystals). Specifically, it shows enormous number fluctuations, which

  10. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals

    SciTech Connect

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2015-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  11. Density measurement of low- Z shocked material from monochromatic x-ray two-dimensional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Loupias, B.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Ozaki, N.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M.; Vinci, T.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Boehly, T.

    2008-04-01

    An experiment on LULI 2000 laser devoted to density determination of shocked plastic from a two-dimensional monochromatic x-ray radiography is presented. A spherical quartz crystal was set to select the He-α line of vanadium at 2.382Å and perform the image of the main target. Rear side diagnostics were implemented to validate the new diagnostic. The density experimental results given by radiography are in good agreement with rear side diagnostics data and hydrodynamical simulations. The pressure regime into the plastic is 2 3Mbar , corresponding to a compression between 2.7 2.9.

  12. Density measurement of low- Z shocked material from monochromatic x-ray two-dimensional images.

    PubMed

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Loupias, B; Koenig, M; Ravasio, A; Ozaki, N; Rabec le Gloahec, M; Vinci, T; Aglitskiy, Y; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Boehly, T

    2008-04-01

    An experiment on LULI 2000 laser devoted to density determination of shocked plastic from a two-dimensional monochromatic x-ray radiography is presented. A spherical quartz crystal was set to select the He-alpha line of vanadium at 2.382 A and perform the image of the main target. Rear side diagnostics were implemented to validate the new diagnostic. The density experimental results given by radiography are in good agreement with rear side diagnostics data and hydrodynamical simulations. The pressure regime into the plastic is 2-3 Mbar, corresponding to a compression between 2.7-2.9. PMID:18517682

  13. Compressed Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Gordon, Assaf; Brand, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have steadily increased our knowledge on the genetic basis of many severe disorders. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges in applying this knowledge routinely in the clinic, mainly due to the relatively tedious and expensive process of genotyping. Since the genetic variations that underlie the disorders are relatively rare in the population, they can be thought of as a sparse signal. Using methods and ideas from compressed sensing and group testing, we have developed a cost-effective genotyping protocol to detect carriers for severe genetic disorders. In particular, we have adapted our scheme to a recently developed class of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The mathematical framework presented here has some important distinctions from the ’traditional’ compressed sensing and group testing frameworks in order to address biological and technical constraints of our setting. PMID:21451737

  14. Glimm's Method for Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Vishniac, E. T.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of standard one-dimensional test problems in relativistic hydrodynamics using Glimm's (random choice) method and compare them to results obtained using finite differencing methods. For problems containing profiles with sharp edges, such as shocks, we find Glimm's method yields global errors ~1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than the traditional techniques. The strongest differences are seen for problems in which a shear field is superposed. For smooth flows, Glimm's method is inferior to standard methods. The location of specific features can be off by up to two grid points with respect to an exact solution in Glimm's method, and furthermore, curved states are not modeled optimally, since the method idealizes solutions as being composed of piecewise constant states. Thus, although Glimm's method is superior at correctly resolving sharp features, especially in the presence of shear, for realistic applications in which one typically finds smooth flows plus strong gradients or discontinuities, standard finite-difference methods yield smaller global errors. Glimm's method may prove useful in certain applications such as GRB afterglow shock propagation into a uniform medium.

  15. Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2008-09-07

    A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.

  16. An experimental parametric study of geometric, Reynolds number, and ratio of specific heats effects in three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic 3D sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air. In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Highly Efficient Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluids: Two-Dimensional Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Gan, Yan-Biao; Cheng, Tao; Li, Ying-Jun

    2009-10-01

    We present a highly efficient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating compressible flows. This model is based on the combination of an appropriate finite difference scheme, a 16-discrete-velocity model [Kataoka and Tsutahara, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 035701(R)] and reasonable dispersion and dissipation terms. The dispersion term effectively reduces the oscillation at the discontinuity and enhances numerical precision. The dissipation term makes the new model more easily meet with the von Neumann stability condition. This model works for both high-speed and low-speed flows with arbitrary specific-heat-ratio. With the new model simulation results for the well-known benchmark problems get a high accuracy compared with the analytic or experimental ones. The used benchmark tests include (i) Shock tubes such as the Sod, Lax, Sjogreen, Colella explosion wave, and collision of two strong shocks, (ii) Regular and Mach shock reflections, and (iii) Shock wave reaction on cylindrical bubble problems. With a more realistic equation of state or free-energy functional, the new model has the potential tostudy the complex procedure of shock wave reaction on porous materials.

  18. Fast Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Boghosian, B. M.; Succi, S.

    2010-07-02

    A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.

  19. Hydrodynamic and Spectral Simulations of HMXB Winds

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Akiyama, S; Plewa, T

    2007-03-30

    We describe preliminary results of a global model of the radiatively-driven photoionized wind and accretion flow of the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1. The full model combines FLASH hydrodynamic calculations, XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC atomic data, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present maps of the density, temperature, velocity, and ionization parameter from a FLASH two-dimensional time-dependent simulation of Vela X-1, as well as maps of the emissivity distributions of the X-ray emission lines.

  20. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1993-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.

  1. Hydrodynamic modes for granular gases.

    PubMed

    Dufty, James W; Brey, J Javier

    2003-09-01

    The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linearized Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard spheres (d=3) or disks (d=2) corresponding to d+2 hydrodynamic modes are calculated in the long wavelength limit for a granular gas. The transport coefficients are identified and found to agree with those from the Chapman-Enskog solution. The dominance of hydrodynamic modes at long times and long wavelengths is studied via an exactly solvable kinetic model. A collisional continuum is bounded away from the hydrodynamic spectrum, assuring a hydrodynamic description at long times. The bound is closely related to the power law decay of the velocity distribution in the reference homogeneous cooling state. PMID:14524742

  2. Molecular Hydrodynamics from Memory Kernels.

    PubMed

    Lesnicki, Dominika; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as t^{-3/2}. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, which is at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. Lastly, we discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales, and the crossover between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius. PMID:27104730

  3. Hydrodynamics of Inclusions in Freely Suspended Liquid Crystal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiyuan

    Hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional (2D), fluid smectic membranes suspended in air has been studied systematically. By analyzing their Brownian motion, it is found that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size-dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine/MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent. Beyond that, 2D flow fields generated by a rigid, oscillating post inserted in the film have been measured by analyzing the motion of tracer particles and provide a detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior in the film/gas system. The Brownian diffusion of micron-scale inclusions in freely suspended smectic A liquid crystal films a few nanometers thick and several millimeters in diameter depends strongly on the air surrounding the film. Near atmospheric pressure, the three-dimensionally coupled film/gas system is well described by Hughes/Pailthorpe/White hydrodynamic theory but at lower pressure, the diffusion coefficient increases substantially, tending in high vacuum toward the two-dimensional limit where it is determined by film size. In the absence of air, the films are found to be a nearly ideal physical realization of a two-dimensional, incompressible Newtonian fluid.

  4. Multidimensional hydrodynamic convection in full amplitude RR Lyrae models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deupree, R.; Geroux, C.

    2016-05-01

    Multidimensional (both 2D and 3D) hydrodynamic calculations have been performed to compute full amplitude RR Lyrae models. The multi- dimensional nature allows convection to be treated in a more realistic way than simple 1D formulations such as the local mixing length theory. We focus on some aspects of multidimensional calculations and on the model for treating convection.

  5. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  6. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  7. EUNHA: a New Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Park, Changbom

    2014-06-01

    We develop a parallel cosmological hydrodynamic simulation code designed for the study of formation and evolution of cosmological structures. The gravitational force is calculated using the TreePM method and the hydrodynamics is implemented based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The initial displacement and velocity of simulation particles are calculated according to second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory using the power spectra of dark matter and baryonic matter. The initial background temperature is given by Recfast and the temperature fluctuations at the initial particle position are assigned according to the adiabatic model. We use a time-limiter scheme over the individual time steps to capture shock-fronts and to ease the time-step tension between the shock and preshock particles. We also include the astrophysical gas processes of radiative heating/cooling, star formation, metal enrichment, and supernova feedback. We test the code in several standard cases such as one-dimensional Riemann problems, Kelvin-Helmholtz, and Sedov blast wave instability. Star formation on the galactic disk is investigated to check whether the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation is properly recovered. We also study global star formation history at different simulation resolutions and compare them with observations.

  8. Ramp Compression Experiments - a Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Reisman, D

    2007-02-26

    We present the first sensitivity study of the material isentropes extracted from ramp compression experiments. We perform hydrodynamic simulations of representative experimental geometries associated with ramp compression experiments and discuss the major factors determining the accuracy of the equation of state information extracted from such data. In conclusion, we analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively the major experimental factors that determine the accuracy of equations of state extracted from ramp compression experiments. Since in actual experiments essentially all the effects discussed here will compound, factoring out individual signatures and magnitudes, as done in the present work, is especially important. This study should provide some guidance for the effective design and analysis of ramp compression experiments, as well as for further improvements of ramp generators performance.

  9. Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Here it is documented how an existing code for modelling mantle convection in a cartesian domain, Stag3D, has been converted to model a 3D spherical shell by using the recently introduced yin-yang grid. StagYY is thus the latest evolution of a code that has been in continuous use and development for about 15 years so incorporates much physics and several features including compressibility, phase transitions, compositional variations, non-linear rheology, parallelisation, tracers to track composition, partial melting and melt migration, and the ability to also model spherical patches, cartesian boxes, and various 2D geometries by changing one input switch. StagYY uses a multigrid solver to obtain a velocity-pressure solution at each timestep on a staggered grid, a finite-volume scheme for advection of temperature and tracers to track composition. Convergence of multigrid solvers in the presence of realistically large viscosity variations has always been a problem; here a new pressure interpolation scheme is presented that can dramatically improve the robustness of the iterations to large viscosity variations, with up to 19 orders of magnitude variation in presented tests. Benchmark tests show that StagYY produces results that are consistent with those produced by other codes. Performance tests show reasonable scaling on a parallel Beowulf cluster up to 64 CPUs, with up to 1.2 billion unknowns solved for in a few minutes. StagYY is designed to be a stand-alone application with no libraries required and if MPI is installed it can be run in parallel. Technical issues and goals for the future are discussed.

  10. High-order compact MacCormack scheme for two-dimensional compressible and non-hydrostatic equations of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JavanNezhad, R.; Meshkatee, A. H.; Ghader, S.; Ahmadi-Givi, F.

    2016-09-01

    This study is devoted to application of the fourth-order compact MacCormack scheme to spatial differencing of the conservative form of two-dimensional and non-hydrostatic equation of a dry atmosphere. To advance the solution in time a four-stage Runge-Kutta method is used. To perform the simulations, two test cases including evolution of a warm bubble and a cold bubble in a neutral atmosphere with open and rigid boundaries are employed. In addition, the second-order MacCormack and the standard fourth-order compact MacCormack schemes are used to perform the simulations. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the numerical results for different test cases exhibit the superiority of the fourth-order compact MacCormack scheme on the second-order method.

  11. Compressed hyperspectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagkatakis, Grigorios; Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Acquisition of high dimensional Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) data using limited dimensionality imaging sensors has led to restricted capabilities designs that hinder the proliferation of HSI. To overcome this limitation, novel HSI architectures strive to minimize the strict requirements of HSI by introducing computation into the acquisition process. A framework that allows the integration of acquisition with computation is the recently proposed framework of Compressed Sensing (CS). In this work, we propose a novel HSI architecture that exploits the sampling and recovery capabilities of CS to achieve a dramatic reduction in HSI acquisition requirements. In the proposed architecture, signals from multiple spectral bands are multiplexed before getting recorded by the imaging sensor. Reconstruction of the full hyperspectral cube is achieved by exploiting a dictionary of elementary spectral profiles in a unified minimization framework. Simulation results suggest that high quality recovery is possible from a single or a small number of multiplexed frames.

  12. Simulating hydrodynamics on tidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Lippmann, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycling in estuaries is governed by fluxes from both riverine sources and through estuarine sediment deposits. Although estimates from river sources are relatively common and easily sampled, estimates of nutrient fluxes through the fluid-sediment interface are less common and limited to deeper portions of the bays away from intertidal areas. Lack of quantifiable shear stress estimates over intertidal areas limits our overall understanding of nutrient budgets in estuaries. Unfortunately, observation of intertidal hydrodynamics and nutrient fluxes over tidal flats and near the water's edge is difficult owing to the temporally varying and spatially extensive region where the tides inundate, and thus numerical modeling is often employed. In this work, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a three dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model was used to investigate the shear stresses over intertidal mudflats in the Great Bay, a tidally-dominated New England estuary cut by several tidal channels and with over 50% of the estuary exposed at low tide. The ROMS wetting and drying scheme was used to simulate the rising and falling tide on the flats, a successful approach adapted in other regions of the world but not always inclusive of tidal channels. Bathymetric data obtained in 2009 and 2013 was used to define the model grid. Predicted tides are forced at Adam's Pt., a natural constriction in the estuary about 20 km upstream of the mouth and at the entrance to the Great Bay. Of particular interest are fluxes of material on-to and off-of the tidal flats which contribute to water quality conditions in the estuary, and are largely governed by shear stresses that drive nutrient fluxes at the fluid-sediment interface. Basin wide estimates of near-bottom shear stresses can be used to estimate first order nutrient fluxes over a tidal cycle and hence describe general biogeochemical dynamics of the estuary. Future work will include enhanced forcing of currents by

  13. Shock compressed solids on the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J D; Gold, D M; Kalantar, D H; Mikaelian, K O; Remington, B A; Weber, S V; Wiley, G

    1999-08-03

    Experiments are being developed to shock compress metal foils in the solid state to study the material strength under high compression. The x-ray drive has been characterized and hydrodynamics experiments performed to study growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in Al foils at a peak pressure of about 1.8 Mbar. Pre-imposed modulations with an initial wavelength of lo-50 pm, and amplitude of 0.5 pm show growth. Variation in the growth factors may be a result of shot-shot variation in preheating of the Al sample due to emission from the plasma in the hohlraum target

  14. Analysis of the phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet using a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme and black-box data-compression utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we consider information-theoretic observables to analyze short symbolic sequences, comprising time series that represent the orientation of a single spin in a two-dimensional (2D) Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice of size L2=1282 for different system temperatures T . The latter were chosen from an interval enclosing the critical point Tc of the model. At small temperatures the sequences are thus very regular; at high temperatures they are maximally random. In the vicinity of the critical point, nontrivial, long-range correlations appear. Here we implement estimators for the entropy rate, excess entropy (i.e., "complexity"), and multi-information. First, we implement a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme, providing seemingly elaborate entropy rate and multi-information estimates and an approximate estimator for the excess entropy. Furthermore, we apply easy-to-use black-box data-compression utilities, providing approximate estimators only. For comparison and to yield results for benchmarking purposes, we implement the information-theoretic observables also based on the well-established M -block Shannon entropy, which is more tedious to apply compared to the first two "algorithmic" entropy estimation procedures. To test how well one can exploit the potential of such data-compression techniques, we aim at detecting the critical point of the 2D Ising ferromagnet. Among the above observables, the multi-information, which is known to exhibit an isolated peak at the critical point, is very easy to replicate by means of both efficient algorithmic entropy estimation procedures. Finally, we assess how good the various algorithmic entropy estimates compare to the more conventional block entropy estimates and illustrate a simple modification that yields enhanced results.

  15. The equations of nearly incompressible fluids. I. Hydrodynamics, turbulence, and waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    A unified analysis delineating the conditions under which the equations of classical incompressible and compressible hydrodynamics are related in the absence of large-scale thermal, gravitational, and field gradients is presented. By means of singular expansion techniques, a method is developed to derive modified systems of fluid equations in which the effects of compressibility are admitted only weakly in terms of the incompressible hydrodynamic solutions (hence ``nearly incompressible hydrodynamics''). Besides including molecular viscosity self-consistently, the role of thermal conduction in an ideal fluid is also considered. With the inclusion of heat conduction, it is found that two distinct routes to incompressibility are possible, distinguished according to the relative magnitudes of the temperature, density, and pressure fluctuations. This leads to two distinct models for thermally conducting, nearly incompressible hydrodynamics—heat-fluctuation-dominated hydrodynamics (HFDH's) and heat-fluctuation-modified hydrodynamics (HFMD's). For the HFD case, the well-known classical passive scalar equation for temperature is derived as one of the nearly incompressible fluid equations and temperature and density fluctuations are predicted to be anticorrelated. For HFM fluids, a new thermal transport equation, in which compressible acoustic effects are present, is obtained together with a more-complicated ``correlation'' between temperature, density, and pressure fluctuations. Although the equations of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics are envisaged principally as being applicable to homogeneous turbulence and wave propagation in low Mach number flow, it is anticipated that their applicability is likely to be far greater.

  16. Existence of global weak solutions to compressible isentropic finitely extensible nonlinear bead-spring chain models for dilute polymers: The two-dimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, John W.; Süli, Endre

    2016-07-01

    We prove the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to a general class of models that arise from the kinetic theory of dilute solutions of nonhomogeneous polymeric liquids, where the polymer molecules are idealized as bead-spring chains with finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) type spring potentials. The class of models under consideration involves the unsteady, compressible, isentropic, isothermal Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain Ω in Rd, d = 2, for the density ρ, the velocity u ˜ and the pressure p of the fluid, with an equation of state of the form p (ρ) =cpργ, where cp is a positive constant and γ > 1. The right-hand side of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation includes an elastic extra-stress tensor, which is the classical Kramers expression. The elastic extra-stress tensor stems from the random movement of the polymer chains and is defined through the associated probability density function that satisfies a Fokker-Planck-type parabolic equation, a crucial feature of which is the presence of a centre-of-mass diffusion term. This extends the result in our paper J.W. Barrett and E. Süli (2016) [9], which established the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to the system for d ∈ { 2 , 3 } and γ >3/2, but the elastic extra-stress tensor required there the addition of a quadratic interaction term to the classical Kramers expression to complete the compactness argument on which the proof was based. We show here that in the case of d = 2 and γ > 1 the existence of global-in-time weak solutions can be proved in the absence of the quadratic interaction term. Our results require no structural assumptions on the drag term in the Fokker-Planck equation; in particular, the drag term need not be corotational. With a nonnegative initial density ρ0 ∈L∞ (Ω) for the continuity equation; a square-integrable initial velocity datum u˜0 for the Navier-Stokes momentum equation; and a nonnegative initial probability density function ψ0

  17. Hydrodynamics, resurgence, and transasymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2015-12-01

    The second order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost-invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the nonhydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasinormal modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semiclassical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these nonhydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with initial conditions.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  20. Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.

  1. MAESTRO: An Adaptive Low Mach Number Hydrodynamics Algorithm for Stellar Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Andrew; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Zingale, M.

    2010-01-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena are highly subsonic, requiring specialized numerical methods suitable for long-time integration. We present MAESTRO, a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code that can be used to simulate long-time, low-speed flows that would be prohibitively expensive to model using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO is based on an equation set that we have derived using low Mach number asymptotics; this equation set does not explicitly track acoustic waves and thus allows a significant increase in the time step. MAESTRO is suitable for two- and three-dimensional local atmospheric flows as well as three-dimensional full-star flows, and uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to locally refine grids in regions of interest. Our initial scientific applications include the convective phase of Type Ia supernovae and Type I X-ray Bursts on neutron stars. The work at LBNL was supported by the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The work at Stony Brook was supported by the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448. We made use of the Jaguar via a DOE INCITE allocation at the OLCF at ORNL and Franklin at NERSC at LBNL.

  2. Reaching the hydrodynamic regime in a Bose-Einstein condensate by suppression of avalanches

    SciTech Connect

    Stam, K. M. R. van der; Meppelink, R.; Vogels, J. M.; Straten, P. van der

    2007-03-15

    We report the realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the hydrodynamic regime. The hydrodynamic regime is reached by evaporative cooling at a relatively low density suppressing the effect of avalanches. With the suppression of avalanches a BEC containing more than 10{sup 8} atoms is produced. The collisional opacity can be tuned from the collisionless regime to a collisional opacity of more than 2 by compressing the trap after condensation. In the collisional opaque regime a significant heating of the cloud at time scales shorter than half of the radial trap period is measured, which is a direct proof that the BEC is hydrodynamic.

  3. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  4. Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging With Side Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhu, Ruoyu; Llull, Patrick; Brady, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2015-09-01

    A blind compressive sensing algorithm is proposed to reconstruct hyperspectral images from spectrally-compressed measurements.The wavelength-dependent data are coded and then superposed, mapping the three-dimensional hyperspectral datacube to a two-dimensional image. The inversion algorithm learns a dictionary {\\em in situ} from the measurements via global-local shrinkage priors. By using RGB images as side information of the compressive sensing system, the proposed approach is extended to learn a coupled dictionary from the joint dataset of the compressed measurements and the corresponding RGB images, to improve reconstruction quality. A prototype camera is built using a liquid-crystal-on-silicon modulator. Experimental reconstructions of hyperspectral datacubes from both simulated and real compressed measurements demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed inversion algorithm, the feasibility of the camera and the benefit of side information.

  5. Compression and venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Stücker, M; Link, K; Reich-Schupke, S; Altmeyer, P; Doerler, M

    2013-03-01

    Compression therapy is considered to be the most important conservative treatment of venous leg ulcers. Until a few years ago, compression bandages were regarded as first-line therapy of venous leg ulcers. However, to date medical compression stockings are the first choice of treatment. With respect to compression therapy of venous leg ulcers the following statements are widely accepted: 1. Compression improves the healing of ulcers when compared with no compression; 2. Multicomponent compression systems are more effective than single-component compression systems; 3. High compression is more effective than lower compression; 4. Medical compression stockings are more effective than compression with short stretch bandages. Healed venous leg ulcers show a high relapse rate without ongoing treatment. The use of medical stockings significantly reduces the amount of recurrent ulcers. Furthermore, the relapse rate of venous leg ulcers can be significantly reduced by a combination of compression therapy and surgery of varicose veins compared with compression therapy alone. PMID:23482538

  6. Analyses of hydrodynamic radial forces on centrifugal pump impellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, D. R.; Brennen, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of the hydrodynamic interactions occurring between a centrifugal pump impeller and a volute is presented. The theoretical analysis provides a quasi-one-dimensional treatment of the flow in the volute, and it is extended to include the hydrodynamic force perturbations caused by the impeller whirling eccentrically in the volute. It is noted that these perturbations are often destabilizing. The theoretical models were found to accurately predict the radial forces caused by the flow through the impeller. The pressure acting on the front shroud of the impeller is shown to have a significant effect on the destabilizing hydrodyamic forces.

  7. Isotropization and Hydrodynamization in Weakly Coupled Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Zhu, Yan

    2015-10-30

    We numerically solve the (2+1)-dimensional effective kinetic theory of weak coupling QCD under longitudinal expansion, relevant for early stages of heavy-ion collisions. We find agreement with viscous hydrodynamics and classical Yang-Mills simulations in the regimes where they are applicable. By choosing initial conditions that are motivated by a color-glass-condensate framework, we find that for Q_{s}=2 GeV and α_{s}=0.3 the system is approximately described by viscous hydrodynamics well before τ≲1.0 fm/c. PMID:26565462

  8. Purely hydrodynamic origin for swarming of swimming particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Norihiro; Molina, John Jairo; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional simulations with fully resolved hydrodynamics are performed to study the collective motion of model swimmers in bulk and confinement. Calculating the dynamic structure factor, we clarified that the swarming in bulk systems can be understood as a pseudoacoustic mode. Under confinement between flat parallel walls, this pseudoacoustic mode leads to a traveling wavelike motion. This swarming behavior is due purely to the hydrodynamic interactions between the swimmers and depends strongly on the type and strength of swimming (i.e., pusher or puller).

  9. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-04-15

    We present results from a hybrid description of Cu + Cu collisions using (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics (music) for the bulk evolution and a Monte Carlo simulation (martini) for the evolution of high-momentum partons in the hydrodynamical background. We explore the limits of this description by going to small system sizes and determine the dependence on different fractions of wounded nucleon and binary collisions scaling of the initial energy density. We find that Cu + Cu collisions are well described by the hybrid description at least up to 20% central collisions.

  10. Synchronization of rigid microrotors by time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions.

    PubMed

    Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. The three-dimensional fluid is described by the linearized, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations instead of the usually adopted Stokes equations. We demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. The time dependence of the phase difference between the rotors is determined and synchronization times are extracted for various external torques and rotor separations by solving the underlaying integrodifferential equations numerically. In addition, an analytical expression is provided for the synchronization time. PMID:24032929

  11. Flux limiters in the coupling of radiation and hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaid, M.; Klar, A.; Dubroca, B.

    2004-07-01

    Two numerical approximations to radiative heat transfer problem based on asymptotic and entropy approaches are proposed for hydrodynamics radiation coupling. We compare the radiative fluxes between the two approaches and we show that the coupling based on the entropy approach is flux limited, while the other approach does not preserve this condition. Relaxation schemes are considered for the hydrodynamic part, and an iterative procedure is used for radiation. The new splitting algorithm avoids the use of Riemann solvers and Newton iterations. Numerical examples are carried out on two and three dimensional problems.

  12. Warm dense mater: another application for pulsed power hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics (PPH) is an application of low-impedance pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology to the study of advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties. PPH can potentially be applied to the study of the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties of warm dense matter such as equation of state, viscosity, conductivity is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to slightly above solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Conditions characteristic of WDM are difficult to obtain, and even more difficult to diagnose. One approach to producing WDM uses laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers are applying these techniques. Pulsed power hydrodynamic techniques, such as large convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through multiple shock compression and heating of normal density material between a massive, high density, energetic liner and a high density central 'anvil' are possible ways to reach relevant conditions. Another avenue to WDM conditions is through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. In this paper we will examine the challenges to pulsed power technology and to pulsed power systems presented by the opportunity to explore this interesting region of parameter space.

  13. Spectral image compression for data communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Lehtonen, Juha; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo

    2000-12-01

    We report a technique for spectral image compression to be used in the field of data communications. The spectral domain of the images is represented by a low-dimensional component image set, which is used to obtain an efficient compression of the high-dimensional spectral data. The component images are compressed using a similar technique as the JPEG- and MPEG-type compressions use to subsample the chrominance channels. The spectral compression is based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) combined with color image transmission coding technique of 'chromatic channel subsampling' of the component images. The component images are subsampled using 4:2:2, 4:2:0, and 4:1:1-based compressions. In addition, we extended the test for larger block sizes and larger number of component images than in the original JPEG- and MPEG-standards. Totally 50 natural spectral images were used as test material in our experiments. Several error measures of the compression are reported. The same compressions are done using Independent Component Analysis and the results are compared with PCA. These methods give a good compression ratio while keeping visual quality of color still good. Quantitative comparisons between the original and reconstructed spectral images are presented.

  14. Compressive beamforming.

    PubMed

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex optimization. The DOA estimation problem is formulated in the CS framework and it is shown that CS has superior performance compared to traditional DOA estimation methods especially under challenging scenarios such as coherent arrivals and single-snapshot data. An offset and resolution analysis is performed to indicate the limitations of CS. It is shown that the limitations are related to the beampattern, thus can be predicted. The high-resolution capabilities and the robustness of CS are demonstrated on experimental array data from ocean acoustic measurements for source tracking with single-snapshot data. PMID:24993212

  15. Incompressible wave motion of inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    We consider a particular class of linear and non-linear wave motions in fluids, in which pressure remains constant in each moving fluid parcel. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid, and wave motion is considered as an adiabatic thermodynamic process. An exact, analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations is obtained that describes the wave motion in inhomogeneous, compressible, rotating fluids with piece-wise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. The solution is valid under surprisingly general assumptions about the environment and reduces to some classical wave types in appropriate limiting cases. Free waves in bounded and unbounded domains as well as excitation of wave fields by a point source are considered. Edge waves propagating along vertical and inclined rigid boundaries are found in rotating and non-rotating fluids. Allowance for three-dimensional variation of the sound speed and for arbitrary density stratification, including density discontinuities, makes the exact solution an attractive model of acoustic-gravity waves in a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The new wave type complements classical exact solutions of linearized equations of fluid mechanics known as the Rossby, Lamb, Kelvin, and Poincaré waves, which provide much of the conceptual foundation of geophysical fluid dynamics. In addition to a wide class of exact solutions for linear waves, an exact solution of full non-linear hydrodynamics equations is found that describes a propagating wave in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids with piece-wise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. The fluid may have a free surface and a rigid boundary. Depending on the geometry of the problem, the solution has the meaning of either surface or edge wave. The exact solution describes a finite-amplitude wave in an otherwise quiescent fluid. Extensions to finite-amplitude waves in fluids with background currents are considered. Relation of the new exact solution for the non

  16. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  17. Simulation and experimental studies of three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data based on compressed-sensing theory for potential applications to dental cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, U. K.; Lee, M. S.; Cho, H. S.; Hong, D. K.; Park, Y. O.; Park, C. K.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Woo, T. H.

    2015-06-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data. In computed tomography (CT), for example, image reconstruction from sparse views and/or limited-angle (<360°) views would enable fast scanning with reduced imaging doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented a reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed-sensing (CS) theory, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for potential applications to low-dose, high-accurate dental cone-beam CT (CBCT). We performed systematic simulation works to investigate the image characteristics and also performed experimental works by applying the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system to demonstrate its effectiveness for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images of superior accuracy from insufficient sampling data and evaluated the reconstruction quality quantitatively. Both simulation and experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction from insufficient data indicate that the CS-based algorithm can be applied directly to current dental CBCT systems for reducing the imaging doses and further improving the image quality.

  18. Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-02-01

    The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.

  19. Weakly Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Solar Wind and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Ng, C. S.; Spangler, S. R.

    1998-02-01

    A new four-field system of equations is derived from the compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for low Mach number turbulence in the solar wind and the interstellar medium, permeated by a spatially varying magnetic field. The plasma beta is assumed to be of order unity or less. It is shown that the full MHD equations can be reduced rigorously to a closed system for four fluctuating field variables: magnetic flux, vorticity, pressure, and parallel flow. Although the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field is shown to obey a two-dimensional incompressibility condition (analogous to the Proudman-Taylor theorem in hydrodynamics), the three-dimensional dynamics exhibit the effects of compressibility. In the presence of spatial inhomogeneities, the four dynamical equations are coupled to each other, and pressure fluctuations enter the weakly compressible dynamics at leading order. If there are no spatial inhomogeneities and or if the plasma beta is low, the four-field equations reduce to the well-known equations of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). For pressure-balanced structures, the four-field equations undergo a remarkable simplification which provides insight on the special nature of the fluctuations driven by these structures. The important role of spatial inhomogeneities is elucidated by 2.5-dimensional numerical simulations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, the saturated pressure and density fluctuations scale with the Mach number of the turbulence, and the system attains equipartition with respect to the kinetic, magnetic, and thermal energy of the fluctuations. The present work suggests that if heliospheric and interstellar turbulence exists in a plasma with large-scale, nonturbulent spatial gradients, one expects the pressure and density fluctuations to be of significantly larger magnitude than suggested in nearly incompressible models such as pseudosound.

  20. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128