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Sample records for dimensional nuclear magnetic

  1. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623

  2. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  3. Matrix decompositions of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Havel, T F; Najfeld, I; Yang, J X

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional NMR spectra are rectangular arrays of real numbers, which are commonly regarded as digitized images to be analyzed visually. If one treats them instead as mathematical matrices, linear algebra techniques can also be used to extract valuable information from them. This matrix approach is greatly facilitated by means of a physically significant decomposition of these spectra into a product of matrices--namely, S = PAPT. Here, P denotes a matrix whose columns contain the digitized contours of each individual peak or multiple in the one-dimensional spectrum, PT is its transpose, and A is an interaction matrix specific to the experiment in question. The practical applications of this decomposition are considered in detail for two important types of two-dimensional NMR spectra, double quantum-filtered correlated spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, both in the weak-coupling approximation. The elements of A are the signed intensities of the cross-peaks in a double quantum-filtered correlated spectrum, or the integrated cross-peak intensities in the case of a nuclear Overhauser effect spectrum. This decomposition not only permits these spectra to be efficiently simulated but also permits the corresponding inverse problems to be given an elegant mathematical formulation to which standard numerical methods are applicable. Finally, the extension of this decomposition to the case of strong coupling is given. PMID:8058742

  4. One-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the reaction of phenyldichloroarsine with glutathione

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, K.; Adams, E.R.; O'Connor, R.J.; Chong, S.; McGown, E.L.

    1987-09-01

    /sup 14/C-labeled phenyldichloroarsine (PDA) enters the red blood cell and forms a 1:2 adduct with intracellular glutathione. Upon gel filtration of the hemolysate, (/sup 14/C)PDA was recovered with the glutathione-containing fractions. One-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the structure of the adduct and elucidate its stereochemistry, stability, and reactivity.

  5. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies of molecular structure in liquids and liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, S.P.

    1991-07-01

    Magnetic couplings between protons, such as through-space dipole couplings, and scalar J-couplings depend sensitively on the structure of the molecule. Two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments provide a powerful tool for measuring these couplings, correlating them to specific pairs of protons within the molecule, and calculating the structure. This work discusses the development of NMR methods for examining two such classes of problems -- determination of the secondary structure of flexible molecules in anisotropic solutions, and primary structure of large biomolecules in aqueous solutions. 201 refs., 84 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in inhomogeneous magnetic fields: A fast two-dimensional J-resolved experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising.

  7. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in inhomogeneous magnetic fields: A fast two-dimensional J-resolved experiment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-03-14

    High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising. PMID:26979686

  8. Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Determination Module for Introductory Biochemistry: Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Lyso-Glycerophospholipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Teresa A.; Rose, Rebecca L.; Bell, Sidney M.

    2013-01-01

    In this laboratory module, introductory biochemistry students are exposed to two-dimensional [superscript 1]H-nuclear magnetic resonance of glycerophospholipids (GPLs). Working in groups of three, students enzymatically synthesized and purified a variety of 2-acyl lyso GPLs. The structure of the 2-acyl lyso GPL was verified using [superscript…

  9. Partial-Homogeneity-Based Two-Dimensional High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy under Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenqi; Wei, Zhiliang; Ding, Nan; Yang, Yu; Ye, Qimiao; Lin, Yulan; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-18

    High-resolution multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an irreplaceable and versatile tool in various chemical investigations. In this study, a method based on the concept of partial homogeneity is developed to offer two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Oscillating gradients are exerted to encode the high-resolution information, and a field-inhomogeneity correction algorithm based on pattern recognition is designed to recover high-resolution spectra. Under fields where inhomogeneity primarily distributes along a single orientation, the proposed method will improve performances of 2D NMR spectroscopy without increasing the experimental duration or significant loss in sensitivity, and thus may open important perspectives for studies of inhomogeneous chemical systems. PMID:26891886

  10. Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of green-state ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckman, S.L.; Gopalsami, N.; Ford, J.M.; Raptis, A.C.; Ellingson, W.A.; Rizo, P.; Tracey, D.M.; Pujari, V.K.

    1991-09-01

    Objective is the development of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques and technology applicable to the nondestructive characterization of green-state ceramics. To this end, a three-dimensional (3-D) NMR imaging technique has been developed, based on a back-projection acquisition protocol in combination with image reconstruction techniques that are based on 3-D Radon transform inversion. The method incorporates the experimental flexibility to overcome many of the difficulties associated with imaging of solid and semisolid broad-line materials, and also provides contiguously sampled data in three dimensions. This technique has been evaluated as a nondestructive characterizauon method for determining the spatial distribution of organic additves in green-state injection-molded cylindrical Si{sub 3}N{sup 4} tensile specimens. The technique has been evaluated on the basis of providing moderate image resolution over large sample volumes, high resolution over smaller specimen volumes, and sensitivity to variations in the concentration of organics. Resolution of 200{mu}m has been obtained with excellent sensitivity to concentration. A detailed account of the 3-D imaging results obtained from the study, a discussion of the difficulties and limitations of the imaging technique, and suggestions for technique and system improvements are included.

  11. An accessible two-dimensional solution nuclear magnetic resonance experiment on human ubiquitin*.

    PubMed

    Rovnyak, David; Thompson, Laura E

    2005-03-01

    Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an invaluable tool in structural and molecular biology research, but may be underutilized in undergraduate laboratories because instrumentation for performing structural studies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is not yet widely available for use in undergraduate laboratories. We have implemented an experiment that is ideal for more commonly available 4.8-7.0 Tesla, double-channel NMR instruments that would not usually be used for biomolecular NMR work. We analyzed a commercially available, (15) N-enriched human ubiquitin sample with a two-dimensional correlation experiment using indirect (1) H evolution and direct (15) N detection, which produced spectra with high resolution on a spectrometer operating at 7.0 Tesla (300 MHz (1) H resonance frequency). The simplicity of the experiment makes it possible to be configured by undergraduate students with minimal supervision from the instructor. Students gain experience in acquiring multidimensional biomolecular NMR experiments, confirm that ubiquitin is stably folded, and observe the correspondence between specific signals and individual amino acids in ubiquitin. PMID:21638557

  12. Complete Proton and Carbon Assignment of Triclosan via One- and Two- Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students from an upper-division undergraduate spectroscopy class analyzed one- and two-dimensional 400 MHz NMR spectroscopic data from triclosan in CDCl3. Guided assignment of all proton and carbon signals was completed via 1D proton and carbon, nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe), distortionless enhanc...

  13. Tunnel-diode resonator and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of low-dimensional magnetic and superconducting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeninas, Steven Lee

    This thesis emphasizes two frequency-domain techniques which uniquely employ radio frequency (RF) excitations to investigate the static and dynamic properties of novel magnetic and superconducting materials. The first technique is a tunnel-diode resonator (TDR) which detects bulk changes in the dynamic susceptibility, chi = dM/dH. The capability of TDR to operate at low temperatures (less than 100 mK) and high fields (up to 65 T in pulsed fields) was critical for investigations of the antiferromagnetically correlated magnetic molecules Cr12Cu2 and Cr12 Ln4 (Ln = Y, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb), and the superconductor SrFe2(As1--xPx) 2 (x = 0.35). Investigations of Cr12Cu 2 and Cr12Ln4 demonstrates the first implementation of TDR to experimentally investigate the lowlying energy spectra of magnetic molecules in pulsed magnetic fields. Zeeman splitting of the quantum spin states results in transitions between field-dependent ground state energy levels observed as peaks in dM/dH at 600 mK, and demonstrate good agreement with theoretical calculations using a isotropic Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian. Increasing temperature to 2.5 K, TDR reveals a rich spectrum of frequency-dependent level crossings from thermally populated excited states which cannot be observed by conventional static magnetometry techniques. The last study presented uses TDR in pulsed fields to determine the temperature-dependent upper-critical field Hc2 to investigate the effects of columnar defects arising from heavy ion irradiation of SrFe2(As 1--xPx)2. Results suggest irradiation uniformly suppresses Tc and Hc2, and does not introduce additional features on H c2(T) and the shapes of the anisotropic Hc2 curves indicates a nodal superconducting gap. The second technique is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) which yields site specific magnetic and electronic information arising from hyperfine interactions for select magnetic nuclei. NMR spectra and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation measurements are reported

  14. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, B.deB. |

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of {sup 23}Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na{sup +} distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na{sup +} ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of {sup 23}Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na{sup +} is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T{sub 2}. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo {sup 23}Na T{sub 2} values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25{mu}s, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form.

  15. An Accessible Two-Dimensional Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment on Human Ubiquitin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovnyak, David; Thompson, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an invaluable tool in structural and molecular biology research, but may be underutilized in undergraduate laboratories because instrumentation for performing structural studies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is not yet widely available for use in undergraduate laboratories. We have…

  16. One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor.

    PubMed

    Boss, J M; Chang, K; Armijo, J; Cujia, K; Rosskopf, T; Maze, J R; Degen, C L

    2016-05-13

    We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure. PMID:27232045

  17. One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, J. M.; Chang, K.; Armijo, J.; Cujia, K.; Rosskopf, T.; Maze, J. R.; Degen, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure.

  18. Molecular orientational dynamics in solid C70: Investigation by one- and two-dimensional magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, R.; Dabbagh, G.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Heiney, P. A.; Strongin, R. M.; Cichy, M. A.; Smith, A. B., III

    1993-11-01

    We present the results of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements that probe molecular orientational dynamics in solid C70 in the temperature range 223-343 K. Orientational dynamics affect the NMR line shapes and spin-lattice relaxation rates by modulating the 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA). Motionally averaged CSA line shapes, determined from both one-dimensional and two-dimensional magic angle spinning NMR spectra, and relaxation rates are determined for each of the five inequivalent carbon sites in the C70 molecule. Comparisons of the results for the five sites provide evidence for rapid uniaxial molecular reorientation in the monoclinic (T≤280 K) and rhombohedral (280≤T≤330 K) phases and rapid isotropic reorientation in the face-centered cubic (T≥330 K) phase. The orientational correlation time is roughly 2 ns at 250 K and of the order of 5 ps at 340 K.

  19. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance study of a hydrated porous medium: An application to white cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinšek, J.; Apih, T.; Lahajnar, G.; Blinc, R.; Papavassiliou, G.; Pintar, M. M.

    1998-04-01

    Structure and dynamics of a hydrated white cement were investigated by the T1-weighted lineshape, two-dimensional (2D) exchange, and 2D separation of inhomogeneous and homogeneous lineshapes nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. T1 weighting of the proton spectrum eliminates the strong bulk water signal from the pores so that the weaker spectrum of the solid cement matrix becomes observable. The proton spectrum of the solid cement fraction exhibits a characteristic Pake doublet shape and shows a close similarity to the powder spectra of pure calcium hydroxide and the crystalline water of gypsum. The 2D exchange NMR spectrum of white cement demonstrates the existence of slow chemical exchange processes of protons in the solid matrix on a sub-kHz frequency scale. This exchange is orders of magnitude slower than the exchange between the surface and bulk water. The 2D NMR separation of inhomogeneous and homogeneous lineshapes technique demonstrates that the absorption lines of a set white cement are inhomogeneously broadened due to the existence of a distribution of static local magnetic fields. The major contribution to these fields comes from the dipolar fields of the paramagnetic electrons whereas the magnetic susceptibility differences of the liquid and solid fractions add a small part at the solid-liquid boundary where the direction of the external magnetic field is changed.

  20. Three-state analytic theory of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance in systems with coupled macro- and micropores.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David Linton; Schwartz, Lawrence M

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments involve a sequence of longitudinal (T(1)) and transverse (T(2)) measurements. In a previous paper we showed that if each of these 1D measurements can be represented by two exponential decays then there can be an accurate analytic solution for the 2D measurements with no additional information. In this paper we extend the theory to the case where there are three decay channels for the 1D measurements. The resulting analytic theory introduces a single free parameter, which is a rotation angle in the vector space spanned by the normal modes. Our predictions agree quite well with numerical results based on the microporous grain consolidation (μGC) model. The theory allows one to deduce information about decay modes in situations in which they may not be measurable in a conventional 1D measurement because the amplitude of that mode is too small. PMID:26172724

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    2009-06-01

    Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

  2. Tunnel-diode resonator and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of low-dimensional magnetic and superconducting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yeninas, Steven Lee

    2013-01-01

    This thesis emphasizes two frequency-domain techniques which uniquely employ radio frequency (RF) excitations to investigate the static and dynamic properties of novel magnetic and superconducting materials.

  3. Monitoring water transport between pores and voids in aerated gypsum using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance exchange measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyung-Min; Mitchell, Jonathan; Jaffel, Hamouda; Gladden, Lynn F.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the connectivity between aeration voids (radius 200-300 µm) and pores (radius 20 µm) in aerated gypsum plaster using two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance T2-T2 relaxation time exchange experiments. These measurements provide an estimate of diffusive exchange rates for water molecules moving between environments differentiated by relaxation time. Aerated gypsum is a lightweight material manufactured by the inclusion of voids to reduce the bulk density. Such materials exhibit a multi-modal distribution of pore and void sizes and are associated with novel water imbibition processes. Here, we use T2-T2 exchange experiments to characterize the extent of fluid communication between the voids and pores to better understand the structure-transport relationships in these systems. In turn, this will aid the design of gypsum plasters with improved physical and mechanical properties. Utilizing an analytical model based on diffusion-driven exchange, we extract exchange times and hence diffusive length-scales, which are equivalent to the pore diameter. Overall, we conclude that the voids and pores are well connected. This confirms our previous hypothesis that water uptake occurs via capillary-driven imbibition through a continuum of voids and pores in aerated gypsum.

  4. Low dimensional magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjall, Jonas Alexander

    With the rapid development of experimental techniques for ultracold gases in optical traps a new approach to investigate magnetic properties that are hard achieve or control in the solid state has emerged. We first study the ground-state phase diagram of a spin-1 condensate trapped in an optical trap when the magnetic dipole interaction between the atoms is taken into account along with confinement and spin precession. The boundaries between the regions of ferromagnetic and polar phases move as the dipole strength is varied and the ferromagnetic phases can be modulated. The magnetization of the ferromagnetic phase perpendicular to the field becomes modulated as a helix winding around the magnetic field direction, with a wavelength inversely proportional to the dipole strength. This modulation should be observable for current experimental parameters in 87Rb. Hence the much-sought supersolid state, with broken continuous translation invariance in one direction and broken global U(1) invariance, occurs generically as a metastable state in this system as a result of dipole interaction. The ferromagnetic state parallel to the applied magnetic field becomes striped in a finite system at strong dipolar coupling. The development of artificial gauge fields, that can mimic magnetic fields, in ultracold gases suggests that atomic realization of fractional quantum Hall physics will become experimentally practical in the near future. While it is known that bosons on lattices can support quantum Hall states, the universal edge excitations that provide the most likely experimental probe of the topological order have not been obtained. We find that the edge excitations of an interacting boson lattice model are surprisingly sensitive to interedge hybridization and edge-bulk mixing for some confining potentials. With properly chosen potentials and fluxes, the edge spectrum is surprisingly clear even for small systems with strong lattice effects such as bandwidth. Various fractional

  5. Magnetism in low dimensionality.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S. D.; Materials Science Division

    2002-03-10

    The collective creativity of those working in the field of surface magnetism has stimulated an impressive range of advances. Once wary, theorists are now eager to enter the field. The present article attempts to take a snapshot of where the field has been, with an eye to the more speculative issue of where it is going. Selective examples are used to highlight three general areas of interest (1) characterization techniques, (2) materials properties, and (3) theoretical/simulational advances. Emerging directions are identified and discussed, including laterally confined nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  6. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  7. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338

  8. Three dimensional structure prediction and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of toxic pesticides in human blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Rajeev Kumar; Gaur, Mulayam Singh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments of hydrolyzed products extracted from human blood plasma. The correlations between chemical, functional and structural properties of highly toxic pesticides were investigated using the PreADME analysis. We observed that toxic pesticides possessed higher molecular weight and, more hydrogen bond donors and acceptors when compared with less toxic pesticides. The occurrence of functional groups and structural properties was analyzed using 1H-NMR. The 1H-NMR spectra of the phosphomethoxy class of pesticides were characterized by methyl resonances at 3.7-3.9 ppm (δ) with the coupling constants of 11-16 Hz (JP-CH3). In phosphoethoxy pesticides, the methyl resonance was about 1.4 ppm (δ) with the coupling constant of 10 Hz (JP-CH2) and the methylene resonances was 4.2-4.4 ppm (δ) with the coupling constant of 0.8 Hz (JP-CH3), respectively. Our study shows that the values of four parameters such as chemical shift, coupling constant, integration and relaxation time correlated with the concentration of toxic pesticides, and can be used to characterise the proton groups in the molecular structures of toxic pesticides. PMID:23554747

  9. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desantis, Rich

    2008-10-01

    Point charges are not conduits of magnetism. Vacuum gaps between charges prevent superconductivity. Magnetism occurs w/o charge velocity. A changing magnetic field can add magnetism, w/o magnetism's centripetal force adding speed. Voltage is not charge repulsion energy. Passing electrons through a stationary electron's field cannot reduce its field. Passing the external electrons through a charged capacitor's field discharges the capacitor. Chemical bonds extend between atoms. A superconductive magnet contains a superconductive molecule, the length of its wire. Superconductivity dictates that chemical bonding material is non-vacuum and non-point charge. Its unit is an electron/proton fusion called an ABION. Unpaired abions attract all other unpaired abions within or between atoms. Paired abions have reduced attraction for other abions. Helium is inert because its abions are paired. A lithium atom includes an unpaired abion. Superconductive abions are nuclear magnetic conduits. Equality of transference numbers in electrochemistry is evidence of conduits. In fuel cells and semiconductors, paired voltage-induced redox reactions convert lines of abions into conduits. This temporarily converts bulk insulators to conductors.

  14. Assignment of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the trypsin inhibitor homologue K from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance at 360 and 500 MHz.

    PubMed

    Keller, R M; Baumann, R; Hunziker-Kwik, E H; Joubert, F J; Wüthrich, K

    1983-02-01

    The assignment of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) spectrum of the trypsin inhibitor homologue K from the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis is described and documented. The assignments are based entirely on the amino acid sequence and on 2-dimensional n.m.r. experiments at 360 and 500 M Hz. Individual assignments were obtained for the backbone and C beta protons of all 57 residues of the inhibitor homologue K, with the exceptions of the N-terminal amino group, the amide protons of Arg16, Gly37 and Gly40 and the C beta protons of Arg16 and Pro19. The assignments for the non-labile protons of the amino acid side-chains are complete, with the exception of Gln29, Glu49 and all the proline, lysine and arginine residues. For Asn and Trp the labile side-chain protons have also been assigned. The chemical shifts for the assigned resonances are listed for an aqueous solution at 50 degrees C and pH 3.4. PMID:6842589

  15. Development of a three-dimensional cell culture system based on microfluidics for nuclear magnetic resonance and optical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Vicent; Monge, Rosa; Celda, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    A new microfluidic cell culture device compatible with real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is presented here. The intended application is the long-term monitoring of 3D cell cultures by several techniques. The system has been designed to fit inside commercially available NMR equipment to obtain maximum readout resolution when working with small samples. Moreover, the microfluidic device integrates a fibre-optic-based sensor to monitor parameters such as oxygen, pH, or temperature during NMR monitoring, and it also allows the use of optical microscopy techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy. This manuscript reports the initial trials culturing neurospheres inside the microchamber of this device and the preliminary images and spatially localised spectra obtained by NMR. The images show the presence of a necrotic area in the interior of the neurospheres, as is frequently observed in histological preparations; this phenomenon appears whenever the distance between the cells and fresh nutrients impairs the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, the spectra acquired in a volume of 8 nl inside the neurosphere show an accumulation of lactate and lipids, which are indicative of anoxic conditions. Additionally, a basis for general temperature control and monitoring and a graphical control software have been developed and are also described. The complete platform will allow biomedical assays of therapeutic agents to be performed in the early phases of therapeutic development. Thus, small quantities of drugs or advanced nanodevices may be studied long-term under simulated living conditions that mimic the flow and distribution of nutrients. PMID:25553182

  16. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of a labeled peptide bound to a class II major histocompatibility complex molecule.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P C; Altman, J D; Boniface, J J; Sakaguchi, K; Reay, P A; Omichinski, J G; Appella, E; Davis, M M

    1993-07-20

    The formation of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes and their subsequent recognition by T cells is a pivotal event in the initiation of an immune response. While X-ray crystal structures are now available for class I MHC/peptide complexes, little detailed structural information is known about the class II MHC equivalent, and there are no solution structure data for either. A 16 amino acid residue moth cytochrome c peptide (residues 88 to 103) was 13C-labeled for two-dimensional isotope-edited NMR analysis. The peptide was labeled either selectively in the methyl groups of alanine residues or uniformly at every carbon position, and bound to unlabeled soluble mouse I-Ek class II MHC molecules. Although alpha-helical in the native cytochrome c protein and with no uniform structure in solution, the peptide is bound to the I-Ek molecule with the alpha-carbon atoms of the 11 C-terminal residues held in the binding groove. This indicates that the class II MHC peptide binding site is somewhat larger than that of class I MHC molecules (> or = 11 amino acid residues versus 8 to 10 amino acid residues), consistent with recent data on eluted peptides. Despite the large size of the complex (approximately 70 kDa), nuclear Overhauser effects are clearly detectable between peptide side-chains and the MHC molecule. Indications of the buried or exposed nature of particular side-chains within the bound peptide are derived from the NMR data and these are used together with information from previous biological studies to propose a crude model of the interaction of the peptide with the groove of the MHC molecule. We find no evidence for a conformational change in the peptide/MHC complex in the spectra at pH 5.0 versus pH 7.0, despite a 40-fold faster on-rate for the peptide at the lower pH value. PMID:8393933

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  19. Quantification of carbohydrate structures in size fractionated aquatic humic substances by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Haiber, S; Herzog, H; Burba, P; Gosciniak, B; Lambert, J

    2001-03-01

    Two-dimensional phase sensitive C,H correlation spectra were successfully applied to the quantification of carbohydrate substructures in aquatic humic substance (HS) fractions obtained by tangential flow multistage ultrafiltration (TFMSTUF) of a selected bog water HS (HO13, German Research Program DFG-ROSIG) as well as a river HS (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Reference of the International Humic Substances Society, IHSS). It turns out that after size fractionation the HS samples give very well resolved C,H-correlation spectra which offer a great potential for substructure quantification. Details of the combined substructure quantification technique, novel in HS characterization, are presented. The results of the combined procedure point out that carbohydrate moieties predominantly occur in higher molecular mass fractions (> 10 kDa) of isolated HS. PMID:11270229

  20. Atomic resolution protein structure determination by three-dimensional transferred echo double resonance solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Wylie, Benjamin J.; Franks, W. Trent; Shah, Gautam J.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2009-01-01

    We show that quantitative internuclear 15N–13C distances can be obtained in sufficient quantity to determine a complete, high-resolution structure of a moderately sized protein by magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The three-dimensional ZF-TEDOR pulse sequence is employed in combination with sparse labeling of 13C sites in the β1 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G (GB1), as obtained by bacterial expression with 1,3-13C or 2-13C-glycerol as the 13C source. Quantitative dipolar trajectories are extracted from two-dimensional 15N–13C planes, in which ∼750 cross peaks are resolved. The experimental data are fit to exact theoretical trajectories for spin clusters (consisting of one 13C and several 15N each), yielding quantitative precision as good as 0.1 Å for ∼350 sites, better than 0.3 Å for another 150, and ∼1.0 Å for 150 distances in the range of 5–8 Å. Along with isotropic chemical shift-based (TALOS) dihedral angle restraints, the distance restraints are incorporated into simulated annealing calculations to yield a highly precise structure (backbone RMSD of 0.25±0.09 Å), which also demonstrates excellent agreement with the most closely related crystal structure of GB1 (2QMT, bbRMSD 0.79±0.03 Å). Moreover, side chain heavy atoms are well restrained (0.76±0.06 Å total heavy atom RMSD). These results demonstrate for the first time that quantitative internuclear distances can be measured throughout an entire solid protein to yield an atomic-resolution structure. PMID:19739873

  1. Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendl, A.

    2008-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…

  2. Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Gating in Two-Dimensional Lipid Crystalline Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminus of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) has been proposed to contain the mechanistically important gating helices that modulate channel opening and closing. In this study, we utilize magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) to determine the location and structure of the N-terminus for functional channels in lipid bilayers by measuring long-range 13C–13C distances between residues in the N-terminus and other domains of VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers. Our structural studies show that the distance between A14 Cβ in the N-terminal helix and S193 Cβ is ∼4–6 Å. Furthermore, VDAC phosphorylation by a mitochondrial kinase at residue S193 has been claimed to delay mitochondrial cell death by causing a conformational change that closes the channel, and a VDAC-Ser193Glu mutant has been reported to show properties very similar to those of phosphorylated VDAC in a cellular context. We expressed VDAC-S193E and reconstituted it into DMPC lipid bilayers. Two-dimensional 13C–13C correlation experiments showed chemical shift perturbations for residues located in the N-terminus, indicating possible structural perturbations to that region. However, electrophysiological data recorded on VDAC-S193E showed that channel characteristics were identical to those of wild type samples, indicating that phosphorylation of S193 does not directly affect channel gating. The combination of NMR and electrophysiological results allows us to discuss the validity of proposed gating models. PMID:25545271

  3. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of voltage-dependent anion channel gating in two-dimensional lipid crystalline bilayers.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Andreas, Loren; Teijido, Oscar; Su, Yongchao; Clark, Lindsay; Noskov, Sergei Y; Wagner, Gerhard; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Griffin, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    The N-terminus of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) has been proposed to contain the mechanistically important gating helices that modulate channel opening and closing. In this study, we utilize magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) to determine the location and structure of the N-terminus for functional channels in lipid bilayers by measuring long-range (13)C-(13)C distances between residues in the N-terminus and other domains of VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers. Our structural studies show that the distance between A14 Cβ in the N-terminal helix and S193 Cβ is ∼4-6 Å. Furthermore, VDAC phosphorylation by a mitochondrial kinase at residue S193 has been claimed to delay mitochondrial cell death by causing a conformational change that closes the channel, and a VDAC-Ser193Glu mutant has been reported to show properties very similar to those of phosphorylated VDAC in a cellular context. We expressed VDAC-S193E and reconstituted it into DMPC lipid bilayers. Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments showed chemical shift perturbations for residues located in the N-terminus, indicating possible structural perturbations to that region. However, electrophysiological data recorded on VDAC-S193E showed that channel characteristics were identical to those of wild type samples, indicating that phosphorylation of S193 does not directly affect channel gating. The combination of NMR and electrophysiological results allows us to discuss the validity of proposed gating models. PMID:25545271

  4. Three-dimensional structure and interaction studies of hepatitis C virus p7 in 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by solution nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gabriel A; Dawson, Lindsay A; Tian, Ye; Opella, Stanley J

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein p7 plays an important role in the assembly and release of mature virus particles. This small 63-residue membrane protein has been shown to induce channel activity, which may contribute to its functions. p7 is highly conserved throughout the entire range of HCV genotypes, which contributes to making p7 a potential target for antiviral drugs. The secondary structure of p7 from the J4 genotype and the tilt angles of the helices within bilayers have been previously characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of p7 in short chain phospholipid (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) micelles, which provide a reasonably effective membrane-mimicking environment that is compatible with solution NMR experiments. Using a combination of chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, and PREs, we determined the structure of p7 using an implicit membrane potential combining both CS-Rosetta decoys and Xplor-NIH refinement. The final set of structures has a backbone root-mean-square deviation of 2.18 Å. Molecular dynamics simulations in NAMD indicate that several side chain interactions might be taking place and that these could affect the dynamics of the protein. In addition to probing the dynamics of p7, we evaluated several drug-protein and protein-protein interactions. Established channel-blocking compounds such as amantadine, hexamethylene amiloride, and long alkyl chain iminosugar derivatives inhibit the ion channel activity of p7. It has also been shown that the protein interacts with HCV nonstructural protein 2 at the endoplasmic reticulum and that this interaction may be important for the infectivity of the virus. Changes in the chemical shift frequencies of solution NMR spectra identify the residues taking part in these interactions. PMID:23841474

  5. Structure and Dynamics of Brachypodium Primary Cell Wall Polysaccharides from Two-Dimensional 13C Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hong, Mei

    2014-04-10

    The polysaccharide structure and dynamics in the primary cell wall of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon are investigated for the first time using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While both grass and non-grass cell walls contain cellulose as the main structural scaffold, the former contains xylan with arabinose and glucuronic acid substitutions as the main hemicellulose, with a small amount of xyloglucan (XyG) and pectins, while the latter contains XyG as the main hemicellulose and significant amounts of pectins. We labeled the Brachypodium cell wall with 13C to allow two-dimensional (2D) 13C correlation NMR experiments under magic-angle spinning. Well-resolved 2D spectra are obtained in which the 13C signals of cellulose, glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), and other matrix polysaccharides can be assigned. The assigned 13C chemical shifts indicate that there are a large number of arabinose and xylose linkages in the wall, and GAX is significantly branched at the developmental stage of 2 weeks. 2D 13C–13C correlation spectra measured with long spin diffusion mixing times indicate that the branched GAX approaches cellulose microfibrils on the nanometer scale, contrary to the conventional model in which only unbranched GAX can bind cellulose. The GAX chains are highly dynamic, with average order parameters of 0.4. Biexponential 13C T1 and 1H T relaxation indicates that there are two dynamically distinct domains in GAX: the more rigid domain may be responsible for cross-linking cellulose microfibrils, while the more mobile domain may fill the interfibrillar space. This dynamic heterogeneity is more pronounced than that of the non-grass hemicellulose, XyG, suggesting that GAX adopts the mixed characteristics of XyG and pectins. Moderate differences in cellulose rigidity are observed between the Brachypodium and Arabidopsis cell walls

  6. Dimensionality switching in molecule-based magnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, P. A.; Manson, J. L.; Singleton, J.; Franke, I.; Lancaster, T.; Steele, A. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Baines, C.; Pratt, F.; McDonald, R. D.; Valenzuela, O. A.; Sengupta, P.; Corbeyl, J. F.; Southerland, H. I.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Gaining control of the building blocks of magnetic materials and thereby achieving particular characteristics will make possible the design and growth of bespoke magnetic devices. While progress in the synthesis of molecular materials, and especially coordination polymers, represents a significant step towards this goal, the ability to tune the magnetic interactions within a particular framework remains in its infancy. Here we demonstrate a chemical method which achieves dimensionality selection via preferential inhibition of the magnetic exchange in an S=1/2 antiferromagnet along one crystal direction, switching the system from being quasi-two- to quasi-one-dimensional while effectively maintaining the nearest-neighbor coupling strength.

  7. GHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, T.A.; Drobny, G.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-12-01

    For the past dozen years, 500- and 600-MHz spectrometers have become available in many laboratories. The first 600-MHz NMR spectrometer (at Carnegie Mellon University) was commissioned more than 15 years ago and, until 1994, represented the highest field available for high-resolution NMR. This year, we have witnessed unprecedented progress in the development of very high field magnets for NMR spectroscopy, including the delivery of the first commercial 750-MHz NMR spectrometers. In addition, NMR signals have been obtained from 20-Tesla magnets (850 MHz for {sup 1}H`s) at both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Florida State University in the NHMFL (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory). These preliminary experiments have been performed in magnets with 100-ppm homogeneity, but a 20-Tesla magnet developed for the NHMFL will be brought to field this year with a projected homogeneity of 0.1 ppm over a 1-cm-diam spherical volume.

  8. Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.

  9. Multi-dimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here we propose the multi-dimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel RF coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. PMID:22926830

  10. Theory of nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, J.

    1983-01-01

    A theory of nuclear magnetic interaction is based on the study of the stochastic rotation operator. The theory is applied explicitly to relaxation by anisotropic chemical shift and to spin-rotational interactions. It is applicable also to dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions.

  11. Effects of time and temperature of firing on Fe-rich ceramics studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and two-dimensional {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry

    SciTech Connect

    Casieri, Cinzia; De Luca, Francesco; Nodari, Luca; Russo, Umberto; Terenzi, Camilla; Tudisca, Valentina

    2012-10-15

    The combined effects of firing temperature and soaking time on the microstructure of iron-rich porous ceramics have been studied by {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and 2D {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry using a single-sided probe. Examining water-saturated ceramics using the relaxation correlation method, where longitudinal (T{sub 1}) and transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation times are measured concurrently, provides information about firing-induced changes in both porosity (related to T{sub 1}) and magnetic properties (related to T{sub 2}). Comparing the information obtained from {sup 1}H-NMR analyses with that obtained from Moessbauer spectroscopy (which characterizes changes in iron-bearing species) shows that the T{sub 1}-T{sub 2} NMR correlation technique is very sensitive to even subtle modifications in the magnetic behavior of Fe-bearing species. Moreover, the single-sided NMR approach allows us to perform millimeter-scale depth-resolved measurements, which can be used to non-invasively study the microstructural heterogeneities associated with non-uniform firing effects inside ceramics. This is in contrast to Moessbauer spectroscopy, which requires that the ceramic samples be ground.

  12. Three-dimensional structure of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor in solution. A study using nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry, and restrained molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Clore, G.M.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Nilges, M.; Ryan, C.A.

    1987-12-01

    The solution conformation of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI) has been investigated by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy. The spectrum is assigned in a sequential manner by using two-dimensional NMR techniques to identify through-bond and through-space (<5 A) connectivities. A set of 309 approximate interproton distance restraints is derived from the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra and used as the basis of a three-dimensional structure determination by a combination of metric matrix distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. A total of 11 converged distance geometry structures were computed and refined by using restrained molecular dynamics. The average atomic root mean square (rms) difference between the final 11 structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 1.4 +/- 0.3 A for residues 2-39 and 0.9 +/- 0.2 A for residues 5-37. The corresponding values for all atoms are 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.2 A, respectively. The computed structures are very close to the X-ray structure of CPI in its complex with carboxypeptidase, and the backbone atomic rms difference between the mean of the computed structures and the X-ray structure is only 1.2 A. Nevertheless, there are some real differences present which are evidenced by significant deviations between the experimental upper interproton distance limits and the corresponding interproton distances derived from the X-ray structure. These principally occur in two regions, residues 18-20 and residues 28-30, the latter comprising part of the region of secondary contact between CPI and carboxypeptidase in the X-ray structure.

  13. Magnetization study of two dimensional helium three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei

    This dissertation discusses a magnetization study of a two dimensional Fermi system. Our group developed a SQUID NMR system to study the magnetization of two dimensional 3He on both GTA grafoil and ZYX Graphite substrates. Benefiting from SQUID technology, our NMR experiments were performed at very low applied magnetic field thus avoid the masking of ordering by strong external field. Monolayer 3He films adsorbed on crystalline graphite are considered a nearly ideal example of a two dimensional system of highly correlated fermions. By controlling the 3He areal density, adsorbed films exhibit a wide range of structures with different temperature- dependent magnetic properties and heat capacities. Our recent experiments on two dimensional 3He adsorbed on ZYX graphite focused on the anti-ferromagnetic 4/7 phase and the ferromagnetic incommensurate solid state of a second 3He monolayer. Ferromagnetic order was observed in two dimensional 3He films on both Grafoil and highly oriented ZYX grade exfoliated graphite. The dipolar field plays an important role in magnetic ordering in two dimensional spin systems. The dipole-dipole interaction leads to a frequency shift of the NMR absorption line. The resulting 3He NMR lineshape on Grafoil was a broad peak shifted towards lower frequency with a background from the randomly oriented regions extending to positive frequencies. Compared to Grafoil, ZYX graphite has a much greater structural coherence and is more highly oriented. When studying magnetism of 3He films on ZYX substrate we found that the features we observed in our original Grafoil experiment were much more pronounced on ZYX graphite. In addition, we observed some multi-peak structure on the 3He NMR lineshape, which suggest a series of spin wave resonances. We also studied the magnetic properties of the second layer of 3He films on ZYX substrate at density around 4/7 phase. To eliminate the paramagnetic signal of the first layer solid, we pre-plated a 4He layer on the

  14. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  15. Nuclear matter magnetization in the Skyrme model

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, R.

    2011-05-15

    The effects of an external magnetic field on the nuclear medium are studied within the Skyrme model of the nuclear interaction. The equation of state, spin polarization, and magnetization are evaluated at zero temperature for both neutron matter and isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We consider the anomalous magnetic moments of the nucleons and the quantization induced by a magnetic field over the proton energy spectrum. A comparison of two versions of the model, allowing or not for spontaneous magnetization, is performed. We cover a range of magnetic-field strengths and matter densities appropriate for astrophysical studies.

  16. Dimensional analysis of aqueous magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Răcuciu, M.; Creangă, D. E.; Suliţanu, N.; Bădescu, V.

    2007-11-01

    A comparison of the synthesis and characterization of three aqueous magnetic fluids intended for biomedical applications is presented. Stable colloidal suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a co-precipitation method with the magnetite cores being coated with β-cyclodextrin, tetramethylammonium hydroxide and citric acid. Rheological properties of the fluids were investigated, i.e. viscosity (capillary method) and surface tension (stalagmometric method) in correlation with their density (picnometric method). The dimensional distributions of the ferrophase particles physical diameter of these three magnetic fluids - revealed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data - as well as the diameter distributions of some other magnetic fluids presented in the literature, were comparatively analyzed using the box-plot statistical method. In order to extract complementary data on the magnetic diameter of an iron oxide core, magnetization measurements as well as X-ray diffraction pattern analysis were carried out. Interpretation of all the measurement data was accomplished by assessing the suitability of the three magnetic fluid samples from the viewpoint of their stability and biocompatibility.

  17. Application of Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Signal Enhancement by Spectral Integration Using a Large Data Set of Metabolic Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takuma; Wei, Feifei; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has tremendous advantages of minimal sample preparation and interconvertibility of data among different institutions; thus, large data sets are frequently acquired in metabolomics studies. Previously, we used a novel analytical strategy, named signal enhancement by spectral integration (SENSI), to overcome the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) problem in (13)C NMR by integration of hundreds of spectra without additional measurements. In this letter, the development of a SENSI 2D method and application to >1000 2D JRES NMR spectra are described. Remarkably, the obtained SENSI 2D spectrum had an approximate 14-fold increase in the S/N ratio and 80-250 additional peaks without any additional measurements. These results suggest that SENSI 2D is a useful method for assigning weak signals and that the use of coefficient of variation values can support the assignment information and extraction of features from the population characteristics among large data sets. PMID:27257670

  18. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  19. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad; Kenouche, Samir; Coillot, Christophe; Alibert, Eric; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Schimpf, Remy; Zanca, Michel; Stein, Paul; Goze-Bac, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to characterize and model evanescent electromagnetic fields originating from NMR phenomenon. We report that in this experimental configuration the available NMR signal is one order of magnitude larger and follows an exponential decay inversely proportional to the size of the emitters. Those investigations open a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:26751800

  20. Low Dimensionality Effects in Complex Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Paula J. Lampen

    Complex magnetic oxides represent a unique intersection of immense technological importance and fascinating physical phenomena originating from interwoven structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. The resulting energetically close competing orders can be controllably selected through external fields. Competing interactions and disorder represent an additional opportunity to systematically manipulate the properties of pure magnetic systems, leading to frustration, glassiness, and other novel phenomena while finite sample dimension plays a similar role in systems with long-range cooperative effects or large correlation lengths. A rigorous understanding of these effects in strongly correlated oxides is key to manipulating their functionality and device performance, but remains a challenging task. In this dissertation, we examine a number of problems related to intrinsic and extrinsic low dimensionality, disorder, and competing interactions in magnetic oxides by applying a unique combination of standard magnetometry techniques and unconventional magnetocaloric effect and transverse susceptibility measurements. The influence of dimensionality and disorder on the nature and critical properties of phase transitions in manganites is illustrated in La0.7 Ca0.3MnO3, in which both size reduction to the nanoscale and chemically-controlled quenched disorder are observed to induce a progressive weakening of the first-order nature of the transition, despite acting through the distinct mechanisms of surface effects and site dilution. In the second-order material La0.8Ca0.2MnO3, a strong magnetic field is found to drive the system toward its tricritical point as competition between exchange interactions in the inhomogeneous ground state is suppressed. In the presence of large phase separation stabilized by chemical disorder and long-range strain, dimensionality has a profound effect. With the systematic reduction of particle size in microscale-phase-separated (La, Pr

  1. Combining Two-Dimensional Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Imaging Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, and Direct Analysis in Real-Time Mass Spectrometry for the Integral Investigation of Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Nyadong, Leonard; Harris, Glenn A.; Balayssac, Stéphane; Galhena, Asiri S.; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Martino, Robert; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May Dongmei; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gilard, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a marked increase in the number of reported cases involving counterfeit medicines in developing and developed countries. Particularly, artesunate-based antimalarial drugs have been targeted, because of their high demand and cost. Counterfeit antimalarials can cause death and can contribute to the growing problem of drug resistance, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the complementarity of two-dimensional diffusion-ordered 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D DOSY 1H NMR) with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) was assessed for pharmaceutical forensic purposes. Fourteen different artesunate tablets, representative of what can be purchased from informal sources in southeast Asia, were investigated with these techniques. The expected active pharmaceutical ingredient was detected in only five formulations via both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) methods. Common organic excipients such as sucrose, lactose, stearate, dextrin, and starch were also detected. The graphical representation of DOSY 1H NMR results proved very useful for establishing similarities among groups of samples, enabling counterfeit drug “chemotyping”. In addition to bulk- and surface-average analyses, spatially resolved information on the surface composition of counterfeit and genuine antimalarial formulations was obtained using DESI MS that was performed in the imaging mode, which enabled one to visualize the homogeneity of both genuine and counterfeit drug samples. Overall, this study suggests that 2D DOSY 1H NMR, combined with ambient MS, comprises a powerful suite of instrumental analysis methodologies for the integral characterization of counterfeit antimalarials. PMID:19453162

  2. Synchronously pumped nuclear magnetic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Bulatowicz, Michael; Walker, Thad

    2015-05-01

    We present progress towards a synchronously pumped nuclear magnetic oscillator. Alkali frequency shifts and quadrupole shifts are the dominant systematic effects in dual Xe isotope co-magnetometers. By synchronously pumping the Xe nuclei using spin-exchange with an oscillating Rb polarization, the Rb and Xe spins precess transverse to the longitudinal bias field. This configuration is predicted to be insensitive to first order quadrupole interactions and alkali spin-exchange frequency shifts. A key feature that allows co-precession of the Rb and Xe spins, despite a ~ 1000 fold ratio of their gyromagnetic ratios, is to apply the bias field in the form of a sequence of Rb 2 π pulses whose repetition frequency is equal to the Rb Larmor frequency. The 2 π pulses result in an effective Rb magnetic moment of zero, while the Xe precession depends only on the time average of the pulsed field amplitude. Polarization modulation of the pumping light at the Xe NMR frequency allows co-precession of the Rb and Xe spins. We will present our preliminary experimental studies of this new approach to NMR of spin-exchange pumped Xe. Support by the NSF and Northrop Grumman Co.

  3. Determination of the three-dimensional solution structure of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata: A study using nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, P.C.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Beress, L.; Clore, G.M. )

    1989-03-07

    The three-dimensional solution structure of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata has been determined on the basis of 489 interproton and 24 hydrogen-bonding distance restraints supplemented by 23 {phi} backbone and 21 {sub {chi}1} side-chain torsion angle restraints derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. A total of 42 structures is calculated by a hybrid metric matrix distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing approach. Both the backbone and side-chain atom positions are well defined. The average atomic rms difference between the 42 individual SA structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.67 {plus minus} 0.12 {angstrom} for the backbone atoms and 0.90 {plus minus} 0.17 {angstrom} for all atoms. The core of the protein is formed by a triple-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet composed of residues 14-16 (strand 1), 30-34 (strand 2), and 37-41 (strand 3) with an additional mini-antiparallel {beta}-sheet at the N-terminus (residues 6-9). The first and second strands of the triple-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet are connected by a long exposed loop. A number of side-chain interactions are discussed in light of the structure.

  4. Quantification of multiple compounds containing heterogeneous elements in the mixture by one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of different nuclei using a single universal concentration reference.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Shi, Xiaohuo; Hu, Kaifeng

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional (1D) quantitative NMR (qNMR) is a useful tool for concentration determination due to its experimental simplicity and the direct proportionality of the integrated signal area to the number of nuclei spin. For complex mixtures, however, signal overlapping often in one-dimensional quantitative (1) H NMR (1D (1) H qNMR) spectrum limits the accurate quantification of individual compound. Here, we introduced employing joint 1D qNMR methods of different nuclei, such as (1) H and (31) P (or/and (19) F), to quantify multiple compounds in a complex mixture using a single universal concentration reference. When the concentration ratio of several compounds containing different elements in a complex mixture is of interest, the result calculated from measured intensities from 1D qNMR of different nuclei is independent of the gravimetric error from the reference. In this case, the common reference also serves as a 'quantitative bridge' among these 1D qNMR of different nuclei. Quantitative analysis of choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine mixture is given as an example using trimethylphosphine oxide ((CH(3))(3) P(O)) as concentration reference. Compounds containing multiple elements, such as tetramethylammonium hexafluorophosphate (N(+) (CH(3))(4 PF6 (-) are proposed as the common concentration reference for (1) H, (13) C, (15) N, (31) P, and (19) F qNMR for the quantitative analysis of complex mixture containing these different elements. We anticipate that the proposed joint 1D qNMR approach using a universal concentration reference will be a valuable alternative for simultaneous quantification of multiple compounds in a complex mixture due to its accuracy and single and simple sample preparation. PMID:25298349

  5. Photographic observation of magnetic domain structure with three-dimensional local magnetization direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Sakae; Akahane, Koichi; Saito, Shin

    2016-07-01

    The direction of magnetization of a magnetic material is possibly oriented three-dimensionally because of the presence of magnetic anisotropy field, self-demagnetizing field, and stray field. Therefore, the three-dimensional detection of the direction of magnetization is required. The method of magnetic domain observation by photographic imaging utilizing the Kerr effect is widely used. If the perpendicular magnetization components exist, there is a problem that obliquely incident light has superimposed longitudinal Kerr and polar Kerr effects. To perform the three-dimensional detection of magnetization direction, it is necessary to eliminate the influence of the polar Kerr effect from the Kerr effect of obliquely incident light. We report the photographic observation of the magnetic domain structure and the detection of the three-dimensional local magnetization direction using the Kerr effect, applying only an in-plane saturation magnetic field.

  6. Comparison of three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a blood pool contrast agent and nuclear scintigraphy for the detection of experimentally induced gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Hilfiker, P; Weishaupt, D; Kacl, G; Hetzer, F; Griff, M; Ruehm, S; Debatin, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—To compare the performance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent with that of scintigraphy, with respect to detection and localisation of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in vivo in pigs.
METHODS—Intraluminal bleeding sites were surgically created in the small bowel and colon of six pigs. The animals underwent scintigraphy with 99mTc labelled red blood cells and 3D MRI following administration of an intravascular contrast agent (NC100150) at five minute intervals over 30 minutes. For analysis, the intestinal tract was divided into six segments. Based on the two evaluated methods, each segment was characterised on a five point scale regarding the presence of a bleed. At autopsy, the surgically manipulated bowel segments were inspected for the presence of haemorrhage.
RESULTS—Bleeding was confirmed at autopsy in 18/36 segments. Contrast extravasation with subsequent movement through the bowel could be documented on MRI data sets. All segments were correctly characterised, resulting in 100% sensitivity and specificity for MRI. Based on scintigraphy, interpretation of seven segments (19%) was false (sensitivity/specificity of 78%/72%). Differences in diagnostic performance were evident in the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, with an area under the MRI curve of 0.99 and under the scintigraphy curve of 0.85.
CONCLUSION—In conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent, 3D MRI permits accurate detection and localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding. The extent and evolution of intestinal bleeding can be determined with repeated data acquisition.


Keywords: gastrointestinal tract; haemorrhage; scintigraphy; magnetic resonance; contrast agent PMID:10486369

  7. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetic colloids under shear.

    PubMed

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Dobnikar, Jure; Horbach, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Complex rheological properties of soft disordered solids, such as colloidal gels or glasses, inspire a range of novel applications. However, the microscopic mechanisms of their response to mechanical loading are not well understood. Here, we elucidate some aspects of these mechanisms by studying a versatile model system, i.e. two-dimensional superparamagnetic colloids in a precessing magnetic field, whose structure can be tuned from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered gel network by varying the external field opening angle θ. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations subjecting these structures to a constant shear rate and observe three qualitatively different types of material response. In hexagonal crystals (θ = 0°), at a sufficiently low shear rate, plastic flow occurs via successive stress drops at which the stress releases due to the formation of dislocation defects. The gel network at θ = 48°, on the contrary, via bond rearrangement and transient shear banding evolves into a homogeneously stretched network at large strains. The latter structure remains metastable after switching off of the shear. At θ = 50°, the external shear makes the system unstable against phase separation and causes a failure of the network structure leading to the formation of hexagonal close packed clusters interconnected by particle chains. At a microcopic level, our simulations provide insight into some of the mechanisms by which strain localization as well as material failure occur in a simple gel-like network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new stretched network structures can be generated by the application of shear. PMID:26877059

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging provides anatomical definition of normal and abnormal tissues with a contrast and detection sensitivity superior to those of x-ray computed tomography in the human head and pelvis and parts of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Recent improvements in technology should lead to advances in diagnostic imaging of the breast and regions of the abdomen. Selected-region nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of protons, carbon-13, and phosphorus-31 has developed into a basic science tool for in vivo studies on man and a unique tool for clinical diagnoses of metabolic disorders. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance is considered safe if access to the magnet environment is controlled. Technological advances employing field strengths over 2 teslas will require biophysical studies of heating and static field effects.

  10. Three-Dimensional Magnetic-Bubble Memory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed magnetic-bubble memory system includes stack of two-dimensional memory modules. Design enables overall storage density of system to be greater than prior magnetic-bubble memories. Provides nonvolatile storage, with readout access times in millisecond range. Has partly parallel input/output configuration supporting high-performance computing. Also relatively invulnerable to damage by ionizing radiation. Binary data, as represented by direction of magnetization of magnetic bubbles, reads out via Faraday effect.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  13. Three-dimensional magnetic recording using ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kanao, Taro; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2016-07-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for data storage, future magnetic recording devices will need to be made three-dimensional by implementing multilayer recording. In this article, we present methods of detecting and manipulating the magnetization direction of a specific layer selectively in a vertically stacked multilayer magnetic system, which enable layer-selective read and write operations in three-dimensional magnetic recording devices. The principle behind the methods is ferromagnetic resonance excitation in a microwave magnetic field. By designing each magnetic recording layer to have a different ferromagnetic resonance frequency, magnetization excitation can be induced individually in each layer by tuning the frequency of an applied microwave magnetic field, and this selective magnetization excitation can be utilized for the layer-selective operations. Regarding media for three-dimensional recording, when layers of a perpendicular magnetic material are vertically stacked, dipolar interaction between multiple recording layers arises and is expected to cause problems, such as degradation of thermal stability and switching field distribution. To solve these problems, we propose the use of an antiferromagnetically coupled structure consisting of hard and soft magnetic layers. Because the stray fields from these two layers cancel each other, antiferromagnetically coupled media can reduce the dipolar interaction.

  14. Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Glauco R.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Raphael, Robert M.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Stark, Daniel J.; Levin, Carly S.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Killian, T. C.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2010-04-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool in drug discovery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional cell growth with gene expression, signalling and morphology that can be different from those found in vivo, and this compromises its clinical relevance. Here, we report a three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic levitation of cells in the presence of a hydrogel consisting of gold, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and filamentous bacteriophage. By spatially controlling the magnetic field, the geometry of the cell mass can be manipulated, and multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture can be achieved. Magnetically levitated human glioblastoma cells showed similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumour xenografts. Taken together, these results indicate that levitated three-dimensional culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and may be more feasible for long-term multicellular studies.

  15. Two Dimensional Inhomogeneous Magnetic Electron Drift Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Dastgeer; Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-11-10

    We present simulations of the magnetic electron drift vortex (MEDV) mode turbulence in a magnetoplasma in the presence of inhomogeneities in the plasma temperature and density, as well as in the external magnetic field. The study shows that the influence of the magnetic field in-homogeneity is to suppress streamer-like structures observed in previous simulation studies without background magnetic fields. The MEDV mode turbulence exhibits non-universal (non-Kolmogorov type) spectra for different sets of the plasma parameters. In the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the spectrum changes to a 7/3 power law, which is flatter than without magnetic field gradients. The relevance of this work to laboratory and cosmic plasmas is briefly mentioned.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance in Kondo lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curro, Nicholas J.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has emerged as a vital tool to explore the fundamental physics of Kondo lattice systems. Because nuclear spins experience two different hyperfine couplings to the itinerant conduction electrons and to the local f moments, the Knight shift can probe multiple types of spin correlations that are not accessible via other techniques. The Knight shift provides direct information about the onset of heavy electron coherence and the emergence of the heavy electron fluid.

  17. Confinement and Diffusion Effects in Dynamical Nuclear Polarization in Low Dimensional Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Dan; Tifrea, Ionel

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dynamic nuclear polarization as it results from the hyperfine coupling between nonequilibrium electronic spins and nuclear spins in semiconductor nanostructures. The natural confinement provided by low dimensional nanostructures is responsible for an efficient nuclear spin - electron spin hyperfine coupling [1] and for a reduced value of the nuclear spin diffusion constant [2]. In the case of optical pumping, the induced nuclear spin polarization is position dependent even in the presence of nuclear spin diffusion. This effect should be measurable via optically induced nuclear magnetic resonance or time-resolved Faraday rotation experiments. We discuss the implications of our calculations for the case of GaAs quantum well structures.[4pt] [1] I. Tifrea and M. E. Flatt'e, Phys. Rev. B 84, 155319 (2011).[0pt] [2] A. Malinowski and R. T. Harley, Solid State Commun. 114, 419 (2000).

  18. A generalized flux function for three-dimensional magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

    2011-10-15

    The definition and measurement of magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic fields with multiple reconnection sites is a challenging problem, particularly in fields lacking null points. We propose a generalization of the familiar two-dimensional concept of a magnetic flux function to the case of a three-dimensional field connecting two planar boundaries. In this initial analysis, we require the normal magnetic field to have the same distribution on both boundaries. Using hyperbolic fixed points of the field line mapping, and their global stable and unstable manifolds, we define a unique flux partition of the magnetic field. This partition is more complicated than the corresponding (well-known) construction in a two-dimensional field, owing to the possibility of heteroclinic points and chaotic magnetic regions. Nevertheless, we show how the partition reconnection rate is readily measured with the generalized flux function. We relate our partition reconnection rate to the common definition of three-dimensional reconnection in terms of integrated parallel electric field. An analytical example demonstrates the theory and shows how the flux partition responds to an isolated reconnection event.

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  20. Three Dimensional Probability Distributions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Empirical probability density functions (PDFs) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been derived from spacecraft data since the early years of the space age. A survey of the literature shows that past studies have investigated the separate Cartesian components of the magnetic field, the vector magnitude, and the direction of the IMF by means of one-dimensional or two-dimensional PDFs. But, to my knowledge, there exist no studies which investigate the three dimensional nature of the IMF by means of three dimensional PDFs, either in (Bx,By,Bz)(B_x,B_y,B_z)-coordinates or (BR,BT,BN)(B_R,B_T,B_N)-coordinates or some other appropriate system of coordinates. Likewise, there exist no studies which investigate three dimensional PDFs of magnetic field fluctuations, that is, vector differences bmB(t+τ)-bmB(t)bm{B}(t+tau)-bm{B}(t). In this talk, I shall present examples of three dimensional PDFs obtained from spacecraft data that demonstrate the solar wind magnetic field possesses a very interesting spatial structure that, to my knowledge, has not previously been identified. Perhaps because of the well known model of Barnes (1981) in which the magnitude of the IMF remains constant, it may be commonly believed that there is nothing new to learn from a full three dimensional PDF. To the contrary, there is much to learn from the investigation of three dimensional PDFs of the solar wind plasma velocity and the magnetic field, as well as three dimensional PDFs of their fluctuations. Knowledge of these PDFs will not only improve understanding of solar wind physics, it is an essential prerequisite for the construction of realistic models of the stochastic time series measured by a single spacecraft, one of the longstanding goals of space physics research. In addition, three dimensional PDFs contain valuable information about the anisotropy of solar wind fluctuations in three dimensional physical space, information that may help identify the reason why the three

  1. Phosphonate Based High Nuclearity Magnetic Cages.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal based high nuclearity molecular magnetic cages are a very important class of compounds owing to their potential applications in fabricating new generation molecular magnets such as single molecular magnets, magnetic refrigerants, etc. Most of the reported polynuclear cages contain carboxylates or alkoxides as ligands. However, the binding ability of phosphonates with transition metal ions is stronger than the carboxylates or alkoxides. The presence of three oxygen donor sites enables phosphonates to bridge up to nine metal centers simultaneously. But very few phosphonate based transition metal cages were reported in the literature until recently, mainly because of synthetic difficulties, propensity to result in layered compounds, and also their poor crystalline properties. Accordingly, various synthetic strategies have been followed by several groups in order to overcome such synthetic difficulties. These strategies mainly include use of small preformed metal precursors, proper choice of coligands along with the phosphonate ligands, and use of sterically hindered bulky phosphonate ligands. Currently, the phosphonate system offers a library of high nuclearity transition metal and mixed metal (3d-4f) cages with aesthetically pleasing structures and interesting magnetic properties. This Account is in the form of a research landscape on our efforts to synthesize and characterize new types of phosphonate based high nuclearity paramagnetic transition metal cages. We quite often experienced synthetic difficulties with such versatile systems in assembling high nuclearity metal cages. Few methods have been emphasized for the self-assembly of phosphonate systems with suitable transition metal ions in achieving high nuclearity. We highlighted our journey from 2005 until today for phosphonate based high nuclearity transition metal cages with V(IV/V), Mn(II/III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) metal ions and their magnetic properties. We observed that

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance in magnets with a helicoidal magnetic structure in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeyev, A. P.; Borich, M. A.; Smagin, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    In this review, the static and dynamic properties of a magnet with a helicoidal magnetic structure placed in an external magnetic field are discussed. The results of the investigation of its ground state and spectra, as well as the amplitudes of the spin excitations are presented. The temperature and field dependences of the basic thermodynamic characteristics (heat capacity, magnetization, and magnetic susceptibility) have been calculated in the spin-wave approximation. The results of calculating the local and integral dynamic magnetic susceptibility are given. This set of data represents a methodical basis for constructing a consistent (in the framework of unified approximations) picture of the NMR absorption in the magnet under consideration. Both local NMR characteristics (resonance frequency, line broadening, enhancement coefficient) and integral characteristics (resultant shape of the absorption line with its specific features) have been calculated. The effective Hamiltonian of the Suhl-Nakamura interaction of nuclear spins through spin waves has been constructed. The second moment and the local broadening of the line of the NMR absorption caused by this interaction have been calculated. The role of the basic local inhomogeneities in the formation of the integral line of the NMR absorption has been analyzed. The opportunities for the experimental NMR investigations in magnets with a chiral spin structure are discussed.

  3. Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Blazevski, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by numerically solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The main two problems addressed are: the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ε), and the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. The role of separatrix reconnection of resonant modes in the shear reversal region, and the role of shearless Cantori in the observed phenomena are also discussed.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  5. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  6. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  7. MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSIFICATION BY THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL 'EXPLOSION' PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Hotta, H.; Yokoyama, T.; Rempel, M.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate an intensification mechanism for the magnetic field near the base of the solar convection zone that does not rely on differential rotation. Such mechanism in addition to differential rotation has been suggested by studies of flux emergence, which typically require field strength in excess of those provided by differential rotation alone. We study here a process in which potential energy of the superadiabatically stratified convection zone is converted into magnetic energy. This mechanism, known as the 'explosion of magnetic flux tubes', has been previously studied in thin flux tube approximation as well as two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations; here we expand the investigation to three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our main result is that enough intensification can be achieved in a three-dimensional magnetic flux sheet as long as the spatial scale of the imposed perturbation normal to the magnetic field is sufficiently large. When this spatial scale is small, the flux sheet tends to rise toward the surface, resulting in a significant decrease of the magnetic field amplification.

  8. An introduction to biomedical nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.B.; Muller, R.N.; Rinck, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Separated into three sections, this book gives an overview on the principles of nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and the imaging procedures based upon this technique, an insight into the parameters which have influence on the NMR image, e.g. relaxation times, flow and contrast, and finally an account of medical applications in the brain, the spine, the cardiovascular system, the abdomen, and in tumor imaging.

  9. The Diversity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Corey W.; Alekseyev, Viktor Y.; Allwardt, Jeffrey R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Davis, Ronald W.; Du, Lin-Shu; Garcia, K. Christopher; Herschlag, Daniel; Khosla, Chaitan; Kraut, Daniel A.; Li, Qing; Null, Brian; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Sigala, Paul A.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Varani, Luca

    The discovery of the physical phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 1946 gave rise to the spectroscopic technique that has become a remarkably versatile research tool. One could oversimplify NMR spectros-copy by categorizing it into the two broad applications of structure elucidation of molecules (associated with chemistry and biology) and imaging (associated with medicine). But, this certainly does not do NMR spectroscopy justice in demonstrating its general acceptance and utilization across the sciences. This manuscript is not an effort to present an exhaustive, or even partial review of NMR spectroscopy applications, but rather to provide a glimpse at the wide-ranging uses of NMR spectroscopy found within the confines of a single magnetic resonance research facility, the Stanford Magnetic Resonance Laboratory. Included here are summaries of projects involving protein structure determination, mapping of intermolecular interactions, exploring fundamental biological mechanisms, following compound cycling in the environmental, analysis of synthetic solid compounds, and microimaging of a model organism.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  11. Stray-field nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Leoncio; Sampayo, José

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic levitation has been proposed as an alternative approach to simulate on Earth microgravity conditions encountered in space, allowing the investigation of weightlessness on materials and biological systems. In general, very strong magnetic fields, 15T or higher, are required to achieve levitation for a majority of diamagnetic substances. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve levitation of these substances in a commercial superconductive magnet operating with a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer at 9.4T at ambient conditions. Furthermore, stray-field proton NMR imaging is performed in situ at the location where a sample is levitating, showing that it is feasible to obtain the corresponding one-dimensional profile. Considering that water is a diamagnetic substance and the main constituent of living systems, the outlined approach could be useful to investigate alterations in water proton NMR properties induced by low gravity and magnetic forces upon levitating, e.g., seeds, cells, etc. In addition to protons, it would also be possible to observe other nuclei (e.g., F19, P31, etc.) that may be of interest in metabolic and therapeutic investigations.

  12. DIMENSIONALLY STABLE, CORROSION RESISTANT NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Kittel, J.H.

    1963-10-31

    A method of making a uranium alloy of improved corrosion resistance and dimensional stability is described. The alloy contains from 0-9 weight per cent of an additive of zirconium and niobium in the proportions by weight of 5 to 1 1/ 2. The alloy is cold rolled, heated to two different temperatures, air-cooled, heated to a third temperature, and quenched in water. (AEC)

  13. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  14. Fractional impurity moments in two-dimensional noncollinear magnets.

    PubMed

    Wollny, Alexander; Fritz, Lars; Vojta, Matthias

    2011-09-23

    We study dilute magnetic impurities and vacancies in two-dimensional frustrated magnets with noncollinear order. Taking the triangular-lattice Heisenberg model as an example, we use quasiclassical methods to determine the impurity contributions to the magnetization and susceptibility. Most importantly, each impurity moment is not quantized but receives nonuniversal screening corrections due to local relief of frustration. At finite temperatures, where bulk long-range order is absent, this implies an impurity-induced magnetic response of Curie form, with a prefactor corresponding to a fractional moment per impurity. We also discuss the behavior in an applied magnetic field, where we find a singular linear-response limit for overcompensated impurities. PMID:22026900

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of tubular permanent magnet machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J.; Wang, J.; Howe, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents results from a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a tubular permanent magnet machine, and quantifies the influence of the laminated modules from which the stator core is assembled on the flux linkage and thrust force capability as well as on the self- and mutual inductances. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model accounts for the nonlinear, anisotropic magnetization characteristic of the laminated stator structure, and for the voids which exist between the laminated modules. Predicted results are compared with those deduced from an axisymmetric FE model. It is shown that the emf and thrust force deduced from the three-dimensional model are significantly lower than those which are predicted from an axisymmetric field analysis, primarily as a consequence of the teeth and yoke being more highly saturated due to the presence of the voids in the laminated stator core.

  16. Evidence of low-dimensional chaos in magnetized plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Živković, T.; Rypdal, K.

    2008-10-01

    We analyze probe data obtained from a toroidal magnetized plasma configuration suitable for studies of low-frequency gradient-driven instabilities. These instabilities give rise to field-aligned convection rolls analogous to Rayleigh-Benard cells in neutral fluids, and may theoretically develop similar routes to chaos. When using mean-field dimension analysis, we observe low dimensionality, but this could originate from either low-dimensional chaos, periodicity or quasi-periodicity. Therefore, we apply recurrence plot analysis as well as estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. These analyses provide evidence of low-dimensional chaos, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Our results can be applied to other magnetized plasma configurations, where gradient-driven instabilities dominate the dynamics of the system.

  17. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm<0 ), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time τ with a power law ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.

  18. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  19. Dimensional analysis, spin freezing and magnetization in spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell, Steven T.

    2011-03-01

    Dimensional analysis is shown to give an insight into the non-ergodic behaviour of spin ice below its apparent 'spin freezing' temperature. Expressions are derived for the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility that are found to be highly consistent with the previously reported field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization of the spin ice dysprosium titanate, Dy2Ti2O7, as well as with the theory of a 'magnetolyte', including Debye-Hückel screening and Wien dissociation. The spin freezing is inferred to reflect the inability of the quasi-free magnetic charges or 'monopoles' that comprise the magnetolyte to fully screen an applied magnetic field on the timescale of an experiment. The apparent freezing temperature (Tf≈0.65 K) is identified as the point where the Debye screening length becomes greater than the Bjerrum association distance for charge pairs. Combining these dimensional arguments with Onsager's theory of the Wien effect, it is shown that magnetization data at relatively high field (Snyder et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 064414) may be used to estimate the elementary magnetic charge of spin ice, as well as the temperature-dependent monopole density. Evidence is presented of a non-equilibrium population of monopoles below T≈0.2 K. It is also shown how Onsager's microscopic theory of field-induced monopole pair separation naturally suggests the 'magnetization jumps' in Dy2Ti2O7 observed at applied fields of the order of ~ 0.1 T. It is concluded that the results of dimensional analysis, when combined with Onsager's theory, provide an accurate, albeit approximate, description of the properties of Dy2Ti2O7, that could be improved by the development of a lattice theory of the Wien effect, or tested on other spin ice materials.

  20. NONLINEAR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOCONVECTION AROUND MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Botha, G. J. J.; Rucklidge, A. M.; Hurlburt, N. E. E-mail: A.M.Rucklidge@leeds.ac.uk

    2011-04-20

    Magnetic flux in the solar photosphere forms concentrations from small scales, such as flux elements, to large scales, such as sunspots. This paper presents a study of the decay process of large magnetic flux tubes, such as sunspots, on a supergranular scale. Three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations are performed in a cylindrical domain, initialized with axisymmetric solutions that consist of a well-defined central flux tube and an annular convection cell surrounding it. As the nonlinear convection evolves, the annular cell breaks up into many cells in the azimuthal direction, allowing magnetic flux to slip between cells away from the central flux tube (turbulent erosion). This lowers magnetic pressure in the central tube, and convection grows inside the tube, possibly becoming strong enough to push the tube apart. A remnant of the central flux tube persists with nonsymmetric perturbations caused by the convection surrounding it. Secondary flux concentrations form between convection cells away from the central tube. Tube decay is dependent on the convection around the tube. Convection cells forming inside the tube as time-dependent outflows will remove magnetic flux. (This is most pronounced for small tubes.) Flux is added to the tube when flux caught in the surrounding convection is pushed toward it. The tube persists when convection inside the tube is sufficiently suppressed by the remaining magnetic field. All examples of persistent tubes have the same effective magnetic field strength, consistent with the observation that pores and sunspot umbrae all have roughly the same magnetic field strength.

  1. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  2. Exchange interactions of magnetic surfaces below two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Rico; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this theoretical investigation we demonstrate that the adsorption of spatially extended two-dimensional (2D) π systems such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on the ferromagnetic fcc Co(111) surface leads to a specific behavior of the in-plane and interlayer Co-Co magnetic exchange interactions. More specifically, for both systems the magnetic exchange coupling within the first Co layer is enhanced, while the one between the first and the second Co layer is not modified, in contrast to the magnetic interlayer softening induced by organic molecules. Importantly, the in-plane magnetic hardening effect is mainly due to the hybridization between the pz states of the 2D π system and the d states of the Co surface.

  3. Insight into protein nuclear magnetic resonance research.

    PubMed

    Stoven, V; Lallemand, J Y; Abergel, D; Bouaziz, S; Delsuc, M A; Ekondzi, A; Guittet, E; Laplante, S; Le Goas, R; Malliavin, T

    1990-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful techniques to investigate the geometry of molecules in solution. It has been widely applied, in recent years, to the study of protein conformation. However, full reconstruction of the 3-D structure of such macro-molecules, still constitutes a real challenge for the spectroscopist. Skills as diverse as biology, spectroscopy, signal processing, or computer sciences, are required. This paper presents various aspects of the research in that domain, and our contribution to it. PMID:2126458

  4. Partial homogeneity based high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe

    2014-09-29

    In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, it is of great necessity and importance to obtain high-resolution spectra, especially under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this study, a method based on partial homogeneity is proposed for retrieving high-resolution one-dimensional NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Signals from series of small voxels, which characterize high resolution due to small sizes, are recorded simultaneously. Then, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to correct the influence brought by field inhomogeneity automatically, thus yielding high-resolution information. Experiments on chemical solutions and fish spawn were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method serves as a single radiofrequency pulse high-resolution NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields and may provide an alternative of obtaining high-resolution spectra of in vivo living systems or chemical-reaction systems, where performances of conventional techniques are usually degenerated by field inhomogeneity.

  5. Three-Dimensional Nuclear Chart--Understanding Nuclear Physics and Nucleosynthesis in Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nuclear charts were created using toy blocks, which represent the atomic masses per nucleon number and the total half-lives for each nucleus in the entire region of the nuclear mass. The bulk properties of the nuclei can be easily understood by using these charts. Subsequently, these charts were used in outreach activities…

  6. Magnetism, dimensional changes, and magnetic transitions in hydrated cesium manganese chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Aron, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    Dimensional changes (strain) along the three principal crystal axes of the antiferromagnet CsMnCl3-2H2O are studied as a function of magnetic field and temperature in the antiferromagnetic, spin flopped, and paramagnetic phases. Changes in dimensions through the phase transitions between the magnetic states are examined. By applying the molecular field model and utilizing all available information, magnetic properties of CsMnCl3-2H2O are determined. The possible usefulness of this material in a magnetic refrigeration cycle is evaluated.

  7. Fast magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Bijia; Pen, U.-L.; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2010-10-15

    A constructive numerical example of fast magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional periodic box is presented. Reconnection is initiated by a strong, localized perturbation to the field lines. The solution is intrinsically three-dimensional and its gross properties do not depend on the details of the simulations. {approx}30% of the magnetic energy is released in an event which lasts about one Alfven time, but only after a delay during which the field lines evolve into a critical configuration. The physical picture of the process is presented. The reconnection regions are dynamical and mutually interacting. In the comoving frame of these regions, reconnection occurs through a x-like point, analogous to Petschek reconnection. The dynamics appear to be driven by global flows, not local processes.

  8. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Guide-Field Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The dissipation mechanism of guide field magnetic reconnection remains a subject of intense scientific interest. On one hand, one set of recent studies have shown that particle inertia-based processes, which include thermal and bulk inertial effects, provide the reconnection electric field in the diffusion region. On the other hand, a second set of studies emphasizes the role of wave-particle interactions in providing anomalous resistivity in the diffusion region. In this presentation, we analyze three-dimensional PIC simulations of guide-field magnetic reconnection. Specific emphasis will be on the question whether thermal-inertia processes, mediated by the electron pressure tensor, remain a viable dissipation mechanism in fully three-dimensional systems.

  9. Magnons in disordered nonstoichiometric low-dimensional magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, Paweł; Sandratskii, Leonid M.; Buczek, Nadine; Thomas, Stefan; Vignale, Giovanni; Ernst, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    We study spin excitation spectra of one-, two-, and three-dimensional magnets featuring nonmagnetic defects at a wide range of concentrations. Taking the Heisenberg model as the starting point, we tackle the problem by both direct numerical simulations in large supercells and using a semianalytic coherent-potential approximation. We consider the properties of the excitations in both direct and reciprocal spaces. In the limits of the concentration c of the magnetic atoms tending to 0 or 1 the properties of the spin excitations are similar in all three dimensions. In the case of a low concentration of magnetic atoms the spin excitation spectra are dominated by the modes confined in the real space to single atoms or small clusters and delocalized in the reciprocal space. In the limit of c tending to 1, we obtain the spin-wave excitations delocalized in the real space and localized in the reciprocal space. However, for the intermediate concentrations the properties of the spin excitations are strongly dimensionality dependent. We pay particular attention to the formation, with increase of c , of the Lorentzian-shaped peaks in the spectral densities of the spin excitations, which can be regarded as magnon states with a finite lifetime given by the width of the peaks. In general, low-dimensional magnets are more strongly affected by the presence of nonmagnetic impurities than their bulk counterparts. The details of the electronic structure, varying with the dimensionality and the concentration, substantially influence the spin excitation spectra of real materials, as we show in the example of the FeAl alloy.

  10. Some Nuclear Techniques in Experimental Magnetism: Mössbauer Effect, Neutron Scattering and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piecuch, Michel

    The goal of this chapter is to present three traditional methods for the study of magnetic properties : Mössbauer effect, neutron diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance. It begins by recalling the basic properties of atomic nuclei and describing the hyperfine interactions between the nucleus and its surrounding. Then, the recoilless absorption of γ-rays by crystal, the Mössbauer effect is presented, we discuss the main parameters measured and show one example of application. Next we present neutron interactions with matter, the interaction of neutrons with the atomic nucleus and the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic moment of electrons. The use of polarized neutron and the inelastic scattering of neutrons are also discussed. The comparison between neutron experiments and synchrotron radiation techniques is briefly reviewed. One example of the use of neutron scattering in the domain of thin film magnetism is shown. Finally, we present the basic theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and one application of this technique to the study of Co/Cu multilayers.

  11. Three-dimensional evolution of magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities in a compressible magnetized jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettarini, Lapo; Landi, Simone; Velli, Marco; Londrillo, Pasquale

    2009-06-01

    The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.

  12. Three-dimensional evolution of magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities in a compressible magnetized jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bettarini, Lapo; Landi, Simone; Velli, Marco; Londrillo, Pasquale

    2009-06-15

    The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of low-dimensional molecular magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen

    This dissertation presents experimental results from the synthesis and structural, magnetic characterization of representative low-dimensional molecule-based magnetic materials. Most of the materials reported in this dissertation, both coordination polymers and cuprate, are obtained as the result of synthesizing and characterizing spin ladder systems; except the material studied in Chapter 2, ferricenyl(III)trisferrocenyl(II)borate, which is not related to the spin ladder project. The interest in spin ladder systems is due to the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in doped cuprates possessing ladder-like structures, and it is hoped that investigation of the magnetic behavior of ladder-like structures will help us understand the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. Chapter 1 reviews fundamental knowledge of molecular magnetism, general synthetic strategies for low-dimensional coordination polymers, and a brief introduction to the current status of research on spin ladder systems. Chapter 2 presents a modified synthetic procedure of a previously known monomeric complex, ferricenyl(III)trisferrocenyl(II)borate, 1. Its magnetic properties were characterized and previous results have been disproved. Chapter 3 investigates the magnetism of [CuCl2(CH3CN)] 2, 2, a cuprate whose structure consists of isolated noninterpenetrating ladders formed by the stacking of Cu(II) dimers. This material presents an unexpected ferromagnetic interaction both within the dimeric units and between the dimers, and this behavior has been rationalized based on the effect of its terminal nonbridging ligands. In Chapter 4, the synthesis and magnetism of two ladder-like coordination polymers, [Co(NO3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) 1.5(MeCN)]n, 3, and Ni2(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid)2(H2O)4(pyrazine), 4, are reported. Compound 3 possesses a covalent one-dimensional ladder structure in which Co(II) ions are bridged through bipyridine molecules. Compared to the materials discussed in

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis and molecular properties of berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Ju; Lee, Ken S.; Hurley, Sharon J.

    An extensive theoretical study of berberine has been performed at the ab initio HF/6-31G**, HF/6-311G**, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels with and without solvent effects. The optimized structures are compared with X-ray data. We found that the optimized structures with solvent effects are in slightly better agreement with X-ray data than those without solvent effects. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of berberine were calculated by using the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (with and without solvent effects), CSGT, and IGAIM methods. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with the two-dimensional NMR experimental data. Overall, the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with the experimental results. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for berberine were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** level.

  15. Interlayer coupling through a dimensionality-induced magnetic state.

    PubMed

    Gibert, M; Viret, M; Zubko, P; Jaouen, N; Tonnerre, J-M; Torres-Pardo, A; Catalano, S; Gloter, A; Stéphan, O; Triscone, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Dimensionality is known to play an important role in many compounds for which ultrathin layers can behave very differently from the bulk. This is especially true for the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3, which can become insulating and magnetic when only a few monolayers thick. We show here that an induced antiferromagnetic order can be stabilized in the [111] direction by interfacial coupling to the insulating ferromagnet LaMnO3, and used to generate interlayer magnetic coupling of a nature that depends on the exact number of LaNiO3 monolayers. For 7-monolayer-thick LaNiO3/LaMnO3 superlattices, negative and positive exchange bias, as well as antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling are observed in different temperature windows. All three behaviours are explained based on the emergence of a (¼,¼,¼)-wavevector antiferromagnetic structure in LaNiO3 and the presence of interface asymmetry with LaMnO3. This dimensionality-induced magnetic order can be used to tailor a broad range of magnetic properties in well-designed superlattice-based devices. PMID:27079668

  16. Interlayer coupling through a dimensionality-induced magnetic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, M.; Viret, M.; Zubko, P.; Jaouen, N.; Tonnerre, J.-M.; Torres-Pardo, A.; Catalano, S.; Gloter, A.; Stéphan, O.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2016-04-01

    Dimensionality is known to play an important role in many compounds for which ultrathin layers can behave very differently from the bulk. This is especially true for the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3, which can become insulating and magnetic when only a few monolayers thick. We show here that an induced antiferromagnetic order can be stabilized in the [111] direction by interfacial coupling to the insulating ferromagnet LaMnO3, and used to generate interlayer magnetic coupling of a nature that depends on the exact number of LaNiO3 monolayers. For 7-monolayer-thick LaNiO3/LaMnO3 superlattices, negative and positive exchange bias, as well as antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling are observed in different temperature windows. All three behaviours are explained based on the emergence of a (¼,¼,¼)-wavevector antiferromagnetic structure in LaNiO3 and the presence of interface asymmetry with LaMnO3. This dimensionality-induced magnetic order can be used to tailor a broad range of magnetic properties in well-designed superlattice-based devices.

  17. Interlayer coupling through a dimensionality-induced magnetic state

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, M.; Viret, M.; Zubko, P.; Jaouen, N.; Tonnerre, J.-M.; Torres-Pardo, A.; Catalano, S.; Gloter, A.; Stéphan, O.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Dimensionality is known to play an important role in many compounds for which ultrathin layers can behave very differently from the bulk. This is especially true for the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3, which can become insulating and magnetic when only a few monolayers thick. We show here that an induced antiferromagnetic order can be stabilized in the [111] direction by interfacial coupling to the insulating ferromagnet LaMnO3, and used to generate interlayer magnetic coupling of a nature that depends on the exact number of LaNiO3 monolayers. For 7-monolayer-thick LaNiO3/LaMnO3 superlattices, negative and positive exchange bias, as well as antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling are observed in different temperature windows. All three behaviours are explained based on the emergence of a (¼,¼,¼)-wavevector antiferromagnetic structure in LaNiO3 and the presence of interface asymmetry with LaMnO3. This dimensionality-induced magnetic order can be used to tailor a broad range of magnetic properties in well-designed superlattice-based devices. PMID:27079668

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip with an optically induced fictitious magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hui

    2010-05-15

    A robust type of three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip combining optically induced fictitious magnetic field with microcurrent-carrying wires is proposed. Compared to the regular optical lattice, the individual trap in this three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice can be easily addressed and manipulated.

  19. Normal Modes of Magnetized Finite Two-Dimensional Yukawa Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The normal modes of a finite two-dimensional dusty plasma in an isotropic parabolic confinement, including the simultaneous effects of friction and an external magnetic field, are studied. The ground states are found from molecular dynamics simulations with simulated annealing, and the influence of screening, friction, and magnetic field on the mode frequencies is investigated in detail. The two-particle problem is solved analytically and the limiting cases of weak and strong magnetic fields are discussed.[4pt] [1] C. Henning, H. K"ahlert, P. Ludwig, A. Melzer, and M.Bonitz. J. Phys. A 42, 214023 (2009)[2] B. Farokhi, M. Shahmansouri, and P. K. Shukla. Phys.Plasmas 16, 063703 (2009)[3] L. Cândido, J.-P. Rino, N. Studart, and F. M. Peeters. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 11627--11644 (1998)

  20. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Assembly of Microscale Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Wu, Chung-an Max; Rengarajan, Venkatakrishnan; Finley, Thomas Dylan; Keles, Hasan Onur; Sung, Yuree; Li, Baoqiang; Gurkan, Umut Atakan

    2012-01-01

    Directed assembly of nano and microscale particles is of great interest and has widespread applications in various fields including electronics, nanomaterials and tissue engineering. Bottom-up tissue engineering is motivated by the occurrence of repeating functional units in vivo. The bottom-up approach requires novel techniques to assemble engineered functional units as building blocks at a high speed with spatial control over three-dimensional (3D) micro-architecture. Here, we report a magnetic assembler that utilizes nanoparticles and microscale hydrogels as building blocks to create 3D complex multi-layer constructs via external magnetic fields using different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles. This approach holds potential for 3D assembly processes that could be utilized in various tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21830240

  1. Photonic band gaps in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals with arbitrary magnetic declination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haifeng; Liu Shaobin; Kong Xiangkun

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps and dispersion relations of one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals composed of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers with arbitrary magnetic declination are theoretically investigated for TM polarized wave based on transfer matrix method. As TM wave propagates in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals, the electromagnetic wave can be divided into two modes due to the influence of Lorentz force. The equations for effective dielectric functions of such two modes are theoretically deduced, and the transfer matrix equation and dispersion relations for TM wave are calculated. The influences of relative dielectric constant, plasma collision frequency, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency on transmission, and dispersion relation are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that plasma collision frequency cannot change the locations of photonic band gaps for both modes, and also does not affect the reflection and transmission magnitudes. The characteristics of photonic band gaps for both modes can be obviously tuned by relative dielectric constant, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency, respectively. These results would provide theoretical instructions for designing filters, microcavities, and fibers, etc.

  2. Two-dimensional sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance study of AaH IT, an anti-insect toxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector. Sequential resonance assignments and folding of the polypeptide chain

    SciTech Connect

    Darbon, H. ); Weber, C.; Braun, W. )

    1991-02-19

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for the polypeptide backbone and for most of the amino acid side-chain protons, as well as the general folding of AaH IT, are described. AaH IT is a neurotoxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector and is specifically active on the insect nervous system. The secondary structure and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in the regular secondary structure elements are deduced from nuclear Overhauser effects and the sequence locations of the slowly exchanging amide protons. The backbone folding is determined by distance geometry calculations with the DISMAN program. The regular secondary structure includes two and a half turns of {alpha}-helix running from residues 21 to 30 and a three-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet including peptides 3-5, 34-38, and 41-46. Two tight turns are present, one connecting the end of the {alpha}-helix to an external strand of the {beta}-sheet, i.e., turn 31-34, and another connecting this same strand to the central one, i.e., turn 38-41. The differences in the specificity of these related proteins, which are able to discriminate between mammalian and insect voltage-dependent sodium channels of excitable tissues, are most probably brought about by the position of the C-terminal peptide with regard to a hydrophobic surface common to all scorpion toxins examined thus far. Thus, the interaction of a given scorpion toxin with its receptor might well be governed by the presence of this solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface, whereas adjacent areas modulate the specificity of the interaction.

  3. Two-dimensional Vlasov code simulation of magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, K.; Umeda, T.; Ogino, T.

    2009-12-01

    There are numerous types of self-consistent simulations that treat plasmas according to some approximations. The fluid codes are used to study global and macroscopic processes in space plasmas. Nonlinear microscopic processes in space plasmas are studied with kinetic simulation codes. Numerical methods for kinetic simulations fall into two groups. One is particle-in-cell (PIC) method which follows motions of individual particles in a self-consistent electromagnetic field. However, a limitation on the number of particles gives rise to numerical thermal fluctuations. Another approach is Vlasov method which follows spatial and temporal development of distribution functions in the position-velocity phase space. In contrast to PIC codes, numerical noise is substantially suppressed. However, Vlasov codes require huge computer resources to represent distribution functions and Vlasov simulation techniques are still developing. Owing to the rapid advancement of recent computer technology, Vlasov code simulation would be more essential in the near future. In the present study, a new two-and-half-dimensional and fully electromagnetic Vlasov simulation code is developed in which phase-space distribution functions are defined in five-dimensional position-velocity phase space (x,y,vx,vy,vz). The Vlasov equation in two-dimensional configuration and three-dimensional velocity spaces is solved with a non-oscillatory and conservative scheme, and the full set of Maxwell’s equations are self-consistently solved based on the implicit Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) magnetic reconnection challenge is chosen as a benchmark test of our two-dimensional Vlasov code. The result is compared with the past simulation results with Darwin-Vlasov, explicit PIC and implicit PIC codes. The present simulation with a very-low spatial resolution gives a high growth rate of magnetic flux, which is in agreement with the results of the GEM

  4. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Starnes, D.L.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Boumphrey, F.; Hardy, R.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Forty subjects were examined to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of the spine. The NMR images were compared with plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomograms, and myelograms. The study included 15 patients with normal spinal cord anatomy and 25 patients whose pathological conditions included canal stenosis, herniated discs, metastatic tumors, primary cord tumor, trauma, Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, and developmental disorders. Saturation recovery images were best in differentiating between soft tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. NMR was excellent for the evaluation of the foramen magnum region and is presently the modality of choice for the diagnosis of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation. NMR was accurate in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and spinal canal block.

  7. [Nuclear magnetic resonance in ischemic cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Meave, Aloha

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is the "gold standard" technique to quantify the ventricular volume, the ejection fraction, and the myocardial mass. In patients suffering from ischemic cardiopathy, the ejection fraction is the most important prognostic parameter, even above from lessoned arteries index. An adequate diagnose between a non-viable and a viable myocardium is of great importance in the therapeutic approach for ischemic cardiopathy. By administrating a paramagnetic contrast media named gadolinium, fist pass and late-reinforcement techniques, are applied. With these, it is possible to evaluate the perfusion as well as necrotic areas. In order to identify sub-endocardium ischemia, drugs such as adenosine and dipiridamol, are employed as vasodilators. This technique allows the definition of reinforcement extension, being sub-endocardiac, which is an ailment which affects 50% of the myocardium depth, or even, transmural compromise. PMID:18938717

  8. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-11-11

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied.

  9. Three-dimensional multiexcitation magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Mariappan, Leo; He, Bin

    2010-12-15

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a hybrid imaging modality proposed to image electrical conductivity contrast of biological tissue with high spatial resolution. This modality combines magnetic excitations with ultrasound detection through the Lorentz force based coupling mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that MAT-MI method with single type of magnetic excitation can only reconstruct the conductivity boundaries of a sample. In order to achieve more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, we proposed a multiexcitation MAT-MI approach. In this approach, multiple magnetic excitations using different coil configurations are applied to the object sequentially and ultrasonic signals corresponding to each excitation are collected for conductivity image reconstruction. In this study, we validate the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method for three-dimensional (3D) conductivity imaging through both computer simulations and phantom experiments. 3D volume data are obtained by utilizing acoustic focusing and cylindrical scanning under each magnetic excitation. It is shown in our simulation and experiment results that with a common ultrasound probe that has limited bandwidth we are able to correctly reconstruct the 3D relative conductivity contrast of the imaging object. As compared to those conductivity boundary images generated by previous single-excitation MAT-MI, the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method provides more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, and therefore, more valuable information in possible clinical and research applications. PMID:21267084

  10. Three-dimensional multiexcitation magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Mariappan, Leo; He, Bin

    2010-12-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a hybrid imaging modality proposed to image electrical conductivity contrast of biological tissue with high spatial resolution. This modality combines magnetic excitations with ultrasound detection through the Lorentz force based coupling mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that MAT-MI method with single type of magnetic excitation can only reconstruct the conductivity boundaries of a sample. In order to achieve more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, we proposed a multiexcitation MAT-MI approach. In this approach, multiple magnetic excitations using different coil configurations are applied to the object sequentially and ultrasonic signals corresponding to each excitation are collected for conductivity image reconstruction. In this study, we validate the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method for three-dimensional (3D) conductivity imaging through both computer simulations and phantom experiments. 3D volume data are obtained by utilizing acoustic focusing and cylindrical scanning under each magnetic excitation. It is shown in our simulation and experiment results that with a common ultrasound probe that has limited bandwidth we are able to correctly reconstruct the 3D relative conductivity contrast of the imaging object. As compared to those conductivity boundary images generated by previous single-excitation MAT-MI, the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method provides more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, and therefore, more valuable information in possible clinical and research applications.

  11. Phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance examination of female reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Noyszewski, E.A.; Raman, J.; Trupin, S.R.; McFarlin, B.L.; Dawson, M.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful method of investigating the relationship between metabolism and function in living tissues. We present evidence that the phosphorus 31 spectra of myometrium and placenta are functions of physiologic state and gestational age. Specific spectroscopic abnormalities are observed in association with disorders of pregnancy and gynecologic diseases. Our results suggest that noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations may sometimes be a useful addition to magnetic resonance imaging examinations, and that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biopsy specimens could become a cost-effective method of evaluating certain biochemical abnormalities.

  12. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    PubMed

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-12-14

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound 1, [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound 2, [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound 3, [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/k(B)) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ∼1.1 K, ∼0.7 K, and ∼0.46 K for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds 2 and 3 undergo long-range magnetic order at T(N) ≈ 4.2 K and ≈4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/k(B) and T(N) the inter-chain coupling (J(⊥)/k(B)) was calculated to be about 0.1J/k(B) for both compounds 2 and 3, respectively. PMID:26455515

  13. Self-assembled magnetic nanospheres with three-dimensional magnetic vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Kwan; Dhak, Prasanta; Lee, Ha-Youn; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jehyun; Kim, Sang-Koog; Jin, Kyoungsuk; Chu, Arim; Nam, Ki Tae; Kim, Miyoung; Park, Hyun Soon; Aizawa, Shinji; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-12-08

    We report the electron holography images of spin configurations in peculiar assemblies of soft magnetic nanoparticles in single-, double-, triple-, or quadruple-sphere geometrical arrangements, in which each particle has a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic-vortex structure. Micromagnetic numerical calculations reveal that the uniqueness of the nanoparticles' 3D vortex structure plays a crucial role in their assembly, especially in terms of the contrasting contributions of the exchange and dipolar interactions to their binding energies. The results represent physical insights into the assembly of 3D-vortex-structure magnetic nanoparticles in different geometrical configurations and offer a practical means of controlling those assemblies.

  14. Three-dimensional solidification and melting using magnetic field control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.; Ahuja, Vineet

    1993-01-01

    A new two-fluid mathematical model for fully three dimensional steady solidification under the influence of an arbitrary acceleration vector and with or without an arbitrary externally applied steady magnetic field have been formulated and integrated numerically. The model includes Joule heating and allows for separate temperature dependent physical properties within the melt and the solid. Latent heat of phase change during melting/solidification was incorporated using an enthalpy method. Mushy region was automatically captured by varying viscosity orders of magnitude between liquidus and solidus temperature. Computational results were obtained for silicon melt solidification in a parallelepiped container cooled from above and from a side. The results confirm that the magnetic field has a profound influence on the solidifying melt flow field thus changing convective heat transfer through the boundaries and the amount and shape of the solid accrued. This suggests that development of a quick-response algorithm for active control of three dimensional solidification is feasible since it would require low strength magnetic fields.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H.

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

  16. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The

  17. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; Mak–Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (μw) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (γe/γl), being ∼660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (≥5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanisms—the Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in μw and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments. PMID:18266416

  18. Three-dimensional Nuclear Telomere Organization in Multiple Myeloma12

    PubMed Central

    Klewes, Ludger; Vallente, Rhea; Dupas, Eric; Brand, Carolin; Grün, Dietrich; Guffei, Amanda; Sathitruangsak, Chirawadee; Awe, Julius A; Kuzyk, Alexandra; Lichtensztejn, Daniel; Tammur, Pille; Ilus, Tiiu; Tamm, Anu; Punab, Mari; Rubinger, Morel; Olujohungbe, Adebayo; Mai, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Up to date, it is difficult to predict an individual's time to disease progression and the treatment response. To examine whether the nuclear telomeric architecture will unravel some of these questions, we carried out. Three-dimensional (3D) telomere analysis on samples from patients diagnosed with MGUS and MM, as well as from patients who went into relapse. Telomere signal intensity, number of telomere aggregates, nuclear volume, and the overall nuclear telomere distribution (a/c ratio) were analyzed. The telomeric profiles allowed for the differentiation of the disease stages. The telomeric profiles of myeloma cells obtained from blood and bone marrow aspirates were identical. Based on this study, we discuss the use of 3D telomere profiling as a potential future tool for risk stratification and personalized treatment decisions. PMID:24466378

  19. Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBCO at high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Sheng

    Charge density wave (CDW) correlations have been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high magnetic fields, e . g . inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance, Hall coefficient, and sound velocity measurements, is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. In this talk, I will discuss our recent experiment which combines a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below ~150 K, is essentially two dimensional, a three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges at magnetic fields beyond 15 Tesla and at temperatures below the zero-field superconducting transition temperature. While the two CDW arrange differently along the c-axis, they share the same incommensurate periodicity in the CuO2plane. Our observations imply that the two forms of CDW and high-temperature superconductivity are intimately linked.

  20. Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Blazevski, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by solving numerically the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The LG method provides an efficient and accurate technique that circumvents known limitations of finite elements and finite difference methods. The main two problems addressed are (i) the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ɛ), and (ii) the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. In all the cases considered there are no magnetic flux surfaces. However, the radial transport of heat pulses is observed to depend strongly on ɛ due to the presence of high-order magnetic islands and Cantori. These structures act as quasi-transport barriers which can actually preclude the radial penetration of heat pulses within physically relevant time scales. The dependence of the magnetic field connection length, ℓB, on ɛ is studied in detail. Regions where ℓB is large, correlate with regions where the radial propagation of the heat pulse slows down or stops. The decay rate of the temperature maximum, max(t), the time delay of the temperature response as function of the radius, τ, and the radial heat flux \\langle {{\\bit q}\\cdot {\\hat e}_\\psi} \\rangle , are also studied as functions of the magnetic field stochasticity and ℓB. In all cases it is observed that the scaling of max with t transitions from sub-diffusive, max ˜ t-1/4, at short times (χ∥t < 105) to a significantly slower, almost flat scaling at longer times (χ∥t > 105). A strong dependence on ɛ is also observed on τ and \\langle {{\\bit q}\\cdot {\\hat e}_\\psi} \\rangle . Even in the case when there are no flux surfaces nor magnetic field islands, reversed shear magnetic field configurations exhibit unique transport properties. The radial

  1. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance microscopy of materials.

    PubMed

    Botto, R E; Cody, G D; Dieckman, S L; French, D C; Gopalsami, N; Rizo, P

    1996-07-01

    Several aspects of magnetic resonance microscopy are examined employing three-dimensional (3D) back-projection reconstruction techniques in combination with either simple Bloch-decay methods or MREV-8 multiple-pulse line narrowing techniques in the presence of static field gradients. Applications to the areas of ceramic processing, catalyst porosity measurements and the characterization of polymeric materials are presented. The focus of the discussion centers on issues of sensitivity and resolution using this approach compared with other methods. Advantages and limitations of 3D microscopy over more commonly employed slice selection protocols are discussed, as well as potential remedies to some of the inherent limitations of the technique. PMID:8902960

  2. Persistent Photoconductivity in A Magnetic Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, O.; Smorchkova, I. P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-03-01

    Magnetic two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) based on modulation-doped (Zn,Cd,Mn)Se/ZnSe heterostructures are of current interest because of their novel transport properties (PRL 78, 3571 (1997)). Here, we examine the phenomenon of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in these structures, with the aim of understanding the nature of defects and their role in limiting the 2DEG mobility. We have observed significant PPC at high temperatures in modulation doped magnetic 2DEGs. The clear presence of a deep trap responsible for the observed PPC is established through temperature-dependent photoconductivity, photoluminescence, deep level transient fourier spectroscopy and photo induced current transient spectroscopy. An analysis of these experiments will be presented, summarizing the specific characteristics and possible origins of this deep level.

  3. Two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in magnetic and gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.; Horn, T.; Neuhaus, T.; ten Hagen, B.

    2013-11-01

    This mini-review is concerned with two-dimensional colloidal mixtures exposed to various kinds of external fields. By a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, dipole moments are induced in paramagnetic particles which give rise to repulsive interactions leading to complex crystalline alloys in the composition-asymmetry diagram. A quench in the magnetic field induces complex crystal nucleation scenarios. If exposed to a gravitational field, these mixtures exhibit a brazil-nut effect and show a boundary layering which is explained in terms of a depletion bubble picture. The latter persists for time-dependent gravity ("colloidal shaking"). Finally, we summarize crystallization effects when the second species is frozen in a disordered matrix which provides obstacles for the crystallizing component.

  4. Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two dimensional lattice.

    PubMed

    Nissen, D; Mitin, D; Klein, O; Arekapudi, S S P K; Thomas, S; Im, M-Y; Fischer, P; Albrecht, M

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self assembled spherical SiO(2)-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness(aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magne to-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer. PMID:26511585

  5. Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two-dimensional lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, D.; Mitin, D.; Klein, O.; Arekapudi, S. S. P. K.; Thomas, S.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Albrecht, M.

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self-assembled spherical SiO2-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness (aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magneto-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer.

  6. Dynamic nuclear polarization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment.

    PubMed

    Issac, Corinne E; Gleave, Christine M; Nasr, Paméla T; Nguyen, Hoang L; Curley, Elizabeth A; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Moore, Eric W; Chen, Lei; Marohn, John A

    2016-04-01

    We report achieving enhanced nuclear magnetization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment at 0.6 tesla and 4.2 kelvin using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) effect. In our experiments a microwire coplanar waveguide delivered radiowaves to excite nuclear spins and microwaves to excite electron spins in a 250 nm thick nitroxide-doped polystyrene sample. Both electron and proton spin resonance were observed as a change in the mechanical resonance frequency of a nearby cantilever having a micron-scale nickel tip. NMR signal, not observable from Curie-law magnetization at 0.6 T, became observable when microwave irradiation was applied to saturate the electron spins. The resulting NMR signal's size, buildup time, dependence on microwave power, and dependence on irradiation frequency was consistent with a transfer of magnetization from electron spins to nuclear spins. Due to the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field introduced by the cantilever's magnetic tip, the electron spins in the sample were saturated in a microwave-resonant slice 10's of nm thick. The spatial distribution of the nuclear polarization enhancement factor ε was mapped by varying the frequency of the applied radiowaves. The observed enhancement factor was zero for spins in the center of the resonant slice, was ε = +10 to +20 for spins proximal to the magnet, and was ε = -10 to -20 for spins distal to the magnet. We show that this bipolar nuclear magnetization profile is consistent with cross-effect DNP in a ∼10(5) T m(-1) magnetic field gradient. Potential challenges associated with generating and using DNP-enhanced nuclear magnetization in a nanometer-resolution magnetic resonance imaging experiment are elucidated and discussed. PMID:26964007

  7. Two-dimensional modeling of magnetically imploded liners

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, W.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lee, H.

    1996-11-01

    Magnetically imploded massive cylindrical liner drivers have been studied in two-dimensions for low, intermediate and high energy pulsed power systems. The simulations have been carried out using a resistive Eulerian magnetohydrodynamics computational model which includes material strength, and models the interactions between the imploding liner and the electrode walls. The computations simulate the generation of perturbations and their subsequent growth during the implosion. At low energies a solid liner remains in the plastic regime, reaching an inner cylindrical target with velocities of a few mm per {mu}s. At higher energies (where one-dimensional models predict implosion velocities of order 1 cm/{mu}s or more) resistive heating of the liner results in melting, and the effects of magnetically driven instabilities become important. We discuss the two-dimensional issues which arise in these systems. These include: the onset of perturbations associated with the motion of the liner along the electrodes; the growth of instabilities in liquid layers; and the suppression of instability growth during the implosion by maintaining a solid inner layer. Studies have been made of liners designed for the Pegasus capacitor bank facility (currents in the 5 - 12 MA regime), and for the Procyon high explosive system (currents in the 20 MA regime). This work focus on the design and performance of the first Pegasus composite megabar liner experiment.

  8. Least Squares Magnetic-Field Optimization for Portable Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Magnet Design

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Franck, John; Demas, Vasiliki; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2008-03-27

    Single-sided and mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have the advantages of portability, low cost, and low power consumption compared to conventional high-field NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. We present fast, flexible, and easy-to-implement target field algorithms for mobile NMR and MRI magnet design. The optimization finds a global optimum ina cost function that minimizes the error in the target magnetic field in the sense of least squares. When the technique is tested on a ring array of permanent-magnet elements, the solution matches the classical dipole Halbach solution. For a single-sided handheld NMR sensor, the algorithm yields a 640 G field homogeneous to 16 100 ppm across a 1.9 cc volume located 1.5 cm above the top of the magnets and homogeneous to 32 200 ppm over a 7.6 cc volume. This regime is adequate for MRI applications. We demonstrate that the homogeneous region can be continuously moved away from the sensor by rotating magnet rod elements, opening the way for NMR sensors with adjustable"sensitive volumes."

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric assay of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y

    1980-01-01

    Beta-Lactam antibiotics and the crude enzyme were mixed in deuterium oxide and placed in a nuclear magnetic resonance tube. The change of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum during the enzymatic reaction was then analyzed to determine beta-lactamase activity. By using beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and cephamycins as substrates, a comparison of the beta-lactamase activities was made between the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric assay and the iodometric assay. There was a close correlation between these two methods. PMID:6986114

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-02-01

    The role of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the kidney was analyzed in 18 persons (6 normal volunteers, 3 patients with pelvocaliectasis, 2 with peripelvic cysts, 1 with renal sinus lipomatosis, 3 with renal failure, 1 with glycogen storage disease, and 2 with polycystic kidney disease). Ultrasound and/or computed tomography (CT) studies were available for comparison in every case. In the normal kidney distinct anatomical structures were clearly differentiated by NMR. The best anatomical detail ws obtained with spin echo (SE) imaging, using a pulse sequence interval of 1,000 msec and an echo delay time of 28 msec. However, in the evaluation of normal and pathological conditions, all four intensity images (SE 500/28, SE 500/56, SE 1,000/28, and SE 1,000/56) have to be analyzed. No definite advantage was found in using SE imaging with a pulse sequence interval of 1,500 msec. Inversion recovery imaging enhanced the differences between the cortex and medulla, but it had a low signal-to-noise level and, therefore, a suboptimal overall resolution. The advantages of NMR compared with CT and ultrasound are discussed, and it is concluded that NMR imaging will prove to be a useful modality in the evaluation of renal disease.

  11. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.S.

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  12. Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Wei Ting; Yang, Kuang-Yu; Hsiao, Chih Ting; Sun, Greg; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Tsai, Din Ping

    2012-11-01

    In a laser-driven atomic quantum system, a continuous state couples to a discrete state resulting in quantum interference that provides a transmission peak within a broad absorption profile the so-called electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In the field of plasmonic metamaterials, the sub-wavelength metallic structures play a role similar to atoms in nature. The interference of their near-field coupling at plasmonic resonance leads to a plasmon induced transparency (PIT) that is analogous to the EIT of atomic systems. A sensitive control of the PIT is crucial to a range of potential applications such as slowing light and biosensor. So far, the PIT phenomena often arise from the electric resonance, such as an electric dipole state coupled to an electric quadrupole state. Here we report the first three-dimensional photonic metamaterial consisting of an array of erected U-shape plasmonic gold nanostructures that exhibits PIT phenomenon with magnetic dipolar interaction between magnetic metamolecules. We further demonstrate using a numerical simulation that the coupling between the different excited pathways at an intermediate resonant wavelength allows for a π phase shift resulting in a destructive interference. A classical RLC circuit was also proposed to explain the coupling effects between the bright and dark modes of EIT-like electromagnetic spectra. This work paves a promising approach to achieve magnetic plasmon devices.

  13. Three-dimensional prominence-hosting magnetic configurations: Creating a helical magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Guo, Y.

    2014-01-10

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coronal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an essential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows toward the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The converging flows bring the feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line, where magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happen. Inflow and outflow signatures of the magnetic reconnection process are identified, and thereby the newly formed helical loops wind around preexisting ones so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. When a macroscopic flux rope is formed, we switch off the driving flows and find that the system relaxes to a stable state containing a helical magnetic flux rope embedded in an overlying arcade structure. A major part of the formed flux rope is threaded by dipped field lines that can stably support prominence matter, while the total mass of the flux rope is in the order of 4-5× 10{sup 14} g.

  14. New methodology for use in rotating field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachman, Rebecca Corina

    High-resolution NMR spectra of samples with anisotropic broadening are simplified to their isotropic spectra by fast rotation of the sample at the magic angle 54.7°. This dissertation concerns the development of novel Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methodologies which would rotate the magnetic field instead of the sample, i.e. rotating field NMR. It also provides an overview of the NMR concepts, procedures, and experiments needed to understand the methodologies that will be used for rotating field NMR. A simple two-dimensional shimming method based on harmonic corrector rings provides arbitrary multiple order shimming corrections that are necessary for rotating field systems, but can be used in shimming other systems as well. Those results demonstrate, for example, that quadrupolar order shimming improves the linewidth by up to a factor of ten. An additional order of magnitude reduction is in principle achievable by utilizing this shimming method for z-gradient correction and higher order xy gradients. Additionally, initial investigations into a specialized pulse sequence for the rotating field NMR experiment, which allows for spinning at angles other than the magic angle and spinning slower than the anisotropic broadening is discussed. This will be useful for rotating field NMR because there are limits on how fast a field can be spun and difficulties of reaching the magic angle. This pulse sequence is a combination of the previously established projected magic angle spinning (p-MAS) and magic angle turning (MAT) pulse sequences. One of the goals of this project is for rotating field NMR to be used on biological systems. The p-MAS pulse sequence was successfully tested on bovine tissue samples, which suggests that it will be a viable methodology to use in rotating field NMR. A side experiment on steering magnetic particles by MRI gradients was also carried out. Initial investigations indicate some movement, but for total steering control, further experiments are

  15. Magnetically driven three-dimensional manipulation and inductive heating of magnetic-dispersion containing metal alloys

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Joshua D.; Huang, Xu; Lewis, Brian G.; Ramirez, Ainissa G.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to the development of three-dimensional microelectronic fabrication is a material that enables vertical geometries. Here we show low-melting-point metal alloys containing iron dispersions that can be remotely manipulated by magnetic fields to create vertical geometries and thus enable novel three-dimensional assemblies. These iron dispersions enhance the mechanical properties needed for strong, reliable interconnects without significantly altering the electrical properties of the alloys. Additionally, these iron dispersions act as susceptors for magnetic induction heating, allowing the rapid melting of these novel alloys at temperatures lower than those usually reported for conventional metal alloys. By localizing high temperatures and by reducing temperature excursions, the materials and methods described have potential in a variety of device fabrication applications. PMID:20194786

  16. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Sallen, G.; Kunz, S.; Amand, T.; Bouet, L.; Kuroda, T.; Mano, T.; Paget, D.; Krebs, O.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain—that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations. PMID:24500329

  17. Coaxial probe for nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yiqiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Mandal, Soumyajit; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-02-01

    A coaxial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is built to measure diffusion and relaxation properties of liquid samples. In particular, we demonstrate the acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) distribution functions (T1-T2 and diffusion-T2), essential for fluids characterization. The compact design holds promise for miniaturization, thus enabling the measurement of molecular diffusion that is inaccessible to conventional micro-NMR setups. Potential applications range from crude oil characterization to biomolecular screening and detections.

  18. Muons as a probe of magnetism in molecule-based low dimensional magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen J.; Pratt, Francis L.; Brooks, Michael L.; Manson, Jamie L.; Brechin, Euan K.; Cadiou, Cyril; Low, David; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2004-10-01

    We present the results of muon spin relaxation (mgr+SR) studies on low dimensional molecular magnet systems. mgr+SR measurements have been carried out on the Cu-based chain compounds CuX2(pyz) (where X = Br, Cl, NCS and pyz = pyrazine) as a function of temperature and applied longitudinal magnetic field. Oscillations in the time dependence of the muon polarization, characteristic of magnetic order at two distinct muon sites, are detected in both CuBr2(pyz) (below TN = 3.6(1) K) and CuCl2(pyz) (below TN = 3.2(2) K). No evidence of magnetic order is observed in Cu(NCS)2(pyz) down to 0.35 K. The results are discussed in terms of the estimated Cu-X-Cu and Cu-(pyz)-Cu exchange constants. The theory of mgr+SR in high spin molecule (HSM) systems, which are effectively zero-dimensional magnets, is discussed and results are presented on [Ni12(chp)12(O2CMe)12(H2O)6(THF)6] (S = 12), [Mn9O7(OAc)11(thme)(py)3(H2O)2] (S = 17/2) and [Fe14(bta)6(O)6(OMe)18 Cl6] (S \\geq 23 ). Measurements made in applied longitudinal magnetic fields on HSM materials at dilution refrigerator temperatures strongly suggest that dynamic local magnetic field fluctuations are responsible for the relaxation of the muon spin ensemble. Trends in temperature and field dependent behaviour in these systems, as probed by the muon, are discussed.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Kong, X; Cai, J-M; Melentijević, K; Stacey, A; Markham, M; Twitchen, D; Isoya, J; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Du, J F; Plenio, M B; Naydenov, B; McGuinness, L P; Jelezko, F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen-vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four (29)Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Double Resonance Using Weak Perturbing RF Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, G. Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Describes a nuclear magnetic resonance experimental example of spin tickling; also discusses a direct approach for verifying the relative signs of coupling constants in three-spin cyclopropyl systems. (SL)

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, C.; Kong, X.; Cai, J.-M.; Melentijević, K.; Stacey, A.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Isoya, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Du, J. F.; Plenio, M. B.; Naydenov, B.; McGuinness, L. P.; Jelezko, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen–vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four 29Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  2. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  3. Kinetic theory of a two-dimensional magnetized plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahala, G.; Montgomery, D.

    1971-01-01

    Several features of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a two-dimensional plasma in a uniform dc magnetic field are investigated. The charges are assumed to interact only through electrostatic potentials. The problem is considered both with and without the guiding-center approximation. With the guiding-center approximation, an appropriate Liouville equation and BBGKY hierarchy predict no approach to thermal equilibrium for the spatially uniform case. For the spatially nonuniform situation, a guiding-center Vlasov equation is discussed and solved in special cases. For the nonequilibrium, nonguiding-center case, a Boltzmann equation, and a Fokker-Planck equation are derived in the appropriate limits. The latter is more tractable than the former, and can be shown to obey conservation laws and an H-theorem, but contains a divergent integral which must be cut off on physical grounds. Several unsolved problems are posed.

  4. Dual-domain denoising in three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Zhou, Jiliu; Wu, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Denoising is a crucial preprocessing procedure for three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI). Existing denoising methods are predominantly implemented in a single domain, ignoring information in other domains. However, denoising methods are becoming increasingly complex, making analysis and implementation challenging. The present study aimed to develop a dual-domain image denoising (DDID) algorithm for 3D MRI that encapsulates information from the spatial and transform domains. In the present study, the DDID method was used to distinguish signal from noise in the spatial and frequency domains, after which robust accurate noise estimation was introduced for iterative filtering, which is simple and beneficial for computation. In addition, the proposed method was compared quantitatively and qualitatively with existing methods for synthetic and in vivo MRI datasets. The results of the present study suggested that the novel DDID algorithm performed well and provided competitive results, as compared with existing MRI denoising filters. PMID:27446257

  5. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance cardiac imaging shows initial promise

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3-D MRI) of the heart is already receiving encouraging reviews from heart surgeons, says Michael Vannier, MD, an associate professor of radiology at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis. In fact, the demand for his group's 3-D images is becoming overwhelming, Vannier says. So far, the group has used 3-D MRI to evaluate congenital heart disease. The advantage of the 3-D system is that, even to an untrained eye, anomalies are apparent and the images can even be animated. Many of the patients are infants, who are sedated while the images are acquired. When the information is combined, the averaged image produced represents a slice about 5 mm thick. The computer then stacks a number of those images together to make the 3-D image. Total scanning takes about one hour.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Magnetization at Zero Applied Magnetic Field in Nearly Two Dimensional Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo, Chomsin S.; Fujii, Muneaki

    2012-12-01

    NMR measurement have been made at low temperatures on the crystal structure of K2CuF4 and (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 at zero applied magnetic field. 63Cu, 65Cu and 35Cl NMR have been used to measure spontaneous magnetization at the temperature range 2 K down to 30 mK. We have made the NMR experiments using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator by conventional pulsed NMR method without external magnetic field. The magnetization at zero applied magnetic field in the nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet K2CuF4 of the experimental data is in a good agreement with Yamaji-Kondo theory and θc = 0.3, which is applied the double-time Green's function method incorporated with Tyablikov's decoupling. For temperature 1.1 K down to 0.26 K, the spontaneous magnetization of (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 is support (t log t')-formalism from the spin wave theory.

  7. Two-Dimensional Aperture Coding for Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Zachary E.; Chen, Evan X.; Amsden, Jason J.; Wolter, Scott D.; Danell, Ryan M.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Brady, David J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-02-01

    In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code.

  8. Two-dimensional aperture coding for magnetic sector mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Zachary E; Chen, Evan X; Amsden, Jason J; Wolter, Scott D; Danell, Ryan M; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Gehm, Michael E; Brady, David J; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2015-02-01

    In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code. PMID:25510933

  9. Force Detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on ammonium sulfate and magnesium diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Han-Jong

    Nuclear magnetic resonance force microscopy (NMRFM) is a technique that combines aspects of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to obtain 3 dimensional nanoscale spatial resolution and perform spectroscopy. We describe the components of a helium-3 NM-RFM probe and studies of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and magnesium dibordie (MgB2). For our room temperature (NH4)2SO 4 studies we were able to perform a 1-D scan and perform nutation and spin echo experiments. In our 77 K MgB2 we demonstrate a 1-D scan of a 30 mum powder sample. In addition, we describe magnetic measurements of the possible dilute semiconductors MnxSc 1-xN and Fe0:1Sc 0:9N.

  10. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  11. The manifestations of the two-dimensional magnetic correlations in the nanocrystalline ribbons Fe64Co21B15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskhakov, R. S.; Komogortsev, S. V.; Balaev, A. D.; Gavriliuk, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report and discuss the grain size dependence of the coercivity and approach magnetization to saturation in the FeCoB ribbons. Instead of expected three-dimensional magnetic correlations for 20 μm thick ribbon with grain size about 10 nm, the observed behavior could be attributed to the two-dimensional stochastic magnetic domains and two dimensional magnetization ripple.

  12. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Muñoz, J D

    2008-02-01

    We develop a three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the two-fluids theory for plasmas, and consequently includes the generalized Ohm's law. The model reproduces the magnetic reconnection process just by giving the right initial equilibrium conditions in the magnetotail, without any assumption on the resistivity in the diffusive region. In this model, the plasma is handled similar to two fluids with an interaction term, each one with distribution functions associated to a cubic lattice with 19 velocities (D3Q19). The electromagnetic fields are considered as a third fluid with an external force on a cubic lattice with 13 velocities (D3Q13). The model can simulate either viscous fluids in the incompressible limit or nonviscous compressible fluids, and successfully reproduces both the Hartmann flow and the magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail. The reconnection rate in the magnetotail obtained with this model lies between R=0.062 and R=0.073, in good agreement with the observations. PMID:18352154

  13. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, M.; Munoz, J. D.

    2008-02-15

    We develop a three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the two-fluids theory for plasmas, and consequently includes the generalized Ohm's law. The model reproduces the magnetic reconnection process just by giving the right initial equilibrium conditions in the magnetotail, without any assumption on the resistivity in the diffusive region. In this model, the plasma is handled similar to two fluids with an interaction term, each one with distribution functions associated to a cubic lattice with 19 velocities (D3Q19). The electromagnetic fields are considered as a third fluid with an external force on a cubic lattice with 13 velocities (D3Q13). The model can simulate either viscous fluids in the incompressible limit or nonviscous compressible fluids, and successfully reproduces both the Hartmann flow and the magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail. The reconnection rate in the magnetotail obtained with this model lies between R=0.062 and R=0.073, in good agreement with the observations.

  14. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field Line Reconnection involving Magnetic Flux Ropes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W. N.; van Compernolle, B.; Lawrence, E.; Vincena, S. T.

    2010-12-01

    We report on two experiments in which three dimensional magnetic field line reconnection plays a role. Magnetic field line reconnection is a processes in which the magnetic field energy is converted to particle energy and heating accompanied by changes in the magnetic topology. In the first experiment two magnetic flux ropes are generated from initially adjacent pulsed current channels in a background magnetoplasma in the LAPD device at UCLA. The currents exert mutual jXB forces causing them to twist about each other and merge. The currents are not static but move towards or away from each other in time. In addition the currents are observed to filament after merging. Volumetric space-time data show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) is a narrow region between the flux ropes. Two field lines on either side of the QSL will have closely spaced foot-points at on end of the flux ropes, but a very different separation at the other end. Outside the QSL, neighboring field lines do not diverge. The QSL has been measured, for the first time in this experiment [1] and its three dimensional development will be shown in movies made from the data. A system involving the reconnection of three flux ropes will also be presented. Three flux ropes are generated by drawing currents through apertures in a carbon shield located in front of a 10 cm diameter cathode immersed in the background magnetoplasma. The currents are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and thrash about due to kink the kink instability. Multiple reconnection regions (which are three dimensional) and a complex QSL are observed. The magnetic helicity is evaluated from volumetric data in both cases and its rate of change is used to estimate the plasma resistivity. These measurements lead one to suspect that magnetic field line reconnection is not an independent topic, which can be studied in isolation, but part of the phenomena associated

  15. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  16. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

  17. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-14

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of bovine γB-crystallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, George; Mills, Jeffrey; Michel, Lea; Mathews, Kaylee; Zanet, John; Payan, Angel; van Nostrand, Keith; Kotlarchyk, Michael; Ross, David; Wahle, Christopher; Hamilton, John

    Anisotropy of shape and/or interactions play an important role in determining the properties of concentrated solutions of the eye lens protein, γB-crystallin, including its liquid-liquid phase transition. We are studying γB anisotropic interactions with use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) concentration- and temperature-dependent chemical shift perturbations (CSPs). We analyze two-dimensional heteronuclear spin quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra on backbone nitrogen and attached hydrogen nuclei for CSPs, up to 3 percent volume fraction. Cumulative distribution functions of the CSPs show a concentration and temperature-dependent spread. Many peaks that are highly shifted with either concentration or temperature are close (i) crystal intermolecular contacts (ii) locations of cataractogenic point mutations of a homologous human protein, human γD-crystallin, and (iii) charged amino-acid residues. We also discuss the concentration- and temperature-dependence of NMR and quasielastic light scattering measurements of rotational and translational diffusion of γB crystallin in solution, affected by interprotein attractions. Supported by NIH EY018249.

  19. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.

  20. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  1. Desktop fast-field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometer.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Duarte Mesquita; Marques, Gil Domingos; Cascais, José Manuel; Sebastião, Pedro José

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a new type of Fast Field Cycling (FFC) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometer with low power consumption (200W) and cycle to cycle field stability better than 10(-4) is described. The new high-permeability magnet was designed to allow for good magnetic field homogeneity and allows for the sample rotation around an axis perpendicular to magnetic field, operating with magnetic fields between 0 and 0.21T. The power supply of the new relaxometer was specially developed in order to have steady state accurate currents and allow for magnetic field switching times less than 3ms. Additional control circuits were developed and included to compensate the Earth magnetic field component parallel to the field axis and to compensate for parasitic currents. The main aspects of the developed circuits together with some calibrating experimental results using the liquid crystal compounds 5CB and 8CB are presented and discussed. PMID:20688489

  2. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-08-15

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  3. The anomalous nuclear component in the three-dimensional heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The anomalous nuclear component is neither of solar nor galactic cosmic ray origin. Its presence in the heliosphere is an independent probe for both interplanetary electrodynamical investigations--especially solar modulation--and probably the most direct means for determining the elemental and isotopic composition of those neutral atoms in the local interstellar medium that have high first ionization potentials (e.g., He, N, O, Ne, Ar, etc.). This report is a brief account of the evolution of our knowledge of this component for readers not specializing in the subject. Included are the initial discoveries of the component, its composition, spectra, heliospheric radial and latitudinal intensity gradients, modulation over the approximately 22 year solar magnetic cycle, trapping in the magnetosphere and its use for estimating the location of a heliospheric termination shock. Recent measurements from the ULYSSES spacecraft have provided conclusive evidence that incoming neutral atoms, after photoionization by solar uv, are picked up by the solar wind, thus lending support for the concept that after their acceleration--probably at a termination shock--they return to the inner heliosphere as pseudo-cosmic rays. ULYSSES spacecraft investigations extending to approximately 56 deg south latitude reveal, for both the anomalous nuclear component and the galactic cosmic rays, that there is a surprisingly small latitudinal intensity gradient. Thus, for the current phase of the solar cycle, modulation is much more spherically symmetric in the inner solar system than had generally been believed. A further surprise is the continual presence of approximately 26 day recurrent modulation at hight latitudes, without corresponding magnetic field compressions. These results are changing our ideas and requiring modification of our models for solar modulation in three dimensions.

  4. Effective Giromagnetic Ratios in Artifical Nuclear Magnetization Pumping of the Noble Gases Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, E. N.; Barantsev, K. A.; Litvinov, A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic of the nuclear magnetization of the two noble gases mix was studied in this research. Nuclear magnetization pumped along the induction of external magnetic field. Vector of nuclear magnetization is given a tilt by the week rotational magnetic field, which makes NMR for noble gases. Interaction between the nuclear magnetic moments of the different noble gases adducted to shifts at the frequency of nuclear moments precession in external magnetic field. Effective gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclear of noble gases is defined and it different from the tabulated value. There is theoretical calculation of effective gyromagnetic ratios in this research.

  5. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1970’s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a standard imaging modality. With its broad and standardized application, it is firmly established in the clinical routine and an essential element in cardiovascular and abdominal imaging. In addition to sonography and computer tomography, MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing cardiovascular and abdominal diseases, for determining disease severity, and for assessing therapeutic success. MRI techniques have improved over the last few decades, revealing not just morphologic information, but functional information about perfusion, diffusion and hemodynamics as well. Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a time-resolved phase contrast-MRI with three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage and velocity encoding along all three flow directions has been used to comprehensively assess complex cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the body. The technique enables visualization of 3D blood flow patterns and retrospective quantification of blood flow parameters in a region of interest. Over the last few years, 4D flow MRI has been increasingly performed in the abdominal region. By applying different acceleration techniques, taking 4D flow MRI measurements has dropped to a reasonable scanning time of 8 to 12 min. These new developments have encouraged a growing number of patient studies in the literature validating the technique’s potential for enhanced evaluation of blood flow parameters within the liver’s complex vascular system. The purpose of this review article is to broaden our understanding of 4D flow MRI for the assessment of liver hemodynamics by providing insights into acquisition, data analysis, visualization and quantification. Furthermore, in this article we highlight its development, focussing on the clinical application of the technique. PMID:26755862

  6. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietchen, D.; Aberhan, M.; Manz, B.; Hampe, O.; Mohr, B.; Neumann, C.; Volke, F.

    2007-08-01

    The visibility of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide an interesting methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  7. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietchen, D.; Aberhan, M.; Manz, B.; Hampe, O.; Mohr, B.; Neumann, C.; Volke, F.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  8. Magnet design considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhai, Yuhu; Kessel, Chuck; El-guebaly, Laila; Titus, Peter

    2016-02-25

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility to provide a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between ITER and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared to ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, 30 times higher neutron fluence with 3 orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center withmore » plasma major radius of 4.8 m and minor radius of 1.2 m, and a peak field of 15.5 T on the TF coils for FNSF. Both low temperature superconductor (LTS) and high temperature superconductor (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high performance ternary Restack Rod Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands for toroidal field (TF) magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high aspect ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets but low activation jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. As a result, the material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.« less

  9. Part I. An investigation of the substrate and ligand binding sites of the cytochrome P-450-CAM using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part II. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of (1R)-(+)-camphor and twenty-five camphor derivatives using one- and two-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crull, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The distance between the heme iron of ferrous cytochrome P-450-CAM and a fluorine label attached to the 9-methyl group of its substrate, (1R)-(+)-camphor, has been determined using /sup 19/F NMR. This investigation is the first use of the Solomon-Bloembergen equation to determine the distance from a substrate-bound fluorine that is not in fast exchange to a paramagnetic heme iron. The paramagnetic relaxation rate data and the correlation time have been used to calculate a distance of 3.8 A between the heme iron and the C-9 fluorine. The interaction of fluoride ion with the ferric high-spin heme iron of cytochrome P-450-CAM and of myoglobin has also been investigated using /sup 19/F NMR relaxation measurements. The carbon, proton, and deuterium NMR properties of (1R)-(+)-camphor have been thoroughly investigated by both one- and two-dimensional procedures. This has allowed the first definitive assignments of the resonances of all of the carbons and protons in camphor to be made. The NMR spectra of twenty-five camphor derivatives have been examined by one- and two-dimensional methods and the resonances assigned.

  10. Two-dimensional quantum walk under artificial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçınkaya, I.; Gedik, Z.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce the Peierls substitution to a two-dimensional discrete-time quantum walk on a square lattice to examine the spreading dynamics and the coin-position entanglement in the presence of an artificial gauge field. We use the ratio of the magnetic flux through the unit cell to the flux quantum as a control parameter. For a given flux ratio, we obtain faster spreading for a small number of steps and the walker tends to be highly localized around the origin. Moreover, the spreading of the walk can be suppressed and decreased within a limited time interval for specific rational values of flux ratio. When the flux ratio is an irrational number, even for a large number of steps, the spreading exhibits diffusive behavior rather than the well-known ballistic one as in the classical random walk and there is a significant probability of finding the walker at the origin. We also analyze the coin-position entanglement and show that the asymptotic behavior vanishes when the flux ratio is different from zero and the coin-position entanglement become nearly maximal in a periodic manner in a long time range.

  11. Neutron Scattering Study of Low Dimensional Quantum Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Collin

    1997-03-01

    I review three neutron scattering experiments which have uncovered unusual magnetic phenomena in non-metallic low dimensional quantum antiferromagnets. (Work done in collaboration with M. Adams, G. Aeppli, C. Carlile, S.-W. Cheong, D. Davidović), D. C. Dender, J. F. DiTusa, P. R. Hammar, B. Hessen, T. Ito, S. H. Lee, K. Lefmann, K. Oka, T. G. Perring, A. P. Ramirez, Daniel H. Reich, H. Takagi, A. Taylor, and Guangyong Xu. I present evidence that the low temperature short-range ordered spin configuration in the kagomé bi-layer system SrCr_9pGa_12-9pO_19 is composed of small groups of spins whose dipole moments cancel. I report the first observation of field induced incommensurate spin correlations in the uniform spin 1/2 antiferromagnetic chain copper benzoate, and I discuss new results concerning sub-gap excitations in a spin 1 antiferromagnetic chain with impurity bonds, (Y_1-xCa_x)_2BaNiO_5.

  12. Low-dimensionality energy landscapes: Magnetic switching mechanisms and rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, P. B.; Zhu, Ru

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for the study and visualization of dynamic processes in magnetic nanostructures, and for the accurate calculation of rates for such processes. The method is illustrated for the case of switching of a grain of an exchange-coupled recording medium, which switches through domain wall nucleation and motion, but is generalizable to other rate processes such as vortex formation and annihilation. The method involves calculating the most probable (lowest energy) switching path and projecting the motion onto that path. The motion is conveniently visualized in a two-dimensional (2D) projection parameterized by the dipole and quadrupole moment of the grain. The motion along that path can then be described by a Langevin equation, and its rate can be computed by the classic method of Kramers [4]. The rate can be evaluated numerically, or in an analytic approximation-interestingly, the analytic result for domain-wall switching is very similar to that obtained by Brown in 1963 for coherent switching, except for a factor proportional to the domain-wall volume. Thus in addition to its lower coercivity, an exchange-coupled medium has the additional advantage (over a uniform medium) of greater thermal stability, for a fixed energy barrier.

  13. High-nuclearity magnetic clusters: Magnetic interactions in clusters encapsulated by molecular metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borras-Almenar, Juan José; Coronado, Eugenio; Galan-Mascaros, Jose Ramón; Gómez-García, Carlos J.

    1995-02-01

    The ability of the molecular metal oxides derived from the Keggin anion [PW 12O 40] 3- to accommodate magnetic ions at specific sites, giving rise to polymetallic clusters with increasing spin nuclearities is discussed. Examples of magnetic clusters with three, four and nine metal ions exhibiting ferromagnetic exchange couplings or a coexistence of ferro- and antiferromagnetic couplings are reported.

  14. Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Gerber, S; Jang, H; Nojiri, H; Matsuzawa, S; Yasumura, H; Bonn, D A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Islam, Z; Mehta, A; Song, S; Sikorski, M; Stefanescu, D; Feng, Y; Kivelson, S A; Devereaux, T P; Shen, Z-X; Kao, C-C; Lee, W-S; Zhu, D; Lee, J-S

    2015-11-20

    Charge density wave (CDW) correlations have been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured with x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. We combined a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free-electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields of up to 28 tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops at temperatures below ~150 kelvin, is essentially two dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW appears around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature; in contrast, the incommensurate in-plane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and high-temperature superconductivity are intimately linked. PMID:26541608

  15. Three-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, S.; Jang, H.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W.; Islam, Z.; Lee, W. -S.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-11-20

    Charge density wave (CDW) correlations have been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. Here we combine a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below T ~ 150 K, is essentially two-dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 Tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW onsets around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature, yet the incommensurate inplane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and hightemperature superconductivity are intimately linked.

  16. Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at high magnetic fields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gerber, S.; Jang, H.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Islam, Z.; Mehta, A.; et al

    2015-11-20

    In this study, charge density wave (CDW) correlations have recently been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. Here we combine a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below T ~ 150 K, is essentially two-dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 Tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW onsetsmore » around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature, yet the incommensurate in-plane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and high-temperature superconductivity are intimately linked.« less

  17. Local nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with giant magnetic resistance-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitard, P. A.; Ayde, R.; Jasmin-Lebras, G.; Caruso, L.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; Fermon, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on small volumes, either on microfluidic channels or in vivo configuration, is a present challenge. We report here a high resolution NMR spectroscopy on micron scale performed with Giant Magnetic Resistance-based sensors placed in a static magnetic B 0 field of 0.3 T. The sensing volume of the order of several tens of pL opens the way to high resolution spectroscopy on volumes unreached so far.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    Weitekamp, Daniel P.; Bielecki, Anthony; Zax, David B.; Zilm, Kurt W.; Pines, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nucleii. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    Weitekamp, D.P.; Bielecki, A.; Zax, D.B.; Zilm, K.W.; Pines, A.

    1987-12-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nuclei. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. 5 figs.

  20. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  1. Coexistence of Incommensurate Magnetism and Superconductivity in the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Yamase, Hiroyuki; Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the competition of magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model with a moderate interaction strength, including the possibility of incommensurate spiral magnetic order. Using an unbiased renormalization group approach, we compute magnetic and superconducting order parameters in the ground state. In addition to previously established regions of Néel order coexisting with d-wave superconductivity, the calculations reveal further coexistence regions where superconductivity is accompanied by incommensurate magnetic order. PMID:26991188

  2. Vacuum modeling of three-dimensional magnetic field topology under resonant magnetic perturbations on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, M.; Sun, Y.; Zhong, F.; Li, H.; Li, G.; Wang, L.; Gan, K.; Zhang, B.; Qian, J.; Shen, B.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical model using field line tracing for modeling of three-dimensional magnetic field topology under resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) is presented. The topological structure is calculated in the vacuum paradigm. The modeling result predicts that the possible strike point splitting on a plasma-facing component and the lobes-like structure on the boundary are observable in the diagnostics at different locations. It is shown that the magnetic perturbations with a resonant dominant spectrum can induce a large footprint splitting effect as well as a wide stochastic layer. This is useful for observations using diagnostics with limited spatial resolution. The impact of RMP fields on marginally disconnected double null configurations is investigated. To avoid the transient heat load on the upper divertor or plasma-facing components near the upper x-point, it is necessary to keep the distance between two separatrices of a near double null configuration larger than a threshold value that depends on the RMP strength and the equilibrium properties. A preliminary RMP experiment on EAST shows that there is a good agreement between the splitting width predicted by the code and that of the particle flux measured by divertor probes. An enhancement of particle flux on the upper divertor during the RMP phase is observed in the lower single null discharge.

  3. Dimensionality reduction for uncertainty quantification of nuclear engineering models.

    SciTech Connect

    Roderick, O.; Wang, Z.; Anitescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The task of uncertainty quantification consists of relating the available information on uncertainties in the model setup to the resulting variation in the outputs of the model. Uncertainty quantification plays an important role in complex simulation models of nuclear engineering, where better understanding of uncertainty results in greater confidence in the model and in the improved safety and efficiency of engineering projects. In our previous work, we have shown that the effect of uncertainty can be approximated by polynomial regression with derivatives (PRD): a hybrid regression method that uses first-order derivatives of the model output as additional fitting conditions for a polynomial expansion. Numerical experiments have demonstrated the advantage of this approach over classical methods of uncertainty analysis: in precision, computational efficiency, or both. To obtain derivatives, we used automatic differentiation (AD) on the simulation code; hand-coded derivatives are acceptable for simpler models. We now present improvements on the method. We use a tuned version of the method of snapshots, a technique based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), to set up the reduced order representation of essential information on uncertainty in the model inputs. The automatically obtained sensitivity information is required to set up the method. Dimensionality reduction in combination with PRD allows analysis on a larger dimension of the uncertainty space (>100), at modest computational cost.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  5. Respiratory Amplitude Guided 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yanle; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag J.; Mutic, Sasa

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of prospectively guiding 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image acquisition using triggers at preselected respiratory amplitudes to achieve T{sub 2} weighting for abdominal motion tracking. Methods and Materials: A respiratory amplitude-based triggering system was developed and integrated into a commercial turbo spin echo MRI sequence. Initial feasibility tests were performed on healthy human study participants. Four respiratory states, the middle and the end of inhalation and exhalation, were used to trigger 4D MRI image acquisition of the liver. To achieve T{sub 2} weighting, the echo time and repetition time were set to 75 milliseconds and 4108 milliseconds, respectively. Single-shot acquisition, together with parallel imaging and partial k-space imaging techniques, was used to improve image acquisition efficiency. 4D MRI image sets composed of axial or sagittal slices were acquired. Results: Respiratory data measured and logged by the MRI scanner showed that the triggers occurred at the appropriate respiratory levels. Liver motion could be easily observed on both 4D MRI image datasets by sensing either the change of liver in size and shape (axial) or diaphragm motion (sagittal). Both 4D MRI image datasets were T{sub 2}-weighted as expected. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of achieving T{sub 2}-weighted 4D MRI images using amplitude-based respiratory triggers. With the aid of the respiratory amplitude-based triggering system, the proposed method is compatible with most MRI sequences and therefore has the potential to improve tumor-tissue contrast in abdominal tumor motion imaging.

  6. Development of a two-dimensional scanning micro-mirror utilizing magnetic polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Junya; Onishi, Yoshiyuki; Terao, Kyohei; Takao, Hidekuni; Shimokawa, Fusao; Oohira, Fumikazu; Miyagawa, Hayato; Namazu, Takahiro; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we propose a magnetically driven micro-mirror, constructed using negative photoresist SU-8 containing magnetic particles, as a magnetic actuator and torsion bar structure. Because the magnetic polymer composite uses thick negative photoresist SU-8 as the main material, the micro-mirror is simply fabricated in just a few steps by conventional photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. A fabricated prototype of the micro-mirror, which is magnetically driven by using an external magnetic field, is shown to deflect with two-dimensional optical deflection angles of 6.5 and 12.5°. Moreover, Lissajous scanning motion of the fabricated mirror is achieved.

  7. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  8. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  9. Nuclear heating, radiation damage, and waste management options for the HYLIFE-II final focus magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Moir, R W; House, P A

    1999-08-09

    Heavy-ion fusion (HIF) designs for inertial fusion energy (XFE) power plants typically require final focusing magnets just outside the reaction chamber and blanket. Due to penetrations within the chamber and blanket, the magnets are exposed to a radiation environment. Although the magnet bores would be sized to avoid line-of-sight irradiation, the magnets still would be susceptible to nuclear heating and radiation damage from neutrons and y-rays. Additionally, the magnets must be included in waste management considerations due to neutron activation. Modified versions of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant featuring two-sided illumination by arrays of 32 or 96 beams from each side are presented. A simple, point-of-departure quadrupole magnet design is assumed, and a three-dimensional neutronics model is created for the Flibe pocket, first wall, blanket, shield, and final two focusing magnets. This work details state-of-the-art neutronics calculations and shows that the final focus system needs to be included in the economic and environmental considerations for the driver-chamber interface of any HIF IFE power plant design.

  10. Two-dimensional magnetic property measurement for magneto-rheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianbin; Guo, Youguang; Li, Yancheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Jianchun

    2013-05-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) is a new kind of smart material. Its rheological properties can be altered and controlled in a real time manner when it is applied an external magnetic field. For calculating magnetic properties of MRE material, usually Maxwell-Garnet equation is used to acquire an approximately effective permeability. This equation treats the magnetic property of particles as linear. However, when the applied magnetic field is alternating or rotating, the nonlinearity of magnetic property and magnetic hysteresis cannot be neglected. Hence, the measurement and modelling of the magnetic properties under alternating and rotating magnetic fields are essential to explore new applications of the material. This paper presents the investigation on the magnetic hysteresis properties of MRE material under one-dimensional (1-D) alternating and two-dimensional (2-D) rotating magnetic field excitations. A kind of MRE material, consisting of 70% carbonyl iron particles, 10% silicone oil, and 20% silicone rubber, was used to investigate the magnetic properties. The diameter of carbonyl iron particles is 3-5 μm. The measurement results, such as the relations between magnetic field intensity (H) and magnetic flux density (B) under different magnetic field excitations on the MRE sample, have been obtained and analyzed. These data would be useful for design and analysis of MRE smart structures like MR dampers.

  11. Magnetic field simulation of magnetic phase detection sensor for steam generator tube in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Kim, Yong-il

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic phases and defects are partly produced in steam generator tubes by stress and heat, because steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are used under high temperature, high pressure, and radioactivity. The magnetic phases induce an error in the detection of the defects in steam generator tubes by the conventional eddy current method. So a new method is needed for detecting the magnetic phases in the steam generator tubes. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils and simulated the signal by the magnetic phases and defects in the Inconnel 600 tube.

  12. Concepts in Biochemistry: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Steve

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the nature of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment, the techniques used, the types of structural and dynamic information obtained, and how one can view and refine structures using computer graphics techniques in combination with NMR data. Provides several spectra and a computer graphics image from B-form DNA. (MVL)

  13. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance in organic geochemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of polycyclic fused systems. The fingerprint qualities of the natural abundance in C-13 NMR spectra permitting unequivocal identification of these compounds is discussed. The principle of structural additivity of C-13 NMR information is exemplified on alpha and beta androstanes, alpha and beta cholestanes, ergostanes, sitostanes, and isodecanes.

  14. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Coupling Constants and Electronic Structure in Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venanzi, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Theory of nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin coupling constants and nature of the three types of coupling mechanisms contributing to the overall spin-spin coupling constant are reviewed, including carbon-carbon coupling (neither containing a lone pair of electrons) and carbon-nitrogen coupling (one containing a lone pair of electrons).…

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance implementation of a quantum clock synchronization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Long, G.C; Liu Wenzhang; Deng Zhiwei; Lu Zhiheng

    2004-12-01

    The quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm proposed by Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2006 (2000)] has been implemented in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system. The time difference between two separated clocks can be determined by measuring the output states. The experimental realization of the QCS algorithm also demonstrates an application of the quantum phase estimation.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Himadri R. Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic ordering in the quasi-one-dimensional Ising magnet CoNb2O6 with partially released geometrical frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Mitsuda, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Miyatani, K.; Kohn, K.

    1999-08-01

    The formation of three-dimensional magnetic ordering has been studied on a quasi-one-dimensional magnet CoNb2O6 by mean-field calculations as well as neutron scattering measurements down to T=1.5 K under magnetic fields up to H∥c~600 Oe. Measurements of a deviation of the magnetic Bragg scattering function from the delta function in the ordered state reveal a surprisingly rich variety of the magnetic formation arising from an isosceles triangular arrangement of the magnetic chain with competing interchain interactions in the a-b plane. The competing interactions result in quasidegenerate ground states with different propagation wave numbers along the b* direction in the sinusoidally amplitude-modulated incommensurate magnetic (IC) phase. Our mean-field calculations qualitatively reproduce the complicated H∥c-T magnetic phase diagram and give evidence for a high degeneracy of ground states by calculating the H∥c-T dependence of the free energy curve in the propagation wave number space. In addition, a partial cancellation of the exchange field at the apex site from the base sites on the isosceles triangular lattice leads to a quasi-long-range ordering along the a axis in both IC and antiferromagnetic states where the correlation length along the a axis depends on the propagation wave number along the b* direction.

  19. Magnetic properties of a two-dimensional electron gas strongly coupled to light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, K.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Considering the quantum dynamics of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) exposed to both a stationary magnetic field and an intense high-frequency electromagnetic wave, we found that the wave decreases the scattering-induced broadening of Landau levels. Therefore, various magnetoelectronic properties of two-dimensional nanostructures (density of electronic states at Landau levels, magnetotransport, etc.) are sensitive to irradiation by light. Thus, the elaborated theory paves the way for optically controlling the magnetic properties of 2DEG.

  20. Measurement of nuclear magnetic dipole—dipole couplings in magic angle spinning NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert; Dabbagh, Gary

    1990-10-01

    We describe a method for measuring nuclear magnetic dipole—dipole couplings in NMR spectra of solids undergoing rapid magic angle spinning (MAS). We show in theory, simulations, and experiments that the couplings, which are averaged out by MAS alone, can be recovered by applying simple resonant radiofrequency pulse sequences in synchrony with the sample rotation. Experimental 13C dipolar powder pattern spectra of polycrystalline ( 13CH 3) 2C(OH)SO 3Na obtained in a two-dimensional experiment based on this method are presented. The method provides a means of determining internuclear distances in polycrystalline and noncrystalline solids while retaining the high resolution and sensitivity afforded by MAS.

  1. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol. PMID:2373957

  2. Coaxial probe for nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation correlation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yiqiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Mandal, Soumyajit; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-02-21

    A coaxial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is built to measure diffusion and relaxation properties of liquid samples. In particular, we demonstrate the acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) distribution functions (T{sub 1}-T{sub 2} and diffusion–T{sub 2}), essential for fluids characterization. The compact design holds promise for miniaturization, thus enabling the measurement of molecular diffusion that is inaccessible to conventional micro-NMR setups. Potential applications range from crude oil characterization to biomolecular screening and detections.

  3. Experimental study of quantum simulation for quantum chemistry with a nuclear magnetic resonance simulator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dawei; Xu, Nanyang; Xu, Boruo; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng

    2012-10-13

    Quantum computers have been proved to be able to mimic quantum systems efficiently in polynomial time. Quantum chemistry problems, such as static molecular energy calculations and dynamical chemical reaction simulations, become very intractable on classical computers with scaling up of the system. Therefore, quantum simulation is a feasible and effective approach to tackle quantum chemistry problems. Proof-of-principle experiments have been implemented on the calculation of the hydrogen molecular energies and one-dimensional chemical isomerization reaction dynamics using nuclear magnetic resonance systems. We conclude that quantum simulation will surpass classical computers for quantum chemistry in the near future. PMID:22946038

  4. The Decay of a Weak Large-scale Magnetic Field in Two-dimensional Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondić, Todor; Hughes, David W.; Tobias, Steven M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the decay of a large-scale magnetic field in the context of incompressible, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. It is well established that a very weak mean field, of strength significantly below equipartition value, induces a small-scale field strong enough to inhibit the process of turbulent magnetic diffusion. In light of ever-increasing computer power, we revisit this problem to investigate fluids and magnetic Reynolds numbers that were previously inaccessible. Furthermore, by exploiting the relation between the turbulent diffusion of the magnetic potential and that of the magnetic field, we are able to calculate the turbulent magnetic diffusivity extremely accurately through the imposition of a uniform mean magnetic field. We confirm the strong dependence of the turbulent diffusivity on the product of the magnetic Reynolds number and the energy of the large-scale magnetic field. We compare our findings with various theoretical descriptions of this process.

  5. Effects of magnetic barriers on transport and magnetoresistance in a two-dimensional electronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H. L.; Zhang, X. W.; Wang, Z. P.; Dai, B.; Ren, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We study theoretically the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect of 2-dimensional electron system (2DES) by the transfer matrix method. To produce the inhomogeneous magnetic field, two magnetic strips are pre-deposited on the surface of 2DES. In our work, we fix the magnetization M in one magnetic strip and adjust the tilting angle θ of magnetization in the other. The result shows that the electronic transmission and conductance vary significantly for different θ. The minimum conductance can be obtained at θ = π which corresponds to the magnetization anti-parallel alignment. The magnetoresistance ratio (MRR) calculation also indicates we would get the maximum in that case. Furthermore, we consider the magnetization M dependence of MRR in this work. When M increases, MRR peaks get higher and broader and more numbers of peaks can be observed. These results offer an alternative to get a tunable GMR device which can be controlled by adjusting the magnetization M and the magnetized angle θ.

  6. Influence of nuclear spin on chemical reactions: Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    1983-01-01

    The course of chemical reactions involving radical pairs may depend on occurrence and orientation of nuclear spins in the pairs. The influence of nuclear spins is maximized when the radical pairs are confined to a space that serves as a cage that allows a certain degree of independent diffusional and rotational motion of the partners of the pair but that also encourages reencounters of the partners within a period which allows the nuclear spins to operate on the odd electron spins of the pair. Under the proper conditions, the nuclear spins can induce intersystem crossing between triplet and singlet states of radical pairs. It is shown that this dependence of intersystem crossing on nuclear spin leads to a magnetic isotope effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of separating isotopes on the basis of nuclear spins rather than nuclear masses and also leads to a magnetic field effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of influencing the course of polymerization by the application of weak magnetic fields. PMID:16593273

  7. Two-dimensional field-sensing map and magnetic anisotropy dispersion in magnetic tunnel junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang; Carter, Matthew J.

    2011-04-01

    Due to the inherent disorder in local structures, anisotropy dispersion exists in almost all systems that consist of multiple magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Aided by micromagnetic simulations based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth (S-W) model, we used a two-dimensional field-sensing map to study the effect of anisotropy dispersion in MTJ arrays. First, we recorded the field sensitivity value of an MTJ array as a function of the easy- and hard-axis bias fields, and then extracted the anisotropy dispersion in the array by comparing the experimental sensitivity map to the simulated map. Through a mean-square-error-based image processing technique, we found the best match for our experimental data, and assigned a pair of dispersion numbers (anisotropy angle and anisotropy constant) to the array. By varying each of the parameters one at a time, we were able to discover the dependence of field sensitivity on magnetoresistance ratio, coercivity, and magnetic anisotropy dispersion. The effects from possible edge domains are also discussed to account for a correction term in our analysis of anisotropy angle distribution using the S-W model. We believe this model is a useful tool for monitoring the formation and evolution of anisotropy dispersion in MTJ systems, and can facilitate better design of MTJ-based devices.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antypas, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T{sub 1} relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by {sup 31}P NMR.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Thompson, Morrow B.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Hayes, Cecil E.

    Resolution limits in NMR imaging are imposed by bandwidth considerations, available magnetic gradients for spatial encoding, and signal to noise. This work reports modification of a clinical NMR imaging device with picture elements of 500 × 500 × 5000 μm to yield picture elements of 50 × 50 × 1000 μm. Resolution has been increased by using smaller gradient coils permitting gradient fields >0.4 mT/cm. Significant improvements in signal to noise are achieved with smaller rf coils, close attention to choice of bandwidth, and signal averaging. These improvements permit visualization of anatomical structures in the rat brain with an effective diameter of 1 cm with the same definition as is seen in human imaging. The techniques and instrumentation should open a number of basic sciences such as embryology, plant sciences, and teratology to the potentials of NMR imaging.

  10. A method for finding three-dimensional magnetic skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, A. L.; Parnell, C. E.

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic fields are an essential component of a plasma. In many astrophysical, solar, magnetospheric, and laboratory situations the magnetic field in the plasma can be very dynamic and form highly complex structures. One approach to unraveling these structures is to determine the magnetic skeleton of the field, a set of topological features that divide the magnetic field into topologically distinct domains. In general, the features of the magnetic skeleton are difficult to locate, in particular those given by numerical experiments. In this paper, we propose a new set of tools to find the skeleton of general magnetic fields including null points, spines, separatrix surfaces, and separators. This set of tools is found to be considerably better at finding the skeleton than the currently favored methods used in magnetohydrodynamics.

  11. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacing devices.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Francisco; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan M; Sancho-Tello, María J; Olagüe, José; Osca, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Arnau, Miguel A; Igual, Begoña

    2010-06-01

    Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is contraindicated in patients with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This study was carried out because the potential risks in this situation need to be clearly defined. This prospective study evaluated clinical and electrical parameters before and after magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 33 patients (five with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and 28 with pacemakers). In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging was considered clinically essential. There were no clinical complications. There was a temporary communication failure in two cases, sensing errors during imaging in two cases, and a safety signal was generated in one pacemaker at the maximum magnetic resonance frequency and output level. There were no technical restrictions on imaging nor were there any permanent changes in the performance of the cardiac pacing device. PMID:20515632

  13. Spin frustration in one-dimensional magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás-Almenar, J. J.; Coronado, E.; Gallart, J. C.; Georges, R.; Gomez-García, Carlos J.

    1992-02-01

    Spin frustration is investigated in a classical-spin chain formed by antiferromagnetically coupled triangles sharing corners. This model considers two different magnetic sublattices which are coupled by three different Heisenberg exchange interactions. An exact expression of the zero-field magnetic susceptibility is derived and used in order to analyze the magnetic properties of the two-sublattice manganese chain MnMn(CDTA)·7H 2O.

  14. Unconventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques using nanostructured diamond surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Victor; Jarmola, Andrey; Budker, Dmitry; Santori, Charles; Huang, Zhihong; Beausoleil, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technologies rely on obtaining high nuclear magnetization, motivating low operating temperatures and high magnetic fields. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) techniques traditionally require another superconducting magnet and THz optics. We seek to use chip-scale devices to polarize nuclei in liquids at room temperature. The technique relies on optical pumping of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers and subsequent transfer of polarization to nuclei via hyperfine interaction, spin diffusion, and heteronuclear polarization transfer. We expect efficient polarization transfer will be realized by maximizing the diamond surface area. We have fabricated densely-packed (50 % packing fraction), high-aspect-ratio (10+) nanopillars over mm2 regions of the diamond surface. Pillars designed to have a few-hundred-nanometer diameter act as optical antennas, reducing saturation intensity. We also report progress in using nanopillar arrays as sensitive optical detectors of nano-scale NMR by measuring NV center Zeeman shifts produced by nearby external nuclei. The enhanced surface area increases the effective density of NV centers which couple to external nuclei. Combining these techniques may enable, e.g., identification of trace analytes and molecular imaging.

  15. Enhanced Nuclear Magnetism: Some Novel Features and Prospective Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abragam, A.; Bleaney, B.

    1983-06-01

    This review of enhanced nuclear magnetism discusses a number of features not previously considered, with special reference to new experiments that use dynamic methods to produce high nuclear polarization, followed by adiabatic demagnetization in the rotating frame (a.d.r.f.) to produce nuclear ordered states that may be investigated by the scattering of beams of neutrons. Section 2. The 'enhancement' of the nuclear moment arises from the electronic magnetization M_I induced through the hyperfine interaction. It is shown that the spatial distribution of M_I is the same as that of M_H, the Van Vleck magnetization induced by an external field, provided that J is a good quantum number. The spatial distributions are not in general the same in Russell-Saunders coupling, e.g. in the 3d group. Section 3. The Bloch equations are extended to include anisotropic nuclear moments. Section 4. The 'truncated' spin Hamiltonian is derived for spin-spin interaction between enhanced moments. Section 5. A general cancellation theorem for second-order processes in spin-lattice relaxation is derived, showing that the intrinsic direct process must be of third order. The relaxation rate obeys an equation similar to that for Kramers electronic ions, but reduced as the fifth power of the resonance frequencies. The relaxation rates observed experimentally (except in very high fields) are ascribed to paramagnetic impurities, so that these can be used to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (d.n.p.). Section 6. The interactions of neutrons with the true nuclear moment μ_I, the Van Vleck moment M_H, the 'pseudonuclear' moment M_I and the 'pseudomagnetic' nuclear moment μ *_I are discussed. It is shown that the four contributions can be observed separately by measurement of the form factor for neutron scattering as a function of temperature and direction of the applied magnetic field. Precession of the neutron spin in the 'pseudomagnetic' field H* is discussed with reference to the case of Ho

  16. Long-lived nuclear spin states far from magnetic equivalence.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, Gabriele; Roy, Soumya Singha; Hill-Cousins, Joe; Kuprov, Ilya; Brown, Lynda J; Brown, Richard C D; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2015-02-28

    Clusters of coupled nuclear spins may form long-lived nuclear spin states, which interact weakly with the environment, compared to ordinary nuclear magnetization. All experimental demonstrations of long-lived states have so far involved spin systems which are close to the condition of magnetic equivalence, in which the network of spin-spin couplings is conserved under all pair exchanges of symmetry-related nuclei. We show that the four-spin system of trans-[2,3-(13)C2]-but-2-enedioate exhibits a long-lived nuclear spin state, even though this spin system is very far from magnetic equivalence. The 4-spin long-lived state is accessed by slightly asymmetric chemical substitutions of the centrosymmetric molecular core. The long-lived state is a consequence of the locally centrosymmetric molecular geometry for the trans isomer, and is absent for the cis isomer. A general group theoretical description of long-lived states is presented. It is shown that the symmetries of coherent and incoherent interactions are both important for the existence of long-lived states. PMID:25633837

  17. Investigation of the Possibility of Using Nuclear Magnetic Spin Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dent, William V., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the program to investigate a "Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration" is to develop a fusion propulsion system for a manned mission to the planet mars. A study using Deuterium and Tritium atoms are currently in progress. When these atoms under-go fusion, the resulting neutrons and alpha particles are emitted in random directions (isotropically). The probable direction of emission is equal for all directions, thus resulting in wasted energy, massive shielding and cooling requirements, and serious problems with the physics of achieving fusion. If the nuclear magnetic spin moments of the deuterium and tritium nuclei could be precisely aligned at the moment of fusion, the stream of emitted neutrons could be directed out the rear of the spacecraft for thrust and the alpha particles directed forward into an electromagnet ot produce electricity to continue operating the fusion engine. The following supporting topics are discussed: nuclear magnetic moments and spin precession in magnetic field, nuclear spin quantum mechanics, kinematics of nuclear reactions, and angular distribution of particles.

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic correlations in multiferroic LuFe2O4

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Lumsden, Mark D; Angst, Manuel; Yamani, Z.; Tian, Wei; Jin, Rongying; Payzant, E Andrew; Nagler, Stephen E; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David

    2008-01-01

    We present single crystal neutron diffraction measurements on multiferroic LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Magnetic reflections are observed below transitions at 240 and 175 K indicating that the magnetic interactions in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are three-dimensional in character. The magnetic structure is refined as a ferrimagnetic spin configuration below the 240 K transition. Below 175 K a significant broadening of the magnetic peaks is observed along with the buildup of a diffuse component to the magnetic scattering.

  19. Quasi-One-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Magnetic Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersohn, Frans H.; Sheehan, J. P.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Shebalin, John V.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the quasi-one-dimensional simulation of magnetic nozzles is presented and simulations of a magnetic nozzle are performed. The effects of the density variation due to plasma expansion and the magnetic field forces on ion acceleration are investigated. Magnetic field forces acting on the electrons are found to be responsible for the formation of potential structures which accelerate ions. The effects of the plasma density variation alone are found to only weakly affect ion acceleration. Strongly diverging magnetic fields drive more rapid potential drops.

  20. Magnetic levitating polymeric nano/microparticular substrates for three-dimensional tumor cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong Ryeol; Oh, Kyung Taek; Park, So Young; Yoo, Na Young; Ahn, Yong Sik; Lee, Don Haeng; Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Deok-Keun; Cha, Kyung-Hoi; Lee, Eun Seong

    2011-07-01

    Herein, we describe magnetic cell levitation models using conventional polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles as a substrate for the three-dimensional tumor cell culture. When the magnetic force originating from the ring-shaped magnets overcame the gravitational force, the magnetic field-levitated KB tumor cells adhered to the surface area of magnetic iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4))-encapsulated nano/microparticles and concentrated clusters of levitated cells, ultimately developing tumor cells to tumor spheroids. These simple cell culture models may prove useful for the screening of anticancer drugs and their formulations. PMID:21420837

  1. Giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of an individual atom on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-08-01

    Exploring magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in otherwise nonmagnetic two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, is at the heart of spintronics research. Herein, using first-principles calculations we explore the possibility of reaching an atomic-scale perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by carefully exploring the large spin-orbit coupling, orbital magnetism, and ligand field in a suitable choice of a two-dimensional structure with transition metal adatoms. More specifically, we demonstrate perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energies up to an order of 100 meV per atom in individual ruthenium and osmium adatoms at a monosulfur vacancy in molybdenum disulfide. We further propose a phenomenological model where a spin state transition that involves hybridization between molybdenum a1 and adatomic e' orbitals is a possible mechanism for magnetization reversal from an in-plane to perpendicular orientation.

  2. Phase diagram of a three-dimensional antiferromagnet with random magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Perez, Felio A; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A; Stanescu, Tudor D; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M R; Aczel, Adam A; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that have been experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of Fe_{x}Ni_{1-x}F_{2} epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean-field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique, and easy-plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs. PMID:25793845

  3. Phase Diagram of a Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnet with Random Magnetic Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Felio A.; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aczel, Adam A.; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that were experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of FexNi1-xF2 epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs.

  4. Phase Diagram of a Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnet with Random Magnetic Anisotropy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perez, Felio A.; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aczel, Adam A.; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that were experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of FexNi1-xF2 epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance and transcutaneous electromagnetic blood flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Battocletti, J H; Halbach, R E; Salles-Cunha, S X; Sances, A

    1983-09-01

    Static and alternating magnetic fields are employed in blood flowmeters using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) principles and electromagnetic induction by a moving conductor (TEM). Both techniques require high steady magnetic fields, obtained either from permanent magnets or from electromagnets. A relatively homogeneous magnetic field is needed for NMR, but, though important for calibration, homogeneity is not critical for TEM. NMR is more complex than TEM since it requires radio-frequency and audio-frequency magnetic fields. However, the TEM method requires surface electrodes in contact with the skin, or needle electrodes placed subcutaneously, whereas NMR is contactless. The NMR flowmeter can be calibrated directly, but appropriate and approximate models must be assumed and then solved by computer to quantify blood flow by the TEM flowmeter. Flow in individual vessels is measured a priori in the TEM flowmeter by virtue of the assumed models. To measure flow in individual vessels by NMR, a scanning or ranging method is required, which logically leads to blood flow imaging. The levels of steady, radio-frequency, and audio-frequency magnetic fields used in the two types of flowmeters are low enough so as not to cause any apparent stimulus to human volunteers and patients tested. PMID:6228667

  6. A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope for Micron-scale Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Felipe; Paster, Jeremy W.; Tennant, Daniel M.; Markert, John T.

    2015-03-01

    We have designed and constructed a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) probe for the analysis of liquid and soft matter samples. This NRMFM probe uses a magnet-on-cantilever geometry and is equipped with dual x- y- z piezoelectric motion stages, for micron-step coarse positioning and sub-nanometer fine positioning of both the laser interferometer and the sample with respect to the cantilever, permitting three-dimensional scanning-mode detection of nuclear magnetism. The probe keeps the cantilever detector in high vacuum, maintaining a high Q, while the local NMR properties of nearby aqueous samples in glass microtubes are measured. The entire probe head fits in either a 3.5-cm bore magnet or in an electromagnet with a similarly small gap. We plan to demonstrate the ability to scan and distinguish microscale NMR properties using a copper sulfate solution with concentrations in the 2-20 millimolar range, thus providing dynamical imaging of regions with differing longitudinal relaxation times, T1. This concentration range will permit us to compare the conventional saturation-recovery pulse sequence with a more efficient single-pulse detection, possible when T1 is comparable to or less than the duration of the modified cyclic-adiabatic-inversion pulse.

  7. Power losses of soft magnetic composite materials under two-dimensional excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. G.; Zhong, J. J.; Ramsden, V. S.; Guo, Y. G.

    1999-04-01

    Soft magnetic composite materials produced by powder metallurgy techniques can be very useful for construction of low cost small motors. However, the rotational core losses and the corresponding B-H relationships of soft magnetic composite materials with two-dimensional rotating fluxes have neither been supplied by the manufacturers nor reported in the literature. This article reports the core loss measurement of a soft magnetic composite material, SOMALOY™ 500, Höganäs AB, Sweden, under two-dimensional excitations. The principle of measurement, testing system, and power loss calculation are presented. The results are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems. PMID:10335581

  9. Algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atia, Yosi; Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level; namely, it reduces the qubit system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering, an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of C132-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic-resonance spectroscopy.

  10. Optical pumping in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.; Reimer, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    An important current trend in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the growing exploitation of optical pumping of nuclear spin polarizations as a means of enhancing and localizing NMR signals. Recent work has been concentrated in two areas, namely optically pumped NMR in semiconductors and optical pumping of noble gases. Progress in these two areas, including technical developments and new applications in physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, and biomedical sciences, is reviewed. Likely directions for future developments are suggested. 58 refs., 13 figs.