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Sample records for dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl

  1. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  2. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4,4′-dibromo- (CAS No. 92-86-4); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4,4′-dibromo- (CAS No. 92-86-4); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No....

  4. Polybrominated biphenyls: Metabolism and toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse health effects resulting from polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) exposure, including liver and kidney function, neurological effects, and immune response. The biochemistry and mechanism of PBB toxicity in man and animals are examined. (Contains a minimum of 93 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSURE AND BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A COHORT OF US WOMEN. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: We examined the relation between serum polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) levels and the risk of benign breast disease in a cohort of Michigan women unintentionally exposed to PBBs in 1973 and interviewed in 1997.

    METHODS: We used extend...

  6. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  7. The transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r . .42) and PBBs (r . .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  8. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r = .42) and PBBs (r = .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  9. Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms eluted from three sediments, one contaminated with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and two contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, were compared for their ability to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture Firemaster. These microorganisms were incubated with reduced anaerobic mineral medium and noncontaminated sediment amended with Firemaster. Firemaster averages six bromines per biphenyl molecule; four of the bromines are substituted in the meta or para position. The inocula from all three sources were able to debrominate the meta and para positions. Microorganisms from the Pine River (St. Louis, Mich.) contaminated with Firemaster, the Hudson River (Hudson Falls, N.Y.) contaminated with Aroclor 1242, and Silver Lake (Pittsfield, Mass.) contaminated with Aroclor 1260 removed 32, 12, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks of incubation. This suggests that previous environmental exposure to PBBs enhances the debromination capability of the sediment microbial community through selection for different strains of microorganisms. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines per biphenyl molecule during a 32-week incubation period, resulting in a mixture potentially more accessible to aerobic degradation processes. No ortho bromine removal was observed. However, when Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms that had been repeatedly transferred on a pyruvate medium amended with Aroclor 1242, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks of incubation and additional debromination products, including 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected.

  10. Retrospective time-trend study of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in human serum from the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard S; Focant, Jean-François; Lapeza, Chester; Wang, Richard Y; McGahee, Ernest E; Zhang, Yalin; Turner, Wayman E; Slazyk, Bill; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2004-01-01

    Six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), one hexabromobiphenyl [polybrominated biphenyl (PBB)], and one hexachlorobiphenyl [polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)] were measured in 40 human serum pools collected in the southeastern United States during 1985 through 2002 and in Seattle, Washington, for 1999 through 2002. The concentrations of most of the PBDEs, which are commercially used as flame retardants in common household and commercial applications, had significant positive correlations with time of sample collection, showing that the concentrations of these compounds are increasing in serum collected in the United States. In contrast, PCB and PBB levels were negatively correlated with sample collection year, indicating that the levels of these compounds have been decreasing since their phaseout in the 1970s. PMID:15121506

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  12. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  13. Reductive dehalogenation of polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are stable industrial chemicals that consist of complex mixtures considered to be highly recalcitrant to biological degradation in the environment. Reductive dehalogenation is the only known biodegradation process for the more highly halogenated PCB and PBB mixtures. Studies were undertaken to: (1) examine in situ reductive debromination in sediments of the Pine River Reservoir, (2) compare the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated and PBB-contaminated sediments to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture, Firemaster, (3) examine factors which might enhance reductive dehalogenation in sediments, (4) evaluate the role of sediment for dechlorinating microorganisms. Sediments in the heavily contaminated region of the Pine River have undergone little or no debromination. Anaerobic microorganisms previously shown to dechlorinate PCB mixtures were unable to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 in the presence of Pine River sediments located close to the PBB manufacturing site. Microorganisms downstream of the heaviest contamination were able to debrominate Firemaster. Microorganisms from the Pine River (contaminated with Firemaster), Hudson River (contaminated with Aroclor 1242) and Silver Lake (contaminated with Aroclor 1260), removed 32%, 12%, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines from the biphenyl molecule. When Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks, and additional debromination products, 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected suggesting ortho debromination. A PCB enrichment culture was established using pyruvate as an electron donor and Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. Three Michigan surface soils, Pine River sediments, and ashed sediment supported reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Hudson River microorganisms.

  14. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in nine water sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Xie, Qilai; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Water quality of water sources is a critical issue for human health in South China, which experiences rapid economic development and is the most densely populated region in China. In this study, the pollution of organohalogen compounds in nine important water sources, South China was investigated. Twenty six organohalogen compounds including seventeen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected using gas chromatograph analysis. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 0.93 to 13.07ngL(-1), with an average value of 7.06ngL(-1). The total concentrations of nine PBDE congeners were found in range not detected (nd) to 7.87ngL(-1) with an average value of 2.59ngL(-1). Compositions of PCBs and PBDEs indicated the historical use of Aroclors 1248, 1254 and 1260, and commercial PBDEs may be the main source of organohalogen compounds in water sources in South China. The nine water sources could be classified into three clusters by self-organizing map neural network. Low halogenated PCBs and PBDEs showed similar distribution in the nine water sources. Cancer risks of PCBs and PBDEs via water consumption were all below 10(-6), indicating the water quality in the nine water sources, South China was safe for human drinking. PMID:25681605

  15. Temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in ringed seals from East greenland.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Bossi, Rossana; Dietz, Rune

    2011-02-15

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid weight (median concentrations) with an annual rate of +6.1%. The concentrations were up to several orders of magnitude lower than those reported for marine mammals from industrialized areas. Previously presented time trends on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding tolerable daily intake rates for seal blubber as traditional Arctic food items. PMID:21247098

  16. Characteristic accumulation and soil penetration of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wastewater irrigated farmlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-11-01

    The impact of wastewater irrigation on the distribution of two groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in farm soil was investigated in this study. The concentrations of total analyzed PCBs were in the range 256-2140pgg(-1) on dry weight basis in surface soils. There was a higher accumulation of PCBs in farms irrigated by wastewater, with decachlorobiphenyl (CB-209) as the predominant congener. The spatial distributions of PBDEs were similar although not as obvious as that of PCBs, and BDE-209 was the predominant congener at 2040-496000pgg(-1)dw, accounting for >96% of the total analyzed PBDEs. However, no significant correlations could be found between PCB and PBDE concentrations in the topsoil samples, and also with soil organic content between the different sites. On the other hand, soil vertical profiles showed significant relationship with soil organic content in cores taken from farms irrigated with wastewater. The vertical distribution was quite uniform at the topsoil, corresponding to the plowed layer, and decreased thereafter exponentially. Furthermore, the soil vertical distribution was found to be congener specific for PCBs, where less chlorinated congeners were able to penetrate deeper into the soil while heavier congeners were more restricted in their movement. This fractionation process was however not found for PBDEs. Also, the prevalence and high relative concentrations of CB-11 and CB-209 suggests that these PCB congeners should more often be included in routine environmental analysis in order to identifying unusual contamination sources. PMID:20846706

  17. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  18. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ramu, K; Kajiwara, N; Sinha, R K; Tanabe, S

    2005-10-01

    The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is at risk of extinction throughout its range as a result of incidental catches, habitat degradation, and pollution. Populations of Irrawaddy dolphins are constrained by the species' narrow habitat requirement-lagoons, estuaries, rivers, and lakes-and are therefore particularly vulnerable to the effects of human activities. In this study, for the first time, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues of Irrawaddy dolphins collected from Chilika Lake, India, to understand the status of contamination. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants found in Irrawaddy dolphins; the highest concentration found was 10,000 ng/g lipid weight in blubber. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the second most prevalent contaminants in dolphin tissues. Concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol were in the ranges of few ng/g to few hundreds of ng/g on a lipid-weight basis. In general, concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs in Irrawaddy dolphins were lower than the concentrations reported for coastal and riverine dolphins collected in Asia. PBDEs were detected in the blubber of Irrawaddy dolphins at concentrations ranging from 0.98 to 18 ng/g lipid weight. BDE congener 47 accounted for 60% to 75% of the total PBDE concentrations. Although these results establish the baseline levels of persistent organic pollutants in Irrawaddy dolphins, efforts should be made to decrease the sources of contamination by DDTs and HCHs in Chilika Lake. PMID:16170447

  19. Metabolic transformation shapes polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether patterns in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2013-04-01

    While the accumulation of persistent contaminants in marine mammals can be attributed directly to their prey, the role of metabolism in shaping patterns is often overlooked. In the present study, the authors investigated the role of metabolic transformation in influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) patterns in offshore and nearshore groups of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and their prey. Congener profiles and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed similar PCB and PBDE patterns in beluga whales feeding either offshore or nearshore, despite divergent contaminant patterns in the putative prey of these two feeding groups. The clustering of PCBs into metabolically derived structure-activity groups (SAGs) and the separation of metabolizable and recalcitrant groups along principal component 1 of the PCA revealed the important role of metabolic transformation in shaping PCB patterns in beluga. Lack of metabolism for congeners with high ortho-chlorine content was revealed by metabolic slopes equal to or greater than 1.0. Metabolic slopes for all other SAGs were less than 1.0 (p<0.001), suggesting metabolism of congeners with ortho-meta and meta-para vicinal hydrogens via induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A/2B/3A). Metabolic indices less than 1.0 for PBDEs (p<0.001) suggested that beluga metabolized these poorly understood flame retardants. The strikingly similar PCB patterns in a captive beluga and free-ranging beluga from the Beaufort Sea provide additional evidence that metabolic transformation is a dominant driver of contaminant patterns in beluga. PMID:23400821

  20. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K(ow) explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K(ow) of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K(ow) compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults. PMID:26142122

  1. Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

  2. [Determination of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyl 153 using isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jianzhao; Xu, Xiuyan; Yu, Haibin; Chen, Ye; Tan, Li; Lü, Yibing

    2015-10-01

    Considering the features and demands of the environmental monitoring, an isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls 153 (BB153) in the ambient air. PBDEs and BB153 were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction apparatus with a mixture of hexane-dichloromethane (v/v, 1:1) and hexane, respectively. The concentrated extracts were loaded on the composite silica gel column for cleanup. The mean recoveries of native compounds at 10% and 90% of the highest levels of calibration curves were 100% and 104% with 5% and 6% of the mean relative standard deviations (n = 7), respectively. The recoveries of 13C labeled surrogates for di- to deca-brominated diphenyl ethers and BB153 were in the range of 36.5%-133%. However, the recoveries of 13C-monobrominated diphenyl ethers were relatively low, maybe due to the different physicochemical properties compared with the other homologues. No breakthrough of pollutants was estimated under real sampling volume of 300 m3. The limits of detection were lower than 2 x 10(-4) ng/Nm3. The recoveries of 13C labeled surrogates were between 56% and 126%, except monoBDEs. The results demonstrated that the method is suitable for the analysis of di- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers and BB153 in the ambient air with precise quantification. PMID:26930965

  3. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants....mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated...

  4. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  5. Lack of effects of some individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on human lymphocyte functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fernlöf, G; Gadhasson, I; Pödra, K; Darnerud, P O; Thuvander, A

    1997-02-01

    The structural similarities between polybrominated diphenyl ethers and immunotoxic halogenated aromatic compounds suggest that the polybrominated diphenyl ethers might affect the immune system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the immunological effects of some purified PBDE-congeners on human lymphocyte function in vitro. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were also included in the study. Mitogen-induced DNA synthesis and immunoglobulin synthesis by lymphocytes from blood donors were examined following polybrominated diphenyl ether or polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in vitro in order to determine the immunotoxic potential of these substances. No effects on mitogen-induced proliferation or immunoglobulin synthesis were observed after exposure of cells to concentrations up to 10(-5) M. The negative findings in this study indicate that certain functions of human peripheral lymphocytes, i.e. proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, are insensitive to the direct action of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls. Our results are in accordance with other recent studies in which no effects on immunological parameters were demonstrated by exposure of lymphocytes to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in vitro. PMID:9067487

  6. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants. PMID:25697952

  8. Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Andreas; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jones, Richard S; Park, Annie; Zhang, Yalin; Hodge, Carolyn; Dipietro, Emily; McClure, Cheryl; Turner, Wayman; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) are chemicals known as brominated flame retardants. We have assessed the exposure status of the United States population to PBDEs and BB-153 and explored associations with demographic information, including participants' age, sex, and race/ethnicity. A total of 2,062 serum samples, from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 aged 12 years and older, were analyzed for PBDEs and BB-153; stratified and regression analyses were used to examine levels among demographic groups. The congener with the highest serum concentration was 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) [geometric mean 20.5 ng/g lipid]; followed by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (BDE-153) [5.7 ng/g lipid]; 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99) [5.0 ng/g lipid; a value equal to the highest limit of detection for an individual sample]; 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE-100) [3.9 ng/g lipid]; BB-153 [2.3 ng/g lipid]; and 2,4,4'-triBDE (BDE-28) [1.2 ng/g lipid]. For BDE-47, we observed no significant difference in the least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) by sex, but with age we found both a linear decrease (p = 0.01) and a positive quadratic trend (p = 0.01). Its LSGM, 27.9 ng/lipid, in the 12-19 year olds decreased to 17.2 ng/g lipid in the 40-49 year group, and then curved upward to 20.4 ng/g lipid in the > or =60 years olds. Mexican Americans had the highest LSGM of BDE-47 (24.5 ng/g lipid), which was significantly higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (19.7 ng/g lipid, p = 0.01). Adults 60 years and older were twice as likely as adults 20-59 years old to have a serum BDE-47 concentration above the 95th percentile (p = 0.02). These data provide needed exposure assessment data for public health decisions. PMID:18351120

  9. Monohydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) and Dihydroxylated Polybrominated Biphenyls (Di-OH-PBBs): Novel Photoproducts of 2,6-Dibromophenol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Jiang, Jingqiu; Wang, Yanli; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Buettner, Garry R; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen

    2015-12-15

    Hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are emerging aquatic pollutants, but their origins in the environment are not fully understood. There is evidence that OH-PBDEs are formed from bromophenols, but the underlying transformation processes remain unknown. Here, we investigate if the photoformation of OH-PBDEs from 2,6-dibromophenol in aqueous solution involves 2,6-bromophenoxyl radicals. After the UV irradiation of an aqueous 2,6-dibromophenol solution, HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of a OH-PBDE and a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl (di-OH-PBB). Both dimeric photoproducts were tentatively identified as 4'-OH-BDE73 and 4,4'-di-OH-PBB80. In addition, three debromination products (4-OH-BDE34, 4'-OH-BDE27, and 4,4'-di-OH-PBBs) were observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical with a six-line spectrum (a(H) (2 meta) = 3.45 G, a(H) (1 para) = 1.04 G, g = 2.0046) during irradiation of a 2,6-dibromophenol solution in water. The 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical had a relatively long half-life (122 ± 5 μs) according to laser flash photolysis experiments. The para-para C-C and O-para-C couplings of these 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radicals are consistent with the observed formation of both dimeric OH-PBDE and di-OH-PBB photoproducts. These findings show that bromophenoxyl radical-mediated phototransformation of bromophenols is a source of OH-PBDEs and di-OH-PBBs in aqueous environments that requires further attention. PMID:26545041

  10. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  11. Occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in green mussels (Perna viridis) from Singapore, Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Stéphane; Thomas, Gareth Owen; Lee, Hian Kee; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2003-10-01

    The green mussel, Perna viridis, was used in this study to measure levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, for the first time, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the marine environment. Samples were collected from eight different locations in the coastal waters of Singapore between April and May 2002. Forty-one PCB and 21 PBDE congeners were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and were all positively detected in the mussel tissues. Total concentrations in green mussel tissues ranged from 6.1 to 82 ng/g and 2.0 to 38 ng/g on a dry-weight basis for PCBs and PBDEs, respectively. Such levels reflect the ubiquity of these persistent organic pollutants in a tropical marine environment. Principal component analysis was applied to the PCB data and revealed similarities in the congener composition of mussel tissues to that of the commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. The PBDE levels, to date, were approximately one order of magnitude greater than the upper concentrations reported for blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissues in Europe. At some sampling sites, the congener composition of PBDEs in P. viridis tissues indicated recent exposure to a commercial pentabrominated flame retardant. PMID:14552008

  12. Temporal trends in the levels of polychlorinated dioxins, -furans, -biphenyls and polybrominated diethyl ethers in bank voles in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Murtomaa-Hautala, Mari; Viluksela, Matti; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Rautio, Arja

    2015-09-01

    Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to increase again in 2007. The peak levels of the most abundant PBDE congeners (PBDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153) were measured in 1998 and 2003. These results reveal that the levels of dioxin-like chemicals remain high also in rural areas in Lapland, whereas the concentrations of brominated flame retardants decreased and follow the current restriction prohibitions. PMID:25918894

  13. Relationship of basic research in toxicology to environmental standard setting: the case of polybrominated biphenyls in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Aust, S D; Millis, C D; Holcomb, L

    1987-01-01

    The accidental contamination of dairy cattle feed in Michigan in 1973-74 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the contamination of cattle and people consuming their products. This led to an extensive animal and product monitoring and disposal program conducted by the Michigan Department of Agriculture and the Department of Natural Resources. It also led to several studies of the people of Michigan, extensive research on the chemicals, and an unprecedented establishment by the Legislature of a Toxic Substance Control Commission. Only a few relatively minor components of the PBB mixture that contaminated Michigan are metabolized and another group of minor components seem responsible for the toxicity, which, similar to that caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), includes induction of microsomal enzymes, liver hypertrophy, thymic involution, porphyria, anorexia and chloracne. PBB were found to produce the "dioxin-like" toxicity with roughly 0.01% the potency of TCDD. Both non-toxic as well as toxic congeners were found to be tumor promotors. To date it is impossible to unequivocally conclude that any human health effects can be attributed to PBB. The Toxic Substance Control Commission was established as an independent oversight body with responsibility to gather information, investigate, coordinate and make recommendations concerning toxic substances and the handling of toxic substances incidents. The Commission has declared two toxic substances emergencies and made several recommendations for regulating and solving toxic substances problems but its major activities have evolved towards a role as an environmental ombudsman. PMID:3039942

  14. The caffeine breath test and caffeine urinary metabolite ratios in the Michigan cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, G.H.; Schoeller, D.A.; Kotake, A.N.; Lietz, H. ); Humphrey, H.E.B.; Budd, M. ); Campbell, M.; Kalow, W.; Spielberg, P. )

    1990-11-01

    A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: (a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, (b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated cytochrome P-450I function as determined by the caffeine breath test (CBT) and the caffeine urinary metabolite ratio (CMR), and (c) to determine the applicability of the CBT and CMR in field studies. PBB serum levels were detected in 36 of the 51 PBB-exposed subjects. The serum half-life of HBB was determined by comparing the current serum HBB values to the subject's previous serum values obtained 5 to 8 years earlier. The median HBB half-life was 12 years (range 4-97 years). The CBT and CMR were elevated in the subjects exposed to PBBs as compared to the values obtained from urban nonsmokers and were similar to those found in adults who smoke. A gender effect was seen in the PBB-exposed subjects. There was a correlation between the CBT and the HBB serum values but not between CMR and HBB serum values. The CBT and CMR were easily conducted in the field and appear to be useful metabolic probes of cytochrome P-450I activity in human environmental toxicology.

  15. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically <2% of intake) but surprisingly high following plant consumption (>100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced. PMID:23401324

  16. Hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in radiometrically dated sediment cores from English lakes, ~1950-present.

    PubMed

    Yang, Congqiao; Rose, Neil L; Turner, Simon D; Yang, Handong; Goldsmith, Ben; Losada, Sara; Barber, Jonathan L; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-01-15

    This paper reports input fluxes between ~1950 and present, of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in radiometrically-dated sediment cores from 7 English lakes. Fluxes of PCBs at all but one location prone to significant sediment resuspension peaked in the late-1960s/early-1990s, before declining thereafter. Input fluxes of HBCDs at all sites increased from first emergence in the mid-1960s. Thereafter, fluxes peaked in the late-1980s/early-2000s, before declining through to the present, except at the most urban site where HBCD fluxes are still increasing. Trends of PBDEs predominant in the Penta-BDE and Octa-BDE formulations vary between sites. While at some locations, fluxes peaked in the late-1990s/early-2000s; at others, fluxes are still increasing. This suggests the full impact of EU restrictions on these formulations has yet to be felt. Fluxes of BDE-209 have yet to peak at all except one location, suggesting little discernible environmental response to recent EU restrictions on the Deca-BDE product. Strikingly, fluxes of BDE-209 in the most recent core slices either exceed or approach peak fluxes of ΣPCBs, implying substantial UK use of Deca-BDE. Excepting HBCDs, inventories of our target contaminants correlated significantly with local population density, implying substantial urban sources. PMID:26433331

  17. Concentrations and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediments from the East Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yuyi; Liu, Minxia; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in surface sediment samples collected from the East Lake, China in winter 2012 and summer 2013 were analyzed in this study. The total PCB and PBDE concentrations ranged from not detected to 107.1 ng g(-1) dw and from 9.7 to 151.3 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. PCB-28, 101 and 180 were dominant congeners in both winter and summer. BDE-28 (44 %) was the dominant congener in winter and summer, followed by BDE-99 (28 %) and BDE-47 (26 %). The concentrations of PCBs in the sediment samples collected in summer were higher than those in winter, while the concentrations of PBDEs did not show much seasonal variations. Source analysis showed that the PCBs probably originated from urban runoff, industrial pollution and atmospheric deposition, and the PBDEs probably originated from historical usage of penta-BDE mixtures. Potential eco-toxicological risks caused by PCBs were found in about 5 % of the sampling sites; PBDEs had moderate eco-toxicological risk in 80 % sampling sites in the East Lake, China. PMID:25336043

  18. Trophic magnification of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in an estuarine food web of the Ariake Sea, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Imuta, Yuki; Komorita, Tomohiro; Yamada, Katsumasa; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Fumitaka; Nakashima, Naoya; Sakai, Jun; Arizono, Koji; Koga, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate trophic biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an estuary of the Ariake Sea, Japan, we measured concentrations of 209 PCB congeners and 28 PBDE congeners, and nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15)N) levels in living aquatic organisms. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for ΣPCBs (all 209 congeners) was 1.52, and TMFs for 58 PCB congeners ranged from 0.90 to 3.28. In contrast, TMF for ΣPBDEs was 1.17, and TMFs for 7 PBDE congeners ranged from 0.46 to 1.66. TMFs of PCB and PBDE congeners in this study were lower than those in marine food webs, and were similar to those in a lake food web. However, although negative relationships were observed between TMF and log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) values among PCB congeners in this study (log KOW up to 7), positive relationships have been reported in several other studies. In the present estuary, PCB concentrations in sea bass may not reach a steady state because sea bass are migratory species. Therefore, TMFs of highly chlorinated congeners with high log KOW values take longer to reach the steady state and may not increase with increasing log KOW. PMID:25240773

  19. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  20. Quantification of Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Human Matrices by Isotope-Dilution Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marder, M Elizabeth; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Ryan, P Barry; Marcus, Michele; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive and selective analytical method capable of quantifying a total of 15 polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls (11 PBBs and 4 PCBs) in human serum. Samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction prior to measurement using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was performed using isotope-dilution calibration covering a concentration range of 0.005-12.5 ng/mL. Limits of detection for all target compounds were in the low range (0.7-6.5 pg/mL). The method was validated using in-house pooled human serum fortified at two concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and 1.0 ng/mL), whole semen fortified at one concentration (0.25 ng/mL), and NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1958, which includes five of the target compounds. Method accuracies for all target compounds ranged from 84 to 119% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of <19%. The measured values for the five target compounds present in the SRM agreed with the certified reference values (89-119% accuracy with RSDs <9%). As this method was developed to support ongoing epidemiologic investigations, we evaluated its suitability by analyzing subsets of serum and whole semen samples from the Michigan PBB Registry cohort. PBB-153, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153 and PCB-180 were detected in all serum samples analyzed, with PBB-77 and PBB-101 detected less frequently in serum. PBB-153, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153 and PCB-180 were detected in at least one whole semen sample. PMID:27445313

  1. Developmental coexposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers has additive effects on circulating thyroxine levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F

    2012-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from gestational day 6 through postnatal day (p) 21, alone and in combination, on T4 levels in rat offspring. In males, exposure to PCBs and PBDEs at 1.7, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/kg/day induced equivalent and dose-dependent reductions in T4 from p 7 to p 21. Exposure to equimolar mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs at 3.4, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μmol/kg/day additively reduced T4 from p 7 to p 21 in males. In a second series of experiments, we determined sex effects on the mixture exposures and found that coexposure to PCBs and PBDEs had similar additive effects on T4 levels in male and female offspring. This study demonstrates that equimolar exposure to PCBs and PBDEs induces similar reductions in T4 levels and that coexposure to a mixture of PCBs and PBDEs has additive effects on T4 levels. These thyroid hormone effects of coexposure to PCBs and PBDEs are important when considering the cumulative effects of coexposure to multiple environmental thyroid hormone-disrupting agents in risk assessment for developmental disorders. PMID:22345314

  2. Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

  3. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p < 0.04) over the range of congeners and habitats examined. PBDEs were taken up by biota more readily than PCBs, suggesting a large, potentially available biological reservoir of PBDEs in sediments. Dominant congeners in benthos comprised PBDEs 47, 99, 209, and 100 and PCBs 138/163, 153, 101, 118, and 110. PBDE uptake was anomalously high near one wastewater outfall, likely due to selective feeding on PBDE-enriched particulates from that source. Conversely, outfalls supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE. PMID:24699838

  4. Historical occurrences of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in Manila Bay, Philippines, and in the upper Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Kato, Yoshihisa; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Ito, Maki; Dung, Le Quang; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Santiago, Evangeline C

    2014-02-01

    Historical trends of the accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a typical tropical Asian environment were investigated using radio-dated sediment cores from Manila Bay, the Philippines and from the upper Gulf of Thailand. Vertical profiles indicated earlier usage of PCBs than of PBDEs which coincided with their industrial production. The increasing concentrations of total PBDEs and PCBs toward the surface suggested an increased consumption of PBDEs; and possible leakage of PCBs from old machineries into the aquatic environment in recent years. Current input of PCBs to the catchment of Manila Bay was supported by the analyses of air samples and plastic resin pellets. The vertical profiles of total PBDEs in the cores (i.e., rapidly increasing concentrations corresponding to the mid-1980s until mid-1990s, followed by a decrease until the early 2000s, and increasing again toward the surface) likely corresponded to the rapid economic growth in Asia in the 1990s, the Asian financial crisis in 1997, and the economic recovery since early 2000s. BDE-209 was predominant especially on the surface layers. BDEs 47 and 99 generally decreased toward the surface, reflecting the phase-out of the technical penta-PBDE products and the regulation by the Stockholm Convention in recent years. Increasing ratios of BDE-202/209, 206/209, 207/209 and decreasing % of BDE-209 down the core layers may provide evidence for the anaerobic debromination of BDE-209 in the sediment cores. Inventories in ng/cm(2) of total PCBs were higher than total PBDEs (92 vs. 34 and 47 vs. 11 in the Philippines; 47 vs. 33 in Thailand). However, the doubling times indicated faster accumulation of total PBDEs (6-7 years) and BDE-209 (6-7.5 years) than of PCBs (8-11 years). Furthermore, the temporal increase in BDE-209 was comparable to or faster than those reported in other water bodies around the world. PMID:24140702

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phthalates in roach from the Seine River basin (France): impact of densely urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Tlili, Khawla; Blanchard, Martine; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) from three chemical classes-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and phthalates-were investigated in the Seine River and one tributary, the Orge River, upstream and downstream of urban areas. The impact of urban areas was characterized by a concentration increase of all compounds in the Seine River and for phthalates and PBDEs in the Orge River. In the Seine River, from upstream (Marnay) to downstream (Triel) of urban areas, water concentration increases were greater for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (6 times, p < 0.05) and ∑tri-hexa BDE (5 times [p < 0.05]) than for ∑7PCBi (2.6 times). Simultaneously, sediments displayed a strong accumulation of contaminants downstream and compared with upstream values, their concentrations increased greatly: 202-fold for DEHP, 69-fold for BDE209, 25-fold for ∑tri-hexa-BDE, and 11-fold for ∑7PCBi. Variations of fish ED concentrations gave an indication of their habitat contamination increase observed downstream of densely urbanized areas of the Seine River, especially for PBDEs (∑tri-hexa-PBDEs = 14-fold increase ≤15.7 ± 6.9 ng g(-1) dry weight [dw; p < 0.001]) and for PCBs (∑7PCBi eightfold increase ≤211 ± 55 ng g(-1) dw [p < 0.01]). PCA results highlighted relationships between the different ED classes. A correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between PCB and PBDE fish concentrations, suggesting common sources and similar absorption mechanisms. For PCBs, which were poorly biodegraded, the bioaccumulation factor was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) to molecular hydrophobicity, whereas for PBDEs a negative correlation (p < 0.05) was observed related active debromination processes. This multichemical study investigates for the first time the occurrence of a wide range of EDs in roach, which was chosen as a sentinel species for this survey of surface water contamination. PMID:24132598

  6. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebellar granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Chunyang; Besas, Jonathan

    2010-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on a molar basis. Previously, we reported that PBDE mixtures and congeners, perturbed calcium homeostasis which is critical for the development and function of the nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether environmentally relevant PBDE/PCB mixtures and congeners affected mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are down-stream events of calcium signaling in cerebellar granule neuronal cultures. In this study, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, a widely studied MAPK cascade and known to be involved in learning and memory, levels were quantitated using western blot technique with phospho-specific antibodies. Glutamate (a positive control) increased pERK1/2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner reaching maximum activation at 5-30 min of exposure and at doses >= 10 muM. Both Aroclor 1254 (a commercial penta PCB mixture) and DE-71 (a commercial penta PBDE mixture) elevated phospho-ERK1/2, producing maximum stimulation at 30 min and at concentrations >= 3 mug/ml; Aroclor 1254 was more efficacious than DE-71. DE-79 (an octabrominated diphenyl ether mixture) also elevated phospho-ERK1/2, but to a lesser extent than that of DE-71. PBDE congeners 47, 77, 99, and 153 also increased phospo-ERK1/2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The data indicated that PBDE congeners are more potent than the commercial mixtures. PCB 47 also increased phospho-ERK1/2 like its structural analog PBDE 47, but to a lesser extent, suggesting that these chemicals affect similar pathways. Cytotoxicity, measured as %LDH release, data showed that higher concentrations (> 30 muM) and longer exposures (> 30 min) are

  7. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebeller granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants ...

  8. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  9. [Development of Self-assembled Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 Micro/nanomaterial for Application in Thermocatalytic Degradation of Polybrominated Biphenyls].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-chen; Zong, Gang; Liu, Ye-xuan; Lu, Hui-jie; Li, Qian-qian; Li, Bin-ke; Zhao, Yan-hui; Su, Gui-jin

    2016-02-15

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are a group of new persistent organic pollutants, which have high toxicity and long-term bioaccumulation, and cause potential risks to human beings and aquatic ecosystem. Self-assembled dumbbell-like Fe3O4 was synthesized via ethylene-glycol mediated method to degrade PBBs, using BB209 as a model compound. The results showed that the growth process of dumbbell-like Fe3O4 precursor had two stages involving a fast nucleation of amorphous primary particles followed by a slow aggregation and crystallization of primary particles. Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 showed high activity for degradation of BB209 at the reaction time of 30 min with the degradation efficiency of nearly 100% at 300 degrees C. A whole series of nonabromobiphenyl to monobromobiphenyl and biphenyls were detected as the degradation products of BB209 by dumbbell-like Fe3O4, indicating the occurrence of successive hydrodebromination reaction. Furthermore, the amounts of three NoBB isomers followed the order of BB207 > BB208 > BB206, indicating that the reactivity of C--Br of BB209 was in order of meta- > para- > ortho-positions. PMID:27363171

  10. Biphenyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Biphenyl ; CASRN 92 - 52 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development . Sections I ( H

  11. Tree bark as a biomonitor for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from Southern Jiangsu, China: levels, distribution, and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru; Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zhang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Wen-Long

    2015-09-01

    Tree bark was used as the passive air sampler to evaluate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) pollution and possible sources in Southern Jiangsu. The concentrations of PCBs and Σ7PBDEs were in the range of 0.58-5.19 ng/g dry weight (dw; mean 1.79 ng/g dw) and 17.9-243 pg/g dw (mean 74.7 pg/g dw), respectively. Tri-PCBs were the major PCB homologs, and technical PCB product Ar1242 was identified as the main source. BDE209 concentrations (4.29-456 ng/g dw) were relatively high, indicating that BDE209 pollution was serious in this region. The deca-BDE commercial mixture was the predominant commercial PBDE product used in this region. A good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) disks in Σ6PCB monitoring, suggesting that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PCB monitoring. PMID:26318317

  12. Application of semi-permeable membrane dialysis/ion trap mass spectrometry technique to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Bryła, Marcin

    2012-10-20

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are hazardous food contaminants, their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pgg(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. The 96/23/EC Directive implemented by EC Decision of 12 August 2002 requires recovery rate of an analyte at a concentration below 1 ng g(-1) within the 50-120% range at relative standard deviation (RSD) as low as possible. A method to determine low level PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat based on the semi-permeable membrane dialysis/ion trap GC MS technique was developed. Validation experiments proved that the method performance was within bounds set by the currently standing UE regulations. Recovery rates calculated on the basis of labeled internal standards for majority of the studied indicator PCB congeners and PBDE congeners were close to 100% at RSD below 20%. Also, dioxin-like PCBs recovery rates were compatible with the 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The developed method turned out to be linear within a far broader concentration range than the studied 0.0025-10 pg μL(-1) range entirely sufficient for analyses of PCB and PBDE in milk fat. Within that range coefficient of linear correlation (R(2)) of calibration curves exceeded 0.98. PMID:23021802

  13. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrota, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Aldous, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female sea otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in sea otter livers varied widely (10a??26,800 ng/g and 81a??210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in sea otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in sea otters have declined during 1992a??2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in sea otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of sea otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in Southern sea otters.

  14. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Hulea, Orieta; Schepens, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and analogues, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in sediments and biota (invertebrates, 11 fish species and cormorant tissues) collected in 2001 from the Danube Delta, the biggest European wetland. DDTs were the predominant pollutants in all samples. A high variability in the concentrations of pollutants within the same species was observed and this was related to sampling location, age, length and sex. DDTs were also the main organohalogenated contaminants in cormorant muscle and liver, followed by PCBs, HCHs, HCB and PBDEs. The present levels of DDTs in cormorant tissues are lower than levels measured in cormorant eggs sampled from the Danube Delta in 1982 and 1997, respectively. The variance of delta15N for herbivores was much greater than for carnivores, while carp and bream showed higher delta15N signatures than expected, probably due to a higher dietary proportion of benthos, typically more delta15N enriched relative to pelagic biota. PMID:16112310

  15. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in fishery and aquaculture products using sequential solid phase extraction and large volume injection gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Xiong, Libei; Jin, Ying; Wang, Guoquan

    2014-01-15

    A new method was developed to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishery and aquaculture products. Samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extraction system and cleaned up by sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) including dispersive SPE (D-SPE) and tandem SPE. PBDEs and PCBs were analyzed by a large-volume injection gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9958) was achieved. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.16-3.3pgg(-1) (wet weight, ww) for PBDEs and 0.13-0.97pgg(-1)ww for PCBs. Mean recoveries were 60-140% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 20% in weever fish, scallop and shrimp samples spiked at a lower level of 13-31pgg(-1)ww and a higher level of 50-125pgg(-1)ww. Certified reference materials were analyzed with acceptable results. The method reduced solvent consumption, analytical time and labor, and is suitable for the routine analysis of PBDEs and PCBs in fishery and aquaculture products. PMID:24321764

  16. Current levels, composition profiles, source identification and potentially ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the surface sediments from Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Yang, Dandan; Zhang, Dahai; Li, Xianguo

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed to assess the environmental quality in the surface sediments from Bohai Sea (BS), China. Concentrations of ∑37PCBs, ∑7PBDEs and BDE-209 were 0.157-1.699, 0.100-0.479 and 0.464-6.438 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. All of these concentrations decreased generally from the coastal areas towards the outer sea, indicating intensive influences of anthropogenic activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with multiple linear regression (MLR) revealed that 82.1% of the PCBs in BS came from direct discharge of local anthropogenic activities, 16.3% from surface runoff of contaminated soils and 1.6% from atmospheric deposition. PBDEs were mainly derived from the usage and dismantling of products containing commercial Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDEs. According to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the ecological risks of PCBs could be negligible, and penta- and deca-BDE homologs might be the major contributors of ecological risks in the BS sediments. PMID:26593279

  17. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples. PMID:26452807

  18. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

  19. Simplified and rapid determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish and shrimps integrated into a single method.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Kamila; Pulkrabova, Jana; Drabova, Lucie; Cajka, Tomas; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2011-11-30

    In this study, a new rapid and flexible method for the simultaneous determination of 18 key representatives of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish and shrimps by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated. A substantial simplification of sample processing prior to quantification step was achieved: after addition of water to homogenized sample, transfer of hydrophobic analytes into ethyl acetate was supported by added inorganic salts. Bulk fat, contained in crude organic extract obtained by partition, was subsequently removed on a silica minicolumn. This approach enabled to process six samples in less than 1h; moreover, the volume of an extraction solvent and consumption of other chemicals can be significantly reduced compared to, e.g., traditional Soxhlet extraction followed by gel permeation chromatography. The recoveries of target analytes were in the range of 73-120% even at the lowest spiking level (1 μg kg(-1)), repeatabilities (relative standard deviations, RSDs) ranged from 1 to 20%. Under optimized GC-MS conditions (time-of-flight mass analyzer, TOF), the limits of quantification (LOQs) were as follows: PCBs 0.1-0.5 μg kg(-1), PBDEs 0.5 μg kg(-1), and PAHs 0.05-0.25 μg kg(-1). Ambient mass spectrometry employing a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source was shown as an effective tool for fat control in extract, which is needed during the method development and examination of unknown samples prior to the analysis. Further extension of a method scope by other similar analytes is easily possible. PMID:22027123

  20. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    She, Jianwen; Holden, Arthur; Adelsbach, Terrence L; Tanner, Manon; Schwarzbach, Steven E; Yee, Julie L; Hooper, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n=78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n=76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n=11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n=4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of SigmaPBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median SigmaPBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. PMID:18466953

  1. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Tanner, M.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Yee, J.L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n = 78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n = 76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n = 11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n = 4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of ???PBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median ???PBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

  3. Automated solid-phase extraction for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in serum--application on archived Norwegian samples from 1977 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cathrine; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Becher, Georg

    2007-02-01

    An analytical method comprised of automated solid-phase extraction and determination using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (single quadrupole) has been developed for the determination of 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), two organochlorine compounds (OCs) (hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene) and two brominated phenols (pentabromophenol, and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A)). The analytes were extracted using a sorbent of polystyrene-divinylbenzene and an additional clean-up was performed on a sulphuric acid-silica column to remove lipids. The method has been validated by spiking horse serum at five levels. The mean accuracy given as recovery relative to internal standards was 95%, 99%, 93% and 109% for the PBDEs PCBs, OCs and brominated phenols, respectively. The mean repeatability given as RSDs was respectively 6.9%, 8.7%, 7.5% and 15%. Estimated limits of detection (S/N=3) were in the range 0.2-1.8 pg/g serum for the PBDEs and phenols, and from 0.1 pg/g to 56 pg/g serum for the PCBs and OCs. The validated method has been used to investigate the levels of PBDEs and PCBs in 21 pooled serum samples from the general Norwegian population. In serum from men (age 40-50 years) the sum of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183) increased from 1977 (0.5 ng/g lipids) to 1998 (4.8 ng/g lipids). From 1999 to 2003 the concentration of PBDEs seems to have stabilised. On the other hand, the sum of five PCBs (IUPAC No. 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in these samples decreased steadily from 1977 (666 ng/g lipids) to 2003 (176 ng/g lipids). Tetrabromobisphenol-A and BDE-209 were detected in almost all samples, but no similar temporal trends to that seen for the PBDEs were observed for these compounds, which might be due to the short half-lives of these brominated flame retardants (FR) in humans. PMID:17023223

  4. Differential effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls on [3H]arachidonic acid release in rat cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S; Derr-Yellin, Ethel C

    2002-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in environmental and human tissue samples during the past 20-30 years, while other structurally related, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (on a TEQ basis), have decreased. PBDEs have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk, and developmental and long-term exposure to these contaminants may pose a human health risk, especially to children. Previously, we demonstrated that PCBs, which cause neurotoxic effects, including changes in learning and memory, stimulated the release of [(3)H]arachidonic acid ([(3)H]AA) by a cPLA(2)/iPLA(2)-dependent mechanism. PLA(2)(phospholipase A(2)) activity has been associated with learning and memory, and AA has been identified as a second messenger involved in synaptic plasticity. The objective of the present study was to test whether PBDE mixtures (DE-71 and DE-79), like other organohalogen mixtures, have a similar action on [(3)H]AA release in an in vitro neuronal culture model. Cerebellar granule cells at 7 days in culture were labeled with [(3)H]AA for 16-20 h and then exposed in vitro to PBDEs. DE-71, a mostly pentabromodiphenyl ether mixture, significantly stimulated [(3)H]AA release at concentrations as low as 10 microg/ml, while DE-79, a mostly octabromodiphenyl ether mixture, did not stimulate [(3)H]AA release, even at 50 microg/ml. The release of [(3)H]AA by DE-71 is time-dependent, and a significant increase was seen after only 5-10 min of exposure. The removal and chelation of calcium from the exposure buffer, using 0.3 mM EGTA, significantly attenuated the DE-71-stimulated [(3)H]AA release; however, only an 18% inhibition of the release was demonstrated for the calcium replete conditions at 30 microg/ml DE-71. Methyl arachidonylfluorophosphonate (5 microM), an inhibitor of cPLA(2)/iPLA(2), completely attenuated the DE-71

  5. Changes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils from urban agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta, in China between 2003 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang-Xin; Huang, Ye-Ru; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Li-Fei; Dong, Liang; Yang, Wen-Long; Zhang, Xiu-Lan

    2015-07-01

    Surface soil samples were collected from urban agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China in 2003 and 2012, respectively. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed to determine if there were any changes in their levels and compositional profiles between the two sampling years. The concentrations of Σ8PBDEs ranged from 0.553 to 13.0 μg kg(-1)(with the mean of 3.31 μg kg(-1)) in the 2003 samples and from 1.01 to 43.2 μg/kg (with the mean of 10.0 μg kg(-1)) in the 2012 samples. The concentrations of Σ32PCBs ranged from 0.301 to 3.29 μg kg(-1)(with the mean of 1.01 μg kg(-1)) in the 2003 samples and from 0.205 to 3.96 μg/kg (with the mean of 0.991 μg kg(-1)) in the 2012 samples. The comparisons between the 2012 and 2003 data showed that PBDEs concentrations increased over the years, but PCB concentrations did not change much. BDE-209 was the major BDE congener in both the 2003 and 2012 samples, indicating that the dominant PBDE mixture production and usage in the YRD had been the commercial deca-BDE mixture. Investigation of the PBDE congener profiles indicated that there had been new input of octa-BDEs in this region in recent years. Little change was found for the pattern of PCBs congener profiles between 2 years' samples. As such, spatial distributions of PBDEs or PCBs in surface soil samples reflected a gradient (from high to low) from the central cities out to rural areas in both the 2003 and 2012 data. In addition, high concentrations of PBDEs were observed in the industrial and residential areas, whereas high concentrations of PCBs were only observed in the industrial areas. PMID:25637238

  6. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) CONTAMINATION OF UNITED STATES FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant, were recently detected in United States (U.S.) nursing mothers' milk. These halogenated compounds chemically and toxicologically resemble others such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PC...

  7. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  8. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk. PMID:27178547

  9. Novel flame retardants (N-FRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in fish, penguin, and skua from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Cai, Minghong

    2015-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in biota from Antarctica, whereas no data are available for their replacements, such as novel flame retardants (N-FRs). This study presented the occurrence of several N-FRs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissue samples of an Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii), a young gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), and a brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus) collected from King George Island. The total concentrations of N-FRs (ΣN-FRs; mean: 931 pg/g dry weight (dw)) were comparable to PBDEs (Σ8PBDEs; 681 pg/gdw), which were much lower than PCBs (ΣDL-PCBs; 12,800 pg/gdw). Overall, skua contained two to three orders of magnitude higher contamination than penguin and fish. In the future, more attention should be focused on the fate of N-FRs in Antarctica, where usages have increased since PBDEs were banned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N-FRs in biota from Antarctica. PMID:25912262

  10. Simultaneous extraction and clean-up of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls from sheep liver tissue by selective pressurized liquid extraction and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zulin; Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Rhind, Stewart M

    2011-02-25

    We describe a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep liver tissue samples. The on-line clean-up of liver tissue by SPLE was tested using differing amount of acid-modified silica (sulphuric acid:silica gel, 1:2, w/w), the most effective amount being 20 g. Different extraction solvents (iso-hexane and dichloromethane), either alone or in various combinations, were used to extract these target compounds from spiked liver samples. Variables affecting the SPLE extraction efficiency, including temperature, pressure, number of extraction cycles and static extraction time were studied; the optimum parameters were 80 °C, 10.3 MPa, 2 cycles and 5 min, respectively. The SPLE based method was compared with more traditional Soxhlet, off-line PLE, ultrasonic and heating extraction methods. Overall the mean percentage recoveries for all target chemicals using SPLE were 86-103% (n=3, SD < 9%), and compared favourably with the Soxhlet (63-109%, n=3, SD < 8%), off-line PLE (82-104%, n=3, SD < 18%), ultrasonic (86-99%, n=3, SD < 11%) and heating (72-102%, n=3, SD < 21%) extraction methods. The limits of detection of the proposed method were 5-96 pg g⁻¹ and 2-29 pg g⁻¹ for the different PBDE and PCB chemicals studied, respectively. The outputs of the proposed method were linear over the range from 0.02 to 30 ng g⁻¹, for all PCB and PBDE congeners except for PBDE 100 and 153 (0.05-30 ng g⁻¹) and PBDE 183 (0.1-30 ng g⁻¹). The method was successfully applied to sheep liver samples for the determination of the target PBDE and PCB compounds. PMID:21256501

  11. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS-MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS-MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n=5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72-119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1-0.5ng g(-1) for PCBs, 0.5-10ng g(-1) for PBDEs, 0.5-5ng g(-1) for select pesticides and PAHs and 1-10ng g(-1) for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. PMID:23245899

  12. STIMULATION OF [3H] ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, plastics, textiles, and building materials. While the presence of other persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin...

  13. Influence of trophic ecology on the accumulation of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Mediterranean gulls (Larus michahellis and L. audouinii): A three-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Morales, Laura; Abad, Esteban; Aguirre, Jose I; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-05-01

    The impact of pollution caused by severe anthropogenic pressure in the Mediterranean Sea, an important biodiversity hotspot, requires continuous research efforts. Sources of highly toxic chemicals such as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are misunderstood in representative Mediterranean species, which limits our capability to establish proper conservation strategies. In the present study, eggs of Audouin's and yellow-legged gulls (Larus audouinii and L. michahellis) were used to investigate the trophic sources, as measured by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S, of legacy POPs, in particular, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs), as well as recently-regulated POPs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Special attention was paid to the usefulness of rarely-explored δ(34)S ratios in explaining POP exposure in wildlife, and δ(34)S was the isotopic ratio that best explained POP variations among gulls in most cases, thus demonstrating its usefulness for understanding POP exposure in wildlife. Significant relationships between stable isotope signatures and POP concentrations revealed increasing levels of no-PCBs and low halogenated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in Mediterranean gulls as the consumption of marine resources increases. In contrast, highly chlorinated and brominated congeners appeared to preferentially accumulate in gulls feeding primarily on refuse from dump sites and terrestrial food webs. The use of suitable dietary tracers in the study of POPs in yellow-legged gulls revealed the importance of dump sites as a source of POPs in Mediterranean seabirds, which has not previously been reported. In contrast, the preferential accumulation through marine food webs of low chlorinated PCCD/Fs and no-PCBs, which show the highest toxic equivalents factors (TEFs), led to a significantly greater toxicological concern in Audouin's as compared to yellow-legged gulls. Audouin's gull exposure to POPs appears

  14. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  15. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  16. Assessment of the hazards of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, F J; Seifter, J; DeCarlo, V J

    1978-01-01

    During their peak use period, PBBs represented under 1% of the total sales of fire retardant chemicals, and very probably would have escaped intensive study if they had not been mixed accidentally with animal feed preparations. Instead, international attention was drawn to PBBs by the state-supervised killing of over 35,000 cattle which had been contaminated with PBBs. Interestingly, low doses of PBBs exert a broad spectrum of toxicological, pharmacological, and biochemical effects despite low acute toxicity. These effects and the intensive bioaccumulation of PBBs derive from their structure and their consequent resistance of biotransformation and high solubility in fat. In rodents, PBBs are teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and potentially carcinogenic. In bovine, rodent, and avian species, PBBs reduce feed intake and induce mixed function oxidases of liver microsomes. The latter effect may be responsible for steroid level changes which underline hormonal toxicities observed in cows, mink, rats, and chickens. The effects of PBBs on humans are controversial, but data suggestive of immunological, skin, and liver disorders continue to accumulate. Concern about the clinical effects of PBBs is heightened by the knowledge that these compounds readily enter the fetus by crossing the placental barrier and can be transferred to newborn children after extensive passage into breast milk. PMID:209999

  17. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the p...

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  19. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ESTERS (PBDES) IN FISH FROM STREAMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in the United States as flame-retardants in a wide range of products including paints, plastics, textiles, and electronics. In contrast to other persistent organic pollutants such as such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organo...

  20. Process for removing polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls from oils

    DOEpatents

    Orlett, M.J.

    The invention is a relatively simple and inexpensive process for detoxifying oils contaminated with PCBs and/or PBBs. The process is especially suitable for processing lubricating oils containing such contaminants. In one aspect of the invention, the contaminated lubricating oil is contacted with a particulate reagent comprising adsorbent particles carrying a dispersion of metallic sodium. The solid sodium reagent converts the PCB and/or PBB contaminants to environmentally acceptable products and also converts various sodium-reactive additives normally present in lubricating oil to reaction products. The adsorbent reagent retains most of the products and is easily separated from the detoxified oil. The detoxified oil may be fortified with various additives functionally equivalent to those removed during detoxification.

  1. Acute toxicity of dietary polybrominated biphenyls in Bobwhite Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.O.; Ringer, R.K.; Babish, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the acute oral toxicity of PBB to Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). The median lethal dietary concentration (LC/sub 56/) of PBB was determined over 8 days and clinical signs of intoxication are described.

  2. GROWTH IN GIRLS EXPOSED TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS: PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemical products which are synthesized by the direct chlorination of biphenyl. he degree of biphenyl ring chlorination determines the physical properties and applications of commercial PCBs and, therefore, it is not surprising that...

  4. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  5. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  6. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  7. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  8. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  9. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): new pollutants-old diseases.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Akmal; Laessig, Ronald H; Reed, Kurt D

    2003-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of recalcitrant and bioaccumulative halogenated compounds that have emerged as a major environmental pollutant. PBDEs are used as a flame-retardant and are found in consumer goods such as electrical equipment, construction materials, coatings, textiles and polyurethane foam (furniture padding). Similar in structure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PBDEs resist degradation in the environment. Less brominated PBDEs like tetra-, penta- and hexa- demonstrate high affinity for lipids and can accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans. Breast milk from North American women contained much higher amounts of PBDEs than levels in breast milk from Swedish women, indicating that North American exposures to PBDEs may be particularly high. Evidence to date suggests that tetra- and penta-BDEs are likely to be the more toxic and bioaccumulative of the PBDE compounds, compared to octa- and deca-congeners. PBDEs are sold as mixtures, under names such as "pentabromodiphenyl ether" and "octabromodiphenyl ether." The pentabromo product is a mixture of tetra-BDEs and penta-BDEs in approximately equal amounts. Pentabromo consists of PBDEs that are believed to be the most toxic. This mixture has been banned by the European Union, but is still used in North America. The United States is the leading producer and user of pentabromo. In August 2003, the State of California passed a bill to phase out the use of penta- and octa-PBDE by 2008. The toxicology of PBDEs is not well understood, but PBDEs have been associated with tumors, neurodevelopmental toxicity and thyroid hormone imbalance. The neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are similar to those observed for PCBs. Children exposed to PBDEs are prone to subtle but measurable developmental problems. It is presumed that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors, but research in this area is scant. Further studies are imperative in a multitude of health and environmental disciplines to determine the

  12. AGE AT MENARCHE IN GIRLS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-04-15

    So far there are limited data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. XAD 2-resin based passive air samplers were therefore deployed for 1 year (between July 2007-June 2008) at 16 locations across the Tibetan Plateau. Based on previously reported sampling rates (R) derived in the north and south America, and their correlations with atmospheric temperature and pressure, R values in the present study were in the range of 2.2-3.3 m(3) d(-1) (average = 2.7 +/- 0.3). Derived air concentrations (pg/m(3)) ranged as follows: DDTs, 5-75; HCHs, 0.1-36; alpha-endosulfan, 0.1-10; HCB, 2.8-80; sum of 15 PCBs, 1.8-8.2; and sum of 9 PBDEs, 0.1-8.3. The highest DDTs occurred at Qamdo, where the sampling site is near to farm land, indicating the spatial distribution of DDTs across the plateau may be influenced by scattered local usage of DDT. Higher levels of HCHs were observed at sites with high elevation (>4000 m) and close to the China-India border, indicating possible long-range atmospheric transport. The highest levels of HCB, PCBs, and PBDEs were found at a site impacted by forest fire during the sampling campaign. PMID:20235613

  14. Effects of polybrominated biphenyl on milk production, reproduction, and health problems in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wastell, M E; Moody, D L; Plog, J F

    1978-04-01

    PBB found in relatively low levels among animals present on a cross-section of Michigan farms during the time PBB was inadvertantly added to dairy feeds had no effect upon these animals' milk production, body weight, weight gain, breeding and reproduction performance, incidence of commonly experienced health problems, calving rate, and the health of their calves. No significant differences in these vital areas could be seen between Michigan animals exposed to PBB and equivalent Wisconsin animals which had not been exposed to PBB when both groups were subjected to equivalent management practices. No pattern of gross of histopathological lesions was seen upon necropsy between test animals and control animals. PMID:210008

  15. Effects of polybrominated biphenyl on milk production, reproduction, and health problems in Holstein cows.

    PubMed Central

    Wastell, M E; Moody, D L; Plog, J F

    1978-01-01

    PBB found in relatively low levels among animals present on a cross-section of Michigan farms during the time PBB was inadvertantly added to dairy feeds had no effect upon these animals' milk production, body weight, weight gain, breeding and reproduction performance, incidence of commonly experienced health problems, calving rate, and the health of their calves. No significant differences in these vital areas could be seen between Michigan animals exposed to PBB and equivalent Wisconsin animals which had not been exposed to PBB when both groups were subjected to equivalent management practices. No pattern of gross of histopathological lesions was seen upon necropsy between test animals and control animals. PMID:210008

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE ADIPOSE TISSUES OF THE GENERAL POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexabromobiphenyl has been identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in pooled extracts of adipose tissue samples collected from the general population of the conterminous United States. Mass spectra derived from tissue extracts subjected to gel permeation chroma...

  17. Fish consumption and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the serum of older residents of upper Hudson River communities.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Fletcher, Barbara A; Belanger, Erin; Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Hwang, Syni-an

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) among 144 men and women 55 to 74 years residing along the Hudson River. The results indicated a median serum PBDE concentration of 23.9 ng/g lipid wt. This value is similar to those of other New York State studies of populations that are younger and proportionately more likely to be male, suggesting that pathways do not differ by age or sex. Individual congeners were highly correlated, but they were not associated with concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Persons with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 had a geometric mean ΣPBDE concentration of 46.7 versus 25.2 ng/g lipid wt for persons with a BMI ≤ 30 (p = .006). Fresh water fish consumption was not associated with serum PBDE concentrations in this population. PMID:21186423

  18. ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL REDUCTIVE DEBROMINATION OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been detected in sediments, sewage sludge, fish, mammals (including humans), and air throughout the northern hemisphere. While concentrations of PCBs, DDT, and PCDDs in biota are generally decreasing, PBDE concentratio...

  19. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

  20. Serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in foam recyclers and carpet installers working in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard S; Niehüser, Sara; Zhang, Yalin; Patterson, Donald G

    2008-05-01

    Increased exposure to the flame retardants known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may be expected to occur during the recycling of polyurethane foam containing these chemicals. To date, no studies in the United States have investigated occupational exposure to these flame retardants during recycling processes. The objective of the present study was to determine if individuals working in foam recycling facilities, and/or carpet installers who may install carpet padding manufactured from recycled foam, possess significantly higher PBDE serum levels relative to that of the general U.S. population. As a control group, serum was collected from four spouses and one clerical worker. In addition, levels in workers were also compared to the recently published national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES) data set on PBDEs in the general U.S. population. Serum samples were collected in duplicate and analyzed by two different laboratories as quality control. Total PBDE levels were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the individuals recycling foam and installing carpet (n = 15) relative to the control group (n = 5). Median sigmaPBDE levels in the foam recyclers, carpet layers, and control group were 160, 178, and 19 ng/g lipid, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of a polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) and a polychlorinated biphenyl (CB-153) were equivalent among all groups tested. The PBDE congeners BDE-47, 99, 100, and 153 contributed 90% of the sigmaPBDE concentration in serum and no differences in congener patterns were apparent among the different groups. Relative to concentrations measured in the NHANES, foam recyclers and carpet layers have body burdens that are an order of magnitude higher. These data suggest individuals recycling foam-containing products, and/ or using products manufactured from recycled foam (i.e., carpet padding), have higher body burdens of PBDEs, and thus may be at higher risk from adverse health effects

  1. Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; Loomis, Dana; Baan, Robert; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Grosse, Yann; Straif, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds. PMID:26077316

  2. Cell type-dependent agonist/antagonist activities of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, N; Matsubara, K; Sanoh, S; Ohta, S; Uramaru, N; Kitamura, S; Yamaguchi, M; Sugihara, K; Fujimoto, N

    2013-11-25

    There have been many concerns expressed regarding the possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), since thyroid hormones play crucial roles in normal vertebrate development. A vast amount of PBDEs have been used as flame retardants for the last two decades and our environment has been contaminated with them. Some PBDEs, especially hydroxylated PBDEs, reportedly show an affinity to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and act as thyroid hormone agonists, but in other studies they were reported to inhibit the actions of thyroid hormones. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the binding affinities of PBDEs and their metabolites to TR and their ability to induce thyroid hormone-responsive transcription using luciferase reporter gene assays in two different cell lines, a pituitary cell line, MtT/E-2, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The binding assay showed that many of the examined PBDEs have significant affinity to TR. Interestingly, some of these PBDEs, such as 4'-OH-BDE-17 and 2'-OH-BDE-28, acted as agonists in the reporter gene assay in MtT/E-2 cells, while they acted as antagonists in CHO cells. Our results demonstrated that whether PBDEs and their metabolites are TR agonists or antagonists depends on the cell type used in the assay, which may suggest that the thyroid hormone-disrupting actions of PBDEs differ among target tissues or species. PMID:24076165

  3. Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, K.; Bjoerk, M.; Burreau, S.; Gilek, M. )

    1999-06-01

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k[sub u]), depuration rate coefficients (k[sub d]), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99. The depuration rate decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, but for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K[sub OW]. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  4. High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in vacuum cleaner dust from California fire stations.

    PubMed

    Shen, Beverly; Whitehead, Todd P; McNeel, Sandra; Brown, F Reber; Dhaliwal, Joginder; Das, Rupali; Israel, Leslie; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto

    2015-04-21

    Firefighters are exposed to chemicals during fire events and may also experience chemical exposure in their fire stations. Dust samples from used vacuum cleaner bags were collected from 20 fire stations in California and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median dust concentrations were higher for PBDEs (e.g., 47 000 ng/g for BDE-209) than for PAHs (e.g., 220 ng/g for benzo[a]pyrene) or PCBs (e.g., 9.3 ng/g for PCB-180). BDE-209 concentrations in dust from California fire stations were among the highest of any previously documented homes or occupational settings in the world. We examined factors such as the frequency of emergency responses, the number of fire vehicles on site, and building age, but we could not account for the high levels of BDE-209 observed in fire station dust. Based on the findings of our pilot study, we hypothesize that possible sources of BDE-209 in fire stations include contaminated ash tracked back from fire events via boots, clothing, and other equipment as well as specialized equipment treated with BDE-209, including turnout gear and fire vehicles. We suggest possible follow-up studies to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:25798547

  5. High liver content of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in otters (Lutra lutra) from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Pountney, Angela; Filby, Amy L; Thomas, Gareth O; Simpson, Vic R; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Jamie R; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants since the 1970s, are being phased out of use, but are persistent and widespread in the environment. Historical declines in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations have been associated with exposure to dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but links with other persistent organic pollutants have not been explored. In this study, liver samples from 129 otters, collected across England and Wales from 1995-2006, were analysed for PBDEs, together with PCBs, DDT breakdown products, and hexachlorobenzene. Associations with geographical location and life history parameters were explored. Concentrations of PBDEs in otters (∑BDE 12-70000ngg(-1) lipid) paralleled those measured in marine mammals, with PBDE-47 the dominant congener and high levels of PBDE-99 and -100. Otter livers contained high concentrations of PBDE-153 and -209, typical of terrestrial top predators. Inter-individual variation in PBDE concentrations was high and correlated with geographical location. ∑PBDE was 25% of ∑PCB, and comparable with ∑DDT, identifying PBDEs as a major contaminant in otter populations in England and Wales. PMID:25014662

  6. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and new polybrominated flame retardants in tree bark from western areas of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Jin, Jun; Lu, Yao; Li, Guangyao; He, Chang; Wang, Ying; Li, Peng; Hu, Jicheng

    2016-06-01

    Tree bark samples were collected from 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and new polybrominated flame retardant (NBFR) concentrations in the samples were determined. The mean total PBDE concentration was 51.8 ng/g lipid weight, which was 85.2% to 99.4% lower than in Chinese eastern coastal areas and the E-waste recycling areas. The dominant PBDE congener was BDE209, and its mean concentration was 49 ng/g lipid weight. The mean 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and hexabromobenzene concentrations were 0.61 ng/g, 0.97 ng/g, 0.68 ng/g, and 0.68 ng/g lw, respectively. The PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the air at the sampling sites were estimated from the concentrations in the tree bark samples. The estimated mean total PBDE and total NBFR concentrations in air were 58.5 pg/m(3) and 2.76 pg/m(3) , respectively. The sources of NBFR emissions were found to be different from the sources of PBDE emissions, as no relationship was found between the NBFR and PBDE concentrations, and it appeared that sources of measured hexabromobenzene, pentabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene in tree bark in western China include industrial activity related to the aluminum industry. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1364-1370. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26492098

  8. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  9. Environment Partitioning and Reactivity of Polybrominated Diphenylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Inez; Iraci, Laura T.; Jafvert, Chad; Bezares-Cruz, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants. Annual global demand for these compounds was over 67,000 metric tons in 2001. PBDEs have recently been extensively investigated as environmental contaminants because they have been detected in air, sediment, and tissue samples from urban and remote areas. Important issues include quantifying PBDE partitioning in various environmental compartments, and elucidating transformation pathways. The partitioning of PBDE congeners to aerosols was estimated for 16 sites in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The aerosol particles were PM2.5, the total suspended particle (TSP) concentration varied between 3.0 - 55.4 micro g/cubic meter, and the organic fraction ranged from 11 - 41%; these data are published values for each site. It is estimated that the largest fraction of each PBDE associated with the aerosol particles occurs in Mexico City, and the smallest fraction in Colorado Plateau. Although the organic fraction in Mexico City is about 60% of that observed in the Colorado Plateau, the TSP is larger by a factor of about 18.5, and it is the difference in TSP that strongly influences the fraction of particle-bound PBDE in this case. PBDE partitioning to PM2.5 particles also varies seasonally because of temperature variations. For the less brominated congeners the percentage that is particle-bound is relatively low, regardless of air temperature. In contrast, the heavier congeners exhibit a significant temperature dependence: as the temperature decreases (fall, winter) the percentage of PBDE that is particle-bound increases. The partitioning calculations complement experimental data indicating that decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) dissolved in hexane transforms very rapidly when irradiated with solar light. DBDE is the most highly brominated PBDE congener (10 bromine atoms) and occurs in the commercial formulation which is subject to the largest global demand.

  10. Current shot noise characteristics in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kalsoom, Ambreen; Song, Siyu; Li, Guiqin

    2014-09-01

    Current shot noise characteristics, away from their average current, in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices are investigated. The relations among the shot noise and the applied bias, the coupling factors, as well as the alligator clips are revealed. The regular change of the shot noise in biphenyl diamine device and irregular change of the shot noise in biphenyl dithiol device are shown as the coupling strength change from full coupling to weak coupling. It is found that the shot noise suppression in biphenyl diamine device is enhanced at the higher bias. The large differences of the shot noise suppression in the biphenyl dithiol device are revealed.

  11. Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, Rocio F. Scholten, Deborah E.A.; Marsh, Goeran; Jong, Paul C. de; Berg, Martin van den

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC{sub 50} values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K{sub i}/K{sub i}' of 7.68/0,02 {mu}M and 5.01/0.04 {mu}M respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show

  12. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN AMERICAN MOTHERS' MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in individual American mothers' milk. This report on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, and other chlorinated organics in human milk in a num...

  13. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the release of four completed toxicologal reviews and summary documents following an independent peer review on the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of four congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: tetraBDE (B...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  19. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters. PMID:23395527

  20. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.H.; Hites, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in tree bark vary with proximity to a source. Higher total PCB bark/air ratios in areas near contamination show that bark may retain PCB from prior periods of high atmospheric concentrations. Bark is enriched in the more chlorinated PCB homologues relative to air. Congener-specific analyses show that, when compared with air, bark favorably accumulates the less volatile congeners. Lipophilicity is not a good indicator of bark PCB concentrations, but vapor pressure is.

  2. Sublethal responses of avian embryos exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Ottinger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs) have been detected in bird eggs worldwide, and despite increasing concentrations over the past 25 years, toxicological thresholds have yet to be established. We previously reported embryonic survival, and pipping and hatching success in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos receiving 0.01-20 :g PBDE/g egg. Survival, pipping and hatching success were decreased in kestrels, suggesting that they are more sensitive to PBDEs than chickens and mallards. Adverse effects were detected in kestrels at levels (> 1 :g/g egg) believed to approach environmentally relevant PBDE concentrations. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (PCB 126) was used as a positive control (1000 pg/g egg) in this study, and survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel were decreased at this dose. Some PBDE and PCB congeners are structurally similar to thyroid hormones and have been demonstrated to affect thyroid homeostasis in laboratory rodents. In the present study, thyroid glands collected from day old hatchling chickens, mallards, and kestrels and were analyzed for thryoxine (T4) using a solid phase radioimmunoassay (DPC, Inc.) specifically validated for each of these species. Results indicated that thyroid gland T4 stores (total gland content and T4 /mg thyroid) in these species were relatively consistent and not significantly affected by PBDE exposure. In contrast, glandular T4 stores were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in PCB 126 treated kestrels. Decreases in circulating T4 levels in response to contaminants (e.g., PCBs, ammonium perchlorate) may lead to greater release of glandular T4 to maintain a euthyroid state, which could decrease thyroidal T4 stores. While PBDEs have been suggested to influence circulating T4 in kestrel fledglings (Fernie et al., 2005), it appears that glandular T4 was not affected in chicken, mallard or kestrel hatchlings exposed in ovo. Histopathological changes in

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in Composite U.S. Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Haffner, Darrah; Colacino, Justin; Patel, Keyur; Päpke, Olaf; Opel, Matthias; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to update previous U.S. market basket surveys of levels and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) dietary intake calculations. This study also quantifies hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) levels in U.S.-purchased foods for the first time and estimates U.S. dietary intake of HBCD. This is part of a larger market basket study reported in two companion articles, of current levels of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) PBDEs, HBCD, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in composite food samples collected in 2008–2009. Methods In this study, we measured concentrations of 24 PBDE congeners and total HBCD in composite samples of 31 food types (310 samples). U.S. dietary intake of PBDEs and HBCD was estimated referencing the most current U.S. Department of Agriculture loss-adjusted food availability report. Results Total PBDE concentrations in food varied by food type, ranging from 12 pg/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk to 1,545 pg/g ww in canned sardines and 6,211 pg/g ww in butter. Total HBCD concentrations also varied substantially within and among food groups, ranging from 23 pg/g in canned beef chili to 593 pg/g in canned sardines. HBCD was not detected in any dairy samples. Dietary intake of all PBDE congeners measured was estimated to be 50 ng/day, mostly from dairy consumption but also from meat and fish. HBCD intake was estimated at 16 ng/day, primarily from meat consumption. Conclusion PBDEs and HBCDs currently contaminate some food purchased in the United States, although PBDE intake estimated in this study is lower than reported in our previous market basket surveys. HBCD is in food at higher levels than expected based on previously reported levels in milk and blood compared with PBDE levels and is comparable to European levels. PMID:20064778

  4. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized. PMID:24968083

  5. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  6. Enzymatic Synthesis of Polybrominated Dioxins from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins are arguably among the most toxic molecules known to man. In addition to anthropogenic sources, marine invertebrates also harbor polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins of as yet unknown biogenic origin. Here, we report that the bmp gene locus in marine bacteria, a recently characterized source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can also synthesize dibenzo-p-dioxins by employing different phenolic initiator molecules. Our findings also diversify the structural classes of diphenyl ethers accessed by the bmp biosynthetic pathway. This report lays the biochemical foundation of a likely biogenetic origin of dibenzo-p-dioxins present in the marine metabolome and greatly expands the toxicity potential of marine derived polyhaloganated natural products. PMID:25061970

  7. Kinetics of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, D.D.; Brunner, W.

    1985-10-01

    The metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), which comprised the Aroclor 1242 mixture, was greatly enhanced by the addition of biphenyl (BP) to soil. After 49 days, only 25 to 35% of the original PCBs remained in the soil, and 48 to 49% was converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (including soil carbonates) in treatment enriched with BP; by contrast, 92% of the PCBs remained and less than 2% was converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in the unenriched control. Although the mineralization of PCBs in soils inoculated with Acinetobacter strain P6 was not greater than that in uninoculated BP-enriched soils, the initial and maximum mineralization rates and mineralization of BP was consistent with kinetic models based upon linear-no growth and exponential growth; lower cell densities (< 10/sup 6//g) of BP-oxidizing bacteria gave a better fit for exponential growth, whereas the highest cell density (10/sup 9//g) gave a better fit for linear-no growth. The numbers of BP-oxidizing bacteria declined exponentially upon depletion of the substrate. Since the mineralization of the chlorinated cometabolites was brought about by microorganisms (comensals) other than BP oxidizers, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production could not be fit to either of the two growth models. However, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the highest-density inoculum could be fit to a first-order (no-growth) sequential-reaction series.

  8. Bacterial metabolism of hydroxylated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Higson, F K; Focht, D D

    1989-01-01

    Isolates able to grow on 3- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl (HB) as the sole carbon source were obtained by enrichment culture. The 3-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH12 used an NADPH-dependent monooxygenase restricted to 3- and 3,3'-HBs to introduce an ortho-hydroxyl. The 4-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH23 used either a mono- or dioxygenase to generate a 2,3-diphenolic substitution pattern which allowed meta-fission of the aromatic ring. By using 3-chlorocatechol to inhibit catechol dioxygenase activity, it was found that 2- and 3-HBs were converted by FH23 to 2,3-HB, whereas biphenyl and 4-HB were attacked by dioxygenation. 4-HB was metabolized to 2,3,4'-trihydroxybiphenyl. Neither organism attacked chlorinated HBs. The degradation of 3- and 4-HBs by these strains is therefore analogous to the metabolism of biphenyl, 2-HB, and naphthalene in the requirement for 2,3-catechol formation. PMID:2729993

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Lewison, Rebecca L; Eriksen, Marcus; Allen, Harry; Cook, Anna-Marie; Teh, Swee J

    2014-04-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris in pelagic habitats of the subtropical gyres is a global phenomenon of growing concern, particularly with regard to wildlife. When animals ingest plastic debris that is associated with chemical contaminants, they are at risk of bioaccumulating hazardous pollutants. We examined the relationship between the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals in myctophid fish associated with plastic debris and plastic contamination in remote and previously unmonitored pelagic habitats in the South Atlantic Ocean. Using a published model, we defined three sampling zones where accumulated densities of plastic debris were predicted to differ. Contrary to model predictions, we found variable levels of plastic debris density across all stations within the sampling zones. Mesopelagic lanternfishes, sampled from each station and analyzed for bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), exhibited variability in contaminant levels, but this variability was not related to plastic debris density for most of the targeted compounds with the exception of PBDEs. We found that myctophid sampled at stations with greater plastic densities did have significantly larger concentrations of BDE#s 183 -209 in their tissues suggesting that higher brominated congeners of PBDEs, added to plastics as flame-retardants, are indicative of plastic contamination in the marine environment. Our results provide data on a previously unsampled pelagic gyre and highlight the challenges associated with characterizing plastic debris accumulation and associated risks to wildlife. PMID:24496035

  10. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment around a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    The distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a riparian ecosystem nearby a wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. Different aqueous and terrestrial samples such as soil, sediment, plants, and invertebrates were collected and analyzed for tri- to heptabrominated PBDEs. Furthermore, the food web structure was elucidated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The highest PBDE levels were found for sediment- and soil-dwelling invertebrates, such as earthworms (Σ13 PBDEs 144 ng/g lipid weight), Tubifex tubifex (77 ng/g lw), and scarab larvae (49 ng/g lw). Differences in congener composition profiles among the different matrices show that the environmental distribution and fate of PBDEs in ecosystems can be very complex. Among the analyzed PBDEs in this ecosystem, the tetra-brominated BDE-47 was the dominant PBDE congener and followed by the penta-brominated BDE-99. A potential trend of increasing BDE-47/99 ratio with the increase of δ(15)N was observed for species with similar energy sources (δ(13)C), indicating a higher bioaccumulation potential for BDE-47 in this ecosystem. A significant correlation was also found between PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicating similar sources and fate between the two compound groups in this area. The biota-soil or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were somewhat different among the PBDE congeners and species, but were generally highest for those with log Kow values around 6.5-7. PMID:27164882

  11. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-09-15

    Concentrations of several persistent organohalogen compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyl 153 (PBB 153) were measured in eggs of six species of wild aquatic birds, one species of wild terrestrial bird, and two species of captive birds from North China. Among the contaminants measured, DDTs were the dominant compounds, HCHs and PCBs were in nearly the same concentration range, and PBDEs exhibited lower concentrations than other compound groups. The median concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, PCBs, and PBDEs in all avian species ranged from 21 to 11034, 5.5 to 623, 1.0 to 613, and 4.6 to 146 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Median concentrations of DBDPE and PBB 153 in all avian species were in the range of not detectable (ND)-1.7 and ND-0.7 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Significant differences among species in contaminant profiles and contaminant levels were found depending on their feeding habits, habitat, and migration. The captive birds had the lowest contaminant levels and entirely different congener profiles in PCBs and PBDEs from those of wild birds, which can be attributed to differences in dietary compositions and reproduction rates. Octa- to deca-BDEs contributed more to the total PBDEs in wild terrestrial and captive birds than in wild aquatic birds, except for one insectivorous species, possibly due to greater exposure to terrestrial food sources. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no risk of a reduction in offspring survival in avian species from North China due to organohalogen compounds, except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), which would be expected to affect some proportion of the populations of several species of birds studied. PMID:19806727

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  13. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p′- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 0+ juvenile cyprinids and sediments of the Po River.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Luigi; Roscioli, Claudio; Erratico, Claudio; Guzzella, Licia

    2008-08-01

    PBDE and PCB content has been determined in 0+ bleak (Cyprinus alburnus), nase (Chondrostoma soetta), gudgeon (Cyprinus gobio), chub (Cyprinus cephalus), and barbel (Barbus sp.) as well as in bed sediments sampled from the River Po upstream and downstream of the confluence of a tributary draining a highly industrialized and urbanized subbasin. Both groups of chemicals were present at higher levels in fish and sediments downstream from the confluence. In addition, whole-body concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were different among species despite the young specimen age. The fact that PBDEs and PCBs were higher in benthivorous versus planktivorous fish, as well as in carnivorous versus herbivorous species, suggests that feeding behavior is a major controlling factor that may help differentiate the accumulation levels of 0+ juveniles. Of the five species, the pelagic/planktivorous cyprinid bleak (C. alburnus) showed the lowest concentrations (111 ng PBDE/g lipid weight [l.w.], 2016 ng PCB/g l.w.), whereas the benthic dweller and feeder barbel (Barbus sp.) had the highest concentrations of both groups of chemicals (259 ng PBDE/g l.w., 4785 ng PCB/g l.w.). The rank order of species contamination was essentially stable upstream and downstream from the tributary, and the congener contribution of PBDEs was also similar. In general, BDE-47 was the dominant congener, followed by BDE-100, -154, -153, and -28. BDE-209 dominated the PBDE congener profiles of sediments but was not found in any fish sample. Conversely, an unidentified hexa-BDE congener, which was not detected in sediments, was found in all fish species. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs determined in adult goby (Padogobius martensii), a small demersal predator also examined in the same river stretches, provided additional useful insights with which to interpret results. PMID:18213478

  15. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers. PMID:27521000

  16. Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Wang, Hong Sheng; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Chow, Ka Lai; Wong, Ming H

    2011-11-15

    The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 ± 2.96 in a million. PMID:21871716

  17. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS HORMONALLY ACTIVE STRUCTURAL ANALOGUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the environmental chemicals believed to have the potential to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals including humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls are a chemical class of considerable concern. Possible mechanisms by which these chemicals may interfere with endocrine fun...

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: Structure Determination and Trends in Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbing; Lohith, Katheryn; Rosario, Margaret; Pulliam, Thomas H; O'Connor, Robert D; Bell, Lori J; Bewley, Carole A

    2016-07-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of the Dictyoceratid sponges Lamellodysidea sp. and two samples of Dysidea granulosa yielded 14 polybrominated, diphenyl ethers including one new methoxy-containing compound (8). Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data of the natural product and their methoxy derivatives. Most of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity with low- to sub-microgram mL(-1) minimum inhibitory concentrations against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium, and two compounds inhibited Escherichia coli in a structure-dependent manner. PMID:27399938

  19. USE OF THE 'ORTHO EFFECT' FOR CHLORINATED BIPHENYL AND BROMINATED BIPHENYL ISOMER IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ortho effect observed for chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated biphenyls (PBBs) having 2,2; 2,2', 6 or 2,2', 6,6' halogens, can be combined with GC retention index for isomer specific identifications by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This technique relia...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls inventory in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Kukharchyk, Tamara I; Kakareka, Sergey V

    2008-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) inventory is a key element of the ecologically sound management of these dangerous chemicals. This article presents the findings of the large-scale PCB inventory project that was implemented in Belarus in 2003-2004. Data on PCB-containing equipment of more than 2000 enterprises was recorded: trademarks; volumes of PCBs; dates of manufacture; condition of equipment; levels of operation, descriptions of installations or storage locations. In the course of the inventory about 1500 tones of PCBs were identified, 99% of this total was found in power transformers and capacitors. As it proved most equipment containing PCBs is still in service today due to its long life-time. Additionally, the PCB-containing equipment which has been taken out of service is primarily stored on the territory of enterprises. The distribution of PCBs in Belarus among economy sectors as well as regions is shown. Problems of the PCB inventory and disposal are discussed. It is shown that the inventory needs to be regularly updated in order to estimate temporal changes in PCB-containing equipment condition, current owners and a location. PMID:17597287

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  2. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  3. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-01-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes. PMID:15121504

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES NOT ALTER SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in the environment, in wildlife, and in humans. Concern has been raised over potential thyrotoxic effects of this class of xenobiotics. Severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain development leads to...

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURES TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHERS: DISRUPTION OF THYROID HORMONES, HEPATIC METABOLISM AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants in numerous consumer products. Previous work has demonstrated that the DE-71 induces hypothyroxinemia in various animal models. In a series of studies, primiparous dams were...

  6. Investigation of Reagent Gases for the Positive Chemical Ionization of Select Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) fall into the class of compounds known as brominated flame retardants and their incorporation in a multitude of products is responsible for saving numerous lives. However, toxicology studies have alerted researchers to the potential adverse...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  13. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  14. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Kim, Eun-Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-07-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. PMID:17240498

  15. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, O.; Sudo, R.

    1980-05-01

    The biodegradation of PCB's by microorganisms and the degradation pathway of PCB's are investigated. Experimental methods and materials are described. Only several strains of bacteria, Achromobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and soil microorganisms were able to decompose PCB's. A possible relationships between the structure and biodegradability of related biphenyl compounds was examined. (5 diagrams, 11 graphs, 18 references, 1 table)

  16. Chronic toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna Straus

    SciTech Connect

    Gersich, F.M.; Bartlett, E.A.; Murphy, P.G.; Milazzo, D.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final test rule (1985) for biphenyl on the authority of Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Contained within this rule was the requirement for generating chronic daphnid toxicity data for biphenyl. Biphenyl is used primarily to produce dye carriers, heat-transfer fluids and alkylated biphenyls. The acute toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna has been reported. The 48-hr LC50 values were 4.7 and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. To date, the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to fish and aquatic invertebrates has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to D. magna. The daphnid chronic toxicity test is designed to estimate the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC). The MATC is defined as the concentration falling between the highest concentration showing no effect and the next higher concentration showing a toxic effect when compared to the controls.

  17. A novel pollution pattern: Highly chlorinated biphenyls retained in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from the Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Åke

    2016-05-01

    Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from two drinking water sources, e.g. Tianmu lake and East Tai lake in Yangtze River Delta, China. A novel PCBs contamination pattern was detected, including 11% and 6.9% highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with eight to ten chlorines) in relation to total PCB concentrations in the Black-crowned night heron and Whiskered tern eggs, respectively. The predominating OCPs detected in the present study were 4,4'-DDE, with concentration range 280-650 ng g(-1) lw in Black-crowned night heron and 240-480 ng g(-1) lw in Whiskered tern, followed by β-HCH and Mirex. 6-MeO-BDE-90 and 6-MeO-BDE-99 are the two predominant congeners of MeO-PBDEs whereas 6-OH-BDE-47 contributes mostly to the OH-PBDEs in both species. Contamination level was considered as median or low level compared global data. PMID:26705146

  18. Characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs in soils and plants from an e-waste area, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen; Huang, Honglin; Niu, Zhenchuan; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in the soil-plant system, soil and plant samples were collected from an e-waste recycling area in China. Forty one PBDEs, twelve OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were detected in the soil and plant samples. Concentrations of PBDEs in roots were significantly correlated to their concentrations in the soils, but the percentages of lower brominated congeners in the plants were higher than those in the soils. Significant positive linear relationships exist between concentrations of ∑OH-PBDEs and ∑MeO-PBDEs with higher levels of ∑MeO-PBDEs than those of ∑OH-PBDEs in the soils, plant roots and leaves. A majority of the OH-/MeO-PBDEs had the hydroxyl or methoxy group at the ortho-positions to the biphenyl bond for most of the plant species. However the occurrence of meta- and para- substituted OH-/MeO-PBDEs in soils and plants were also confirmed. PMID:24113474

  19. Time trends (1983-1999) for organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) from Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rice, Clifford P.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Hickey, James P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Service Great Lakes Science Center has archived rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) collected from the early 1980s to the present. These fish were collected to provide time- and site-dependent contaminant residue data needed by researchers and managers to fill critical data gaps regarding trends and behavior of persistent organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In the present study, data are presented for concentrations of several organochlorine (OC) contaminants in the archived smelt, including DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, and chlordanes in Lakes Michigan and Huron (MI, USA) and in Lake Superior (MN, USA). The trends for all the OCs were declining as a first-order decay over the sampled time series (1983/1985–1993/1999) with the exception of toxaphene in Lake Superior and PCBs at the Charlevoix/Little Traverse Bay site in Lake Michigan. Concentration of the emerging contaminant, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), also was traced from its apparent entry into this ecosystem in approximately 1980 until 1999. Time trends for the PBDEs were increasing exponentially at all sites, with concentration-doubling times varying from 1.58 to 2.94 years.

  20. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  1. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2009-12-15

    A fast and simple method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples was developed using a one-step extraction and clean-up by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS). The selective PLE method provided to obtain ready-to-analyse extracts without any additional clean-up step, using a sorbent as fat retainer inside the PLE cell. Several PLE operating conditions, such as solvent type, extraction temperature and time, number of cycles and type of fat retainer, were studied. Using Florisil as fat retainer, maximum recoveries of PBDEs (83-108%) with minimum presence of matrix-interfering compounds were obtained using a mixture of n-hexane:dichloromethane 90:10 (v/v) as solvent, an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C and a static extraction time of 5 min in combination with three static cycles. Quality parameters of the method were established using standards and fish samples. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 10 to 34 pg g(-1) wet weight and between 34 and 68 pg g(-1) wet weight, respectively. In addition, good linearity (between 1 and 500 ng ml(-1)) and high precision (RSD %<15%) were achieved. The method was validated using the standard reference material SRM-1945 (whale blubber) and was then applied to the analysis of PBDEs in fish samples. PMID:19836561

  2. A mechanistic view of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) developmental neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; de Laat, Rian; Tagliaferri, Sara; Pellacani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), extensively used in the past few decades as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products, have become world-wide persistent environmental pollutants. Levels in North America are usually higher than those in Europe and Asia, and body burden is 3 to 9-fold higher in infants and toddlers than in adults. The latter has raised concern for potential developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of PBDEs. Experimental studies in animals and epidemiological observations in humans suggest that PBDEs may be developmental neurotoxicants. Pre- and/or post-natal exposure to PBDEs may cause long-lasting behavioral abnormalities, particularly in the domains of motor activity and cognition. The mechanisms underlying the developmental neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are not known, though several hypotheses have been put forward. One general mode of action relates to the ability of PBDEs to impair thyroid hormone homeostasis, thus indirectly affecting the developing brain. An alternative or additional mode of action involves a direct effect of PBDEs on nervous system cells; PBDEs can cause oxidative stress-related damage (DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis), and interfere with signal transduction (particularly calcium signaling), and with neurotransmitter systems. Important issues such as bioavailability and metabolism of PBDEs, extrapolation of results to low level of exposures, and the potential effects of interactions among PBDE congeners and between PBDEs and other contaminants also need to be taken into account. PMID:24270005

  3. [Research progress of health effect of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Zhai, J X; Tong, S L

    2016-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was one of the most common brominated flame retardants, it has been widely used in products such as furnitures, polymer and plastical material, textiles, electronic products and building materials. PBDEs have potential effect such as neurodevelopmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, thyroid toxicity, immunological toxicity, embryo toxicity, liver toxicity, teratogenicity and potential carcinogenicity. This paper was aimed to review the environmental exposure way, current level, neurotoxicity, neurodevelopmental toxicity and reproductive toxicity of PBDEs. In recent years, PBDEs has been detected in environment, wildlife animal and human body around the world, there were the significant differences of exposure levels of PBDEs. The most abundant congener were tetra-BDE or BDE-47, hexa-BDE or BDE-153, and deca-BDE or BDE-209. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has great impact on the infants' neurodevelopmental function, induces changes in neuropsychological developmental behavior, decreases of congnition, motivation and attention. High levels of PBDEs have positive relationship with Luteinizing hormone levels, testis disfunction and children's cryptorchidism, and have negative relationship with sperm number and testis size. PMID:27256741

  4. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. PMID:26655676

  5. Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Paired Maternal and Cord Sera

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Park, June-Soo; Linderholm, Linda; Rhee, Alexandra; Petreas, Myrto; DeFranco, Emily A.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants in the past three decades. These compounds are lipophilic and easily cross the placenta from pregnant woman to fetus. It is not clear whether hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), with greater hydrophilicity, have different concentrations in maternal and cord serum samples. We analyzed PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -209) and OH-PBDEs (6-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 4′-OH-BDE-49, 5′-OH-BDE-99) in 20 pairs of maternal and cord serum samples collected in Cincinnati, OH in 2011. The geometric mean concentration of ΣOH-BDEs (the sum of four OH-PBDEs) was 49.76 pg/ml in cord sera, higher than 32.84 pg/ml in maternal sera. Similarly, cord serum total BDEs had a higher geometric mean than maternal serum (45.51 vs. 32.07 ng/g lipid). Equal or higher levels of total OH-BDEs and total BDEs in cord serum were observed in 85% and 80% of the mother-neonate pairs, respectively. The study suggests fetuses might receive higher OH-PBDE and PBDE exposure than their mothers. PMID:23506475

  6. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  7. Factors influencing atmospheric concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dien, Nguyen Thanh; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Toru; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2016-02-01

    We used polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) data in air at 38 sites across Japan (2009-2012), which were measured by the Japan Ministry of Environment (JMOE), to elucidate the time trend and seasonality of atmospheric PBDEs. In order to address few (7% for BDE-47) to many (63% for BDE-153 and 183) non-detect data, Tobit model, also called a censored regression model was used. The model revealed that the concentrations of PBDE congeners were influenced by a combination of year, temperature, rainfall rate, and population density. Greater declines were observed for BDE-47, -99, -153 and -183 (-21, -25, -17, -23%/year, p < 0.05) than for BDE-209 (-6%/year, p = 0.065). These trends were consistent with the estimated trends of penta-, octa- and deca-BDE contained in in-use products based on domestic demand for PBDEs in Japan and product lifespan. Seasonal patterns were opposite for light congeners (BDE-47 and -99), which increased with temperature, and heavy congeners (BDE-183, and -209), which decreased with temperature. Temperature-dependent emission (evaporation) for light congeners and temperature-independent emission (abrasion) for heavy congeners, coupled with seasonality of atmospheric boundary layer height, might explain these seasonal patterns. Human population density showed a positive correlation with all PBDE congener concentrations, whereas PBDEs showed negative correlation with rainfall rate. PMID:26583289

  8. Body Burdens of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers among Urban Anglers

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Kimberly B.; Landrigan, Philip J.; Sjödin, Andreas; Gobeille, Alayne K.; Jones, Richard S.; McGahee, Ernest E.; Needham, Larry L.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used in the United States and worldwide as flame retardants. Recent PBDE production figures show that worldwide use has increased. To determine whether fish consumption is a source of PBDE exposure for humans, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of New York and New Jersey urban anglers was conducted during the summers of 2001–2003. Frequency of local fish consumption was assessed by questionnaire, and blood samples for PBDE analysis were collected from 94 anglers fishing from piers on the lower Hudson River and Newark Bay. We analyzed PBDEs by gas chromatography–isotope dilution–high-resolution mass spectrometry. The congeners found in anglers’ serum at the highest concentrations were, by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry numbers, BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-99. Anglers reporting consumption of local fish had higher, but nonstatistically significantly different, concentrations of PBDEs than did anglers who did not eat local fish. For some congeners (BDE-100 and BDE-153), we observed moderate dose–response relationships between serum PBDE levels and frequency of reported fish intake. These findings suggest that consumption of locally caught fish is not a major route of human exposure for this study population. PMID:16330348

  9. A mechanistic view of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) developmental neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G; de Laat, Rian; Tagliaferri, Sara; Pellacani, Claudia

    2014-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), extensively used in the past few decades as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products, have become world-wide persistent environmental pollutants. Levels in North America are usually higher than those in Europe and Asia, and body burden is 3-to-9-fold higher in infants and toddlers than in adults. The latter has raised concern for potential developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of PBDEs. Experimental studies in animals and epidemiological observations in humans suggest that PBDEs may be developmental neurotoxicants. Pre- and/or post-natal exposure to PBDEs may cause long-lasting behavioral abnormalities, particularly in the domains of motor activity and cognition. The mechanisms underlying the developmental neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are not known, though several hypotheses have been put forward. One general mode of action relates to the ability of PBDEs to impair thyroid hormone homeostasis, thus indirectly affecting the developing brain. An alternative or additional mode of action involves a direct effect of PBDEs on nervous system cells; PBDEs can cause oxidative stress-related damage (DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis), and interfere with signal transduction (particularly calcium signaling), and with neurotransmitter systems. Important issues such as bioavailability and metabolism of PBDEs, extrapolation of results to low level of exposures, and the potential effects of interactions among PBDE congeners and between PBDEs and other contaminants also need to be taken into account. PMID:24270005

  10. Electronic and thermal properties of Biphenyl molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, F. G.; Ojeda, J. H.; Duque, C. A.; Laroze, D.

    2015-11-01

    Transport properties of a single Biphenyl molecule coupled to two contacts are studied. We characterise this system by a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Based on the non-equilibrium Green's functions technique with a Landauer-Büttiker formalism the transmission probability, current and thermoelectrical power are obtained. We show that the Biphenyl molecule may have semiconductor behavior for certain values of the electrode-molecule-electrode junctions and different values of the angle between the two rings of the molecule. In addition, the density of states (DOS) is calculated to compare the bandwidths with the profile of the transmission probability. DOS allows us to explain the asymmetric shape with respect to the molecule's Fermi energy.

  11. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  12. Enhanced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by directed evolution of biphenyl dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kumamaru, Tetsuya; Suenaga, Hikaru; Mitsuoka, Mariko; Watanabe, Takahito; Furukawa, Kensuke

    1998-07-01

    Biphenyl dioxygenases (BP Dox) from different organisms, which are involved in the initial oxygenation and subsequent degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are similar in structure but have different functions. The large subunit of BP Dox, encoded by the bphA1 gene, is crucial for substrate selectivity. Using the process of DNA shuffling, the authors randomly recombined the bphA1 genes of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and selected for genes that expressed proteins with altered function. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, some of these evolved genes exhibited enhanced degradation capacity, not only for PCB and related biphenyl compounds, but for single aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, which are poor substrates for the original BP Dox.

  13. Bioavailability of soil-sorbed biphenyl to bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Park, J.H.; Voice, T.C.; Boyd, S.A.

    2000-05-15

    Limited bioavailability of organic pollutants in soil may be a detriment to the successful application of bioremediation. The availability of soil-sorbed biphenyl to two biphenyl-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida P106 and Rhodococcus erythropolis NY05, was assessed using a kinetic mineralization assay. Biphenyl was aged in four soils of different organic carbon (OC) contents for up to 274 days. With a biphenyl-soil contact time of 24 h, the initial mineralization rates (IMRs) ranged from 2.6 to 3.5 {micro}g{sm_bullet}L{sup {minus}1}{sm_bullet}min{sup {minus}1} for strain P106 and from 3.8 to 0.92 {micro}g{sm_bullet}L{sup {minus}1}{sm_bullet}min{sup {minus}1} for strain NY05. These IMRs were higher than those of soil-free controls and those predicted by a coupled desorption/biodegradation model, suggesting both strains of bacteria could access soil-sorbed biphenyl. For strain P106, biphenyl mineralization curves in slurries of four different soils were nearly coincident with those in soil-free systems containing the same total mass of biphenyl. This strain appeared to have immediate and complete access to the pool of sorbed biphenyl. The extent of bioavailability of soil-sorbed biphenyl decreased with increased aging. The decrease in availability was most pronounced within the first 80 days. The effect of soil organic matter content on bioavailability showed different trends for the two organisms.

  14. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001–2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1–2,500 ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0–11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17–50%), within-household variability over time (38–74%), and within-sample variability (0–23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children’s health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study). PMID:23628589

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) FLAME RETARDANTS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet and house dust appear to be the major sources of PBDE exposure in the general population, though occupational exposure can also occur. Levels of PBDEs in human tissues are particularly high in North America, compared to Asian and European countries, and have been increasing in the past 30 years. Concentrations of PBDEs are particularly high in breast milk, resulting in high exposure of infants. In addition, for toddlers, dust has been estimated to account for a large percentage of exposure. PBDEs can also cross the placenta, as they have been detected in fetal blood and liver. Tetra-, penta- and hexa BDEs are most commonly present in human tissues. The current greatest concern for potential adverse effects of PBDEs relates to their developmental neurotoxicity. Pre- or postnatal exposure of mice or rats to various PBDEs has been shown to cause long-lasting changes in spontaneous motor activity, mostly characterized as hyperactivity or decreased habituation, and to disrupt performance in learning and memory tests. While a reduction in circulating thyroid hormone (T4) may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of PBDEs, direct effects on the developing brain have also been reported. Among these, PBDEs have been shown to affect signal transduction pathways and to cause oxidative stress. Levels of PBDEs causing developmental neurotoxicity in animals are not much dissimilar from levels found in highly exposed infants and toddlers. PMID:17904639

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Darnerud, P O; Eriksen, G S; Jóhannesson, T; Larsen, P B; Viluksela, M

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970--1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother's milk during 1972--1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 microg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on Nordic intake data, the possible consumer health risk from PBDEs appears limited, as a factor of over 10(6) separates the estimated present mean dietary intake from the suggested LOAEL value. However, the presence of many and important data gaps, including those in carcinogenicity, reproduction, and developmental toxicity, as well as additional routes of exposure, make this conclusion only preliminary. Moreover, the time trend of PBDEs in human breast milk is alarming for the future. PMID:11250805

  18. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. Neurochemical Changes Following a Single Dose Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory, and in the literature, have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener (PBDE 47) during a cri...

  2. Are polybrominated diphenyl ethers from household dust bioavailable and biologically active?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding may have important implications for young children, who are thought to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the putative development...

  3. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental substances that were commonly used as fire retardants in a wide number of commercial products. Their low reactivity, high hydrophobicity and bioaccumulative properties cause their ubiquity in the air, water, food and lead to extensi...

  4. Application and validation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers immunoassay for environmental and food matrices.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, chicken and soil samples. The assay is rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit ...

  5. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (EXTERNAL PEER REVIEW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of four congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: tetraBDE (BDE-47), pentaBDE (BDE-99), hexaBDE (BDE-153), and decaBDE (BDE-209), that will appear on ...

  6. Toxicokinetics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Congeners 47, 99, 100, and 153 in Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in biota samples are dominated by PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154; all of which are components of the commercial pentaBDE mixtures commonly used in a variety of flammable consumer products. Very little information is available...

  7. Persistence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agicultural soils after biosolids applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additives in consumer products for their fire-retardant properties. While scientists observe PBDEs in various environmental media, little is known of their fate in soils. This study examines the potential fate of PBDEs in agricultural soils treate...

  8. SYMPOSIUM #127 – ARE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS FROM HOUSEHOLD DUST BIOAVAILABLE AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding may have important implications for young children, who are thought to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the ...

  9. 77 FR 30972 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...EPA issued a proposed rule in the Federal Register of April 2, 2012, that would amend the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 5(a) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) for certain polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and that would require persons that manufacture, import, or process any of three commercial PBDEs, including in articles, for any use after December 31, 2013, to conduct......

  10. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  11. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in male ratsand implications for biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Exposure to PBDEs can be through both diet and the environment and is generally estimated by measuri...

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES IMPAIRS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in wildlife and in humans and reduce circulating levels of thyroxine (T4). The present work examined hippocampal function in adult offspring of LE rats treated daily by oral gavage with 0, 30 or 100 mg/kg of a ...

  13. 77 FR 19861 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...The Agency is proposing to amend the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 5(a) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR), for certain polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) by: Designating processing of six PBDEs, or any combination of these chemical substances resulting from a chemical reaction, as a significant new use; designating manufacturing, importing, and processing of a seventh PBDE,......

  14. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in U.S. Meat and Poultry: Levels, Congener Patterns, and Temporal Trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical surveys for dioxin residues in domestic meat and poultry were conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 and again in 2008. Because polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are also found in animal products and because the production of PentaBDE and OctaBDE formulations in th...

  15. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL. T.E. Stoker1, J. Ferrell1, J.M. Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1 and S.C. Laws1. 1 Reprod. Tox. Div., 2 Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    P...

  17. CHANGES IN MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE IN CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONAL CULTURES BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame-retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk; clarifying the nature of the risks posed is important for clean-up and remediation. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown t...

  18. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in male rats and implications for biomonitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Exposure to PBDEs can be through both diet and the environment and is generally estimated by measuring PBDEs in blood, a...

  19. 75 FR 28804 - An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... AGENCY An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is... Code: 8601P), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC...

  20. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  1. Different Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Chlorinated Compounds in Breast Milk from Two U.K. Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kalantzi, Olga I.; Martin, Francis L.; Thomas, Gareth O.; Alcock, Ruth E.; Tang, Huiru R.; Drury, Suzanne C.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Jones, Kevin C.

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners are constituents of flame retardants, and there is growing concern regarding their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. We collected breast milk samples between late 2001 and early 2003 from 54 U.K.-resident mothers. Of these, 27 originated from southeast England (London), and the other 27 originated from northwest England (Lancaster). Analysis of milk-fat extracts by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was performed to determine the levels of 15 PBDE congeners, 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and other selected chlorinated compounds. PCB and organochlorine (OC) levels in southeast samples were consistently higher, and significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed. ∑PBDE levels ranged from 0.3 to 69 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 6.6 ng/g), and PBDE-47 was the most abundant congener. ∑PCB levels ranged from 26 to 530 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 150 ng/g) and were composed mainly of PCB-153 (26%), PCB-138 (20%), and PCB-180 (13%). OC levels for 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT) and its metabolites (∑DDX) ranged from 24 to 2,300 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 160 ng/g); hexachlorobenzene ranged from nondetectable levels to 180 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 17 ng/g); and ∑hexachlorocyclohexane levels ranged from 1.2 to 1,500 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 16 ng/g). Using nuclear magnetic resonance–based metabonomics, samples (n = 7) containing the highest contaminant levels were compared with samples (n = 7) containing the lowest levels. Excellent separation along the first principal component implied that the chemical constituents of the two groups were significantly different. Although reasons for such differences remain obscure, lifestyle factors associated with a more heterogeneous London cohort could be responsible. Identifying primary routes of contaminant exposures and their biologic effects is of great importance. PMID:15238282

  2. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2011-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A; Johnson, Branden L; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-alpha-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of SigmaPBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did SigmaPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and SigmaPBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs

  4. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners). PMID:24380619

  5. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus Strain KF709, a Biphenyl-Utilizing Bacterium Isolated from Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takahito; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Suenaga, Hikaru; Hirose, Jun; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus strain KF709, which comprises 6,826,799 bp with 6,272 coding sequences. The strain KF709 utilizes biphenyl and degrades low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, it possesses fewer coding sequences involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds than other strains belonging to the Betaproteobacteria. PMID:25814614

  7. Biodegradation of polyfluorinated biphenyl in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David; Clark, Benjamin R; Murphy, Cormac D

    2011-07-01

    Fluorinated aromatic compounds are significant environmental pollutants, and microorganisms play important roles in their biodegradation. The effect of fluorine substitution on the transformation of fluorobiphenyl in two bacteria was investigated. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 used 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobiphenyl and 4,4'-difluorobiphenyl as sole sources of carbon and energy. The catabolism of the fluorinated compounds was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F NMR), and revealed that the bacteria employed the upper pathway of biphenyl catabolism to degrade these xenobiotics. The novel fluorometabolites 3-pentafluorophenyl-cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol and 3-pentafluorophenyl-benzene-1,2-diol were detected in the supernatants of biphenyl-grown resting cells incubated with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobiphenyl, most likely as a consequence of the actions of BphA and BphB. 4-Fluorobenzoate was detected in cultures incubated with 4,4'-difluorobiphenyl and 19F NMR analysis of the supernatant from P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 revealed the presence of additional water-soluble fluorometabolites. PMID:20830605

  8. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  9. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE (DE-71) DISRUPTS THYROID HORMONES BUT NOT NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants for numerous consumer products. Because of their lipophilicity and persistence, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Previous work in our lab has demonstra...

  10. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE (DE-71): DISRUPTION OF THYROID HOMEOSTASIS AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants in numerous consumer products. Previous work has demonstrated that the DE-71 induces hypothyroxinemia in both adults and developing rats. In these studies, primiparous rats w...

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  12. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl`s (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-07-30

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl`s (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6.

  13. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: A Novel and Robust Isolated Biphenyl- and Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterium without Dead-End Intermediates Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxing; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Jinglan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB) could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri-) PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L −1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments. PMID:25875180

  14. Mechanism of hydroxylation of biphenyl by Cunninghamella echinulata.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R V; Davis, P J; Clark, A M; Prasatik, S K

    1981-01-01

    The hydroxylation of [U-2H]biphenyl and [2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-2H]biphenyl by Cunninghamella echinulata A.T.C.C. 9244 has been studied. G.l.c.-mass-spectrometry analyses indicate the lack of an isotope effect during the hydroxylation of the perdeuterated substrate. Both g.l.c.-mass spectrometry and 1H n.m.r. were used to definitively demonstrate the presence of a 1,2-hydride-shift during the microbiological hydroxylation of [2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-2H]biphenyl. PMID:7306077

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A., peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs: urban/rural trends.

    PubMed

    Potter, Katherine E; Watts, Bryan D; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen P; Hale, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    A total of 23 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were obtained between 1993 and 2002 from 13 nests, encompassing 11 locations in the Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A. When multiple eggs were available from the same clutch, average clutch contaminant concentrations were calculated. An overall median total polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) level of 201 ng/g wet weight was determined for the eggs/clutches examined. The maximum in an individual egg, from an urban highway bridge site, was 354 ng/g. This egg also exhibited the highest BDE 209 burden (48.2 ng/g). Compared to distributions reported in fish and piscivorous birds, falcon eggs were enriched in the more brominated congeners. The BDE congeners 153, 99, and 100 constituted 26.0, 24.8, and 13.1%, respectively, of total PBDEs. In most aquatic species, BDE 47 is the most abundant congener reported; however, it constituted only 4.4% of total PBDEs in the eggs of the present study. The median BDE 209 concentration was 6.3 ng/g. The sum of the octa- to nonabrominated congeners (BDEs 196, 197, 206, 207, and 208) contributed, on average, 14.0% of total PBDEs, exceeding the contribution of BDE 209 (5.9%). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) also were determined in a subset of 16 eggs (collected in 2001-2002 from six nests) and were an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding PBDEs. Median BDE 209 concentrations were significantly correlated (p < 0.01, Spearman R = 0.690) with the human population density of the area surrounding the nest. Total PBDEs, total PCBs, and 4,4'-DDE levels were not correlated to human population density. PMID:19102579

  16. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls: influence on birthweight and gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Lawrence, C.E.; Hwang, H.L.; Paulson, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    Fifty-one infants born to women employed at two capacitor manufacturing facilities with a history of high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had a mean birthweight of 153 grams less than that of 337 infants born to women who had worked in low-exposure areas (90 per cent confidence interval, -286 to -20 g); mean gestational age was 6.6 days shorter in the high-exposure infants (90 per cent CI, -10.3 to -2.9 days). After adjusting for gestational age, the difference in birthweight was markedly reduced, indicating that the observed reduction in birthweight was due mainly to shortening of gestational age in the high-exposure group.

  18. Triclosan and Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lake and Esturaine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, W. A.; Kerrigan, J. F.; McNeill, K.; Erickson, P. R.; Grandbois, M.

    2014-12-01

    Halogenated diphenyl ethers are a class of emerging contaminants that includes the antibacterial compound triclosan and the flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Both triclosan and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are known to form dioxins when exposed to sunlight in aqueous solution. Thus, it is important to understand the sources and presence of these compounds in the environment, especially because OH-BDEs are breakdown products of PBDEs and also naturally produced compounds. In this work, the levels of OH-BDEs were determined in lake sediments from Minnesota and esturaine sediments from San Francisco Bay. Both surface sediments over a broad spatial area and sediment cores were collected and analyzed. Triclosan was used as a marker of wastewater as a source of the targeted emerging contaminants. The relationship between triclosan and OH-BDE levels provides insight into the importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the levels of OH-BDEs.

  19. Four new bioactive polybrominated diphenyl ethers of the sponge Dysidea herbacea from West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Handayani, D; Edrada, R A; Proksch, P; Wray, V; Witte, L; Van Soest, R W; Kunzmann, A; Soedarsono

    1997-12-01

    The marine sponge Dysidea herbacea collected from Indonesia yielded four new polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners 2-5 and the known derivatives 1, 6, and 7. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic (1H, 13C, COSY, 1H-detected direct and long-range 13C-1H correlations) and mass spectrometric (EIMS) data. All of the compounds were active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The isolated polybrominated compounds were also active in the brine shrimp lethality test. In the latter bioassay, compounds 1 and 6 were the most active with LC50's of 0.96 [SE +/- 0.19] and 0.94 [SE +/- 0.70] microg/mL, respectively. PMID:9463111

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (External Review Draft) (September 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  1. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  2. DECHLORINATIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The breakdown of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in situ in sediments heavily contaminated with PCBs by processes called reductive dechlorinations have been reported. hese studies characterized several distinct dechlorination patterns, caused by different strains of anae...

  3. Effective inhibition of hydroxyl radicals by hydroxylated biphenyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Taira, J; Ikemoto, T; Mimura, K; Hagi, A; Murakami, A; Makino, K

    1993-01-01

    In aqueous media, approximate rate constants for the reactions between hydroxyl radicals (.OH) and biphenyl compounds such as dehydrodieugenol, magnolol, honokiol, dehydrodidihydroeugenol, dehydrodivanillyl alcohol, and dehydrodicreosol were estimated by competition reactions for .OH between these biphenyls and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). By measuring the decrease in the height of the EPR signals of the .OH spin adduct, rate constants in the order of 10(9) to 10(10) M were measured. PMID:8282234

  4. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOMPONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. ix open reading frames were identified, four of which are, homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  5. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  6. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  7. KINETICS OF THE REACTIONS OF NAPHTHALENE AND BIPHENYL WITH OH RADICALS AND WITH O3 AT 294 + OR - 1 K

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene and biphenyl are the simplest members of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the polyphenyls, respectively. In addition, biphenyl is the parent compound of the chlorine and bromine substituted biphenyls. However, these bicyclic aromatics are of a sufficiently low...

  8. A simple and fast method for the simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in small volumes of human serum.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J J; Gómara, B; Fernández, M A; González, M J

    2007-06-01

    A fast extraction and clean-up method for the simultaneous determination of PCBs and PBDEs has been developed. The procedure consisted of a solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the analytes on an Oasis HLB cartridge and the subsequent on-line fat elimination by directly dropping the eluate from the SPE cartridge onto a second cartridge containing layers of activated neutral silica gel and sulphuric acid modified silica gel. Detection limits using a gas chromatography coupled with an ion trap detector in the tandem mass spectrometry mode were from 0.03 to 0.3 pg/microL for PCBs and from 0.07 to 1.3 pg/microL for PBDEs. Repeatability (lower than 11%) and reproducibility (lower than 17%), expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD, n=4), were satisfactory. The feasibility of the method developed for the determination of the target compounds was evaluated by participation in several rounds of interlaboratory exercises involving human serum with a wide range of PBDE and PCB concentrations. The method has been applied to the evaluation of PBDEs and PCBs in human serum samples of up to 1 mL. PMID:17204274

  9. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds (< 0 means net-deposition, > 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  10. POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS NEUROENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE: EFFECTS DURING PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN VITRO AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neuropeptide, vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) located within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. VP has multiple functions including maintenance of body fluid homeostasis, cardiovasc...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  12. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  13. Structures of cyano-biphenyl liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Yuan-Chao; Tsang, Tung; Rahimzadeh, E.; Yin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of p-alkyl- p'-cyano- bicyclohexanes, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H10)(C6H10) CN (n-CCH), and p-alkyl- p'-cyano- biphenyls, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H4)(C6H4) CN (n-CBP), were studied. It is convenient to use an x ray image intensification device to search for symmetric x ray diffraction patterns. Despite the similarities in molecular structures of these compounds, very different crystal structures were found. For the smectic phase of 2CCH, the structure is close to rhombohedral with threefold symmetry. In contrast, the structure is close to hexagonal close-packed with two molecules per unit cell for 4CCH. Since intermolecular forces may be quite weak for these liquid crystals systems, it appears that crystal structures change considerably when the alkyl chain length is slightly altered. Different structures were also found in the crystalline phase of n-CBP for n = 6 to 9. For n = 7 to 9, the structures are close to monclinic. The structures are reminiscent of the smectic-A liquid crystal structures with the linear molecules slightly tilted away from the c-axis. In contrast, the structure is quite different for n = 6 with the molecules nearly perpendicular to the c-axis.

  14. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  15. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  16. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides in selected cereals available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, HCH, HCB, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, nitrophene, metoxychlor) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected types of cereals available on the Polish retail market. 191 samples of various cereals have been analyzed in total. Average EC6 concentrations ranged from 56.4 (snacks) to 442.2 pg g(-1) (bran) while the concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was in 15 (groats)-37.6 pg g(-1) (snacks) range. Mean dioxin equivalency concentration calculated as lower bound results in 2005 TEF values amounted to 0.120 ± 0.445 pg TEQ g(-1), while 0.091 ± 0.338 pg TEQ g(-1) if 1998 TEF values were used. Average concentration of all 14 studied BDEs (∑14 BDE) was 112 ± 80 pg g(-1), while average concentration of 13 BDEs excluding BDE #209 was only 15 ± 6 pg g(-1). Pesticide concentrations observed in the analyzed samples were generally low in comparison to maximum residue levels (MRLs) actually permitted by the European Union. However, MRLs were exceeded in 7 out of all 191 analyzed samples. Total concentration of DDT isomers in one of the tested bran samples was as high as 0.053 mg kg(-1). DMDT concentrations slightly above MRL = 0.01 mg kg(-1)were observed in 6 other samples (2 × bran, 1 × children porridge, 2 × snacks and 1 × bread). This study has shown that levels of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in cereal products available on the Polish market are generally low. However, elevated levels of individual pollutants were observed in several instances. PMID:23906852

  18. Chicago's Sanitary and Ship Canal sediment: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; O'Sullivan, Colin; Liu, Liang-Ying; Venier, Marta; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-09-01

    The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) links the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River starting in downtown Chicago. In addition to storm water, the CSSC receives water from Chicago's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Such effluents are known to be sources of organic pollutants to water and sediment. Therefore in 2013, we collected 10 sediment samples from the CSSC and measured the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Geometric mean concentrations of the summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 11,000 to 420,000 ng/g dw, with the highest concentrations located at each end of the canal. Total PCB concentrations had a geometric mean of 1,400 ± 500 ng/g dw. Brominated flame retardants were separated into two groups: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs and those of the non-PBDE flame retardants had a geometric average of 83 ± 19 and 7.0 ± 5.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The summed concentrations of 8 OPEs ranged from 470 to 2,800 ng/g dw, with the highest concentration detected at a site located downstream of the Stickney water reclamation plant. Using ANOVA results, some hypotheses on sources to the CSSC could be formulated: downtown Chicago is probably a source of PAHs, the Cal-Sag Channel may be a source of PCBs, and neither the WWTP nor the Cal-Sag Channel seem to be significant sources of brominated flame retardants or OPEs. PMID:25981316

  19. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Methoxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water, Soil and Sediment from China by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaozhong; Hu, Decong; Chen, Wei; Wu, Bin; Lin, Changjun

    2015-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame retardants, which are increasingly reported in the environment. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are structural analogs to PBDEs and reported as natural products and novel pollutants present in the environment. First, a new isotopic dilution GC-MS method was developed in this study to simultaneously determine 13 PBDEs and 8 MeO-PBDEs in water, soil and sediment. Liquid/liquid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography cleanup were used, and some important steps and crucial parameters were modified and intensified compared with the other literatures. Besides, the conditions of GC and MS were also optimized. The limits of quantitation values of 0.005-0.1 and 0.02-0.1 µg L(-1) in water were calculated for PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, respectively; so did 0.25-5 and 1-5 µg kg(-1) dry weight in soil and sediment. In addition, good repeatability and accuracy of the whole method were achieved. Moreover, 60 water and 30 sediment samples for aquaculture crayfish and freshwater fish collected from aquatic products production base, 40 soil samples collected from agricultural products production base and also 20 Yangtze River water samples and 20 Hanjiang River water samples collected from different sampling situations near Wuhan, Hubei province along the Yangtze River and the Hanjiang River were analyzed to determine whether they are contaminated by PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. Using the established methods, it was found that PBDEs or MeO-PBDEs emerged in 4 of 60 water samples for aquatic products, 3 of 40 soils, and 2 of 30 sediments and in low µg kg(-1) dry weight for soil and sediments and low µg L(-1) for water. PMID:25697450

  2. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:26884244

  3. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  4. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  5. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  6. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  7. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. his organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. iphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl ...

  8. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  9. Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site.

    PubMed

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site. PMID:22208746

  10. Composition, distribution, and characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, S; Yang, Z Z; Zhang, L; Li, K; Xu, X B

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PBDE concentrations in 10 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 8.47 to 29.02 ng g(-1), with BDE-209 as the predominant congener (>85%). Principal component analysis revealed that the major source of PBDEs in Beijing may be potentially associated with deca-BDE. Furthermore, increasing PBDE contamination was observed from northwest to east Beijing. Finally, possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions were subsequently explored revealing a significant correlation between SigmaPBDEs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. PMID:19322505