Sample records for dimethyl ether dme

  1. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it

  2. Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods 

    E-print Network

    Karagoz, Secgin

    2014-08-11

    may be obtained from shale gas is dimethyl ether (DME). Dimethyl ether can be used in many areas such as power generation, transportation fuel, and domestic heating and cooking. Dimethyl ether is currently produced from natural gas, coal and biomass...

  3. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

  4. A Review of Sustainable Energy – Recent Development and Future Prospects of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En Sup Yoon; Chonghun Han

    2009-01-01

    DME can be synthesized from natural gas, coal, biomass, and\\/or coal seam, and is a sulfur-free, near-zero aromatics synthetic fuel which is considered as an excellent substitute for conventional diesel and liquefied petroleum gas. Currently, various production technologies are developed and many commercial projects are actively being progressed. This paper presents recent development and future prospect of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  5. Dimethyl ether: A fuel for the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Fleisch; A. Basu; M. J. Gradassi; J. G. Masin

    1997-01-01

    For several years Amoco has been involved in research and development work on the synthesis of liquid fuels from natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S\\/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco has identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like LPG, an important alternative transportation

  6. Effects of dimethyl-ether (DME) spray behavior in the cylinder on the combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics of a high speed diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su Han Park; Hyung Jun Kim; Chang Sik Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the exhaust emissions of DME fuel through experimental and numerical analyses of in-cylinder spray behavior. To investigate this behavior, spray characteristics such as the spray tip penetration, spray cone angle, and spray targeting point were studied in a re-entrant cylinder shape under real combustion chamber conditions. The combustion performance and exhaust emissions

  7. Synthesis of methyl acetate from syngas via dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Tartamella, T.; Sardesai, A.; Lanterman, H.B.; Lee, S.

    1999-07-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as a building block for a variety of specialty chemicals in the petrochemical industry. Its utilization stems mainly from its efficient production from synthesis gas in a single stage. This Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LP-DME) process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, can alleviate the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improve once-through syngas conversion and reactor productivity. Studies in the past have focused on using DME as a feedstock for gasoline range hydrocarbons as well as lower olefins. The focus of this investigation is to study the synthesis of methyl acetate, an important intermediate for acetic acid, from dimethyl ether. In particular, conversion of DME to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of Group VIII metal substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Key aspects of the process such as the effect of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions are examined. Thus, this paper introduces a novel process route for synthesis of methyl acetate from natural gas-based syngas via dimethyl ether as an intermediate.

  8. CH3O(A-X) fluorescence from photodissociation of dimethyl ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, Masako; Ye, Chao; Lee, L. C.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports the quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of dimethyl ether (DME) measured with synchrotron radiation. Determinations were also made of the absolute fluorescence cross sections, the fluorescence quantum yield, and the radiative lifetime.

  9. Explosion and detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Toshio; Horiguchi, Sadashige

    2009-05-15

    In this study, the explosion and detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether (DME) were experimentally investigated. A spherical pressure vessel with an internal volume of 180L was used as the explosion vessel. Therefore, tubes 10m in length with internal diameters of 25mm and 50mm were used as detonation tubes. In addition, we compared the characteristics of DME with those of propane since DME is considered as a substitute fuel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG). At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the maximum explosive pressure increased tenfold. The explosion index (K(G) values), an indicator of the intensity of an explosion, was larger than that of propane, indicating that the explosion was intense. No experimental study has been conducted on the detonation behavior of DME so far, but this research confirmed a transition to detonation. The detonation characteristics were similar to the characteristics of the Chapman-Jouguet detonation, and the concentration range for detonation was from 5.5% to 9.0%. PMID:18774641

  10. Syngas to olefins via dimethyl ether over zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Coal or natural gas-based syngas can be converted to dimethyl ether (DME) in a dual catalytic, single-stage liquid phase process. The process described here converts dimethyl ether to lower olefins, such as ethylene, propylene, and butenes. Thus, a novel process of producing olefins from syngas via dimethyl ether has been introduced. The process feasibility of dimethyl ether conversion has been evaluated and the range of products of this process has also been identified. The effect of operating parameters and catalyst characteristics on product selectivity has been studied. The superior process advantages as well as its competitive economics quite clearly identify this process to be quite promising when conducted on an industrial scale.

  11. Performance of a controllable premixed combustion engine fueled with dimethyl ether

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Song; Zhen Huang; Xinqi Qiao; Wanli Wang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of the controllable premixed combustion (CPC) for an internal combustion engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME). The CPC system is composed of an electronic control low pressure injection system, a premix chamber and a main chamber. Between the two chambers, a control valve is set. DME is entirely injected into the premix chamber at

  12. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A. Semelsberger; Rodney L. Borup; Howard L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel

  13. Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

  14. Pilot-Scale Tests of Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Biomass-Derived Syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Li; Tiejun Wang; Xiuli Yin; Chuangzhi Wu; Longlong Ma; Haibin Li; Xinghua Zhang; Yongxing Lv

    2009-01-01

    Direct conversion of biomass-derived syngas to dimethyl ether (DME) at pilot-scale of 100 t\\/a was carried out in a fixed-bed tubular reactor over Cu\\/Zn\\/Al\\/HZSM-5 catalyst. The bio-syngas was obtained by pyrolysis and gasification of corncob under O2-rich air in fixed-bed reactors. The effects of gasification, synthesis temperature and gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of bio-syngas on DME synthesis were investigated

  15. Evaluation of methyl fluoride and dimethyl ether as inhibitors of aerobic methane oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Methyl fluoride (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) were effective inhibitors of aerobic methanotrophy in a variety of soils. MF and DME blocked consumption of CH4 as well as the oxidation of 14CH4 to 14CO2, but neither MF nor DME affected the oxidation of [14C]methanol or [14C]formate to 14CO2. Cooxidation of ethane and propane by methane-oxidizing soils was also inhibited by MF. Nitrification (ammonia oxidation) in soils was inhibited by both MF and DME. Production of N2O via nitrification was inhibited by MF; however, MF did not affect N2O production associated with denitrification. Methanogenesis was partially inhibited by MF but not by DME. Methane oxidation was ~100-fold more sensitive to MF than was methanogenesis, indicating that an optimum concentration could be employed to selectively block methanotrophy. MF inhibited methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; however, DME was a much less effective inhibitor.

  16. Radio detection of interstellar dimethyl ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Buhl, D.; Schwartz, P. R.; Clark, F. O.; Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Giguere, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The detection of interstellar dimethyl ether, in emission from the direction of the Orion Nebula molecular cloud, is reported. The largest molecule detected in space, dimethyl ether has a large collisional cross section and C (sub 2V) symmetry. Hence, it should be useful for future studies of molecular pumping models.

  17. An integrated biomass-derived syngas\\/dimethyl ether process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiejun Wang; Jie Chang; Yan Fu; Qi Zhang; Yuping Li

    2007-01-01

    A Cu-Zn-Al methanol catalyst combined with HZSM-5 was used for dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from a biomass-derived syngas\\u000a containing nitrogen. The syngas was produced by air-steam gasification of pine sawdust in a bubbling fluidized bed biomass\\u000a gasifier with a dry reforming reaction over ultra-stable NiO-MgO catalyst packed in a downstream reactor for stoichiometric\\u000a factor (H2, CO, CO2) adjustment. It constantly

  18. Barrierless proton transfer across weak CH⋯O hydrogen bonds in dimethyl ether dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Bruce L.; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Bodi, Andras; West, Adam H. C.; Sztáray, Bálint; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    We present a combined computational and threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence study of two isotopologues of dimethyl ether, (DME - h6)n and (DME - d6)n n = 1 and 2, in the 9-14 eV photon energy range. Multiple isomers of neutral dimethyl ether dimer were considered, all of which may be present, and exhibited varying C-H⋯O interactions. Results from electronic structure calculations predict that all of them undergo barrierless proton transfer upon photoionization to the ground electronic state of the cation. In fact, all neutral isomers were found to relax to the same radical cation structure. The lowest energy dissociative photoionization channel of the dimer leads to CH3OHCH3+ by the loss of CH2OCH3 with a 0 K appearance energy of 9.71 ± 0.03 eV and 9.73 ± 0.03 eV for (DME - h6)2 and deuterated (DME - d6)2, respectively. The ground state threshold photoelectron spectrum band of the dimethyl ether dimer is broad and exhibits no vibrational structure. Dimerization results in a 350 meV decrease of the valence band appearance energy, a 140 meV decrease of the band maximum, thus an almost twofold increase in the ground state band width, compared with DME - d6 monomer.

  19. Barrierless proton transfer across weak CH?O hydrogen bonds in dimethyl ether dimer.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Bruce L; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Bodi, Andras; West, Adam H C; Sztáray, Bálint; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-03-21

    We present a combined computational and threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence study of two isotopologues of dimethyl ether, (DME - h6)n and (DME - d6)n n = 1 and 2, in the 9-14 eV photon energy range. Multiple isomers of neutral dimethyl ether dimer were considered, all of which may be present, and exhibited varying C-H?O interactions. Results from electronic structure calculations predict that all of them undergo barrierless proton transfer upon photoionization to the ground electronic state of the cation. In fact, all neutral isomers were found to relax to the same radical cation structure. The lowest energy dissociative photoionization channel of the dimer leads to CH3OHCH3 (+) by the loss of CH2OCH3 with a 0 K appearance energy of 9.71 ± 0.03 eV and 9.73 ± 0.03 eV for (DME - h6)2 and deuterated (DME - d6)2, respectively. The ground state threshold photoelectron spectrum band of the dimethyl ether dimer is broad and exhibits no vibrational structure. Dimerization results in a 350 meV decrease of the valence band appearance energy, a 140 meV decrease of the band maximum, thus an almost twofold increase in the ground state band width, compared with DME - d6 monomer. PMID:25796245

  20. Adsorption structure of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 zeolite determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Shinjiro; Seino, Shintaro; Kamiya, Natsumi; Nishi, Koji; Yokomori, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption structures of dimethyl ether (DME) on silicalite-1 zeolite (MFI-type) are determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of low-loaded DME-silicalite-1 indicates that all DME molecules are located in the sinusoidal channel, which is the most stable sorption site based on the van der Waals interaction between DME and the framework. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is in the pore system of MFI-type zeolites. Bent molecules favor the sinusoidal channel, while linear molecules favor the straight channel. The contribution of DME–DME interactions is considerable in the high-loaded DME-silicalite-1 structure. PMID:25274519

  1. Intermolecular interaction in the formaldehyde-dimethyl ether and formaldehyde-dimethyl sulfide complexes investigated by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Tatamitani, Yoshio; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Hirota, Eizi

    2015-03-12

    The ground-state rotational spectra of the formaldehyde-dimethyl ether (H2CO-DME) and formaldehyde-dimethyl sulfide (H2CO-DMS) complexes have been studied by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The a-type and c-type rotational transitions have been assigned for the normal and deutrated formaldehyde-containing species of both complexes. In the case of H2CO-DME, doublets were observed with the splitting 10-300 kHz, whereas no such splittings were observed for H2CO-DMS, D2CO-DME, and D2CO-DMS. The observed rotational spectra were found consistent with a structure of Cs symmetry with DME or DMS bound to H2CO by two types of hydrogen bonds: C-H(DME/DMS)---O(H2CO) and O(DME)/S(DMS)---H-C(H2CO). The R(cm) distances between the centers of mass of the component molecules in the H2CO-DME and H2CO-DMS complexes were determined to be 3.102 and 3.200 Å, respectively, which are shorter than those in most related complexes. The spectral and NBO analyses showed that H2CO-DMS has a stronger charge transfer interaction than H2CO-DME does and that the binding energy of H2CO-DMS is larger than that of H2CO-DME. PMID:25679958

  2. A Pulsed Plasma Thruster Using Dimethyl Ether as Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Souichi; Okada, Terumasa; Kitatomi, Makoto; Kakami, Akira; Tachibana, Takeshi

    The pulsed plasma thruster (PPT), has attracted attention again as a micro-thruster because of its compactness, light weight, and comparatively low power consumption. On the other hand, the propellant utilization efficiency of a conventinal Teflon PPT is relatively low among electric propulsion devices because a propellant that originates from late-time ablation produces negligible thrust. The liquid propellant PPT (LP-PPT), in which water or ethanol is fed with an injector, was proposed to overcome these difficulties. Thrust measurements show that a LP-PPT provides higher specific impulses than a conventional PPT. However, water requires temperature management for propellant storage due to its relatively high freezing point. Moreover, even if ethanol, which has a sufficiently low freezing point, is used as propellant, a pressurant is necessary, as well as water, because the vapor pressures are insufficient for self-pressurization. In this study, we propose to use dimethyl ether (DME) as the propellant. DME, which has a freezing point of 131 K at 1 atm and a vapor pressure of 6 atm at 298 K, can be stored in tanks as a liquid, and requires no feeding pressurant. We designed a DME pulsed plasma thruster to evaluate performance. Thrust measurement yielded a specific impulse of 430 s for a coaxial type at a capacitor-stored energy of 13 J.

  3. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  9. Attrition resistant catalyst for dimethyl ether synthesis in fluidized-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-hua Teng

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized-bed reactor is a candidate for dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from syngas because of its excellent heat removal\\u000a capability. In order to improve the attrition resistance of catalyst, an amount of silica sol as binder was added to the catalyst\\u000a composed of methanol synthesis component CuO\\/ZnO\\/Al2O3 and methanol dehydration component HZSM-5, which was prepared by coprecipitation and shaped by spray

  10. Simulation of a two-stroke dimethyl -ether free piston engine operating on HCCI combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xutao; Wangyang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the combustion process and characteristics of a two-stroke dimethyl -ether (DME) free piston engine operating on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, using a one-dimensional dynamics model and a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Through the simulation the feasibility of the design was verified. A wide range of design and operating options were investigated including the

  11. Scale study of direct synthesis of dimethyl ether from biomass synthesis gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxing Lv; Tiejun Wang; Chuangzhi Wu; Longlong Ma; Yi Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from biomass synthesis gas using a kind of hybrid catalyst consisting of methanol and HZSM-5 zeolite in a fixed-bed reactor in a 100 ton\\/year pilot plant. The biomass synthesis gas was produced by oxygen-rich gasification of corn core in a two-stage fixed bed. The results showed that CO conversions reached 82.00% and 73.55%,

  12. Direct synthesis of ethanol from dimethyl ether and syngas over combined H-Mordenite and Cu/ZnO catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; San, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Yi; Ichii, Takashi; Meng, Ming; Tan, Yisheng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2010-10-25

    Ethanol was directly synthesized from dimethyl ether (DME) and syngas with the combined H-Mordenite and Cu/ZnO catalysts that were separately loaded in a dual-catalyst bed reactor. Methyl acetate (MA) was formed by DME carbonylation over the H-Mordenite catalyst. Thereafter, ethanol and methanol were produced by MA hydrogenation over the Cu/ZnO catalyst. With the reactant gas containing 1.0% DME, the optimized temperature for the reaction was at 493 K to reach 100% conversion. In the products, the yield of methanol and ethanol could reach 46.3% and 42.2%, respectively, with a small amount of MA, ethyl acetate, and CO(2). This process is environmentally friendly as the main byproduct methanol can be recycled to DME by a dehydration reaction. In contrast, for the physically mixed catalysts, the low conversion of DME and high selectivity of methanol were observed. PMID:20715046

  13. Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

  14. Evaluation of Methyl Fluoride and Dimethyl Ether as Inhibitors of Aerobic Methane Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Methyl fluoride (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) were effective inhibitors of aerobic methanotrophy in a variety of soils. MF and DME blocked consumption of CH4 as well as the oxidation of 14CH4 to 14CO2, but neither MF nor DME affected the oxidation of [14C]methanol or [14C]formate to 14CO2. Cooxidation of ethane and propane by methane-oxidizing soils was also inhibited by MF. Nitrification (ammonia oxidation) in soils was inhibited by both MF and DME. Production of N2O via nitrification was inhibited by MF; however, MF did not affect N2O production associated with denitrification. Methanogenesis was partially inhibited by MF but not by DME. Methane oxidation was ?100-fold more sensitive to MF than was methanogenesis, indicating that an optimum concentration could be employed to selectively block methanotrophy. MF inhibited methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; however, DME was a much less effective inhibitor. PMID:16348771

  15. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  16. Intermolecular Interactions Between Formaldehyde and Dimethyl Ether and Between Formaldehyde Abd Dimethyl Sulfide in the Complex, Investigated by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Tatamitani, Yoshio; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Hirota, Eizi

    2014-06-01

    The ground-state rotational spectra of the formaldehyde-dimethyl ether (H_2CO-DME) and the formaldehyde-dimethyl sulfide (H_2CO-DMS) complexes have been studied by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, and a-type and c-type transitions have been observed and assigned for the H_2CO as well as D_2CO species of both the complexes. In the case of the H_2CO-DME, doublets were observed with the splitting of a few 100 kHz, whereas no such splitting was found for the H_2CO-DMS. The observed rotational constants were analyzed to conclude a Cs geometry, where DME and DMS were bound to H_2CO by the two C-H(DME/DMS)---O(H_2CO) and the two O(DME)/S(DMS)---H-C(H_2CO) hydrogen bonds. The distances Rcm between the centers of mass of the constituents were determined to be 3.102 and 3.200 Å for the two complexes, respectively. Both the H_2CO-DME and H_2CO-DMS complexes were shown by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, to have strong charge transfer interactions between the constituents, as expected from the strong electron-accepting character of the H_2CO.

  17. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  18. Dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas over the composite catalysts of Cu–ZnO–Al 2O 3\\/Zr-modified zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk-Hwan Kang; Jong Wook Bae; Ki-Won Jun; H. S. Potdar

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from a model gas mixture of biomass-derived syngas has been investigated on the composite catalysts, Cu–ZnO–Al2O3\\/Zr-modified zeolites (Ferrierite, ZSM-5 and Y). The composite catalysts were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Cu–Zn–Al precursors in the slurry of Zr-modified zeolites. The composite catalyst prepared from Zr–ferrierite showed stable activity and the best DME selectivity. Apart from

  19. High-Activity PtRuPd/C Catalyst for Direct Dimethyl Ether Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wen, Xiaodong; Wu, Gang; Chung, Hoon T; Gao, Rui; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-06-22

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for direct-feed fuel cells but lack of an efficient DME oxidation electrocatalyst has remained the challenge for the commercialization of the direct DME fuel cell. The commonly studied binary PtRu catalyst shows much lower activity in DME than methanol oxidation. In this work, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, a ternary carbon-supported PtRuPd catalyst was designed and synthesized for DME electrooxidation. DFT calculations indicated that Pd in the ternary PtRuPd catalyst is capable of significantly decreasing the activation energy of the C?O and C?H bond scission during the oxidation process. As evidenced by both electrochemical measurements in an aqueous electrolyte and polymer-electrolyte fuel cell testing, the ternary catalyst shows much higher activity (two-fold enhancement at 0.5?V in fuel cells) than the state-of-the-art binary Pt50 Ru50 /C catalyst (HiSPEC 12100). PMID:25967867

  20. Investigation of Pt nanoparticles with controlled size supported on carbon for dimethyl ether electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fengzhan; Liao, Jianhui; Liang, Liang; Liu, Changpeng; Zhang, Xinbo; Xing, Wei

    2013-03-01

    A series of Pt/C catalysts with controlled Pt particle sizes is synthesized using a surfactant-free process with ethylene glycol as the weak reducing agent. The Pt particle size can be regulated by controlling the pH of the Pt (IV) complex via the addition of different amounts of urea. The results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the Pt nanoparticles on the carbon exhibit good size controllability and dispersion. The electroactive surface area (ESA), the electron transfer coefficient, and the electrocatalytic activity to dimethyl ether electrooxidation are dependent on the Pt particle size, and a comparison of the electrochemical properties of the samples reveals that the relationships are parabolic. The results are important for understanding the mechanism of and designing an effective catalyst for dimethyl ether (DME) electrooxidation and providing a size-controlled synthetic method for Pt-based catalysts.

  1. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  2. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  3. Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2011-05-01

    Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

  4. 100 t\\/a-Scale demonstration of direct dimethyl ether synthesis from corncob-derived syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Li; Tiejun Wang; Xiuli Yin; Chuangzhi Wu; Longlong Ma; Haibin Li; Yongxing Lv; Li Sun

    2010-01-01

    Direct conversion of biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas) to dimethyl ether (DME) at pilot-scale (100t\\/a) was carried out via pyrolysis\\/gasification of corncob. The yield rate of raw bio-syngas was 40–45Nm3\\/h with less than 20mg\\/Nm3 of tar content when the feedrate of dried corncob was 45–50kg\\/h. After absorption of O2, S, Cl by a series of absorbers and partial removal of CO2 by

  5. Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

  6. Combustion performance test of a new fuel DME to adapt to a gas turbine for power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Chul Lee; Seok Bin Seo; Jae Hwa Chung; Yong Jin Joo; Dal Hong Ahn

    2008-01-01

    Recently, DME (dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3) has attracted a great deal of attention as an alternative fuel owing to its easy transportation and cleanliness. This study was conducted to verify the combustion performance and to identify potential problems when DME is fueled to a gas turbine. Combustion tests were conducted by comparing DME with methane, which is a major component of

  7. Lecithin microemulsions in dimethyl ether and propane for the generation of pharmaceutical aerosols containing polar solutes.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, Mark L; Johnson, Charles S; Cain, Judith B; Rypacek, Franticek; Hickey, Anthony J

    2002-01-01

    Water soluble compounds have been incorporated into solution phase metered dose inhalers (MDIs) utilizing lecithin inverse microemulsions in dimethyl ether (DME) and propane. DME and propane acted as both solvent and propellant. Experiments utilizing model propellants (dimethylethyleneglycol (DMEG) and hexane) were used to investigate microemulsion physicochemical phenomena, and the results were used to design and interpret the technically more challenging MDI experiments. NMR and viscosity experiments with model propellants were consistent with a "sphere-to-string" micellar shape change as the solvent was varied from pure DMEG to pure hexane. Water soluble solutes, including selected peptides and fluorescently labeled poly-alpha, beta-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) D,L-aspartamide] (fPHEAs), dissolved in DME/propane dependent on lecithin and water content. MDIs containing microemulsions generated aerosols with mass median aerodynamic values ranging from 2.7 to 3.1 microns, within the range of commercially available formulations. Fine particle fraction values (50-70%) exceeded those of commercial formulations. fPHEA up to 18 kDa did not adversely affect the aerosol characteristics. Deposition of the aerosol onto a water surface resulted in the formation of liposomes with partially entrapped solute. PMID:12229259

  8. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  9. Selective inhibition of ammonium oxidation and nitrification-linked N2O formation by methyl fluoride and dimethyl ether

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Coutlakis, M.D.; Oremland, R.S.; Ward, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    Methyl fluoride (CH3F) and dimethyl ether (DME) inhibited nitrification in washed-cell suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea and in a variety of oxygenated soils and sediments. Headspace additions of CH3F (10% [vol/vol]) and DME (25% [vol/vol]) fully inhibited NO2- and N2O production from NH4+ in incubations of N. europaea, while lower concentrations of these gases resulted in partial inhibition. Oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) by N. europaea and oxidation of NO2- by a Nitrobacter sp. were unaffected by CH3F or DME. In nitrifying soils, CH3F and DME inhibited N2O production. In field experiments with surface flux chambers and intact cores, CH3F reduced the release of N2O from soils to the atmosphere by 20- to 30-fold. Inhibition by CH3F also resulted in decreased NO3- + NO2- levels and increased NH4+ levels in soils. CH3F did not affect patterns of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia in cell suspensions of a nitrate- respiring bacterium, nor did it affect N2O metabolism in denitrifying soils. CH3F and DME will be useful in discriminating N2O production via nitrification and denitrification when both processes occur and in decoupling these processes by blocking NO2- and NO3- production.

  10. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of hydrogen production from the combined processes of dimethyl ether steam reforming and partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    Thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the combined processes of dimethyl ether (DME) partial oxidation and steam reforming were investigated as a function of oxygen-to-carbon ratio (0.00-2.80), steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100 °C-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm) and product species. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with air and steam generates hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds; however, the hydrogen concentration is less than that for pure DME steam reforming. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 °C, oxygen-to-carbon ratios greater than 0.00 and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure has negligible effects on the hydrogen content. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether can produce concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide of 52% and 2.2%, respectively, at a temperature of 300 °C, and oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40, a pressure of 1 atm and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50. The order of thermodynamically stable products (excluding H 2, CO, CO 2, DME, NH 3 and H 2O) in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol and methyl-ethyl ether; trace amounts of formaldehyde, formic acid and methanol are observed. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also thermodynamically favored products. Ammonia is favored at low temperatures in the range of oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.40-2.50 regardless of the steam-to-carbon ratio employed. The maximum ammonia content (i.e., 40%) occurs at an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40, a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.00 and a temperature of 100 °C. Hydrogen cyanide is favored at high temperatures and low oxygen-to-carbon ratios with a maximum of 3.18% occurring at an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40 and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 0.00 in the temperature range of 400 °C-500 °C. Increasing the system pressure shifts the equilibrium toward ammonia and hydrogen cyanide.

  11. Experimental and Modeling Investigation of the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Anne; Frottier, Ophélie; Herbinet, Olivier; Fournet, René; Bounaceur, Roda; Fittschen, Christa; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2015-07-16

    The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was studied using a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of conditions: temperatures from 500 to 1100 K; equivalence ratios of 0.25, 1, and 2; residence time of 2 s; pressure of 106.7 kPa (close to the atmospheric pressure); and an inlet fuel mole fraction of 0.02 (with high dilution in helium). Reaction products were quantified using two analysis methods: gas chromatography and continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). cw-CRDS enabled the quantification of formaldehyde, which is one of the major products from DME oxidation, as well as that of hydrogen peroxide, which is an important branching agent in low-temperature oxidation chemistry. Experimental data were compared with data computed using models from the literature with important deviations being observed for the reactivity at low-temperature. A new detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of DME was developed in this study. Kinetic parameters used in this model were taken from literature or calculated in the present work using quantum calculations. This new model enables a better prediction of the reactivity in the low-temperature region. Under the present JSR conditions, error bars on predictions were given. Simulations were also successfully compared with experimental flow reactor, jet-stirred reactor, shock tube, rapid compression machine, and flame data from literature. The kinetic analysis of the model enabled the highlighting of some specificities of the oxidation chemistry of DME: (1) the early reactivity which is observed at very low-temperature (e.g., compared to propane) is explained by the absence of inhibiting reaction of the radical directly obtained from the fuel (by H atom abstraction) with oxygen yielding an olefin + HO2·; (2) the low-temperature reactivity is driven by the relative importance of the second addition to O2 (promoting the reactivity through branching chain) and the competitive decomposition reactions with an inhibiting effect. PMID:25870904

  12. Torsionally Excited Dimethyl Ether in the Laboratory and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, C. P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Lewen, F.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Bisschop, S.; Groner, P.

    2010-06-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is highly abundant in hot cores and numerous transitions within the vibrational ground state have been detected in various interstellar line surveys of sources such as Orion KL. As a nearly prolate asymmetric top with two internal rotors, it shows a complex spectrum with low lying torsional modes. The energy levels of the two lowest torsional states (v11, and v15) lie only 200 and 240 cm-1 above the ground state (barrier height ? 915 cm-1), and are thus sufficiently populated in these interstellar sources to exhibit transitions in line surveys due to high excitation temperatures in hot cores. So far, the lack of sufficiently accurate predictions for the two lowest excited torsional states prevented their identification in astronomical spectra. Therefore, we analyzed spectra, which have been recorded within the context of the investigations of the ground state. In total, more than 9500 transitions have been assigned covering the frequency range from 38 up to 1670 GHz. The enlarged splitting of each rotational level into four substates (AA, EE, AE, EA) compared to its size in the ground state and a large number of perturbed transitions hampered not only the line assignment but also the astrophysical modelling. However, the inclusion of interaction terms between both excited states in the model of an effective Hamiltonian for a symmetric two-top rotor, allowed us to model both excited states within a global fit, and also to accurately determine the energy difference between both states. Frequency predictions have been calculated based on this analysis and have been used to unambiguously assign numerous rotational transitions within these excited states in the astronomical line survey of the hot core region G327.3-0.6. P. Schilke, T.D. Groesbeck et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 108,(1997) 301-337 P. Schilke, D.J. Benford, T.R. Hunter et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 132,(2001) 281-364. P. Groner, S. Albert, E. Herbst, and F.C. De Lucia, Astrophys. J., 500, (1998) 1059-1063 C.P. Endres, B.J. Drouin et al., Astronom.Astrophys., 504, (2009) 635-640

  13. Microstructure and properties of CVD tungsten carbide from tungsten hexafluoride and dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Skaf, D.W.; Warner, A.W.; Dollahon, N.R.; Fargo, G.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Tungsten carbide was deposited from tungsten hexafluoride, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen using a horizontal, cold-wall reactor. The effects of substrate temperature, reactor pressure, and reagent ratio on the coating growth rate, morphology, composition, and microhardness were studied. Under most conditions, the solid deposit was primarily W[sub 3]C with minor amounts of W. The tungsten carbide growth rate data fit an Arrhenius rate expression for temperatures from 425 to 550 C and had an activation energy of 24 kcal/mol at 70 mmHg total pressure and a WF[sub 6]/DME ratio of 6.3. A variety of surface morphologies and microstructures were observed. The microhardness of the coated substrates increased with coating thickness to a maximum value of 2,400 kg/mm[sup 2].

  14. Kinetic measurements in homogeneous charge compression of dimethyl ether: role of intermediate formaldehyde controlling chain branching in the low-temperature oxidation mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Yamada; Kotaro Suzaki; Hideki Sakanashi; Namil Choi; Atsumu Tezaki

    2005-01-01

    Oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) in compression cycles has been investigated using an externally motored single-cylinder piston engine. With the principal aim being to elucidate the chemical mechanism taking place during two-stage ignition, in situ laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) monitoring of formaldehyde (HCHO) and composition analysis of the exhaust gas were performed. Measurements of formaldehyde fluorescence were made by exciting the

  15. Production of dimethyl ether and hydrogen by methanol reforming for an HCCI engine system with waste heat recovery – Continuous control of fuel ignitability and utilization of exhaust gas heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Shudo; Yosuke Shima; Tatsuya Fujii

    2009-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising technique to achieve high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust with internal combustion engines. However, the difficulty in ensuring optimal ignition timing control prevents its practical application. Previous research has shown that adjusting the proportion of dimethyl ether (DME) and hydrogen-containing methanol-reformed gas (MRG) can control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion

  16. Study of volume swelling and interfacial tension of the polystyrene-carbon dioxide-dimethyl ether system.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S H; Xin, C L; Lee, J H; Park, C B

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the interaction of blended carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) with polystyrene (PS) through volume swelling and interfacial tension. The experiments were carried out over a temperature range of 423-483K, and the pressure was varied from 6.89MPa to 20.68MPa. With an incremental concentration of DME in the blend, the volume swelling increased while the interfacial tension between the PS/blend gas mixture and the blend gas decreased. The validity of the Simha-Somcynsky (SS) equation of state (EOS) for the ternary system was established by comparing experimentally measured volume swelling to that obtained via SS-EOS. PMID:26122798

  17. Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

    E-print Network

    Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications M. M. Mench,*,z H. M barriers associated with the use of hydrogen or methanol as fuel, significant effort has gone into search- ing for an alternative to the hydrogen polymer electrolyte fuel cell (H2 PEFC or direct methanol fuel

  18. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  19. Property of LCP-GEM in Pure Dimethyl Ether at Low Pressure

    E-print Network

    Takeuchi, Y; Kitaguchi, T; Yamada, S; Iwakiri, W; Asami, F; Yoshikawa, A; Kaneko, K; Enoto, T; Hayato, A; Kohmura, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the gain properties of a gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil in pure dimethyl ether (DME) at low pressures. The GEM is made from copper- clad liquid crystal polymer insulator (LCP-GEM) designed for space use, and is applied to a time projection chamber filled with low-pressure DME gas to observe the linear polarization of cosmic X-rays. We have measured gains of a 100 um-thick LCP-GEM as a function of the voltage between GEM electrodes at various gas pressures ranging from 10 to 190 Torr with 6.4 keV X-rays. The highest gain at 190 Torr is about 2x10^4, while that at 20 Torr is about 500. We find that the pressure and electric-field dependence of the GEM gain is described by the first Townsend coefficient. The energy scale from 4.5 to 8.0 keV is linear with non-linearity of less than 1.4% above 30 Torr.

  20. Experimental and Computational Study of Nonpremixed Ignition of Dimethyl Ether in Counterflow

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, X L; Lu, T F; Law, C K; Westbrook, C K

    2003-12-19

    The ignition temperature of nitrogen-diluted dimethyl ether (DME) by heated air in counterflow was experimentally determined for DME concentration from 5.9 to 30%, system pressure from 1.5 to 3.0 atmospheres, and pressure-weighted strain rate from 110 to 170/s. These experimental data were compared with two mechanisms that were respectively available in 1998 and 2003, with the latter being a substantially updated version of the former. The comparison showed that while the 1998-mechanism uniformly over-predicted the ignition temperature, the 2003-mechanism yielded surprisingly close agreement for all experimental data. Sensitivity analysis for the near-ignition state based on both mechanisms identified the deficiencies of the 1998-mechanism, particularly the specifics of the low-temperature cool flame chemistry in effecting ignition at higher temperatures, as the fuel stream is being progressively heated from its cold boundary to the high-temperature ignition region around the hot-stream boundary. The 2003-mechanism, consisting of 79 species and 398 elementary reactions, was then systematically simplified by using the directed relation graph method to a skeletal mechanism of 49 species and 251 elementary reactions, which in turn was further simplified by using computational singular perturbation method and quasi-steady-state species assumption to a reduced mechanism consisting of 33 species and 28 lumped reactions. It was demonstrated that both the skeletal and reduced mechanisms mimicked the performance of the detailed mechanism with high accuracy.

  1. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-10-01

    A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

  2. Experimental study for dimethyl ether production from biomass gasification and simulation on dimethyl ether production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Chang; Yan Fu; Zhongyang Luo

    A novel route for DME production from biomass was proposed and tested in a bench scale experimental system. A Cu–Zn–Al\\/HZSM-5 (16.7 wt%) was developed for DME synthesis from the biomass-derived syngas. At 1113 K, atmospheric pressure, the feed rate of 0.6 kg biomass\\/h, ER of 0.28, and CO2\\/biomass ratio of 0.327, 1.4 Nm3 of raw gas kg?1 biomass with LHV of 8.36 MJ m?3 was produced. With reforming

  3. Pressure and temperature dependence of excess enthalpies of methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and methanol + polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.R.; Coxam, J.Y.; Fernandez, J.; Grolier, J.P.E.

    1999-12-01

    The excess molar enthalpies at 323.15 K, 373.15 K, and 423.15 K, at 8 MPa, are reported for the binary mixtures methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and methanol + poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME 250). Excess molar enthalpies were determined with a Setaram C-80 calorimeter equipped with a flow mixing cell. For both systems, the excess enthalpies are positive over the whole composition range, increasing with temperature. The H{sup E}(x) curves are slightly asymmetrical, and their maxima are skewed toward the methanol-rich region. The excess enthalpies slightly change with the pressure, the sign of this change being composition-dependent. In the case of mixtures with TEGDME, the experimental H{sup E} values have been compared with those predicted with the Gmehling et al. version of UNIFAC (Dortmund) and the Nitta-Chao and DISQUAC group contribution models.

  4. The Microwave Spectrum of Partially Deuterated Species of Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvergnat, D.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Coudert, L. H.

    2011-06-01

    Dimethyl ether is a molecule of astrophysical interest spectroscopically well characterized. It is one of the simplest molecules with two methyl groups undergoing large amplitude internal rotations. Due to deuterium enrichment in the interstellar medium, one can reasonably expect that partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether might be detected. However, there are no spectroscopic results about the microwave spectrum of such species. A theoretical calculation of the rotation-torsion energy levels of the partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether has been undertaken aided by ab initio calculations. The approach accounts for the complicated torsion-rotation interactions displayed by this molecule and for the fact that deuteration leads to changes of the bidimensional internal rotation effective potential energy surface. Due to zero-point energy contributions from the 19 small amplitude vibrational modes, this surface no longer displays G36 symmetry. Rotation-torsion energy levels are computed treating the two angles of internal rotation as active coordinates and evaluating Hamiltonian matrix elements with the help of Gaussian quadrature. It is hoped that the present results will allow us to understand the microwave spectrum of the mono deuterated species CH_2DOCH_3 which has been recorded in Lille with the new sub millimeter wave spectrometer (150--950 GHz) based on harmonic generation of solid-state sources. [2] Snyder, Buhl, and Schwartz, Astrophys. J. Letters 191 (1974) L79. [3] Endres, Drouin, Pearson, Müller, Lewen, Schlemmer, and Giesen, A&A 504 (2009) 635. [4] Solomon and Woolf, Astrophys. J. Letters 180 (1973) L89. [5] Lauvergnat and Nauts, J. Chem. Phys. 116 (2002) 8560; and Light and Ba?i?, J. Chem. Phys. 87 (1987) 4008.

  5. Spectral studies of catalysts of oxidative dehydrogenation of dimethyl ether to dimethoxyethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, O. P.; Kucherov, A. V.; Glukhov, L. M.; Greish, A. A.; Beletskaya, I. P.; Kustov, L. M.

    2013-07-01

    Spectral methods (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, EPR) are used to study the adsorption of dimethyl ether and oxygen on a catalyst of oxidative dehydrogenation of dimethyl ether to dimethoxyethane. The formation of O{2/-} superoxide paramagnetic species is revealed. A mechanism of the formation of dimethoxyethane is proposed.

  6. Spectral and polarimetric characterization of the Gas Pixel Detector filled with dimethyl ether

    E-print Network

    Muleri, F; Baldini, L; Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Costa, E; Fabiani, S; Krummenacher, F; Latronico, L; Lazzarotto, F; Minuti, M; Pinchera, M; Rubini, A; Sgro, C; Spandre, G

    2010-01-01

    The Gas Pixel Detector belongs to the very limited class of gas detectors optimized for the measurement of X-ray polarization in the emission of astrophysical sources. The choice of the mixture in which X-ray photons are absorbed and photoelectrons propagate, deeply affects both the energy range of the instrument and its performance in terms of gain, track dimension and ultimately, polarimetric sensitivity. Here we present the characterization of the Gas Pixel Detector with a 1 cm thick cell filled with dimethyl ether (DME) at 0.79 atm, selected among other mixtures for the very low diffusion coefficient. Almost completely polarized and monochromatic photons were produced at the calibration facility built at INAF/IASF-Rome exploiting Bragg diffraction at nearly 45 degrees. For the first time ever, we measured the modulation factor and the spectral capabilities of the instrument at energies as low as 2.0 keV, but also at 2.6 keV, 3.7 keV, 4.0 keV, 5.2 keV and 7.8 keV. These measurements cover almost completely...

  7. Effects of amine organic groups as lattice in ZSM-5 on the hydrolysis of dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Meeprasert, Jittima; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Truong, Thanh N; Namuangruk, Supawadee

    2013-06-01

    The effects of doping amine to ZSM-5 on its catalytic activity for hydrolysis of dimethyl ether (DME) have been studied theoretically using Density Functional Theory with the embedded cluster ONIOM(M06/6-31G(d,p):UFF) model. Doping by amine to ZSM-5 yields two new active centers, namely the protonated Z[NH2] and non-protonated Z[NH] amine sites in addition to the normal Brønsted acid Z[OH] site. The reaction has two possible stepwise and concerted channels. The stepwise channel consists of two elementary steps; (i) the demethylation followed by (ii) the hydrolysis while the concerted channel involves in the demethylation and hydrolysis in a single step. We found that the reaction favors to proceed via the concerted channel at all three active centers. The results predict that the Z[OH] shows the best catalytic performance for the studied reaction. The Z[NH2] is not catalytically active due to the activation barriers are extremely high for both stepwise and concerted pathways. The demethylation step is energetically favorable over the Z[NH] site, however, the product methylamonium surface intermediate is too stable to be further converted to methanol. PMID:23681284

  8. UV, VUV and soft X-ray photoabsorption of dimethyl ether by dipole (e,e) spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Renfei; Cooper, Glyn; Brion, C. E.

    2000-10-01

    Absolute UV and VUV photoabsorption oscillator strengths (cross-sections) for the valence shell discrete and continuum regions of dimethyl ether (CH 3OCH 3, DME) have been measured from 5 to 32 eV using high resolution (HR) (˜0.05 eV f.w.h.m.) dipole (e,e) spectroscopy. A wide-range spectrum, spanning the UV, VUV and soft X-ray regions, from 5 to 200 eV has also been obtained at low resolution (LR) (˜1 eV f.w.h.m.), and this has been used to determine the absolute oscillator strength scale by employing valence shell Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (i.e., S(0)) sum-rule normalization. The presently reported HR and LR absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths are compared with previously published data from direct photoabsorption measurements in those limited energy regions where such data are available. Evaluation of the S(-2) sum using the presently reported absolute differential photoabsorption oscillator strength data gives a static dipole polarizability for dimethyl ether in excellent agreement (within 0.5%) with previously reported polarizability values. Other dipole sums S( u), ( u=-1,-3,-4,-5,-6,-8,-10), and logarithmic dipole sums L( u), ( u=-1 to -6), are also determined from the presently reported absolute differential photoabsorption oscillator strength data using dipole sum rules.

  9. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  10. Performance evaluation of chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT) power plants fuelled by di-methyl-ether (DME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Cocco; Vittorio Tola; Giorgio Cau

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a performance analysis on CRGT power plants fuelled by DME, which is a potentially attractive fuel for gas turbines. The study also includes a performance comparison of simple cycle gas turbines fuelled by natural gas, DME and methanol. The study shows that, owing to the exhaust heat recovery carried out through DME pre-heating and vaporization before combustion,

  11. Industrial gas turbine combustion performance test of DME to use as an alternative fuel for power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Chul Lee; Seok Bin Seo; Jae Hwa Chung; Yong Jin Joo; Dal Hong Ahn

    2009-01-01

    DME (dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3) is both a good alternative fuel for transportation and power generation and an LPG substitute owing to its cleanliness, multi-source productivity and the ease with which it is transported. This study was conducted to verify whether DME is a good fuel for gas turbines and to identify potential problems in fuelling a commercial gas turbine with

  12. Permeabilities of methanol, ethanol and dimethyl ether in new composite membranes: A comparison with Nafion membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Xue; Geping Yin; Kedi Cai; Yuyan Shao

    2007-01-01

    New composite membranes were prepared by solution casting from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone), poly(vinylidene fluoride) and phosphotungstic acid. Their structures were characterized using XRD, DSC and FT-IR. The permeability of methanol, ethanol and dimethyl ether in composite membranes ranged from 1.9 to 3.7×10?7, 7.4 to 20×10?8 and 1.6 to 3.2×10?8cm2\\/s, respectively. These values were about or more than one order

  13. Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    on the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by chemical vapour deposition. We simulated gas1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single by adjusting the volumetric gas flow rate, and concentration profiles of reaction species were compared

  14. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dominik B; Christensen, Jakob M; Temel, Burcin; Studt, Felix; Moses, Poul Georg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Riisager, Anders; Jensen, Anker D

    2015-06-15

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2 CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated acetic acid (CH2 DCOOD), when D2 O is introduced in the feed during the carbonylation reaction. PMID:25967363

  15. Partial oxidation of dimethyl ether using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al prepared through the anodic oxidation of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Yu, B Y; Lee, K H; Kim, K; Byun, D J; Ha, H P; Byun, J Y

    2011-07-01

    The partial oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al. The porous Al2O3 layer was synthesized on the aluminum plate through anodic oxidation in an oxalic-acid solution. It was observed that about 20 nm nanopores were well developed in the Al2O3 layer. The thickness of Al2O3 layer can be adjusted by controlling the anodizing time and current density. After pore-widening and hot-water treatment, the Al2O3/Al plate was calcined at 500 degrees C for 3 h. The obtained delta-Al2O3 had a specific surface area of 160 m2/g, making it fit to be used as a catalyst support. A microchannel reactor was designed and fabricated to evaluate the catalytic activity of Rh/Al2O3/Al in the partial oxidation of DME. The structured catalyst showed an 86% maximum hydrogen yield at 450 degrees C. On the other hand, the maximum syngas yield by a pack-bed-type catalyst could be attained by using a more than fivefold Rh amount compared to that used in the structured Rh/Al2O3/Al catalyst. PMID:22121705

  16. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  17. Reactions of dimethyl ether with atomic oxygen: A matrix isolation and a quantum chemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Wrobel; Wolfram Sander; Elfi Kraka; Dieter Cremer

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of dimethyl ether (1) with atomic oxygen generated by photolysis of ozone or NâO was examined in low-temperature matrices. The major reaction products are two conformers of methoxymethanol (5). IR absorptions of the products were assigned by isotopic labeling (¹⁸O and D) and DFT calculations at the B3LYP\\/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The mechanism of the formation of 5,

  18. Evaluation of glove material resistance to ethylene glycol dimethyl ether permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, R.; Chelton, C.F.

    1988-08-01

    Some glycol ethers have been reported to cause adverse reproductive effects in exposed male and female workers, and skin absorption has been determined to be an important route of entry of this class of chemicals. Because ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) is a possible component of lithium-based primary battery electrolyte systems, a study was undertaken to determine the resistance of various commercially available gloves to permeation of this liquid. The gloves were tested by the ASTM Method F-739-81, and butyl rubber was found to be the most effective barrier to permeation. Further studies determined that the butyl gloves could be reused if they were reconditioned overnight in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. When a mixture of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (30% v/v) and propylene carbonate (70% v/v) was tested, the results indicated that the propylene carbonate retards the permeation of the glycol ether by a factor of 10. This is believed to be caused by the propylene carbonate coating the surface of the butyl membrane to reduce the sorption of EGDME.

  19. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt.% additive of all viscosity and lubricity additives tested here to even approach the lower limit of the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement. To treat neat DME sufficiently to make DME comply with the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement would require a viscosity additive with 10{sup 45} cSt viscosity, which is not possible with current additive technologies.

  20. Reaction of dimethyl ether with hydroxyl radicals: kinetic isotope effect and prereactive complex formation.

    PubMed

    Bänsch, Cornelie; Kiecherer, Johannes; Szöri, Milan; Olzmann, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    The kinetic isotope effect of the reactions OH + CH3OCH3 (DME) and OH + CD3OCD3 (DME-d6) was experimentally and theoretically studied. Experiments were carried out in a slow-flow reactor at pressures between 5 and 21 bar (helium as bath gas) with production of OH by laser flash photolysis of HNO3 and time-resolved detection of OH by laser-induced fluorescence. The temperature dependences of the rate coefficients obtained can be described by the following modified Arrhenius expressions: k(OH+DME) = (4.5 ± 1.3) × 10(-16) (T/K)(1.48) exp(66.6 K/T) cm(3) s(-1) (T = 292-650 K, P = 5.9-20.9 bar) and k(OH+DME-d6) = (7.3 ± 2.2) × 10(-23) (T/K)(3.57) exp(759.8 K/T) cm(3) s(-1) (T = 387-554 K, P = 13.0-20.4 bar). A pressure dependence of the rate coefficients was not observed. The agreement of our experimental results for k(OH+DME) with values from other authors is very good, and from a fit to all available literature data, we derived the following modified Arrhenius expression, which reproduces the values obtained in the temperature range T = 230-1500 K at pressures between 30 mbar and 21 bar to better than within ±20%: k(OH+DME) = 8.45 × 10(-18) (T/K)(2.07) exp(262.2 K/T) cm(3) s(-1). For k(OH+DME-d6), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study. For the analysis of the reaction pathway and the kinetic isotope effect, potential energy diagrams were calculated by using three different quantum chemical methods: (I) CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//MP2/6-311G(d,p), (II) CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//CCSD/cc-pVDZ, and (III) CBS-QB3. In all three cases, the reaction is predicted to proceed via a prereaction OH-ether complex with subsequent intramolecular hydrogen abstraction and dissociation to give the methoxymethyl radical and water. Overall rate coefficients were calculated by assuming a thermal equilibrium between the reactants and the prereaction complex and by calculating the rate coefficients of the hydrogen abstraction step from canonical transition state theory. The results based on the molecular data from methods (I) and (II) showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental values, which indicates that the pre-equilibrium assumption is reasonable under our conditions. In the case of method (III), the isotope effect was significantly underpredicted. The reason for this discrepancy was identified in a fundamentally differing reaction coordinate. Obviously, the B3LYP functional applied in method (III) for geometry and frequency calculations is inadequate to describe such systems, which is in line with earlier findings of other authors. PMID:23914942

  1. Liquid densities, kinematic viscosities, and heat capacities of some ethylene glycol dimethyl ethers at temperatures from 283.15 to 423.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Conesa, A.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Shen, S. [Nanjing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China)] [Nanjing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China)

    1998-09-01

    Liquid densities and heat capacities at 1 MPa, and kinematic viscosities at atmospheric pressure of monoethylene glycol dimethyl ether (MEGDME), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TrEGDME), tetrathylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME), pentaethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PeEGDME), and polyethylene glycol 250 dimethyl ether (PEGDMe 250) were measured in the temperature range from 283.15 to 423.15 K. For each substance, experimental data were correlated with temperature using empirical polynomial equations. The experimental data were also used to evaluate the predictive capability of some estimation methods of liquid densities and heat capacities for the studied ethylene glycol dimethyl ethers. The densities estimated by the Yen-Woods equation agree with the experimental values with a root-mean-square relative deviation (RMSD) of 3.21% for all ethylene glycol dimethyl ethers. The best estimated results of liquid heat capacities were obtained from the Rowlinson equation based on the corresponding-states principle, with a RMSD of 1.12%. The group-contribution methods give the worst results, especially at high temperatures.

  2. Life cycle inventory analysis on Bio-DME and\\/or Bio-MeOH products through BLUE tower process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Dowaki; Yutaka Genchi

    2009-01-01

    Background, aims, and scope  In this study, we focused on the biomass di-methyl ether (Bio-DME) and the biomass methanol (Bio-MeOH) in BTL (Biomass to\\u000a Liquid) fuels which might bring a solution on an energy storage and\\/or CO2 emissions abatement. For these fuels, our object is to estimate CO2 emissions and energy intensities (the specific energy consumption in each sub-process) for the

  3. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Semelsberger; R. L. Borup

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel

  4. Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

  5. Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

  6. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO{sub 2} removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  7. Efficient synthesis of dimethyl ether over HZSM-5 supported on medium-surface-area beta-SiC foam.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Svetlana; Vanhaecke, Estelle; Louis, Benoit; Libs, Suzanne; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Rigolet, Sévérine; Marichal, Claire; Pham, Charlotte; Luck, Francis; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to produce a highly selective and stable catalyst for the production of dimethyl ether by methanol dehydration. The activities were compared of different active phases of the employed system, zeolite HZSM-5 or gamma-alumina, supported on silicon carbide as foam, and it was found that the supported zeolite catalysts are more active than and as selective as the alumina-based catalysts. The as-prepared zeolite/SiC composites reveal good stability in long-term tests in the presence or absence of steam. The high stability is attributed to the presence of highly dispersed micrometer-sized zeolite particles, which make the active sites more accessible to the reactants and promote the quick transfer of the desired product, dimethyl ether, out of the catalyst bed, minimizing deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:18846596

  8. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas'' experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

  9. High-resolution EVLA image of dimethyl ether (CH$_{3}$)$_{2}$O in Orion--KL

    E-print Network

    Favre, C; Remijan, A J; Brouillet, N; Wilson, T L; Deapois, D; Baudry, A

    2011-01-01

    We report the first sub-arc second (0.65$\\arcsec$ $\\times$ 0.51$\\arcsec$) image of the dimethyl ether molecule, (CH$_{3}$)$_{2}$O, toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion--KL). The observations were carried at 43.4 GHz with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). The distribution of the lower energy transition 6$_{1,5} - 6_{0,6}$, EE (E$\\rm_{u}$ = 21 K) mapped in this study is in excellent agreement with the published dimethyl ether emission maps imaged with a lower resolution. The main emission peaks are observed toward the Compact Ridge and Hot Core southwest components, at the northern parts of the Compact Ridge and in an intermediate position between the Compact Ridge and the Hot Core. A notable result is that the distribution of dimethyl ether is very similar to that of another important larger O-bearing species, the methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$), imaged at lower resolution. Our study shows that higher spectral resolution (WIDAR correlator) and increased spectral coverage provided by the EVLA offer ne...

  10. Detection and Identification of the Keto-Hydroperoxide (HOOCH2OCHO) and Other Intermediates during Low-Temperature Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Moshammer, Kai; Jasper, Ahren W; Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M; Lucassen, Arnas; Diévart, Pascal; Selim, Hatem; Eskola, Arkke J; Taatjes, Craig A; Leone, Stephen R; Sarathy, S Mani; Ju, Yiguang; Dagaut, Philippe; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina; Hansen, Nils

    2015-07-16

    In this paper we report the detection and identification of the keto-hydroperoxide (hydroperoxymethyl formate, HPMF, HOOCH2OCHO) and other partially oxidized intermediate species arising from the low-temperature (540 K) oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME). These observations were made possible by coupling a jet-stirred reactor with molecular-beam sampling capabilities, operated near atmospheric pressure, to a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer that employs single-photon ionization via tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation. On the basis of experimentally observed ionization thresholds and fragmentation appearance energies, interpreted with the aid of ab initio calculations, we have identified HPMF and its conceivable decomposition products HC(O)O(O)CH (formic acid anhydride), HC(O)OOH (performic acid), and HOC(O)OH (carbonic acid). Other intermediates that were detected and identified include HC(O)OCH3 (methyl formate), cycl-CH2-O-CH2-O- (1,3-dioxetane), CH3OOH (methyl hydroperoxide), HC(O)OH (formic acid), and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). We show that the theoretical characterization of multiple conformeric structures of some intermediates is required when interpreting the experimentally observed ionization thresholds, and a simple method is presented for estimating the importance of multiple conformers at the estimated temperature (?100 K) of the present molecular beam. We also discuss possible formation pathways of the detected species: for example, supported by potential energy surface calculations, we show that performic acid may be a minor channel of the O2 + ?H2OCH2OOH reaction, resulting from the decomposition of the HOOCH2O?HOOH intermediate, which predominantly leads to the HPMF. PMID:25695304

  11. Study of RF-excited Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Plasmas by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algatti, M. A.; Mota, R. P.; Moreira Júnior, P. W. P.; Honda, R. Y.; Kayama, M. E.; Kostov, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the study of the fragmentation process of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (CH3O(CH2CH2O)2CH3) (diglyme here in) molecule in low pressure RF excited plasma discharges. The study was carried out using mass spectrometry. The results showed that for a fixed pressure, the increase of the RF power coupled to the plasma chamber from 1 to 35 W produced a plasma environment much more reactive which increases the population of the ionized species like CH2+ (15 amu), C2H4+ (28 amu), CH3O+ (31 amu), C2H4O+ (44 amu), CH3OCH2CH2+ (59 amu) and CH3OCH2CH2O+ (75 amu). This fact may be attributed to the increase of the electronic temperature that makes predominant the occurrence of inelastic processes that promotes molecular fragmentation. For a fixed value of RF power the increase of pressure from 50 mTorr to 100 mTorr produces the decreasing of the above mentioned chemical species due the lower electronic mean free path. These results suggest that if one wants to keep the monomer's functionality within the plasma deposited films resulting from such kind of discharges one must operate in low power conditions.

  12. Development of an optical gas leak sensor for detecting ethylene, dimethyl ether and methane.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiulin; Pei, Xiangdong; Zhu, Simin; Sun, Dong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Wendong; Xiong, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to develop an optical gas leak sensor that can be used to measure ethylene, dimethyl ether, and methane. The sensor is designed based on the principles of IR absorption spectrum detection, and comprises two crossed elliptical surfaces with a folded reflection-type optical path. We first analyze the optical path and the use of this structure to design a miniature gas sensor. The proposed sensor includes two detectors (one to acquire the reference signal and the other for the response signal), the light source, and the filter, all of which are integrated in a miniature gold-plated chamber. We also designed a signal detection device to extract the sensor signal and a microprocessor to calculate and control the entire process. The produced sensor prototype had an accuracy of ±0.05%. Experiments which simulate the transportation of hazardous chemicals demonstrated that the developed sensor exhibited a good dynamic response and adequately met technical requirements. PMID:23539025

  13. Spectroscopy of a Major Complex Organic Molecule: Mono-Deuterated Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, C.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Groner, P.; Coudert, L. H.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    Dimethyl ether is one of the most abundant molecule in star-forming regions. Like other complex organic molecules, its formation process is not yet clearly established. The study of deuteration may provide crucial hints. The mono-deuterated species (CH_2DOCH3) is still a relatively light molecule; its spectrum is the most intense in the THz domain even at ISM temperatures (100--150 K). Therefore, it is is necessary to measure and assign its transitions in this range in order to be able to compute accurate predictions which should allow us to detect it with ALMA, expected to be a powerful tool to observe such isotopic species. In this context, spectra between 50 and 950 GHz were recorded in Lille with a solid-state submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The starting point of the analysis was the centimeter-wave measurements carried out in 2003 for almost all isotopic species. Results concerning the symmetric conformer of the mono-deuterated species will be presented in the paper. The fits performed with the ERHAM code will be discussed. Theoretical development are in progress in order to treat the case of the asymmetric conformer. This work is supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. This work is also funded by the ANR-08-BLAN-0054 and ANR-08-BLAN-0225 contracts. [1]Ceccarelli, Caselli, Herbst, et al., (eds.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 951 (2007) 47 [2]Niide et al., J. Mol.Spectrosc. 220 (2003) 65 [3]Groner, J. Chem. Phys. 107 (1997) 4483

  14. Structure and support effects on the selective oxidation of dimethyl ether to formaldehyde catalyzed by MoO x domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haichao Liu; Patricia Cheung; Enrique Iglesia

    2003-01-01

    The selective oxidation of dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) to formaldehyde (HCHO) was carried out on MoOx species with a wide range of MoOx surface density and structure supported on MgO, Al2O3, ZrO2, and SnO2. Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopies were used to probe the structure of these MoOx domains, as they evolved from monomeric species into two-dimensional polymolybdate domains and MoO3

  15. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  16. Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO2(111) Model Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    F Calaza; T Chen; D Mullins; S Overbury

    2011-12-31

    The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

  17. Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO(2)(111) Model Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

  18. Computational and experimental study of the effects of adding dimethyl ether and ethanol to nonpremixed ethylene/air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth Anne V.; McEnally, Charles S.; Pfefferle, Lisa D.; Smooke, Mitchell D. [Center for Combustion Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Colket, Meredith B. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06108 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Two sets of axisymmetric laminar coflow flames, each consisting of ethylene/air nonpremixed flames with various amounts (up to 10%) of either dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 3}) or ethanol (CH{sub 3}-CH{sub 2}-OH) added to the fuel stream, have been examined both computationally and experimentally. Computationally, the local rectangular refinement method, which incorporates Newton's method, is used to solve the fully coupled nonlinear conservation equations on solution-adaptive grids for each flame in two spatial dimensions. The numerical model includes C6 chemical kinetic mechanisms with up to 59 species, detailed transport, and an optically thin radiation submodel. Experimentally, thermocouples are used to measure gas temperatures, and mass spectrometry is used to determine concentrations of over 35 species along the flame centerline. Computational results are examined throughout each flame, and validation of the model occurs through comparison with centerline measurements. Very good agreement is observed for temperature, major species, and several minor species. As the level of additive is increased, temperatures, some major species (CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), flame lengths, and residence times are essentially unchanged. However, peak centerline concentrations of benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) increase, and this increase is largest when dimethyl ether is the additive. Computational and experimental results support the hypothesis that the dominant pathway to C{sub 6}H{sub 6} formation begins with the oxygenates decomposing into methyl radical (CH{sub 3}), which combines with C2 species to form propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}), which reacts with itself to form C{sub 6}H{sub 6}. (author)

  19. Cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether, a cannabidiol derivative, is a highly potent and selective 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Usami, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhito

    2009-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) (a nonselective lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor)-mediated 15-LOX inhibition has been reported to be affected by modification of its catechol ring, such as methylation of the hydroxyl group. Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major components of marijuana, is known to inhibit LOX activity. Based on the phenomenon observed in NDGA, we investigated whether or not methylation of CBD affects its inhibitory potential against 15-LOX, because CBD contains a resorcinol ring, which is an isomer of catechol. Although CBD inhibited 15-LOX activity with an IC(50) value (50% inhibition concentration) of 2.56 microM, its monomethylated and dimethylated derivatives, CBD-2'-monomethyl ether and CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), inhibited 15-LOX activity more strongly than CBD. The number of methyl groups in the resorcinol moiety of CBD (as a prototype) appears to be a key determinant for potency and selectivity in inhibition of 15-LOX. The IC(50) value of 15-LOX inhibition by CBDD is 0.28 microM, and the inhibition selectivity for 15-LOX (i.e., the 5-LOX/15-LOX ratio of IC(50) values) is more than 700. Among LOX isoforms, 15-LOX is known to be able to oxygenate cholesterol esters in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle (i.e., the formation of oxidized LDL). Thus, 15-LOX is suggested to be involved in development of atherosclerosis, and CBDD may be a useful prototype for producing medicines for atherosclerosis. PMID:19406952

  20. Ethers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reich, Ieva

    Ethers are the focus of these quiz questions from the JCE organic chemistry quiz bank. There are five sets of questions, which focus on epoxides, mechanisms of reactions, synthesis for ether compounds.

  1. Bifunctional pathways mediated by Pt clusters and Al2O3 in the catalytic combustion of dimethyl ether{

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Mixtures of Pt clusters dispersed on c-Al2O3 and additional c-Al2O3 led to much higher DME combustion generation with small turbines or fuel cells.5­7 We have recently examined the catalytic combustion of DME A parallel study of the effects of Pt cluster dispersion (0.02­0.99 dispersion) detected significant effects

  2. Signal shape and charge sharing between electrodes of GEM in dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Tamagawa, T.; Asami, F.; Yoshikawa, A.; Iwahashi, T.; Konami, S.; Iwakiri, W.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed a systematic investigation of the gain properties of the GEM foil made from copper-clad liquid crystal polymer insulator (LCP-GEM), which will be used for a satellite mission. We have measured the gain curve of LCP-GEM in pure DME at 190 Torr, and achieved a gain of 3 × 104 at an applied high voltage of 605 V between the LCP-GEM electrodes with a thickness of 100 ?m. The charge sharing between the GEM electrodes and readout pad were measured as a function of drift (Ed) or induction (Ei) field. We found that the parallel plate multiplication occurred between the bottom electrode of LCP-GEM and the readout pad above Ei = 6 kV, and the amount of charge collected in each electrode was almost constant with Ed. We investigated the signal shape obtained in each electrode and found that the rise time of signals was explained as induced charge by moving ions and electrons.

  3. Design and formulation of nanoemulsions using 2-(poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide)) perfluoropropyl benzene in combination with linear perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether)

    PubMed Central

    Mountain, Gregory A.; Jelier, Benson J.; Bagia, Christina; Friesen, Chadron M.; Janjic, Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report where PFPAE aromatic conjugates and perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) are combined and formulated as nanoemulsions with droplet size below 100 nm. A perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) aromatic conjugate, 2-(poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide)) perfluoropropyl benzene, was used as fluorophilic-hydrophilic diblock (FLD) aimed at stabilizing perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) nanoemulsions. Its effects on colloidal behaviors in triphasic (organic/fluorous/aqueous) nanoemulsions were studied. The addition of FLD construct to fluorous phase led to decrease in PFPAE nanoemulsion droplet size to as low as 85 nm. Prepared nanoemulsions showed high colloidal stability. Our results suggest that these materials represent viable novel approach to fluorous colloid systems design with potential for biomedical and synthetic applications. PMID:24976645

  4. HIGH-RESOLUTION EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY IMAGE OF DIMETHYL ETHER (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O IN ORION-KL

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Wootten, H. A.; Remijan, A. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Baudry, A. [Universite de Bordeaux, OASU, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, 33271 Floirac Cedex (France); Wilson, T. L., E-mail: favre@phys.au.dk, E-mail: brouillet@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr, E-mail: despois@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr, E-mail: baudry@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr, E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu, E-mail: aremijan@nrao.edu, E-mail: tom.wilson@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7210, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We report the first subarcsecond (0.''65 x 0.''51) image of the dimethyl ether molecule, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O, toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. The observations were carried at 43.4 GHz with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). The distribution of the lower energy transition 6{sub 1,5}-6{sub 0,6}, EE (E {sub u} = 21 K) mapped in this study is in excellent agreement with the published dimethyl ether emission maps imaged with a lower resolution. The main emission peaks are observed toward the Compact Ridge and Hot Core southwest components, at the northern parts of the Compact Ridge and in an intermediate position between the Compact Ridge and the Hot Core. A notable result is that the distribution of dimethyl ether is very similar to that of another important larger O-bearing species, the methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}), imaged at a lower resolution. Our study shows that higher spectral resolution (WIDAR correlator) and increased spectral coverage provided by the EVLA offer new possibilities for imaging complex molecular species. The sensitivity improvement and the other EVLA improvements make this instrument well suited for high sensitivity, high angular resolution, and molecular line imaging.

  5. Electrochemical Investigation of Li-Al Anodes in Oligo (ethylene glycol) Dimethyl ether/LiPF6

    SciTech Connect

    Y Zhou; X Wang; H Lee; K Nam; X Yang; O Haas

    2011-12-31

    LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

  6. Electrochemical Investigation of Li–Al Anodes in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.N.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.J.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Haas, O.

    2010-11-01

    1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 500 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of 0.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 30.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 100 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 280 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

  7. Optimized Structures and Proton Affinities of Fluorinated Dimethyl Ethers: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Victoria B.; Ball, David W.; Zehe, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio methods have been used to investigate the proton affinity and the geometry changes upon protonation for the molecules (CH3)2O, (CH2F)2O, (CHF2)2O, and (CF3)2O. Geometry optimizations were performed at the MP2/3-2 I G level, and the resulting geometries were used for single-point energy MP2/6-31G calculations. The proton affinity calculated for (CH3)2O was 7 Kjoule/mole from the experimental value, within the desired variance of +/- 8Kjoule/mole for G2 theory, suggesting that the methodology used in this study is adequate for energy difference considerations. For (CF3)20, the calculated proton affinity of 602 Kjoule/mole suggests that perfluorinated ether molecules do not act as Lewis bases under normal circumstances; e.g. degradation of commercial lubricants in tribological applications.

  8. Effect on oxidative stress, glucose uptake level and lipid droplet content by Apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether isolated from Piper longum L.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mahesh S; Joy, Beena; Sundaresan, A

    2015-06-01

    Piper longum L. (Family: Piperaceae), is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases. Potential of the plant material as an antidiabetic and cardio protective agent has not been evaluated so far. In the study, we designed experiments to evaluate antioxidant, glucose uptake potential and lipid content regulating potential of extracts and compound from P. longum fruits. Solvent extracts from Piper longum fruits using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, 70 % methanol-water were taken and apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (ADE) was isolated from ethyl acetate extract. Antioxidant activity, glucose uptake potential and adipocyte differentiation assay was performed with extract and pure compound. Antioxidant activity in terms of TRP (196.03 ?g/mg GAE), DPPH assay (IC50-173.09 ?g/mL), hydroxyl radical scavenging assay (IC50-20.42 ?g/mL), inhibiting LDL oxidation (IC50-51.99 ?g/mL) and to enhance SOD activity (25.3 %) was higher in ethyl acetate extract (EAP). Phenolic and flavonoid content was measured and showed a positive correlation with antioxidant activity. Presence of apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (ADE) and piperine (Pip) in EAP was determined by HPTLC analysis and was isolated. ADE inhibited ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzymes and enhanced 2-NBDG uptake in L6 cells. Hypolipidemic effect of ADE on mouse pre-adipocyte (3T3L1) cell lines also showed a dose dependent reduction on lipid droplet content and effective concentration range was determined as 1-2.5 ?g/mL. The results suggested that Piper longum fruits can provide a natural source of antioxidants with antidiabetic and anti obesity potential. PMID:26028738

  9. Di-?-acetato-bis­(dimethyl­formamide)­penta­kis­(?-N,2-dioxidobenzene-1-car­boximidato)tetra­kis­(1-ethyl­imidazole)­penta­manganese(III)­manganese(II)–diethyl ether–dimethyl­foramide–methanol–water (1/1/1/1/0.12)

    PubMed Central

    Tigyer, Benjamin R.; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(CH3CO2)2(C5H8N2)4(C3H7NO)2]·(C2H5)2O·C3H7NO·CH3OH·0.12H2O, abbreviated as MnII(OAc)2[15-MCMnIII(N)shi-5](EtIm)4(DMF)2·diethyl ether·DMF·MeOH·0.12H2O (where ?OAc is acetate, MC is metallacrown, shi3? is salicylhydroximate, EtIM is n-ethylimidazole, DMF is N,N-dimethylformamide, and MeOH is methanol) contains five MnIII ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an MnII ion bound in the central cavity. The central MnII ion is seven-coordinate with a distorted face-capped trigonal–prismatic geometry. The five MnIII ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa­hedral geometries. The configuration of the MnIII ions about the metallacrown ring follow a ???PP pattern, with P representing planar. The four 1-ethyl­imidazole ligands are bound to four different MnIII ions. A diethyl ether solvent mol­ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.568?(7):0.432?(7). A methanol solvent mol­ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites by being hydrogen bonded either to a dimethyl­formamide solvent mol­ecule (major occupancy component) or to an O atom of the main mol­ecule (minor occupancy component). The occupancy ratio refined to 0.678?(11):0.322?(11). Associated with the minor component is a partially occupied water mol­ecule [total occupancy 0.124?(15)]. PMID:22090833

  10. Di-?-acetato-bis-(dimethyl-formamide)-penta-kis-(?-N,2-dioxidobenzene-1-car-boximidato)tetra-kis-(1-ethyl-imidazole)-penta-manganese(III)-manganese(II)-diethyl ether-dimethyl-foramide-methanol-water (1/1/1/1/0.12).

    PubMed

    Tigyer, Benjamin R; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M

    2011-08-01

    The title compound [Mn(6)(C(7)H(4)NO(3))(5)(CH(3)CO(2))(2)(C(5)H(8)N(2))(4)(C(3)H(7)NO)(2)]·(C(2)H(5))(2)O·C(3)H(7)NO·CH(3)OH·0.12H(2)O, abbreviated as Mn(II)(OAc)(2)[15-MC(MnIII(N)shi)-5](EtIm)4(DMF)2·diethyl ether·DMF·MeOH·0.12H(2)O (where (-)OAc is acetate, MC is metallacrown, shi(3-) is salicylhydroximate, EtIM is n-ethylimidazole, DMF is N,N-dimethylformamide, and MeOH is methanol) contains five Mn(III) ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an Mn(II) ion bound in the central cavity. The central Mn(II) ion is seven-coordinate with a distorted face-capped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The five Mn(III) ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa-hedral geometries. The configuration of the Mn(III) ions about the metallacrown ring follow a ???PP pattern, with P representing planar. The four 1-ethyl-imidazole ligands are bound to four different Mn(III) ions. A diethyl ether solvent mol-ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.568?(7):0.432?(7). A methanol solvent mol-ecule was found to be disordered over two mutually exclusive sites by being hydrogen bonded either to a dimethyl-formamide solvent mol-ecule (major occupancy component) or to an O atom of the main mol-ecule (minor occupancy component). The occupancy ratio refined to 0.678?(11):0.322?(11). Associated with the minor component is a partially occupied water mol-ecule [total occupancy 0.124?(15)]. PMID:22090833

  11. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 3.2: Screen novel catalyst systems; Task 3.3:, Evaluation of the preferred catalyst system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas`` experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

  12. Dimethyl ether in its ground state, v=0, and lowest two torsionally excited states, v11=1 and v15=1, in the high-mass star-forming region G327.3-0.6

    E-print Network

    Bisschop, Suzanne E; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Belloche, Arnaud; Brinch, Christian; Endres, Christian P; Güsten, Rolf; Hafok, Heiko; Heyminck, Stefan; Jørgensen, Jes K; Müller, Holger S P; Menten, Karl M; Rolffs, Rainer; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine the respective importance of solid state vs. gas phase reactions for the formation of dimethyl ether. This is done by a detailed analysis of the excitation properties of the ground state and the torsionally excited states, v11=1 and v15=1, toward the high-mass star-forming region G327.3-0.6. With the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment 12 m submillimeter telescope, we performed a spectral line survey. The observed spectrum is modeled assuming local thermal equilibrium. CH3OCH3 has been detected in the ground state, and in the torsionally excited states v11=1 and v15=1, for which lines have been detected here for the first time. The emission is modeled with an isothermal source structure as well as with a non-uniform spherical structure. For non-uniform source models one abundance jump for dimethyl ether is sufficient to fit the emission, but two components are needed for the isothermal models. This suggests that dimethyl ether is present in an extended region of the envelope a...

  13. Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

    2011-02-01

    1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

  14. Cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether as an effective protector of 15-lipoxygenase-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Hirayama, Akari; Urata, Shino; Mano, Nobutaka; Fukagawa, Keiko; Imamura, Midori; Irii, Ayumi; Kitajima, Satomi; Masuyama, Tomoko; Nomiyama, Mai; Tatei, Sachiko; Tomita, Saari; Kudo, Taichi; Noguchi, Momoko; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis John; Aramaki, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is one of the key enzymes responsible for the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a major causal factor for atherosclerosis. Both enzymatic (15-LOX) and non-enzymatic (Cu(2+)) mechanisms have been proposed for the production of ox-LDL. We have recently reported that cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD) is a selective and potent inhibitor of 15-LOX-catalyzed linoleic acid oxygenation (Takeda et al., Drug Metab. Dispos., 37, 1733-1737 (2009)). In the LDL, linoleic acid is present as cholesteryl linoleate, the major fatty acid esterified to cholesterol, and is susceptible to oxidative modification by 15-LOX or Cu(2+). In this investigation, we examined the efficacy of CBDD on i) 15-LOX-catalyzed oxygenation of cholesteryl linoleate, and ii) ox-LDL formation catalyzed by 15-LOX versus Cu(2+)-mediated non-enzymatic generation of this important mediator. The results obtained demonstrate that CBDD is a potent and selective inhibitor of ox-LDL formation generated by the 15-LOX pathway. These studies establish CBDD as both an important experimental tool for characterizing 15-LOX-mediated ox-LDL formation, and as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:21804214

  15. Physicochemical and catalytic characteristics of La-H-ZSM-5 zeolite in converting dimethyl ether to the mixtures of gasoline hydrocarbons: Effect of ion exchange conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaev, L. E.; Bukina, Z. M.; Yushchenko, V. V.; Ionin, D. A.; Kolesnichenko, N. V.; Khadzhiev, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the manner and conditions of introducing lanthanum cations into NH4-ZSM-5 zeolite on the properties of catalysts for the conversion of dimethyl ether into the mixtures of gasoline hydrocarbons is studied. The physicochemical properties of synthesized catalysts are studied by means of temperature-programmed ammonia desorption, the adsorption of benzene, atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. It is shown that the degree to which lanthanum cations are replaced by ammonium cations both depends on the conditions of ion exchange in the zeolite and affects its acidity spectrum and the selectivity of the formation of paraffin hydrocarbons with isostructure. It is concluded that an increase in the amount of introduced lanthanum leads to an increase in the content of iso-paraffins from 69 to 76 wt % and a decrease in the content of aromatic hydrocarbons from 10.5 to 5.5 wt % and that of durene from 1.5 to 0.2 wt % in the products.

  16. Stabilized three-stage oxidation of DME/air mixture in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Oshibe, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hisashi; Tezuka, Takuya; Hasegawa, Susumu; Maruta, Kaoru [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of a stoichiometric dimethyl ether (DME)/air mixture in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile which was smoothly ramped from room temperature to ignition temperature were investigated. Special attention was paid to the multi-stage oxidation in low temperature condition. Normal stable flames in a mixture flow in the high velocity region, and non-stationary pulsating flames and/or repetitive extinction and ignition (FREI) in the medium velocity region were experimentally confirmed as expected from our previous study on a methane/air mixture. In addition, stable double weak flames were observed in the low velocity region for the present DME/air mixture case. It is the first observation of stable double flames by the present methodology. Gas sampling was conducted to obtain major species distributions in the flow reactor. The results indicated that existence of low-temperature oxidation was conjectured by the production of CH{sub 2}O occured in the upstream side of the experimental first luminous flame, while no chemiluminescence from it was seen. One-dimensional computation with detailed chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, three-stage oxidation was confirmed from profiles of the heat release rate and major chemical species, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. Since the present micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile successfully presented the multi-stage oxidations as spatially separated flames, it is shown that this flow reactor can be utilized as a methodology to separate sets of reactions, even for other practical fuels, at different temperature. (author)

  17. KINETIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE SYNGAS-TO-DME REACTION SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO PROCESS AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-12-01

    In a single-step synthesis gas-to-dimethyl ether process, synthesis gas (or syngas, a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO) is converted into dimethyl ether (DME) in a single reactor. The three reactions involved in this process, methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration and water gas shift, form an interesting reaction network. The interplay among these three reactions results in excellent syngas conversion or reactor productivity. A fundamental understanding of this interplay helps to explain many experimental and simulation observations, to identify optimal reaction conditions, and to provide guidelines for process development. The higher syngas conversion or reactor productivity in the syngas-to-DME reaction system, compared to that in the syngas-to-methanol reaction system, is referred to as chemical synergy. This synergy exhibits a strong dependence on the composition of the reactor feed. To demonstrate the extent of this dependence, simulations with adjusted activity for each reaction were performed to reveal the relative rate of each reaction. The results show that the water gas shift reaction is the most rapid, being practically controlled by the equilibrium. Both methanol synthesis and methanol dehydration reactions are kinetically controlled. The kinetics of the dehydration reactions is greater than that of the methanol synthesis reaction in the CO-rich regime. However, the rates of these two reactions come closer as the H{sub 2} concentration in the reactor feed increases. The role of the dehydration reaction is to remove the equilibrium barrier for the methanol synthesis reaction. The role of the water gas shift reaction is more complex; it helps the kinetics of methanol dehydration by keeping the water concentration low, which in turn enhances methanol synthesis. It also readjusts the H{sub 2}:CO ratio in the reactor as the reactions proceed. In the CO-rich regime, the water gas shift reaction supplements the limiting reactant, H{sub 2}, by reacting water with CO. This enhances both the kinetics and thermodynamic driving force of the methanol synthesis reaction. In the H{sub 2}-rich regime, water gas shift consumes the limiting reactant, CO, which harms both the kinetics and thermodynamics of methanol synthesis. An understanding of these complex roles of the methanol dehydration and water gas shift reactions and of their dependence on the syngas composition explains why the synergy is high in the CO-rich regime, but decreases with increasing H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} content in the reactor feed. The methanol equivalent productivity of the syngas-to-DME reactor is also a strong function of the reactor feed. A mathematical approach was developed to understand this dependence. The approach divides a power law type of rate equation into two terms, the kinetic term (the rate of the forward reaction) and the thermodynamics or driving force term (1- approach to equilibrium). The equations for the best feed composition for each term were derived. The approach was developed for the single reaction system, and then extended to the syngas-to-DME reaction system. The equations provide insights into why and how the methanol synthesis in the syngasto-DME system depends on the other two reactions. They can also be used to calculate the best feed composition for a given conversion. The analysis shows that for typical commercial syngas conversion, the optimal H{sub 2}:CO ratio for the LPDME{trademark} reactor is around 1-to-1, in good agreement with the results from the simulation. While the 1-to-1 feed provides a good foundation for some process configurations, it does not match the composition of natural gas-derived syngas, which typically has a H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 2:1 or greater. The process would also produce one CO{sub 2} molecule for every DME product, both a materials utilization and an environmental problem. However, recycling CO{sub 2} to the syngas generation unit can solve all of these problems. Integration schemes with different syngas generation technologies (dry reforming, steam methane reforming and partial oxidation) were

  18. Enhancement of dopamine sensing by layer-by-layer assembly of PVI-dmeOs and Nafion on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Cui, Yu-Han; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Wei-De

    2010-05-01

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified to further improve their performance in electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA) levels. After a redox polymer, poly(vinylimidazole) complexed with Os(4, 4'-dimethyl- 2, 2-bipyridine)2Cl (termed PVI-dmeOs) was electrodeposited on multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs), Nafion and PVI-dmeOs films were successfully layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled on the hydrophilic surface of the as-prepared PVI-dmeOs/CNTs nanocomposites through electrostatic interactions. The LBL assembly was proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemistry and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. LBL assembly of Nafion/PVI-dmeOs films on CNTs significantly enhanced their linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) response sensitivity to DA, with a maximum enhancement for three Nafion/PVI-dmeOs film-modified MWCNTs. The LSV peak current density of (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes in response to 10 and 50 µM DA solutions was about 7.3 and 3.9 times those for bare CNTs. At the (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes, the limit of detection (LOD) (signal-to-noise ratio: 3) was 0.05 µM DA, the linear range was 0.1-10 µM DA (with a linear regression coefficient of 0.97) and the DA-sensing sensitivity was 8.15 µA cm - 2 µM - 1. The newly fabricated (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes may be developed as an ideal biosensor for direct and in situ measurement of DA levels.

  19. A new perspective in the Lewis acid catalyzed ring opening of epoxides. Theoretical study of some complexes of methanol, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, diethyl ether, and ethylene oxide with boron trifluoride.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Patricia; Cachau, Raúl E; Seoane, Gustavo; Kieninger, Martina; Ventura, Oscar N

    2006-10-19

    Several 1:1, 1:2, and 2:2 complexes between BF3 and CH3OH (Met), CH3COOH (AcA), (CH3)2O (DME), (CH3CH2)2O (DEE), and (CH2)2O (EOX) have been studied using ab initio (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) (PBE, B3LYP) methods and the 6-311++G(3df,2pd) basis set. Geometrical structures and vibrational frequencies are reported, in most cases, for the first time. A detailed comparison of the vibrational frequencies for the O...BF3 vibrational modes, as well as for the nu(OH) band in the methanol and acetic acid complexes with BF3, is performed, and the theoretical frequency shifts are compared with the available experimental information. Thermochemical properties are calculated by employing counterpoise correction to alleviate the basis set superposition error. The DFT enthalpy of complexation of the 1:1 complexes results in the order of stability (AcA)2>AcA:BF3>DEE:BF3>DME:BF3>Met:BF3>EOX:BF3>(Met)2; in contrast, MP2 shows the noticeable difference that the AcA:BF3 complex is much less stable (similar to Met:BF3). The order of stability shows that, even though acetic acid prefers dimerization to complexation with BF3, the case is exactly the opposite for methanol. In both cases, the interaction of BF3 with the dimer gives rise to very stable trimers. However, in contrast to the interaction of BF3 with the methanol dimer being stronger than that with the monomer, the interaction of BF3 with the acetic acid dimer is weaker than that with the monomer. The relative strength of the complexes, discussed in the context of BF3-catalyzed ring opening of epoxides, suggests that the effect of the catalyst in a nonprotogenic solvent should be more properly ascribed to activation of the nucleophile instead of activation of the epoxide. PMID:17034168

  20. Global Uncertainty Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis in the CH3OCH2 + O2 System: Combining Experiment and Theory To Constrain Key Rate Coefficients in DME Combustion.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R J; Tomlin, A S; Robertson, S H; Blitz, M A; Pilling, M J; Seakins, P W

    2015-07-16

    Statistical rate theory calculations, in particular formulations of the chemical master equation, are widely used to calculate rate coefficients of interest in combustion environments as a function of temperature and pressure. However, despite the increasing accuracy of electronic structure calculations, small uncertainties in the input parameters for these master equation models can lead to relatively large uncertainties in the calculated rate coefficients. Master equation input parameters may be constrained further by using experimental data and the relationship between experiment and theory warrants further investigation. In this work, the CH3OCH2 + O2 system, of relevance to the combustion of dimethyl ether (DME), is used as an example and the input parameters for master equation calculations on this system are refined through fitting to experimental data. Complementing these fitting calculations, global sensitivity analysis is used to explore which input parameters are constrained by which experimental conditions, and which parameters need to be further constrained to accurately predict key elementary rate coefficients. Finally, uncertainties in the calculated rate coefficients are obtained using both correlated and uncorrelated distributions of input parameters. PMID:25774572

  1. Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether as a green fuel from syngas over nanostructured CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 catalyst: Influence of irradiation time on nanocatalyst properties and catalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyari, Somaiyeh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ebadi, Amanollah; Qavam Saeedi, Habib

    2014-12-01

    CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 (CZAZ) nanocatalyst is prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method at different irradiation times, characterized and tested for direct synthesis of DME from syngas. Synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, PDS, EDX and BET techniques. Direct synthesis of DME is carried out at 200-300 °C and 10-40 bar using a mixture of CO:H2 = 2:1. The catalyst with the longest sonication time showed the smallest degree of aggregates, the highest dispersion and surface area. Although the long irradiated nanocatalyst has slightly bigger CuO crystal size but the size of particle aggregates was small and less populated. The sonicated catalyst with longest irradiation presented a high CO conversion of ca. 40%. It seems that, not the CuO crystal size but the size of particle aggregates and nanocatalyst surface had a great effect on the CZAZ nanocatalyst performance. While there was an optimal temperature for CO conversion and DME yield in direct synthesis of DME, both the CO conversion and the DME yield increased with the pressure increase. Long irradiated nanocatalyst yielded more stable CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalyst while conventional co-precipitated nanocatalyst lost its activity ca. 11% and 58% in terms of CO conversion and DME yield, respectively, in 24 h time on stream test.

  2. Preparation and catalytic performance of CuO-znO-AlO3/clinoptilolite nanocatalyst for single-step synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas as a green fuel.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Reza; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Direct conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether was successfully carried out over a clinoptilolite supported nanocatalyst modified by NH4Cl. A series of bifunctional nanocatalysts, CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 (CZA) over Clinoptilolite with different loading of CZA, were prepared via coprecipitation method and their catalytic performance were compared in a fixed-bed high pressure reactor. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, FESEM, FTIR and TPD-NH3 techniques. The physicochemical analysis showed that with NH4CI treatment, the specific surface area of clinoptilolite increased obviously, while its crystallinity decreased slightly. It was found that the crystallinity of clinoptilolite was dramatically changed, whereas crystallinity of CuO has not been influenced significantly by the increase of CZA content. Moreover, with increasing the CZA/Clinoptilolite ratio, the specific surface area of nanocatalysts decreased. It is shown that the CZA particle size is distributed between 30.5-131.2 nm with an average size of 70.6 nm in which 77.8% of the particles are in the range of below 100 nm. The TPD-NH3 patterns showed that the number of the acid sites of the nanocatalysts decreased with the increase the CZA content. The influence of reaction pressure was investigated, confirming that the optimal reaction pressure for this catalyst was 40 bar. The catalytic performance is shown that the CZA/Clinoptilolite = 2 nanocatalyst had higher activity, selectivity due to its higher acidic sites. PMID:23901522

  3. Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid derived as a by-product from wood pulp in the production of paper. This colorless liquid found immediate application as a polar, aprotic solvent miscible with water and able to dissolve an enormous catalog of polar and nonpolar small molecules. It is presently scarcely used in dermatology, but given its useful properties as a penetration-enhancing solvent excipient and active anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide has the potential to be used in a much broader capacity. The authors review the history, chemistry, and clinical utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as it pertains to dermatology. PMID:23050031

  4. Polyarylene Ethers with Improved Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor); Jensen, B. J. (inventor); Havens, S. J. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to novel polyarylene ethers which possess the combination of high strength, toughness, and high use temperature with ease of extrusion and formation into complex objects. These polyarylene ethers are suitable for use in adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices. The polyarylene ethers of this invention are the polycondensation products from the reaction of either 1,3-bis (4-chloro or fluorobenzoyl) benzene with any one of the following bisphenolic compounds: bis (3-hydroxyphenyl) methane; bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane; 1,1-dimethyl-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, or 9,9-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene. Random and block copolymers are also comprehended.

  5. An ab initio/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus study of the hydrogen-abstraction reactions of methyl ethers, H(3)COCH(3-x)(CH(3))(x), x = 0-2, by OH; mechanism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Curran, Henry J

    2010-07-14

    A theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the H-abstraction reaction from dimethyl (DME), ethylmethyl (EME) and iso-propylmethyl (IPME) ethers by the OH radical has been carried out using the high-level methods CCSD(T)/CBS, G3 and G3MP2BH&H. The computationally less-expensive methods of G3 and G3MP2BH&H yield results for DME within 0.2-0.6 and 0.7-0.9 kcal mol(-1), respectively, of the coupled cluster, CCSD(T), values extrapolated to the basis set limit. So the G3 and G3MP2BH&H methods can be confidently used for the reactions of the higher ethers. A distinction is made between the two different kinds of H-atoms, classified as in/out-of the symmetry plane, and it is found that abstraction from the out-of-plane H-atoms proceeds through a stepwise mechanism involving the formation of a reactant complex in the entrance channel and product complex in the exit channel. The in-plane H-atom abstractions take place through a more direct mechanism and are less competitive. Rate constants of the three reactions have been calculated in the temperature range of 500-3000 K using the Variflex code, based on the weak collision, master equation/microcanonical variational RRKM theory including tunneling corrections. The computed total rate constants (cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) have been fitted as follows: k(DME) = 2.74 xT(3.94) exp (1534.2/T), k(EME) = 20.93 xT(3.61) exp (2060.1/T) and k(IPME) = 0.55 xT(3.93) exp (2826.1/T). Expressions of the group rate constants for the three different carbon sites are also provided. PMID:20485775

  6. Conversion of Biomass Syngas to DME Using a Microchannel Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianli Hu; Yong Wang; Chunshe Cao; Douglas C. Elliott; Don J. Stevens; James F. White

    2005-01-01

    The capability of a microchannel reactor for direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from biomass syngas was explored. The reactor was operated in conjunction with a hybrid catalyst system consisting of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalysts, and the influence of reaction parameters on syngas conversion was investigated. The activities of different dehydration catalysts were compared under DME synthesis conditions. Reaction temperature

  7. /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 Ethereal /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 Ethereal

    E-print Network

    Noé, Laurent

    /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 1 #12; /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 2 #12; /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 3 #12; /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 4 #12; /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 5 #12; /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 6 #12; /tmp/etherXXXXZQc2F1 ­ Ethereal Page 7 #12

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for proton exchange membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peixiang Xing; Gilles P Robertson; Michael D Guiver; Serguei D Mikhailenko; Keping Wang; Serge Kaliaguine

    2004-01-01

    Series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (SPEEKs) were prepared by sulfonation of commercial Victrex® and Gatone® PEEK for a comparative study of proton exchange membranes (PEM) intended for fuel cell applications. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6) solution of the purified polymers using 1H NMR methods. The second method using

  9. '3Dme--a look inside' creative studio.

    PubMed

    Brannelly, Sonya

    2012-03-01

    3Dme are creative 3D digital story-tellers with a passion for making complex health and medical information comprehensible. They have an enviable ability to understand a broad range of health and medical topics and present them in an accurate and visually engaging manner. '3Dme - A Look Inside' is a privately owned 3D visualisation and multimedia company established by Luke and Sonya Brannelly in 2006. 3Dme are passionate about creating beautiful, scientifically accurate, relevant, high definition, full 3D visualisation presentations to take a look inside the human body to communicate a health or medical education message via engaging, creative digital story-telling. 3Dme's primary objective is to 'improve global health and education outcomes'. Winning a number of local and international awards for their work, they are well on their way to achieving this. 3Dme's vision is simply to use their scientific and artistic skills along with the reach of the internet and digital technology, to captivate, engage and inspire everyone from primary school students, teachers and parents, through to university undergraduates, academics and medical specialists, to improve their understanding of complex health and medical topics. The digital output of their 3D presentations is suitable for a variety of delivery platforms and includes e-learning modules, blended learning, interactive learning modules and Apps. 3Dme has made, and continues to make, significant investments in technology based hardware and software, boasting one of the largest in-house, fully equipped animation render farms in Queensland, Australia. PMID:22397485

  10. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE DIETHYL ETHER (ETHER)

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    12.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for DIETHYL ETHER (ETHER) Location(s): ___________________________________________________ Chemical(s): diethyl ether, ether Specific Hazards: Causes respiratory tract, skin and eye irritation. May as possible and in accordance with all laboratory and University procedures. Specific instructions: Ether must

  11. DME The Department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty Recruitment Candidate

    E-print Network

    FRC DME The Department of Mechanical Engineering Presents Faculty Recruitment Candidate Suveen of Materials Science & Engineering, North Carolina State University There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom forecast promising tactics for the design of Mg-alloys with superior strength and ductility for advanced

  12. DME The Department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty Recruitment Candidate

    E-print Network

    Mills, Allen P.

    FRC DME The Department of Mechanical Engineering Presents Faculty Recruitment Candidate Mariana Kersh, Ph.D. McKenzie Post-doctoral Research Fellow Department of Mechanical Engineering University study, this talk will (1) explore the assessment of bone structure in clinical-level medical images, (2

  13. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated aromatic ethers in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Sullivan, K.; Giam, C. S.

    Methyl ethers of halogenated phenols have been identified in marine air samples from the North and South Hemispheres. The compounds are tribromoanisole, pentachloroanisole and tetrachlorohydroquinone dimethyl ether. The concentrations of these compounds are in the pg m -3 range, and they are among the more abundant high-molecular weight halocarbons in the remote marine troposphere. A probable source of these compounds is the microbial methylation of the biocide pentachlorophenol and tribromophenol of either pollutant or natural origin.

  14. New V and V Tools for Diagnostic Modeling Environment (DME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy; Merriam, Marshall (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide correctness and reliability criteria for verification and validation (V&V) of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Diagnostic Modeling Environment, describe current NASA Ames Research Center tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning systems, and discuss the applicability of Advanced V&V to DME. This report is divided into the following three sections: (1) correctness and reliability criteria; (2) tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning; and (3) advanced V&V applicable to DME. The Executive Summary includes an overview of the main points from each section. Supporting details, diagrams, figures, and other information are included in subsequent sections. A glossary, acronym list, appendices, and references are included at the end of this report.

  15. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Tijsma; Does van der L; A. Bantjes; I. Vulic

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal properties. The tensile response of a poly(ether ester) with a butylene terephthalate (4GT) content of 72 mol%, which exhibited the phenomena of

  16. 76 FR 13438 - AccessTel, Inc., American Asset Management Corp., DME Interactive Holdings, Inc., DocuPort, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...AccessTel, Inc., American Asset Management Corp., DME Interactive Holdings, Inc., DocuPort, Inc., and iCarbon Corp...and accurate information concerning the securities of DME Interactive Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  17. The study of a barley epigenetic regulator, HvDME, in seed development and under drought

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate a wide range of processes in plant development. Cytosine methylation and demethylation exist in a dynamic balance and have been associated with gene silencing or activation, respectively. In Arabidopsis, cytosine demethylation is achieved by specific DNA glycosylases, including AtDME (DEMETER) and AtROS1 (REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1), which have been shown to play important roles in seed development. Nevertheless, studies on monocot DNA glycosylases are limited. Here we present the study of a DME homologue from barley (HvDME), an agronomically important cereal crop, during seed development and in response to conditions of drought. Results An HvDME gene, identified in GenBank, was found to encode a protein with all the characteristic modules of DME-family DNA glycosylase proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of homology to other monocot DME glycosylases, and sequence divergence from the ROS1, DML2 and DML3 orthologues. The HvDME gene contains the 5? and 3? Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) of a Copia retrotransposon element within the 3? downstream region. HvDME transcripts were shown to be present both in vegetative and reproductive tissues and accumulated differentially in different seed developmental stages and in two different cultivars with varying seed size. Additionally, remarkable induction of HvDME was evidenced in response to drought treatment in a drought-tolerant barley cultivar. Moreover, variable degrees of DNA methylation in specific regions of the HvDME promoter and gene body were detected in two different cultivars. Conclusion A gene encoding a DNA glycosylase closely related to cereal DME glycosylases was characterized in barley. Expression analysis during seed development and under dehydration conditions suggested a role for HvDME in endosperm development, seed maturation, and in response to drought. Furthermore, differential DNA methylation patterns within the gene in two different cultivars suggested epigenetic regulation of HvDME. The study of a barley DME gene will contribute to our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms operating during seed development and stress response in agronomically important cereal crops. PMID:24175960

  18. NOx Reduction on a Transition Metal-free ?-Al2O3 Catalyst Using Dimethylether (DME)

    SciTech Connect

    Ozensoy, Emrah; Herling, Darrell R.; Szanyi, Janos

    2008-07-15

    NO2 and dimethylether (DME) adsorption as well as DME and NO2 coadsorption on a transition metal-free ?-alumina catalyst were investigated via in-situ transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FTIR), residual gas analysis (RGA) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. NO2 adsorption at room temperature leads to the formation of surface nitrates and nitrites. DME adsorption on the alumina surface at 300 K leads to molecularly adsorbed DME, molecularly adsorbed methanol and surface methoxides. Upon heating the DME-exposed alumina to 500-600 K the surface is dominated by methoxide groups. At higher temperatures methoxide groups are converted into formates. At T > 510 K formate decomposition takes place to form H2O(g) and CO(g). DME and NO2 coadsorption at 423 K do not indicate a significant reaction between DME and NO2. However, in similar experiments at 573 K, fast reaction occurs and the methoxides present at 573 K before the NO2 adsorption are converted into formates, simultaneously with the formation of isocyanates. Under these conditions, NCO can further be hydrolyzed into isocyanic acid or ammonia with the help of water which is generated during the formate formation, decomposition and/or NCO formation steps.

  19. Hepatoprotection by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Lind; Carmen K. Begay; A. Jay Gandolfi

    2000-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been shown to have the ability to attenuate chloroform (CHCl3)-induced liver injury in the naive rat even when administered 24 h after the toxicant. These studies were undertaken to determine if the protective action by late administration of DMSO is due to an inhibition of the bioactivation of CHCl3. This was done by comparing the

  20. High Dispersion SWP Spectra of Two DME Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    Low dispersion SWP spectra of AU Mic (dM2.5e) and AT Mic (dM4.5e+dM4.5e) indicate that these two M dwarfs likely have the brightest emission lines in the ultraviolet, and that it is feasible to obtain line profiles for lines of C II, Si IV, C IV, He II, and Si II in 8 hour SWP high dispersion spectra. We propose to extend our previous studies of dMe stars and high resolution studies of some 15 late-type dwarfs and luminous stars to include AU Mic and AT Mic. Our objectives are (1) to obtain widths of chromospheric and transition region lines for comparison with our previous observations of 5 GO-K2 dwarfs, and to determine the increase in turbulence with height in the atmosphere so as to constrain models of atmospheric heating, (2) to determine which lines are optically thick for comparison with computed model atmospheres, (3) to determine the flux and formation mechanism of the blended He II 1640 multiplet so as to derive the coronal soft X-ray radiation field, and (4) to compute models for the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. In computing these models we will use fluxes and profiles (when available) for lines of Mg II, C II-IV, Si II-IV, and N V using computer codes that have already been written.

  1. High-performance sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone/CMK-3 cathode and an ether-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunyang; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qing; Pei, Longkai; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-25

    We here report a much improved electrochemical performance of sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) cathode encapsulated in CMK-3, an ether-based electrolyte of high-concentration CF3SO3Na (NaTFS) as a sodium salt in triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) solvent, and the Na anode. PMID:26022356

  2. Spontaneous Generation of Chirality in Simple Diaryl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Lennartson, Anders; Hedström, Anna; Håkansson, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    We studied the spontaneous formation of chiral crystals of four diaryl ethers, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, ; 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenoxybenzene, ; di(4-aminophenyl) ether, ; and di(p-tolyl) ether, . Compounds , , and form conformationally chiral molecules in the solid state, while the chirality of arises from the formation of supramolecular helices. Compound is a liquid at ambient temperature, but are crystalline, and solid-state CD-spectroscopy showed that they could be obtained as optically active bulk samples. It should be noted that the optical activity arise upon crystallization, and no optically active precursors were used. Indeed, even commercial samples of and were found to be optically active, giving evidence for the ease at which total spontaneous resolution may occur in certain systems. Chirality 27:425-429, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032449

  3. Synthetic fuels and chemicals production from biomass synthesis gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingjun Zhu; Shurong Wang; Yingying Zhu; Xiaolan Ge; Xinbao Li; Zhongyang Luo

    2010-01-01

    Experimental research on the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME), ethylene glycol (EG), methyl glycolate (MG) from syngas, produced by biomass gasification and catalytic reforming, was carried out. The improved two step process, composed of methanol synthesis and methanol dehydration in a fixed-bed reactor, was employed for the direct DME synthesis. It shows that methanol synthesis catalyst in top stage is

  4. Poly(Arylene Ether)s Containing Pendent Ethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1995-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups synthesized. Offer advantage over linear poly(arylene ether)s in upon heating, pendent ethynyl groups react to form cross-linked molecular structures exhibiting greater resistance to solvents and higher glass-transition temperatures and tensile moduli. Polymers useful as adhesives, moldings, films, and matrices of composite materials.

  5. Temperature dependence of the transfer coefficient for the hydrogen evolution reaction on the DME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kirowa-Eisner; M. Schwarz; M. Rosenblum; E. Gileadi

    1995-01-01

    The correlation between the transfer coefficient ? for the hydrogen evolution reaction with temperature T was studied at the dropping mercury electrode (DME). The transfer coefficient, corrected for the diffuse double layer, was found to be independent of temperature for LiCl and KCl as the supporting electrolytes. In the case of CsCl, a small residual dependence of ? on T

  6. http://informatics.medicine.dal.ca http://dme.medicine.dal.ca

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    http://informatics.medicine.dal.ca http://dme.medicine.dal.ca www.medicine.dal.ca www at the level of Assistant Professor. Medical Informatics in the Faculty of Medicine was established in 1996 in the Medical Informatics Program, program development in the Faculty of Medicine and in the Health Informatics

  7. Vinyl ether silicones

    SciTech Connect

    Herzig, C.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J. [Wacker-Chemie GmbH, Burghausen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Siloxanes with vinyl ether groups are prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of dihydrosiloxanes with divinyl ethers in excess. Different stoichiometry, produces linear copolymers of different viscosities and double bond concentrations always with an active vinyl ether group at each chain end. Polymerisations triggered by UV light were done with mixtures of these compounds and a series of onium salts. Very fast cure is observed even with low doses at 290 nm. V.E. silicones are found to cure essentially quantitative. The comparison with other highly reactive cationic monomers revealed that compounds are among the fastest curing prepolymers in cationic chemistry.

  8. New polyarylene ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Havens, S. J.; Jensen, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of new polyarylene ethers (PAEs) were prepared from the reaction of activated dihalo compounds with various bisphenols. Measured number average molecular weights for the PAEs ranged from 13,500 to 39,400 g/mole, and glass transition temperatures varied from 152 to 280 C. Ethynyl-terminated polyarylene ethers (ETPAEs) were also prepared by endcapping hydroxy-terminated polyarylene ethers with 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. Structure/property relationships for the PAEs, and the advantages offered by the ETPAEs, are discussed.

  9. General Ether Theory

    E-print Network

    I. Schmelzer

    2000-01-29

    The paper is an introduction into General Ether Theory (GET). We start with few assumptions about an universal ``ether'' in a Newtonian space-time which fulfils \\partial_t \\rho + \\partial_i (\\rho v^i) = 0 \\partial_t (\\rho v^j) + \\partial_i(\\rho v^i v^j + p^{ij}) = 0 For an ``effective metric'' $g_{\\mu\

  10. Molecular Structure of Isopropyl ether

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Diisopropyl ether has been used an extraction agent and as a solvent in paint thinners and stain removers. It has also been considered for use as an additive to raise the octane rating of gasoline. It is released into the environment through various waste streams associated with its laboratory use and the use and manufacture of removers. Diisopropyl ether is considered mildly toxic. Short term exposures produce anesthetic effects similar to ethyl ether and irritate the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. Diisopropyl ether has been found many groundwater and surface water supplies. Many ethers are known to resist biodegradation and studies suggest that diisopropyl ether is resistant as well.

  11. Ether-based nonflammable electrolyte for room temperature sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lifei; Yang, Jian; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2015-06-01

    Safety problem is one of the key points that hinder the development of room temperature sodium batteries. In this paper, four well-known nonflammable organic compounds, Trimethyl Phosphate (TMP), Tri(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TFEP), Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP), Methyl nonafluorobuyl Ether (MFE), are investigated as nonflammable solvents in sodium batteries for the first time. Among them, MFE is stable towards sodium metal at room temperature. The electrochemical properties and electrode compatibility of MFE based electrolyte are investigated. Both Prussian blue cathode and carbon nanotube anode show good electrochemical performance retention in this electrolyte. The results suggest that MFE is a promising option as nonflammable electrolyte additive for sodium batteries.

  12. Experimental investigation on flame pattern formations of DME-air mixtures in a radial microchannel

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Aiwu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan (China); Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Maruta, Kaoru; Nakamura, Hisashi [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kumar, Sudarshan [Aerospace Engineering Department, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Liu, Wei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan (China)

    2010-09-15

    Flame pattern formations of premixed DME-air mixture in a heated radial channel with a gap distance of 2.5 mm were experimentally investigated. The DME-air mixture was introduced into the radial channel through a delivery tube which connected with the center of the top disk. With an image-intensified high-speed video camera, rich flame pattern formations were identified in this configuration. Regime diagram of all these flame patterns was drawn based on the experimental findings in the equivalence ratio range of 0.6-2.0 and inlet velocity range of 1.0-5.0 m/s. Compared with our previous study on premixed methane-air flames, there are several distinct characteristics for the present study. First, Pelton-wheel-like rotary flames and traveling flames with kink-like structures were observed for the first time. Second, in most cases, flames can be stabilized near the inlet port of the channel, exhibiting a conical or cup-like shape, while the conventional circular flame was only observed under limited conditions. Thirdly, an oscillating flame phenomenon occurred under certain conditions. During the oscillation process, a target appearance was seen at some instance. These pattern formation characteristics are considered to be associated with the low-temperature oxidation of DME. (author)

  13. Process of ether synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Reichl, E.H.

    1985-08-13

    A method for producing fuel comprised of gasoline rich in methanol and methyl ethers derived from coal, which process comprises gasifying the coal to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, steam shifting the gasification product to produce additional hydrogen, cleaning up the shifted product, catalytically converting the cleaned shifted gas to a mixture of alcohols, separating a methanol fraction from the mixture of alcohols, dehydrating the remaining alcohols to olefins, etherifying the olefin mixture with a portion of the removed methanol fraction, and blending into gasoline the resulting ether mixture and a second portion of the removed methanol fraction.

  14. Physicochemical properties of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, U. (National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde, DE (United States). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology); Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences); Spencer, W.F. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Volatilization of selenium (Se) is a dissipation mechanism by which gaseous Se is redistributed in the environment. The vapor pressures of dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and dimethyl diselenide (DMDSe) were determined using the isoteniscope method, and the solubility of DMSe in H[sub 2]O was determined in a closed system by headspace analysis. The vapor pressure at 25 C were 32.03 and 0.38 kPa for DMSe and DMDSe, respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization were calculated as 31.90 and 74.92 kJ mol[sup [minus]1], respectively. The solubility of DMSe was 0.0244 g/g of H[sub 2]O. The Henry's law constant for DMSe was calculated as 143 kPa kg mol[sup [minus]1] (0.144 kPa m[sup 3] mol[sup [minus]1]).

  15. Searching for solvent cavities via electron photodetachment: The ultrafast charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics of sodide in a series of ether solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Molly C.; Schwartz, Benjamin J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    It was recently predicted by simulations and confirmed by neutron diffraction experiments that the structure of liquid tetrahydrofuran (THF) contains cavities. The cavities can be quite large and have a net positive electrostatic potential, so they can serve as pre-existing traps for excess electrons created via photodetachment from various solutes. In this paper, we use electron photodetachment via charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) excitation of sodide (Na{sup -}) to probe for the presence of pre-existing cavities in a series of ether solvents: THF, diethyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), and diglyme (DG). We find that electrons photodetached from sodide appear after a time delay with their equilibrium spectrum in all of these solvents, suggesting that the entire series of ethers contains pre-existing solvent cavities. We then use the variation in electron recombination dynamics with CTTS excitation wavelength to probe the nature of the cavities in the different ethers. We find that the cavities that form the deepest electron traps turn on at about the same energy in all four ether solvents investigated, but that the density of cavities is lower in DG and DME than in THF. We also examine the dynamics of the neutral sodium species that remains following CTTS photodetachment of an electron from sodide. We find that the reaction of the initially created gas-phase-like Na atom to form a (Na{sup +},e{sup -}) tight-contact pair occurs at essentially the same rate in all four ether solvents, indicating that only local solvent motions and not bulk solvent rearrangements are what is responsible for driving the partial ejection of the remaining Na valence electron.

  16. Degradation of alkyl ethers, aralkyl ethers, and dibenzyl ether by Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5151, isolated from diethyl ether-containing enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2004-07-01

    Twenty strains isolated from sewage sludge were found to degrade various ethers, including alkyl ethers, aralkyl ethers, and dibenzyl ether. In Rhodococcus strain DEE5151, induction of ether degradation needed substrates exhibiting at least one unsubstituted Calpha-methylene moiety as the main structural prerequisite. The cleavage reaction observed with anisole, phenetole, and dibenzyl ether indicates that the initial oxidation occurs at such respective Calpha positions. Diethyl ether-induced strain DEE5151 degraded dibenzyl ether via intermediately accumulated benzoic acid. Phenetole seems to be subject also to another ether-cleaving enzyme. Other strains of this group showed different enzymatic activities towards the substrate classes investigated. PMID:15240329

  17. Bacterial degradation of glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Kawai, F

    1995-12-01

    Assimilation of ethyleneglycol (EG) ethers by polyethyleneglycol-utilizing bacteria was examined. Ethyleneglycol ether-utilizing bacteria were also isolated from soil and activated sludge samples by enrichment-culture techniques. Three strains (4-5-3, EC 1-2-1 and MC 2-2-1) were selected and characterized as Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3, Xanthobacter autotrophicus, and an unidentified gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod respectively. Their growth characteristics were examined: Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 assimilated EG (diethyleneglycol, DEG) monomethyl, monoethyl and monobutyl ethers, DEG, propanol and butanol. X. autotrophicus EC 1-2-1 grew well on EG monoethyl and monobutyl ethers, EG and primary alcohols (C1-C4), and slightly on EG monomethyl ether. The strain MC 2-2-1 grew on EG monomethyl ether, EG, primary alcohols (C1-C4), and 1,2-propyleneglycol (PG). The mixed culture of Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 and X. autotrophicus EC 1-2-1 showed better growth and improved degradation than respective single cultures towards EG monomethyl, monoethyl or monobutyl ethers. Intact cells of Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 degraded various kinds of monoalkyl ethers, which cannot be assimilated by the strain. Metabolic products were characterized from reaction supernatants of intact cells of Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 with EG or DEG monoethyl ethers: they were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and GC-MS and found to be ethoxyacetic acid and ethoxyglycoxyacetic acid. Also, PG monoalkyl ethers (C1-C4), dipropyleneglycol monoethyl and monomethyl ethers and tripropyleneglycol monomethyl ether were assimilated by polypropyleneglycol-utilizing Corynebacterium sp. 7. PMID:8597556

  18. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374 Section 721.3374 ...Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374 Section 721.3374 ...Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374 Section 721.3374 ...Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374 Section 721.3374 ...Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject to...

  6. Ethereal: Getting Started CSCI 3171: Network Computing

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Stephen

    Ethereal: Getting Started CSCI 3171: Network Computing Introduction One's understanding of network," as shown in Figure 2.8 in the text. We will be using the Ethereal packet sniffer [http://www.ethereal

  7. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374 Section 721.3374 ...Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject to...

  8. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  9. An Implication of Ether Drift

    E-print Network

    Hong-Yi Zhou

    1998-05-25

    The experimental results of the two-photon absorption(TPA) and M\\"{o}ssbauer-rotor(MR) for testing the isotropy of the speed of light are explained in an ether drift model with a drift velocity of $\\sim 10^{-3}c$. Further tests of the ether drift assumption are suggested.

  10. BroadBand Spectrum of dMe Star Radio Emission M Gudel and A. O. Benz

    E-print Network

    Guedel, Manuel

    magnetic field 1. Introduction Nonflaring microwave emission of late type red dwarf stars has become emission of UV Ceti was detected at 20cm at comparable flux levels (Fisher and Gibson, 1981; KunduBroad­Band Spectrum of dMe Star Radio Emission M G¨udel and A. O. Benz Institute of Astronomy, ETH

  11. Intracluster ion-molecule reactions of Ti+ with ether clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Young-Mi; Kim, Min-Kyung; Jung, Kwang-Woo

    2005-05-01

    The intracluster ion-molecule reactions of Ti+(CH3OR)n (R = CH3, n-C3H7, n-C4H9, t-C4H9) complexes produced by the mixing of laser-vaporized plasmas and pulsed supersonic beams were investigated using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS). The reactions of Ti+ with dimethyl ether clusters were found to be dominated by the CH3 elimination reaction, which produces Ti+(OCH3)m(CH3OCH3)n clusters (m = 1-3). The mass spectra resulting from the reactions of Ti+ with the other ether clusters indicate the formation of major sequences of heterocluster ions with the formula Ti+(OCH3)x(OR)y(CH3OR)n, where x = 1-3 and y = 0-2. These sequences are attributed to the insertion of Ti+ ions into the CO bonds of the ether molecules within the heteroclusters, followed by alkyl radical elimination. The prevalence of radical elimination of longer alkyl groups rather than of CH3 radicals suggests that R elimination from the [CH3OTi+R] intermediate is the preferred decomposition pathway after the selective insertion of a Ti+ ion into the CO bond of an OR group. Our results also indicate that consecutive insertions of a Ti+ ion can occur for up to three precursor molecules. The experiments also show that the molecular eliminations of H2 and alkanes, resulting from CH and CC bond insertion, respectively, play an increasingly important role as the size of the alkyl group (R) in the ether molecule increases. The reaction energetics and the formation mechanisms of the observed heterocluster ions are also discussed.

  12. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-print Network

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  13. Author's personal copy Nanocomposites of poly(ether ether ketone) with carbon nanofibers: Effects

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Frank

    Author's personal copy Nanocomposites of poly(ether ether ketone) with carbon nanofibers: Effects September 2010 Keywords: PEEK Nanocomposites Carbon nanofibers a b s t r a c t Poly(ether ether ketone and melt processed PEEK nanocomposites. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Poly(ether

  14. Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments. PMID:23116604

  15. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    New imide/arylene ether copolymers prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acids) with amine-terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents. Each resulting copolymer may have one glass-transition temperature or two, depending on chemical structure and/or compatibility of block units. Most of copolymers form tough, solvent-resistant films with high tensile properties. Films cast from solution tough and flexible, and exhibit useful thermal and mechanical properties. Potentially useful as moldings, adhesives, or composite matrices. Because of flexible arylene ether blocks, these copolymers easier to process than polyimides.

  16. Cis-METHYL Vinyl Ether: the Rotational Spectrum up to 600 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesniková, Lucie; Daly, Adam M.; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Astronomical observation of dimethyl ether, methyl ethyl ether places the methyl vinyl ether among the species of potential interstellar relevance. The millimeter and submillimeter-wave transitions pertaining to the vibrational ground state and the first excited states of the methoxy, ?24, and methyl, ?23, torsional modes and the in-plane bending mode, ?16, of the cis-methyl vinyl ether have been measured and analyzed in the frequency region from 50 to 600 GHz. A significant Fermi-type and Coriolis interactions between the v24=1 and v23=1 states have been observed and the rotational spectra were analyzed using an effective two-state Hamiltonian explicitly involving corresponding coupling operators. A sets of spectroscopic constants for the ground state as well as for all three excited states reproducing the observed spectrum within the experimental uncertainty provide sufficiently precise information for the astronomical search for methyl vinyl ether. Z. Peeters, S. D. Rodgers, S. B. Charnley, L. Schriver-Mazzuoli, A. Schriver, J. V. Keane, and P. Ehrenfreund, Astron. & Astrophys. 2006, 445, 197. G. W. Fuchs, U. Fuchs, T. F. Giesen, F. Wyrowski, Astron. & Astrophys. 2005, 444, 521. B. E. Turner, A. J. Apponi, Astrophys. J. Lett. 2001, 561, 207.

  17. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m.

    PubMed Central

    Kanagawa, T; Mikami, E

    1989-01-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day. PMID:2930168

  18. A rare tetranuclear thorium(IV) ?4 -oxo cluster and dinuclear thorium(IV) complex assembled by carbon-oxygen bond activation of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME).

    PubMed

    Travia, Nicholas E; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of two new multinuclear thorium complexes are reported. The tetranuclear ?4 -oxo cluster complex Th4 (?4 -O)(?-Cl)2 I6 [?(2) (O,O')-?-O(CH2 )2 OCH3 ]6 and the dinuclear complex Th2 I5 [?(2) (O,O')-?-O(CH2 )2 OCH3 ]3 (DME) (DME=dimethoxyethane) are formed by C?O bond activation of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) mediated by thorium iodide complexes. PMID:25387795

  19. Ether lipids based on the glyceryl ether skeleton: Present state, future potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouichi Urata; Naotake Takaishi

    1996-01-01

    Lipids from natural sources consist mainly of saponifiable substances, such as glycerides, along with some unsaponifiable\\u000a lipids, some of which are ether lipids. Typical ether lipids are monoalkyl ethers of glycerin, also called alkyl\\/alkenyl glyceryl\\u000a ethers. Alkyl\\/alkenyl glyceryl ethers have also been reported in marine organisms and in human feces. Several chemical syntheses\\u000a of such ether lipids have been reported.

  20. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  1. Space, Time, Ether, and Kant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin

    This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.

  2. Ytterbium(+2) indenyl complexes: synthesis and crystal structures of (C 9H 7) 2Yb·DME, rac-(CH 2) 2(1-C 9H 6) 2Yb(THF) 2, and rac-(CH 2) 2[1-(4,7-(CH 3) 2C 9H 4)]Yb(THF) 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Khvostov; B. M. Bulychev; V. K. Belsky; A. I. Sizov

    1999-01-01

    Metallation of 2,2-bis(1?-indene)propane by sodium hydride followed by the reaction of the sodium derivative with YbCl3 yields (C9H7)2Yb·DME (1), an ytterbium(+2) complex with unlinked indenyl ligands. The reaction between (CH2)2(1-Ind?)2Li2 and YbCl3 in diethyl ether with subsequent reduction of the product by sodium metal in THF gives rac-(CH2)2(1-Ind?)2Yb(THF)2, where Ind?=C9H6 (2) and 4,7-(CH3)2C9H4 (3). The structures of the complexes were

  3. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  4. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  5. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  6. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  7. 2-[2-(3-Methyl­but­oxy)-5-nitro­benz­amido]­acetic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun-Xia; Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H18N2O6·C2H6OS, the –C(O)NHCH2CO2H and –O(CH2)2CH(CH3)2 substitutents of the aromatic ring are positioned such that the –NH– group is hydrogen-bond donor to the ether O atom of the other substituent. The dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mol­ecule is linked to the carb­oxy­lic acid group by an O—H?O hydrogen bond. PMID:22798841

  8. pVT data of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether in 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  9. Biodiesel, emulsified biodiesel and dimethyl ether as pilot fuels for natural gas fuelled engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Namasivayam; T. Korakianitis; R. J. Crookes; K. D. H. Bob-Manuel; J. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Dual-fuelling in compression–ignition (CI) engines is a mode of combustion where a small pilot injection of high-cetane fuel (i.e. diesel) ignites a premixed high-octane fuel (i.e. methane) and air mixture. This allows conventional CI engines to lower their emissions of smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx) while maintaining their high thermal efficiencies. However, poor ignitability of the main fuel–air charge results

  10. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Robert T.; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique

    2011-02-14

    The effects of acid identity on CH{sub 3}OH dehydration are examined here using density functional theory (DFT) estimates of acid strength (as deprotonation energies, DPE) and reaction energies, combined with rate data on Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) clusters and zeolite H-BEA. Measured first-order (k{sub mono}) and zero-order (k{sub dimer}) CH3OH dehydration rate constants depend exponentially on DPE for POM clusters; the value of k{sub mono} depends more strongly on DPE than k{sub dimer} does. The chemical significance of these rate parameters and the basis for their dependences on acid strength were established by using DFT to estimate the energies of intermediates and transition states involved in elementary steps that are consistent with measured rate equations. We conclude from this treatment that CH{sub 3}OH dehydration proceeds via direct reactions of co-adsorbed CH{sub 3}OH molecules for relevant solid acids and reaction conditions. Methyl cations formed at ion-pair transition states in these direct routes are solvated by H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH more effectively than those in alternate sequential routes involving methoxide formation and subsequent reaction with CH{sub 3}OH. The stability of ion-pairs, prevalent as intermediates and transition states on solid acids, depends sensitively on DPE because of concomitant correlations between the stability of the conjugate anionic cluster and DPE. The chemical interpretation of k{sub mono} and k{sub dimer} from mechanism-based rate equations, together with thermochemical cycles of their respective transition state formations, show that similar charge distributions in the intermediate and transition state involved in k{sub dimer} cause its weaker dependence on DPE. Values of k{sub mono} involve uncharged reactants and the same ion-pair transition state as k{sub dimer}; these species sense acid strength differently and cause the larger effects of DPE on k{sub mono}. Confinement effects in H-BEA affect the value of k{sub mono} because the different sizes and number of molecules in reactants and transition states selectively stabilize the latter; however, they do not influence k{sub dimer}, for which reactants and transition states of similar size sense spatial constraints to the same extent. This combination of theory and experiment for solid acids of known structure sheds considerable light on the relative contributions from solvation, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions in stabilizing cationic transition states and provides predictive insights into the relative contributions of parallel routes based on the size and charge distributions of their relevant intermediates and transition states. These findings also demonstrate how the consequences of acid strength on measured turnover rates depend on reaction conditions and their concomitant changes in the chemical significance of the rate parameters measured. Moreover, the complementary use of experiment and theory in resolving mechanistic controversies has given predictive guidance about how rate and equilibrium constants, often inextricably combined as measured rate parameters, individually depend on acid strength based on the magnitude and spatial distributions of charges in reactants, products and transition states involved in relevant elementary steps. The unique relations between k{sub mono}, k{sub dimer} and DPE developed here for CH{sub 3}OH dehydration can be applied in practice to assess the acid strength of any solid acid, many of which have unknown structures, preventing reliable calculations of their DPE by theory.

  11. 40 CFR 721.4133 - Dimethyl-3-substituted heteromonocyclic amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dimethyl-3-substituted heteromonocyclic amine. 721.4133 Section 721.4133 Protection of Environment... § 721.4133 Dimethyl-3-substituted heteromonocyclic amine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721.3364 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3364 Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721.3380 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3380 Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721.3437 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3437 Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721.3437 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3437 Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721.3380 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3380 Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721.3364 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3364 Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721.3437 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3437 Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721.3437 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3437 Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721.3380 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3380 Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721.3364 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3364 Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721.3364 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3364 Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721.3380 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3380 Anilino ether. Link to an amendment published at...substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721.3437 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3437 Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721.3364 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3364 Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721.3380 ...Chemical Substances § 721.3380 Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to...

  7. Thorium-mediated ring-opening of tetrahydrofuran and the development of a new thorium starting material: preparation and chemistry of ThI4(DME)2.

    PubMed

    Travia, Nicholas E; Monreal, Marisa J; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2012-12-28

    The thorium(IV) tetraiodide complex ThI(4)(DME)(2) (3) (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) has been prepared in high yield by reacting the corresponding chloride complex ThCl(4)(DME)(2) with an excess of trimethylsilyl iodide (Me(3)SiI) in toluene. This new route avoids the use of thorium metal as a reagent. ThI(4)(DME)(2) (3) exhibits excellent thermal stability compared to ThI(4)(THF)(4) (1), which undergoes rapid ring-opening of THF at ambient temperature to yield the iodobutoxide complex ThI(3)[O(CH(2))(4)I](THF)(3) (2). Subsequent ligand-exchange between 2 and DME affords ThI(3)[O(CH(2))(4)I](DME)(2) (11), which can be converted to 3 with Me(3)SiI. Salt metathesis between 2 and K(L(Me)) (L(Me) = (2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))NC(Me)CHC(Me)N(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))) cleanly gives (L(Me))ThI(2)[O(CH(2))(4)I](THF) (10), which is a rare example of a thorium ?-diketiminate complex. Complexes 2, 10, and 11 represent the first reported examples of THF ring-opening mediated by thorium. The synthetic utility of ThI(4)(DME)(2) (3) is demonstrated by preparation of thorium(IV) alkoxide, amide, and organometallic compounds. PMID:23027565

  8. Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Growth in a Wide Temperature Range

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Growth in a Wide Temperature Range Shohei Chiashi1, Taiki Inoue1 range. Ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) were used as the carbon source and Co/Mo metal particles deposited on silicon substrates were used as the catalyst. The CVD temperature ranged from 400 to 900 degree

  9. Development of microstrip gas chambers on substrates with electronic conductivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bouclier; C. Garabatos; G. Manzin; F. Sauli; L. Shekhtman; T. Temmel; G. Della Mea; G. Maggioni; V. Rigato; I. Logachenko

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes several recent developments on microstrip gas chambers (MSGCs). We have studied the operating behaviour of the detectors in different gas mixtures; maximum stable gains have been achieved in mixtures of argon and dimethyl-ether (DME) in almost equal proportions. Using detectors manufactured on semiconducting glass substrates, capable of withstanding very high rates (above 106 mm-2 s-1), we have

  10. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660a Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains...

  11. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660a Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains...

  12. Polyarylene Ethers With Improved Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Jensen, Brian J.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Series of new polyarylene ethers (PAE's) prepared from reaction of activated dihalo compounds with various bisphenols. Compounds exhibit excellent processability by compression molding, plus good mechanical properties. All PAE's prepared suitable for use as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices. Potentially useful for spacecraft and aircraft applications.

  13. Dimethyl sulfide in the marine atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Andreae; R. J. Ferek; F. Bermond; K. P. Byrd; R. T. Engstrom; S. Hardin; P. D. Houmere; F. LeMarrec; H. Raemdonck; R. B. Chatfield

    1985-01-01

    We have performed over 900 measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in five different marine locations: the equatorial Pacific; Cape Grim, Tasmania; the Bahamas; the North Atlantic; and the Sargasso Sea. At all locations, DMS concentrations were usually in the range of 100-400 ng S m-3, with similar avarage concentrations of approximately 150 ng S m-3 (107 parts per thousand

  14. Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Dimethyl Sulphoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mitchell Sams; Nicholas V. Carroll

    1966-01-01

    DIMETHYL sulphoxide (DMSO) has long been known for its solvent properties and its ability to prevent freezing damage to living cells1. More recently, it has been found to cross intact cellular membranes and the skin very readily and to effect rapid penetration through these tissues of some substances dissolved in it2,3. Despite these remarkable abilities, very few undesirable effects in

  15. Dimethyl Sulfoxide: Interactions with Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Kocsis; S. Harkaway; M. C. Santoyo; R. Snyder

    1968-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) enhanced the hypertaurinuria produced by benzene, chlorobenzene, and toluene in rats. Undiluted DMSO was more effective than DMSO diluted with water in potentiating the toxicity of benzene in both rats and mice. Supernatants (9000g) prepared from livers of rats treated with DMSO 24 hours earlier metabolized more benzene than those from control rats.

  16. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8?N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264?N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890?N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective. PMID:25991716

  17. Organic compounds in coal-slurry-pipeline waters. Final report. [Phenol, o-cresol, p-cresol, 2,6-dimethyl phenol, o-ethyl phenol, 3,5-dimethyl phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, A.S.; Fox, P.J.; Villarreal, H.; Raval, R.; Walker, W. II

    1982-09-01

    Organic compounds in the water separated from coal pipeline slurry has been investigated on a laboratory basis for the slurry with each of three subbituminous coals: Wyodak, Illinois No. 6 and Black Mesa. The results are compare with results from the Black Mesa Pipeline slurry. Compounds such as aryl hydrocarbons, nitrogenous bases, aryl thiophenes and aryl ethers are all more than 99.9% adsorbed when added to water before slurry formation and are undetectable in the resulting slurry waters. Phenols occur in slurry waters and their identification and quantification using methylation with perdeutero phenol as an internal standard for capillary column GC/MS of the methyl ethers is described. Phenol, o-cresol, p-cresol, 2,6-dimethyl phenol, o-ethyl phenol and 3,5-dimethyl phenol were identified and quantified in all slurry waters from each coal. Laboratory results on slurry waters from Black Mesa coal are in agreement with the results for these phenols in the clariflocculator overflow water at the Mohave Generating Station. 4 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Evidence for spin solitons and their dynamics in a spin-Peierls system (DMe-DCNQI)2Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Maki; Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Mizoguchi, Kenji; Kato, Reizo

    2002-05-01

    A spin-Peierls system (DMe-DCNQI)2Li has been studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) under hydrostatic pressure. A definite frequency dependence of the EPR linewidth is observed for the Curie spins that appear below TSP, demonstrating a clear one-dimensional diffusive character similar to t-(CH)x. This is strong evidence for Curie spins to arise from spin solitons as domain walls caused by structural defects. The estimated extent of the spin soliton is less than several molecular units. A relation with the antiferromagnetic ordering provoked by impurities as found in CuGeO3 is discussed.

  19. Liquid Densities of Fluorinated Ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Noriaki; Sako, Takeshi; Nakane, Takashi; Sekiya, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsutaka; Sato, Masahito; Mochizuki, Yuji; Takada, Naoto; Yasumoto, Masahiko

    The liquid densities of thirteen fluorinated ethers which are expected as promising candidates of CFC alternatives were measured at temperatures from 278 K to 323 K and atmospheric pressure. The fluorinated ethers used in this study are 1-difluoromethoxy-1,1, 2- trifluoroethane, 1-methoxy-1, 1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1-methoxy-2,2 ,3 ,3- tetrafluoropropane, 1-methoxy-1-trifluoromethy1-2,2 ,2- trifluoroethane, 1-methoxy-1,1,2,2, 3-hexafluoropropane,1-difluoromethoxy-2,2, 3, 3 -tetrafluoropropane, 1-methoxy-heptafluoropropane,1-difluoromethoxy-2, 2, 3, 3, 3-pentafluoropropane, 1- (2, 2, 2-trifruoroethoxy) -1, 1, 2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1-pentafluoroethoxy-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrafluoroethane,2-trifluoromethoxy-1, 1, 1,2-tetrafluorobutane, 1-proxynonafluorobutane, and 1-ethoxy-undecafluoropentane. The liquid density has been measured by the vibrating tube densitometer (ANTON PARR, DMA 602) within an error of 0.07%. The liquid densities decrease monotonically with increase of temperature.

  20. Trans-ethyl methyl ether in space - A new look at a complex molecule in selected hot core regions

    E-print Network

    G. W. Fuchs; U. Fuchs; T. F. Giesen; F. Wyrowski

    2005-08-18

    An extensive search for the complex molecule trans-ethyl methyl ether towards several hot core regions has been performed. Using the IRAM 30m telescope and the SEST 15m we looked at several frequencies where trans-ethyl methyl ether has strong transitions, as well as lines which are particularly sensitive to the physical conditions in which the molecule can be found. We included G34.26, NGC6334(I), Orion KL, and W51e2 which have previously been proven to have a rich chemistry of complex molecules. Our observations cannot confirm the tentative Orion KL detection made by Charnley et al. (2001) within their stated column density limits, but we confirm the existence of the trans-ethyl methyl ether towards W51e2 with a column density of 2x10^14 cm-2. The dimethyl ether/methanol ratio of 0.6 as well as the newly found ethyl methyl ether/ethanol ratio of 0.13 indicate relative high abundances of ethers toward W51e2. Furthermore, the observation of ethyl methyl ether also confirms the importance of ethanol as a grain mantle constituent. We present new upper limits of around 8x10^13 cm-2 for the column densities of the molecule toward Orion KL, G34.26, NGC6334(I) and estimate the column density towards SgrB2(N) to be of the same order. The W51e2 observations are discussed in more detail.

  1. Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether Petroleum Ether (30-60) 2-methyl-THF 2-methylpentane ethyl ether/isopentane 1:1, 1:2 3-methylpentane ethyl ether/methylcyclohexane 2:3 3-ethylpentane propyl ether/pentane 2:1 2,3-dimethylpentane EtOH 3-methylhexane glycerol 4-methylheptane 1-propanol 3

  2. Survey of the BY Draconis syndrome among dMe stars. [BVr photometry search for slow quasisinusoidal light variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.; Espenak, F.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for a BVr photometric survey of 22 dK, dKe, dM, and dMe stars conducted to search for slow quasi-sinusoidal fluctuations in V (the BY Draconis syndrome). The (B-V) and (V-r) color indices are determined in an attempt to detect wavelength-dependent color changes produced by starspots and to infer starspot temperatures. It is found that nine of the stars exhibit variations in V of the order of 0.05 to 0.10 magnitude on a time scale of days or weeks, that at least three more display changes in mean light level over a period of years, that the stars generally tend to become redder at minimum light, and that some of the stars show no detectable color changes over their photometric cycle. The color data are taken to suggest a probable temperature difference of about 200 to 500 K between the stellar photospheres and starspots if the V variations are attributed to dark spots. It is concluded that the BY Draconis syndrome is clearly a very common occurrence among dMe stars.

  3. Synthesis of DME from syngas on the bifunctional Cu–ZnO–Al 2O 3\\/Zr-modified ferrierite: Effect of Zr content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Wook Bae; Suk-Hwan Kang; Yun-Jo Lee; Ki-Won Jun

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic activity on the coprecipitated Cu–ZnO–Al2O3\\/Zr-ferrierite (CZA–ZrFER) with different Zr content from 0 to 5wt.% was investigated for the direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from H2-deficient and biomass-derived model syngas (H2\\/CO molar ratio=0.93). The catalytic functionalities, such as CO conversion and DME selectivity, showed their maxima on the bifunctional catalyst with 3wt.% Zr-modified ferrierite. Detailed characterization studies were conducted

  4. EtherCAT enabled advanced control architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Rostan; Joseph E. Stubbs; Dmitry Dzilno

    2010-01-01

    EtherCAT is becoming quickly adopted globally by the semiconductor, solar and FPD manufacturing industries. This Industrial Ethernet technology is an acknowledged SEMI standard that provides extraordinary real-time performance and topology flexibility, while meeting or even undercutting traditional fieldbus cost levels. EtherCAT enables advanced control architectures: instead of closing the high performance control loops locally in the peripheral devices, EtherCAT gives

  5. Crystalline Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers prepared by using arylene ether blocks to impart low melt viscosity, and imide blocks to provide high strength and other desirable mechanical properties. Work represents extension of LAR-14159 on imide/arylene ether copolymers in form of films, moldings, adhesives, and composite matrices. Copolymers potentially useful in variety of high-temperature aerospace and microelectronic applications.

  6. Polyphenylene ethers with imide linking groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    Novel polyphenylene ethers with imide linking units are disclosed. These polymers incorporate the solvent and thermal resistance of polyimides and the processability of polyphenylene ethers. Improved physical properties over those of the prior art are obtained by incorporating meta linked ethers and/or polyphenylene oxides into the polymer backbone. A novel process for making polymers of this type is also disclosed. The process is unique in that the expected need of high process temperatures and/or special atmospheres are eliminated.

  7. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  8. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  9. LaRC-ITPI/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Working, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, work has continued on block copolymers containing imide and arylene ether segments. The arylene ether block used in this study contains a bulky fluorene group in the polymer backbone while the imide block contains an arylene ketone segment similar to that in the arylene ether block and has been named LaRC-ITPI. A series of imide/arylene ether block and segmented copolymers were prepared and characterized. Films were prepared from these copolymers and mechanical properties were measured.

  10. Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl ether)s

    E-print Network

    Wan, Xin-hua

    Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl etherVed October 21, 2005 The synthesis and near-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-containing poly(aryl ether)s were studied

  11. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). 721.10067 Section 721...721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). 721.10067 Section 721...721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). 721.10067 Section 721...721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. 721.3480 Section 721.3480 ...3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers (PMNs P-90-1844,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721.3485 Section 721.3485 ...§ 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether (PMN P-95-1578) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. 721.3440 Section 721.3440 ...3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520 Section 721.3520 ...§ 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520 Section 721.3520 ...§ 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. 721.3440 Section 721.3440 ...3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. 721.3440 Section 721.3440 ...3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. 721.3480 Section 721.3480 ...3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers (PMNs P-90-1844,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520 Section 721.3520 ...§ 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. 721.3480 Section 721.3480 ...3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers (PMNs P-90-1844,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721.3485 Section 721.3485 ...§ 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether (PMN P-95-1578) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721.3485 Section 721.3485 ...§ 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether (PMN P-95-1578) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. 721.3480 Section 721.3480 ...3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers (PMNs P-90-1844,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721.3485 Section 721.3485 ...§ 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether (PMN P-95-1578) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721.10385 Section 721...Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN P-10-344) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). ...chemical substances identified generically as ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). 721.3438 Section 721...721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. 520.1846 Section 520.1846...1846 Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each...2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10453 - Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). 721.10453 Section 721...Substances § 721.10453 Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as polyglycerin alkyl ether (PMN P-02-796) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10596 - Oligomeric phenolic ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Oligomeric phenolic ether (generic). 721.10596 Section 721...Substances § 721.10596 Oligomeric phenolic ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as oligomeric phenolic ether (PMN P-11-234) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). ...chemical substances identified generically as ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721.10385 Section 721...Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN P-10-344) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. 721.3440 Section 721.3440 ...3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. 520.1846 Section 520.1846...1846 Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each...2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). 721.3438 Section 721...721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). 721.3438 Section 721...721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10596 - Oligomeric phenolic ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Oligomeric phenolic ether (generic). 721.10596 Section 721...Substances § 721.10596 Oligomeric phenolic ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as oligomeric phenolic ether (PMN P-11-234) is subject to...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. 520.1846 Section 520.1846...1846 Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each...2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). 721.3438 Section 721...721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520 Section 721.3520 ...§ 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10453 - Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). 721.10453 Section 721...Substances § 721.10453 Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as polyglycerin alkyl ether (PMN P-02-796) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721.10385 Section 721...Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN P-10-344) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). 721.3438 Section 721...721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721.3485 Section 721.3485 ...§ 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether (PMN P-95-1578) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. 721.3480 Section 721.3480 ...3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers (PMNs P-90-1844,...

  13. 40 CFR 799.4440 - Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... true Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. 799.4440 Section 799.4440 ...4440 Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. (a) Identification of test substance. (1) Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME, CAS No. 112-35-6)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520 Section 721.3520 ...§ 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. 721.3440 Section 721.3440 ...3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  16. Composition-explicit distillation curves of diesel fuel with glycol ether and glycol ester oxygenates: fuel analysis metrology to enable decreased particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Beverly L; Ott, Lisa S; Bruno, Thomas J

    2008-10-15

    We recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves of complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis), (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points that can be modeled with an equation of state, (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for equation of state development, (4) consistency with a century of historical data, (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction, (6) trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction, and (7) corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasolines, jet fuels, and hydrocarbon crude oils. In this paper we presentthe application of the technique to representative diesel fuel and mixtures of diesel fuel with some of the more promising oxygenating agents; namely, the glycol ethers and glycol esters: tri(propylene glycol) methyl ether (TPM), dibutyl maleate (DBM), and an 80/ 20 (vol/vol) mixture of diethylene glycol methyl ether (DGME) + 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) a mixture often referred to as Cetaner. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction, and discuss the contrasts between the various mixtures. The measurements are significant as an environmental design tool for decreased particulate emissions. PMID:18983093

  17. Design of EtherCAT slave module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cunfeng Kang; Yan Pang; Chunmin Ma; Chenmei Li

    2011-01-01

    EtherCAT real-time Ethernet technology that proposed by Beckhoff Company, is now widely used in industrial automation and motion control fields. In this paper, slave module design based on EtherCAT fieldbus is carried out from the view of the theoretical study and product application as well.

  18. Covariant Ether Theories and Special Relativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Kholmetskii

    2003-01-01

    The present paper defines “covariant ether theories” as all space-time theories that are alternative to special relativity theory (SRT), but nevertheless satisfy the general relativity principle. A general analysis of the properties of admissible space-time transformations shows that the number of such “covariant ether theories” is infinite, and that all these theories are indistinguishable from SRT with all experiments in

  19. Polymeric Electrolyte Containing 12-Crown-4 Ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesa; Distefano, Salvador

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show incorporation of 12-crown-4 ether into solid electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide enhances their electrochemical properties. More specifically, 12-crown-4 ether increases Faradaic efficiency for Li+ ions in low-power secondary Li cells and enables operation of these cells at lower temperatures with higher efficiencies.

  20. Polyamideimides Containing Carbonyl And Ether Linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    Polyamideimides of new class contain carbonyl and ether connecting groups. New polyamideimides more easily processable, stronger in tension, and more resistant to solvents (including water) than conventional polyamideimides. Improvements in mechanical and chemical properties attributable to semicrystallinity introduced into otherwise amorphous polymers by incorporation of carbonyl and ether linkages.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates...721.10352 Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates...generically as dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted...

  2. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide: Krill grazing

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, K.L.; DiTullio, G.R. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a dominant sulfur compound in sea water, is a possible precursor for cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere and may influence global climate. The primary source of DMS is phytoplankton, but the mechanisms remain uncertain, and concentrations of DMS in the ocean vary spatially and temporally. Laboratory studies suggest zooplankton grazing may be an important process leading to the formation of DMS in the ocean. This paper describes ocean studies which examine the suggestion that grazing by krill may be a significant source for DMS production in the antarctic coastal region. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Dimethyl fumarate protection against collagen II degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Tang, Jie; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-14

    Degradation of collagen type II caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is one of the major pathological characteristics of osteoarthritis (OA). Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an oral multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy. In this study, we found that DMF ameliorated collagen type II degradation by inhibiting the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 caused by TNF-?. Mechanistically, DMF attenuated MMPs expression by suppressing JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings imply that DMF treatment might be a potential therapeutic strategy for chondroprotective therapy. PMID:25305493

  5. THE EFFECT OF DIMETHYL SULPHOXIDE ON HEPATIC CELLS OF RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KB Shilkin; JM Papadimitriou; MN-I Walters

    1966-01-01

    The dipolar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulphoxide, although generally used in biology to preserve cells, is shown to be capable of producing morphological changes in hepatocytcs of the rat. These changes have features similar to those caused by other hepatotoxins. The damage due to dimethyl sulphoxide is not prevented by compounds stabilizing the cell membrane. The substance probably exerts its effect

  6. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Taraboletti, Alexandra; Shriver, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:25967672

  7. Title :THEORY OF ETHER-ERRATUM October 2011

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Title :THEORY OF ETHER-ERRATUM Date :4th October 2011 Author:Thierry DELORT Email:tdelort@yahoo.fr Abstract: In 7 articles (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) , we exposed a very general Theory of Ether, including: Theory of Ether 1.INTRODUCTION In 7 articles (1) to (7) , we have exposed a very general Theory of Ether

  8. T(ether) is a sp collaborative m

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Dávid Lak 1 T {dlakatos ABSTRACT T(ether) is a sp collaborative m objects. The ha reality, providin T(ether is held by t ACM 978-1-4503-282 http://dx.doi.org/10.1 ether): S oceptio katos1 , Matth Tangible Med Camb manipulati ether) is a syste b) Gestural inte e. (c) The UI pr ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ stitute

  9. Crystallization kinetics of poly(arylene ether ether sulfides): Dual spherulitic morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, S.; Wilkes, G.L.; Babu, J.R. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the crystallization studies on a series of novel poly(arylene ether ether sulfides) developed at VPI. Preliminary growth rate investigations have been carried out on these novel poly(arylene ether ether sulfide) polymers as a function of molecular weight. During the course of these investigations, two distinct populations of spherulites were observed at all temperatures. These spherulites referred to as Type I and Type II spherulites exhibited very different morphologies and distinctly different growth rates. Preliminary investigations show that the different spherulites could be the result of pre shearing the sample prior to crystallization. Detailed morphological results on the dual spherulitic morphology and growth rate studies on the poly(ether ether sulfides) will be reported at the presentation.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(phthalazinone Ether Nitrile) Copolymers with Hydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L. M.; Liao, G. X.; Liu, C.; Yang, S. S.; Jian, X. G.

    Poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile) (PPEN) block copolymers containing polysiloxane were prepared so as to create a strongly hydrophobic polymer surface. The copolymers were synthesized from eugenol end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fluoro-terminated PPEN oligomers by the aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensation in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide/o-dichlorobenzene and K2CO3 as solvents and catalyst, respectively. The resultant copolymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. XPS analysis results indicated that the copolymer film had a very rich PDMS segment surface. Atomic force microscopy further showed that there existed a continuous PDMS phase on the copolymer surface and PPEN as the dispersive particles was dispersed at diameters between 0.1 and 0.3 nm. The enrichment of PDMS in the copolymer surface could be responsible for an increase of surface water repellency (113.4°).

  11. Imide/arylene ether copolymers. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a series of novel imide/arylene ether copolymers is described together with the results of viscosity and DSC Tg(Tm) measurements. The copolymers were synthesized from an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semicrystalline imide block. One block copolymer was end-capped, and the molecular weight was controlled to improve compression moldability. The paper also presents results of mechanical properties tests on copolymer samples.

  12. Phenylethynl-terminated poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) are prepared in a wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratio and adding an appropriate amount of 4-fluoro- 4'-phenylethynyl benzophenone during polymer synthesis. The resulting phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) react and crosslink upon curing for one hour at 350 C to provide materials with improved solvent resistance, higher modulus, and better high temperature properties than the linear, uncrosslinked polymers.

  13. Skin absorption in vitro of glycol ethers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Larese Filon; A. Fiorito; G. Adami; P. Barbieri; N. Coceani; R. Bussani; E. Reisenhofer

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: The increased use of glycol ethers (GEs) for water-based paints and cleaning products, combined with a lack of information\\u000a about many of these products, particularly with regard to the effects of percutaneous exposure, led us to evaluate the skin\\u000a absorption rates of a group of glycol ethers in vitro. Methods: Skin permeation was calculated using the Franz cell method

  14. Reaction of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with 4-Acyloxycoumarins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tabassum Ara; Khaliquz Zaman Khan; Khalida Tasneem

    2009-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide converts 4-acetoxycoumarin (1) exclusively to 2-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-2-[(methylthio)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-4 H-furo[3,2-c]chromen-4-one (3) at 180°C under a nitrogen atmosphere, but in the absence of nitrogen, the products obtained are dicoumarol and its dehydrative cyclization products 7 H-bis[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b: 3?,4?-c]pyran-6,8-dione (9) and (3). Under similar conditions, 4-benzoyloxycoumarin (1a) affords benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-({2-[(methylthio)methyl]-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl}methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (7), and 3-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H,5H-pyrano[2,3-b] chromen-5-one (8).

  15. 40 CFR 721.10518 - Diethylene glycol, polymer with diisocyanatoalkane, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether- and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...diisocyanatoalkane, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether- and fluorinatedalkanol-blocked (generic...diisocyanatoalkane, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether- and fluorinatedalkanol-blocked (generic...diisocyanatoalkane, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether- and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl...Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl...reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl...

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide: history, chemistry, and clinical utility in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Capriotti, Joseph A

    2012-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid derived as a by-product from wood pulp in the production of paper. This colorless liquid found immediate application as a polar, aprotic solvent miscible with water and able to dissolve an enormous catalog of polar and nonpolar small molecules. It is presently scarcely used in dermatology, but given its useful properties as a penetration-enhancing solvent excipient and active anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide has the potential to be used in a much broader capacity. The authors review the history, chemistry, and clinical utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as it pertains to dermatology. PMID:23050031

  18. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol monomethyl ether: metabolism, disposition, and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Miller; E. A. Hermann; J. T. Young; T. D. Landry; L. L. Calhoun

    1984-01-01

    Short-term and subchronic vapor inhalation studies have shown that there are pronounced differences in the toxicological properties of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME). Overexposure to EGME has resulted in adverse effects on testes, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues in laboratory animals. PGME does not affect these tissues, and instead, overexposure to PGME has been

  19. Risk Factors for Retinopathy and DME in Type 2 Diabetes-Results from the German/Austrian DPV Database.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Hans-Peter; Welp, Reinhard; Kempe, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Christian; Siegel, Erhard; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for early and severe diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes Retinopathy grading (any retinopathy, severe retinopathy, diabetic macular edema) and risk factors of 64784 were prospectively recorded between January 2000 and March 2013 and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression. Retinopathy was present in 20.12% of subjects, maculopathy was found in 0.77%. HbA1c > 8%, microalbuminuria, hypertension, BMI > 35 kg/m2 and male sex were significantly associated with any retinopathy, while HbA1c and micro- and macroalbuminuria were the strongest risk predictors for severe retinopathy. Presence of macroalbuminuria increased the risk for DME by 177%. Retinopathy remains a significant clinical problem in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic control and blood pressure are relevant factors amenable to treatment. Concomitant kidney disease identifies high risk patients and should be emphasized in interdisciplinary communication. PMID:26177037

  20. Risk Factors for Retinopathy and DME in Type 2 Diabetes—Results from the German/Austrian DPV Database

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Hans-Peter; Welp, Reinhard; Kempe, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Christian; Siegel, Erhard; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for early and severe diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes Retinopathy grading (any retinopathy, severe retinopathy, diabetic macular edema) and risk factors of 64784 were prospectively recorded between January 2000 and March 2013 and analyzed by Kaplan–Meier analysis and logistic regression. Retinopathy was present in 20.12% of subjects, maculopathy was found in 0.77%. HbA1c > 8%, microalbuminuria, hypertension, BMI > 35 kg/m2 and male sex were significantly associated with any retinopathy, while HbA1c and micro- and macroalbuminuria were the strongest risk predictors for severe retinopathy. Presence of macroalbuminuria increased the risk for DME by 177%. Retinopathy remains a significant clinical problem in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic control and blood pressure are relevant factors amenable to treatment. Concomitant kidney disease identifies high risk patients and should be emphasized in interdisciplinary communication. PMID:26177037

  1. Rigid-strut-containing crown ethers and [2]catenanes for incorporation into metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenyu; Sue, Chi-Hau; Li, Qiaowei; Miljani?, Ognjen S; Yaghi, Omar M; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2009-12-14

    To introduce crown ethers into the struts of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), general approaches have been developed for the syntheses of dicarboxylic acid dibenzo[30]crown-10 (DB30C10DA), dicarboxylic acid di-2,3-naphtho[30]crown-10 (DN30C10DA), dicarboxylic acid bisparaphenylene[34]crown-10 (BPP34C10DA), and dicarboxylic acid 1,5-naphthoparaphenylene[36]crown-10 (NPP36C10DA). These novel crown ethers not only retain the characteristics of their parent crown ethers since they can 1) bind cationic guests and 2) serve as templates for making mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), such as catenanes and rotaxanes, but they also present coordination sites to connect with secondary building units (SBUs) in MOFs. The binding behavior of BPP34C10DA with 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium bis(hexafluorophosphate) (DMBP2.PF(6)) has been investigated by means of UV/Vis, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The crystal superstructure of the complex DMBP2.PF(6) subset BPP34C10DA was determined by X-ray crystallography. The NPP36C10DA-based [2]catenane (H(2)NPP36C10DC-CAT4.PF(6)) and the BPP34C10DA-based [2]catenane (H(2)BPP34C10DC-CAT4.PF(6)) were prepared in DMF at room temperature by the template-directed clipping reactions of the planarly chiral NPP36C10DA and BPP34C10DA with 1,1'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]di-4,4'-bipyridin-1-ium bis(hexafluorophosphate) and 1,4-bis(bromomethyl)benzene, respectively. The crystal structure of the dimethyl ester (BPP34C10DE-CAT4.PF(6)) of the [2]catenane H(2)BPP34C10DC-CAT4.PF(6) was investigated by X-ray crystallography, which revealed racemic R and S isomers with planar chirality present in the crystal in a 1:1 ratio. These crown ether based struts serve as excellent organic ligands to bind with transition metal ions in the construction of MOFs: the crown ethers BPP34C10DA and NPP36C10DA in the presence of Zn(NO(3))(2)4.H(2)O afforded the MOF-1001 and MOF-1002 frameworks, respectively. The crystal structures of MOF-1001 and MOF-1002 are both cubic and display Fm3m symmetry. The unit cell parameter of the metal-organic frameworks is a=52.9345 A. Since such MOFs, containing electron-donating crown ethers are capable of docking incoming electron-accepting substrates in a stereoelectronically controlled fashion, the present work opens a new access to the preparation and application of MOFs. PMID:19946906

  2. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  3. Extended Fizeau experiment and the ether

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, Iver [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    In view of the current interest in constructing ether-like models, a simple analysis is given of how the description of the classic Fizeau experiment becomes modified if the moving dielectric is surrounded by a nonviscous fluid, the ether, having dielectric constant N. For analytic tractability we introduce an explicit model in which the change in fluid velocity is slow for an optical wave traveling from the resting ether into the moving medium. We show how the Einstein addition formula for velocities is not modified at all. What is changed, however, is the expression for the wave frequency in the rest inertial frame of the medium. This change is in principle measurable. Worth noticing is the close resemblance between this kind of theory and the covariant electrodynamics for a medium in uniform rectilinear motion. This point is elaborated upon by comparing with the Lorentz-violating electrodynamics studied by Kostelecky and collaborators in several recent papers.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. 520.1846 Section 520.1846 Food...1846 Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent...

  5. RFDump: An Architecture for Monitoring the Wireless Ether

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    RFDump: An Architecture for Monitoring the Wireless Ether Kaushik Lakshminarayanan, Samir Sapra-1-60558-636-6/09/12 ...$10.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Tcpdump, Wireshark/Ethereal and similar applications have become a critical

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  7. 37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 521 (ETHER VAULT) IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1106 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1106 Section 1926.1106 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  9. Ethereal Lab: Getting Started Version: 1.0

    E-print Network

    Zou, Cliff C.

    Ethereal Lab: Getting Started Version: 1.0 © 2005 J.F. Kurose, K.W. Ross. All Rights Reserved such as the Internet. The Java applets that accompany this text take the first approach. In these Ethereal labs, we

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1106 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1106 Section 1926.1106 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721.825 Section 721.825 Protection of Environment...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1106 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1106 Section 1926.1106 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1106 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1106 Section 1926.1106 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  15. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721.825 Section 721.825 Protection of Environment...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1108 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1108 Section 1926.1108 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1108 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1108 Section 1926.1108 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1108 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1108 Section 1926.1108 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1108 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1108 Section 1926.1108 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  1. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721.825 Section 721.825 Protection of Environment...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  2. 41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, (RIGHT) IN FOREGROUND - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  3. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721.825 Section 721.825 Protection of Environment...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  5. Radical Arylation of Phenols, Phenyl ethers, Furans und Phenylamines

    E-print Network

    Radical Arylation of Phenols, Phenyl ethers, Furans und Phenylamines Technology offer TUM 2008-09E- and hydroxybiphenyls. The radical arylation can be used for the functionaliza- tion of phenols, anilines, phenyl ethers

  6. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721.825 Section 721.825 Protection of Environment...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1106 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1106 Section 1926.1106 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1915.1006 Section 1915.1006 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1910.1006 Section 1910.1006 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1108 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1108 Section 1926.1108 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  11. General Ether Theory and Graviton Mass

    E-print Network

    Ilja Schmelzer

    2009-12-08

    We introduce additional restriction into "general ether theory" - a generalization of Lorentz ether theory to gravity - which fixes the signs of the cosmological constants in this theory. This leads to an oscillating universe, thus, solves the cosmological horizon problem without inflation. We prove the equivalence of the Lagrangian of this theory with Logunov's "relativistic theory of gravity" with massive graviton and a variant of GR with four non-standard scalar fields and negative cosmological constant. We consider the remaining differences between these theories.

  12. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor); Bass, Robert G. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  13. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  14. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Qing-Tao [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  15. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  16. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions from biomass burning in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2003-05-01

    We identify dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the major reduced sulfur-containing gas emitted from bushfires in Australia's Northern Territory. Like dimethyl sulfide (DMS), DMDS is oxidized in the atmosphere to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), which are intermediates in the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The mixing ratios of DMDS and DMS were the highest we have ever detected, with maximum values of 113 and 35 ppbv, respectively, whereas background values were below the detection limit (10 pptv). Molar emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were [1.6 +/- 0.1] × 10-5 and [6.2 +/- 0.3] × 10-6, for DMDS and DMS respectively, while molar emission ratios relative to carbon dioxide (CO2) were [4.7 +/- 0.4] × 10-6 and [1.4 +/- 0.4] × 10-7, respectively. Assuming these observations are representative of biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning could yield up to 175 Gg/yr of DMDS (119 Gg S/yr) and 13 Gg/yr of DMS.

  17. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420 Section 721.3420 ...Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906) is subject to...

  18. New Silyl Ether Reagents for the Absolute Stereochemical Determination

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    New Silyl Ether Reagents for the Absolute Stereochemical Determination of Secondary Alcohols R set of silyl ether reagents for determining the enantiomeric purity and absolute stereochemistry ether group allows for simple derivitiza- tion6 and convenient recovery of the original chiral compound

  19. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420 Section 721.3420 ...Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). 721.10669 Section 721... § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as tertiary amine alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section 721.3500 ...Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465 Section 721.3465 ...Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section 721.3500 ...Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227) is subject to...

  4. 39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, AND BUILDING NO. 519-A, ETHER & ALOCOHL STORAGE TANKS, IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section 721.3500 ...Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227) is subject to...

  6. On New Physical Reality (on Psi--ether)

    E-print Network

    P. S. Isaev

    2001-11-09

    It is shown that there exists a new physical reality -- the $\\Psi$--ether. All the achievements of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are due to the fact that both the theories include the influence of $\\Psi$--ether on the physical processes occurring in the Universe. Physics of the XXth century was first of all the physics of $\\Psi$--ether.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420 Section 721.3420 ...Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. Link to an amendment published at...identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section 721.3500 ...Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465 Section 721.3465 ...Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465 Section 721.3465 ...Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465 Section 721.3465 ...Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420 Section 721.3420 ...Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430 Section 721.3430...Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and...The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430 Section 721.3430...Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and...The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430 Section 721.3430...Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and...The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430 Section 721.3430...Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and...The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430 Section 721.3430...Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and...The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3)...

  18. THERMODYNAMICS OF THE SYSTEMS HNOâ-HâO-ETHERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Glueckauf; B. Davies

    1956-01-01

    In the ternary system HNOâ-HâO-Ether a great number of ; interactions between the components can be detected from an analysis of the ; activity and heat-ofmixing data. Solubility of HâO in ethers alone at low ; concentrations of water is an endothermic process, but for ethers which can take ; up much water there is a cooperative effect between the

  19. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465 Section 721.3465 ...Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420 Section 721.3420 ...Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section 721.3500 ...Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227) is subject to...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42...Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks shall...taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong oxidizing agents. (h)...

  3. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  4. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  5. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized...4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized...4-benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol,...

  6. Cure kinetics and morphology of blends of epoxy resin with poly (ether ether ketone) containing pendant tertiary butyl groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bejoy Francis; Geert Vanden Poel; Fabrice Posada; Gabriel Groeninckx; V. Lakshmana Rao; R. Ramaswamy; Sabu Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The cure kinetics and morphology of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin modified with a poly (ether ether ketone) based on tertiary butyl hydroquinone (PEEK-T) cured with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results obtained from DSC were applied to autocatalytic and diffusion

  7. Ether- and Ester-Bound iso-Diabolic Acid and Other Lipids in Members of Acidobacteria Subdivision 4

    PubMed Central

    Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers that occur ubiquitously in peat, soil, lakes, and hot springs. Here, we examined the lipid composition of seven phylogenetically divergent strains of subdivision 4 of the Acidobacteria, a bacterial group that is commonly encountered in soil. Acid hydrolysis of total cell material released iso-diabolic acid derivatives in substantial quantities (11 to 48% of all fatty acids). In contrast to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, 6 out of the 7 species of subdivision 4 (excepting “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum”) contained iso-diabolic acid ether bound to a glycerol in larger fractional abundance than iso-diabolic acid itself. This is in agreement with the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), which showed the dominance of mixed ether-ester glycerides. iso-Diabolic acid-containing IPLs were not identified, because these IPLs are not released with a Bligh-Dyer extraction, as observed before when studying lipid compositions of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria. The presence of ether bonds in the membrane lipids does not seem to be an adaptation to temperature, because the five mesophilic isolates contained a larger amount of ether lipids than the thermophile “Ca. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum.” Furthermore, experiments with Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes did not reveal a major influence of growth temperature over the 50 to 69°C range. PMID:24928878

  8. Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone)Based Composite Proton-Exchange Membrane for Energy Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Seetharaman; G. Sozhan; S. Ravichandran; S. Vasudevan; J. Davidson

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of a proton-conducting membrane from Sulponated Poly Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK), tungsto phosphoric acid (TPA), and inorganic fillers such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared and the electrochemical and mechanical properties were investigated with regards to its application in energy production. The role of tungsto phosphoric acid is to minimize water

  9. Low equivalent weight Friedel-Crafts cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen L. N. H. Rhoden; Clovis A. Linkous; Nahid Mohajeri; Diego J. Díaz; Paul Brooker; Darlene K. Slattery; James M. Fenton

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) was sulfonated by electrophillic aromatic substitution to produce a highly water soluble polymer. With an equivalent weight (EW) of 381g\\/eq, the polymer is capable of a proton conductivity of 0.2S\\/cm at 80°C and 100% relative humidity (RH). High proton conductivity in polymer electrolyte membranes is a key factor for optimum hydrogen fuel cell performance. Under testing

  10. Synthesis and characterization of new poly(arylene ether)s based on dihydroxynaphthalene isomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Bottino; G. Di Pasquale; N. Leonardi; A. Pollicino

    1998-01-01

    A series of new poly(arylene ether ketone)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, obtained starting from dihydroxynaphthalene isomers, have been prepared by solution condensation polymerization. The polymers, having inherent viscosities from 0.20 to 0.77 dl g?1, have been obtained in quantitative yields, had excellent thermal stability as shown by 10% weight loss temperatures in nitrogen and air (above 460 and 430°C, respectively)

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Rahman; Katherine H Langford; Mark D Scrimshaw; John N Lester

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether, PBDE, flame retardants are now a world-wide pollution problem reaching even remote areas. They have been found to bioaccumulate and there are concerns over the health effects of exposure to PBDEs, they also have potential endocrine disrupting properties. They are lipophilic compounds so are easily removed from the aqueous environment and are predicted to sorb onto sediments

  12. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V. [Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, California 92834 (United States); Troy High School, 2200 Dorothy Lane, Fullerton, California 92831 (United States); A. A. Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  13. Aerobic Biotransformation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    E-print Network

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities release of bromide during PBDE transformation. Introduction Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs.5 ng/L in water and 212 µg/kg dry weight in aquatic sediments (5). In 2000, PBDE con- centrations

  14. Redundant and synchronized EtherCAT network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Prytz; Jonny Skaalvik

    2010-01-01

    Communication redundancy and time synchronization are two important requirements commonly found in industrial systems. However, achieving high redundancy performance in combination with highly accurate time synchronization at all times is a challenging task. EtherCAT is a high performance, functionality rich communication technology offering both advanced redundancy features and accurate time synchronization. This paper will describe a robust solution where an

  15. Topology aspects in EtherCAT networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mladen Knezic; Branko Dokic; Zeljko Ivanovic

    2010-01-01

    Fieldbus networks based on Ethernet become an inevitable part of factory automation systems. The number of installed nodes has increased over the last few years. Therefore, efficient network planning sets new challenges for today's engineers. This paper shows major aspects of topology planning in industrial networks based on EtherCAT protocol.

  16. Nonequivalence of ether theories and special relativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Spavieri

    1986-01-01

    The role played by clock synchronization procedures for coordinate transformations which account for time dilation and length contraction is discussed. Special relativity is here compared with the ether theory based on the Tangherlini transformations. These transformations are shown to be theoretically distinguishable from the Lorentz ones by means of an internal synchronization procedure which makes use of rods kept in

  17. Polyimides Containing Carbonyl And Ether Connecting Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    Polyimides of new class made from chemical reactions of aromatic dianhydrides with novel aromatic diamines in which carbonyl and ether groups connect aromatic rings. New polyimides melt-processable, strong, resistant to impacts, and resistant to solvents and other chemicals. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices.

  18. Polyimides Containing Carbonyl and Ether Connecting Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Semicrystallinity gives rise to tough, solvent-resistant polymers. New polyimides prepared from reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with new diamines containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings. Damines prepared from reaction of 4-aminophenol with activated aromatic difluoro compounds in presence of potassium carbonate. These types of polymers have potential applications in molded products, films, adhesives, and composites.

  19. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  20. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  1. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  2. Towards oil independence through renewable methanol chemistry.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of CO(2) into methanol, dimethyl ether (DME), and derived fuels and materials is a feasible approach to address our carbon conundrum. It would free humankind from its dependence on fossil fuel while at the same time help mitigate the problems associated with excessive CO(2) emission. The energy needed for this carbon cycle can come from renewable sources (hydro, solar, wind) as well as atomic energy. PMID:23208664

  3. Ignition control of methane fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engines using additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed H. Morsy

    2007-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. In this paper, the effect of additives such as dimethyl ether (DME), formaldehyde (CH2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the control of ignition in natural-gas HCCI engines have been investigated numerically by

  4. A new facile method to synthesize mesoporous ?-Al 2O 3 of high surface area and catalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranay P. Morajkar; Julio B. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation describes a new method to prepare a high surface area mesoporous ?-Al2O3 by controlled calcination of Al (III) nitrate with urea. The alumina catalyst thus obtained is characterized by XRD, adsorption–desorption isotherms and acidity measurements. The catalytic activity is evaluated for dehydration of methanol to form dimethyl ether. It showed high conversion and 100% selectivity to DME

  5. Kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol over a Fe-Mo catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. R. K. Deshmukh; M. van Sint Annaland; J. A. M. Kuipers

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic steady-state kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over a commercial Fe-Mo catalyst has been studied experimentally in a differentially operated reactor at temperatures of 230–260°C, over a wide range of methanol and oxygen concentrations. The principal products found were formaldehyde, water, dimethyl ether (DME) and dimethoxymethane (DMM). The kinetics of the formaldehyde formation from methanol

  6. Certain glycol ethers eliminated from toxic chemical release reporting requirements

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Effective June 28, 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) eliminated high molecular weight glycol ethers from the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA). EPCRA (42 U.S.C. 11023) is also referred to as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. EPA redefined the glycol ethers category list of chemicals subject to reporting based on an EPA review of available human health data on short-chain glycol ethers. EPA is removing only the surfactant glycol ethers, which are high molecular weight glycol ethers, i.e., those with pendant alkyl groups and that typically have eight or more carbon atoms. The redefinition retains certain glycol ethers (i.e., ethylene glycol ethers where there are 1,2, or 3 repeating ethylene oxide groups) in the category. These are reasonably anticipated to cause adverse human health effects.

  7. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.981d Section 524.981d ...Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent...

  8. Time-resolved Properties and Global Trends in dMe Flares from Simultaneous Photometry and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Wisniewski, John P.; Osten, Rachel A.; Hilton, Eric J.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Davenport, James R. A.

    2013-07-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of line and continuum emission from simultaneous high-cadence spectra and photometry covering near-ultraviolet and optical wavelengths for 20 M dwarf flares. These data were obtained to study the white-light continuum components at bluer and redder wavelengths than the Balmer jump. Our goals were to break the degeneracy between emission mechanisms that have been fit to broadband colors of flares and to provide constraints for radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models that seek to reproduce the white-light flare emission. The main results from the analysis are the following: (1) the detection of Balmer continuum (in emission) that is present during all flares and with a wide range of relative contributions to the continuum flux at bluer wavelengths than the Balmer jump; (2) a blue continuum at flare maximum that is linearly decreasing with wavelength from ? = 4000-4800 Å, indicative of hot, blackbody emission with typical temperatures of T BB ~ 9000-14, 000 K (3) a redder continuum apparent at wavelengths longer than H? (? >~ 4900 Å) which becomes relatively more important to the energy budget during the late gradual phase. The hot blackbody component and redder continuum component have been detected in previous studies of flares. However, we have found that although the hot blackbody emission component is relatively well-represented by a featureless, single-temperature Planck function, this component includes absorption features and has a continuum shape strikingly similar to the spectrum of an A-type star as directly observed in our flare spectra. New model constraints are presented for the time evolution among the hydrogen Balmer lines and between Ca II K and the blackbody continuum emission. We calculate Balmer jump flux ratios and compare to the solar-type flare heating predictions from RHD models. The model ratios are too large and the blue-optical (? = 4000-4800 Å) slopes are too red in both the impulsive and gradual decay phases of all 20 flares. This discrepancy implies that further work is needed to understand the heating at high column mass during dMe flares. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  9. TIME-RESOLVED PROPERTIES AND GLOBAL TRENDS IN dMe FLARES FROM SIMULTANEOUS PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W. Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hilton, Eric J. [Universe Sandbox, Seattle, WA (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Schmidt, Sarah J., E-mail: adam.f.kowalski@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We present a homogeneous analysis of line and continuum emission from simultaneous high-cadence spectra and photometry covering near-ultraviolet and optical wavelengths for 20 M dwarf flares. These data were obtained to study the white-light continuum components at bluer and redder wavelengths than the Balmer jump. Our goals were to break the degeneracy between emission mechanisms that have been fit to broadband colors of flares and to provide constraints for radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models that seek to reproduce the white-light flare emission. The main results from the analysis are the following: (1) the detection of Balmer continuum (in emission) that is present during all flares and with a wide range of relative contributions to the continuum flux at bluer wavelengths than the Balmer jump; (2) a blue continuum at flare maximum that is linearly decreasing with wavelength from {lambda} = 4000-4800 A, indicative of hot, blackbody emission with typical temperatures of T{sub BB} {approx} 9000-14, 000 K; (3) a redder continuum apparent at wavelengths longer than H{beta} ({lambda} {approx}> 4900 A) which becomes relatively more important to the energy budget during the late gradual phase. The hot blackbody component and redder continuum component have been detected in previous studies of flares. However, we have found that although the hot blackbody emission component is relatively well-represented by a featureless, single-temperature Planck function, this component includes absorption features and has a continuum shape strikingly similar to the spectrum of an A-type star as directly observed in our flare spectra. New model constraints are presented for the time evolution among the hydrogen Balmer lines and between Ca II K and the blackbody continuum emission. We calculate Balmer jump flux ratios and compare to the solar-type flare heating predictions from RHD models. The model ratios are too large and the blue-optical ({lambda} = 4000-4800 A) slopes are too red in both the impulsive and gradual decay phases of all 20 flares. This discrepancy implies that further work is needed to understand the heating at high column mass during dMe flares.

  10. Novel blue-emitting carboxyl-functionalized poly(arylene ether nitrile)s with excellent thermal

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Novel blue-emitting carboxyl-functionalized poly(arylene ether nitrile)s with excellent thermal*b A series of novel carboxyl-functionalized poly(arylene ether nitrile)s (CPAENs) were synthesized via(arylene ether)s such as poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, poly(arylene ether ketone)s, poly(arylene ether nitrile

  11. Biocompatibility and Reduced Drug Absorption of Sol-Gel-Treated Poly(dimethyl siloxane) for

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Biocompatibility and Reduced Drug Absorption of Sol-Gel-Treated Poly(dimethyl siloxane Francisco, California 94143, United States Poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic de- vices(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) is a popular material for making microfluidic devices. This widespread utility stems from

  12. 40 CFR 721.10587 - 1H-Pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1H-Pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl-. 721.10587...Chemical Substances § 721.10587 1H-Pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 1H-pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl- (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10587 - 1H-Pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1H-Pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl-. 721.10587...Chemical Substances § 721.10587 1H-Pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 1H-pyrazole, 3,4-dimethyl- (PMN...

  14. Trichlorido(4,4?-dimethyl-2,2?-bipyridine-?2 N,N?)(dimethyl sulfoxide-?O)indium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Roya; Kalateh, Khadijeh; Abedi, Anita; Amani, Vahid; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, [InCl3(C12H12N2)(C2H6OS)], the InIII atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral configuration by two N atoms from the chelating 4,4?-dimethyl-2,2?-bipyridine ligand, one O atom from dimethyl sulfoxide and three Cl atoms. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. PMID:21201045

  15. A speech for the luminiferous ether

    E-print Network

    Norbert Feist

    2001-04-20

    There is no aberration of terrestrial sources, because the light-vector has an inertial component. A new analysis of the Michelson Morley experiment shows: Light propagates anisotropically relative to a moving system, dependent on the velocity and the angle between the velocity and the direction of motion. The two way (back and forth) velocity is isotropic, but also dependent on the velocity of the frame. There is no Lorentz contraction. - A real ultrasonic experiment shows: Also the propagation of sound follows the given general conical section equation and an acoustical Michelson Morley experiment gives the same zero result as the optical experiment in contrast to the school of thought. - The theory of relativity is incorrect and the existence of a luminiferous ether as a propagation medium and an absolute frame of reference is again obvious. Some properties of the ether and a fundamental cause of the dependency of the velocity on the mass and the frequency are presented.

  16. The "Ether-world" and Elementary Particles

    E-print Network

    F. Jegerlehner

    1998-03-03

    We discuss a scenario of ``the path to physics at the Planck scale'' where todays theory of the interactions of elementary particles, the so called Standard Model (SM), emerges as a low energy effective theory describing the long distance properties of a sub--observable medium existing at the Planck scale, which we call ``ether''. Properties of the ether can only be observable to the extent that they are relevant to characterize the universality class of the totality of systems which exhibit identical low energy behavior. In such a picture the SM must be embedded into a ``Gaussian extended SM'' (GESM), a quantum field theory (QFT) which includes the SM but is extended in such a way that it exhibits a quasi infrared (IR) stable fixed point in all its couplings. Some phenomenological consequences of such a scenario are discussed.

  17. Vacuum structure and ether-drift experiments

    E-print Network

    Consoli, M

    2009-01-01

    In the data of the ether-drift experiments there might be sizable fluctuations superposed on the smooth sinusoidal modulations due to the Earth's rotation and orbital revolution. These fluctuations might reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying "quantum ether" and produce vanishing averages for all vectorial quantities extracted from a naive Fourier analysis of the data. By comparing the typical stability limits of the individual optical resonators with the amplitude of their relative frequency shift, the presently observed signal, rather than being spurious experimental noise, might also express fundamental properties of a physical vacuum similar to a superfluid in a turbulent state of motion. In this sense, the situation might be similar to the discovery of the CMBR that was first interpreted as mere instrumental noise.

  18. Vacuum structure and ether-drift experiments

    E-print Network

    M. Consoli; L. Pappalardo

    2009-05-12

    In the data of the ether-drift experiments there might be sizable fluctuations superposed on the smooth sinusoidal modulations due to the Earth's rotation and orbital revolution. These fluctuations might reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying "quantum ether" and produce vanishing averages for all vectorial quantities extracted from a naive Fourier analysis of the data. By comparing the typical stability limits of the individual optical resonators with the amplitude of their relative frequency shift, the presently observed signal, rather than being spurious experimental noise, might also express fundamental properties of a physical vacuum similar to a superfluid in a turbulent state of motion. In this sense, the situation might be similar to the discovery of the CMBR that was first interpreted as mere instrumental noise.

  19. Emergent gravity and ether-drift experiments

    E-print Network

    Consoli, M

    2009-01-01

    In principle, ether-drift experiments could distinguish phenomenologically emergent-gravity approaches, where an effective curvature emerges from hydrodynamic distortions of the same physical, flat-space vacuum, from the more conventional scenario where curvature is considered a fundamental property of space-time down to extremely small length scales and the speed of light represents a universal constant. From an experimental point of view, in this particular context, besides time modulations that might be induced by the Earth's rotation (and its orbital revolution), one should also consider the possibility of random fluctuations of the signal. These might reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying 'quantum ether' and be erroneously interpreted as mere instrumental noise. To test the present interpretation, we have extracted the mean amplitude of the signal from various experiments with different systematics, operating both at room temperature and in the cryogenic regime. They all give the same consisten...

  20. Synthesis and utility of fluorogenic acetoxymethyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Lavis, Luke D; Chao, Tzu-Yuan; Raines, Ronald T

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic fluorophores such as fluorescein, Tokyo Green, resorufin, and their derivatives are workhorses of biological science. Acylating the phenolic hydroxyl group(s) in these fluorophores masks their fluorescence. The ensuing ester is a substrate for cellular esterases, which can restore fluorescence. These esters are, however, notoriously unstable to hydrolysis, severely compromising their utility. The acetoxymethyl (AM) group is an esterase-sensitive motif that can mask polar functionalities in small molecules. Here, we report on the use of AM ether groups to mask phenolic fluorophores. The resulting profluorophores have a desirable combination of low background fluorescence, high chemical stability, and high enzymatic reactivity, both in vitro and in cellulo. These simple phenyl ether-based profluorophores could supplement or supplant the use of phenyl esters for imaging biochemical and biological systems. PMID:21394227

  1. Synthesis and utility of fluorogenic acetoxymethyl ethers†

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, Luke D.; Chao, Tzu-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic fluorophores such as fluorescein, Tokyo Green, resorufin, and their derivatives are workhorses of biological science. Acylating the phenolic hydroxyl group(s) in these fluorophores masks their fluorescence. The ensuing ester is a substrate for cellular esterases, which can restore fluorescence. These esters are, however, notoriously unstable to hydrolysis, severely compromising their utility. The acetoxymethyl (AM) group is an esterase-sensitive motif that can mask polar functionalities in small molecules. Here, we report on the use of AM ether groups to mask phenolic fluorophores. The resulting profluorophores have a desirable combination of low background fluorescence, high chemical stability, and high enzymatic reactivity, both in vitro and in cellulo. These simple phenyl ether-based profluorophores could supplement or supplant the use of phenyl esters for imaging biochemical and biological systems. PMID:21394227

  2. Muscle-Relaxing Ethers of Glycerol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bradley; F. M. Berger

    1947-01-01

    THE discovery of the useful applications of curare in medicine and surgery has directed attention to other substances which are capable of producing muscular relaxation in man. In 1910, Gilbert and Descomps1 administered the alpha-phenyl ether of glycerol to guinea pigs and observed: ``Au bout d'un laps de temps variant, suivant la dose injectée, de trois minutes à dix minutes,

  3. Poly(Arylene Ether Imidazole) Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Towell, Timothy W.; Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Films adhere well to some substrates, provide smooth surfaces, and facilitate release from molds. Thin films of thermoplastic poly(arylene ether imidazole)s (PAEI's) particularly suitable for use as surface modifiers for graphite/epoxy or graphite/bismaleimide composite panels. Molecule of PAEI includes imidazole groups along its backbone that co-cure with epoxies or bismaleimides during processing. Films thermally stable and resistant to bombardment by energetic electrons.

  4. Response of soil organisms to dimethyl disulfide fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After the commonly used soil fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in the United States, alternatives to MeBr such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) which is known to have broad pest control spectrum, is increasingly used. However, effectiveness of DMDS has been mainly investigated to study targe...

  5. DIMETHYL AND METHYL HYDROGEN SULFATE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel technique of using the sample tube penetration profile of trace reactive gases has been applied to the sampling and indirect identification of candidate species through their diffusion coefficients. Laboratory studies of trace dimethyl and methyl hydrogen sulfate flow and...

  6. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on tissue distribution of gentamicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rubinstein; A. Lev-El

    1980-01-01

    Summary Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and gentamicin were administered to rats i.p. No significant differences in gentamicin tissue concentrations were found between rats receiving DMSO and gentamicin, and rats receiving gentamicin alone. DMSO does not increase the tissue concentrations of gentamicin.

  7. Biodegradation of glycol ethers in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsior, S.J.; West, R.J. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Because of the widespread use of glycol ethers in applications ranging from consumer products to use as chemical intermediates, there is a need to better understand the fate of these compounds in the environment. Soil biodegradation studies were conducted for three propylene glycol ethers: 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 1-phenoxy-2-propanol, and 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate. The test compounds were labeled with carbon-14 at either the methoxy or phenoxy substituents. Biodegradation of the three compounds was observed in two sandy loam soils. The time required for disappearance of 50% of the test compounds ranged from < 1 d at 0.2 ppm (w/w) to <7 d at 107 ppm. Degradation rates were slower in a sandy soil, reflecting the lower concentration of microorganisms present. No significant accumulation of intermediate products was observed, and ultimate yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were in the range of 40 to 65% of the initial concentration. Results indicated that the glycol ethers were degraded in a variety of soils under aerobic conditions.

  8. Solvation of dichlorocarbene: complexation with aryl ethers.

    PubMed

    Moss, Robert A; Wang, Lei; Odorisio, Christina M; Zhang, Min; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten

    2010-01-14

    Dichlorocarbene (CCl(2)), generated by laser flash photolysis of dichlorodiazirine, formed pi- and O-ylidic complexes with aromatic ethers such as anisole, 1,3-dimethoxybenzene, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-18-crown-6 and with the aromatic ester phenyl acetate. These complexes were visualized by UV-vis spectroscopy, and they retarded the addition of CCl(2) to tetramethylethylene by factors of 18-152. Computational studies based on density functional theory provided structures and energetics for the transient species and rationalized their absorption spectra. Complexes were not observed between CCl(2) and simple, nonaromatic ethers such as THF, dioxane, or 18-crown-6, nor did these ethers much affect the addition rate of CCl(2) to tetramethylethylene. Computations also suggested that pi-complexes of CCl(2) and, e.g., mesitylene and durene, were energetically reasonable transients. Although these species were not detected spectroscopically, the aromatic compounds did slow the addition of CCl(2) to tetramethylethylene by factors of 15 and 31, respectively. PMID:19877654

  9. WEAR BEHAVIOR OF PAEK, POLY(ARYL-ETHER-KETONE),12 UNDER PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS, OUTLOOKS FOR13

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 DRAFT1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 WEAR BEHAVIOR OF PAEK, POLY(ARYL-ETHER-KETONE),12 UNDER tests on new materials for orthopaedic3 implants applications, PAEK (Poly Aryl Ether Ketone) polymer metal alloys. PEEK (Poly Ether Ether Ketone) and PEKK (Poly9 Ether Ketone Ketone)/CF (Carbon Fibers

  10. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    PubMed

    Raia, Courtenay Grean

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure. PMID:17205538

  11. Chemistry and adhesive properties of poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as adhesives and composite matrices. The polymers were prepared by reacting a heterocyclic bisphenol with an activated aromatic dihalide in a polar aprotic solvent, using potassium carbonate. The polymerizations were generally carried out in N,N-dimethylacetamide at 155 C. In some cases, where the polymers were semicrystalline, higher temperatures and thus higher boiling solvents were necessary to keep the polymers in solution. Heterocyclic rings incorporated into the poly(arylene ether) backbone include phenylquinoxaline, phenylimidazole, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, solution viscosity, X-ray diffraction, thin film, and adhesive and (in some cases) composite properties. The glass transition temperatures, crystalline melt temperature, solubility, and mechanical properties varied depending upon the heterocyclic ring. The chemistry and properties of these materials are discussed.

  12. [4+2]Cycloaddition of 3,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-R-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines with alkenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Rusinov; R. I. Ishmetova; N. I. Latosh; I. N. Ganebnych; O. N. Chupakhin; V. A. Potemkin

    2000-01-01

    A number of 1,4-dihydropyridazines and pyridazines were prepared by the Diels-Alder reaction with an inverse electron demand\\u000a from cyclic heterodiene systems, 3,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-R-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines, and some enamines as well as from\\u000a 4-vinylpyridine, butyl vinyl ether, phenylacetylene, and acrylamide. The reaction of 3,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine\\u000a with styrene afforded 4,5-dihydropyridazine, which was readily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to form the corresponding pyridazine.\\u000a Electron-withdrawing substituents (Br or

  13. Synthesis and characteristics of polyarylene ether sulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Johnson, B. C.; Ward, T. C.; Mcgrath, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method utilizing potassium carbonate/dimethyl acetamide, as base and solvent respectively, was used for the synthesis of several homopolymers and copolymers derived from various bisphenols. It is demonstrated that this method deviates from simple second order kinetics; this deviation being due to the heterogeneous nature of the reaction. Also, it is shown that a liquid induced crystallization process can improve the solvent resistance of these polymers. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation of the triad distribution of monomers in nonequilibrium copolycondensation is discussed.

  14. Gold(i)-catalyzed hydroindolylation of allenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Kona, Chandrababu Naidu; Shinde, Mahesh H; Ramana, Chepuri V

    2015-05-01

    The gold(i)-catalyzed reaction/rearrangement of allenyl ethers has been investigated in the presence of indoles. Either hydroindolylation or alkylation of an indole with the pendant group of allenyl ether has been observed. The reaction outcome seems to be decided mainly by the nature of the pendant group of the allenyl ether. Control experiments are indicative of an inner sphere mechanism for the hydroindolylation reaction. PMID:25873185

  15. Increasing EtherCAT performance using frame size optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mladen Knezic; Branko Dokic; Zeljko Ivanovic

    2011-01-01

    EtherCAT protocol is a popular Real-Time Ethernet solution that offers the highest communication efficiency in a number of operating conditions. However, for huge networks with several hundreds of devices distributed in the field, EtherCAT performance can become a critical factor. In this paper, we propose a solution for increasing EtherCAT performance using a frame size optimization algorithm. The optimization algorithm

  16. Poly (Aryl Ether Ketones) Bearing Alkylated Side Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E. (Inventor); Fitch, John W., III (Inventor); Gronewald, Scott D. (Inventor); St.Clair, Ann K. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates generally to poly(aryl ether ketones) bearing alkylated side chains. It relates particularly to soluble, thermally stable. low dielectric poly(aryl ether ketones) with alkylated side chains and especially to films and coatings thereof. These poly(aryl ether ketones) have a structural formula wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of CF3 and CH3; and wherein R is C(sub n)H(sub (2n+1)) and n = 11-18.

  17. Occupational exposure to glycol ethers and human congenital malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Maldonado; Elizabeth Delzell; Rochelle W. Tyl; Lowell E. Sever

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesThis commentary reviews toxicological information and critically evaluates epidemiological information on the relationship between glycol ethers and congenital malformations.MethodsThe authors identified and assessed toxicological and epidemiological research on glycol ethers used in occupational settings and congenital malformations. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the possible role of methodological problems in explaining the findings of the epidemiological studies.ResultsExposure to certain glycol ethers, including ethylene

  18. Functionalized poly(arylene ethers) as toughness modifiers for bismaleimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.; Roemer, W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B.; Breitigam, W.

    1990-01-01

    A family of novel, low molecular weight functionalized poly(arylene ether) resins has been investigated to ascertain its members' toughness-imparting contribution to neat bismaleimide (BMI) resin and BMI-matrix laminate composite properties. Attention is given to the contribution of the reactive poly(arylene ether)'s backbone chemistry to fracture toughness, as well as to the comparative influence of high and low molecular weight reactive poly(arylene ether) types on the modified BMI resin systems. The modified BMIs possess a polyphase morphology, with good adhesion between the thermoplastic nodules and the host thermoset systems.

  19. Thermochemistry, bond energies, and internal rotor potentials of dimethyl tetraoxide.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2007-11-29

    Thermochemical properties of dimethyl tetraoxide (CH(3)OOOOCH(3)), the dimer of the methylperoxy radical, are studied using ab initio and density functional theory methods. Methylperoxy radicals are known to be important intermediates in the tropospheric ozone cycle, and the self-reaction of methylperoxy radicals, which is thought to proceed via dimethyl tetraoxide, leads to significant chain radical termination in this process. Dimethyl tetraoxide has five internal rotors, three of them unique; the potential energy profiles are calculated for these rotors, as well as for those in the CH(3)OO, CH(3)OOO, and CH(3)OOOO radicals. The dimethyl tetraoxide internal rotor profiles show barriers to rotation of 2-8 kcal mol(-1). Using B3LYP/6-31(d) geometries, frequencies, internal rotor potentials, and moments of inertia, we determine entropy and heat capacity values for dimethyl tetraoxide and its radicals. Isodesmic work reactions with the G3B3 and CBS-APNO methods are used; we calculate this enthalpy as -9.8 kcal mol(-1). Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are calculated for all C-O and O-O bonds in dimethyl tetraoxide, again with the G3B3 and CBS-APNO theoretical methods, and we suggest the following BDEs: 46.0 kcal mol(-1) for CH(3)-OOOOCH(3), 20.0 kcal mol(-1) for CH(3)O-OOOCH(3), and 13.9 kcal mol(-1) for CH(3)OO-OOCH(3). From the BDE calculations and the isodesmic enthalpy of formation for dimethyl tetraoxide, we suggest enthalpies of 2.1, 5.8, and 1.4 kcal mol(-1) for the CH(3)OO, CH(3)OOO, and CH(3)OOOO radicals, respectively. We evaluate the suitability of 10 different density functional theory (DFT) methods for calculating thermochemical properties of dimethyl tetraoxide and its radicals with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis sets, using a variety of work reaction schemes. Overall, the best-performed DFT methods of those tested were TPSSh, BMK, and B1B95. Significant improvements in accuracy were made by moving from atomization to isodesmic work reactions, with most DFT methods yielding errors of less than 2 kcal mol(-1) with the 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis set for isodesmic calculations on the dimethyl tetraoxide enthalpy. These isodesmic calculations were basis set consistent, with a considerable reduction in error found by using the 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis set over the 6-31G(d) basis set. This was not the case, however, for atomization and bond dissociation work reactions, where the two basis sets returned similar results. Improved group additivity terms for the O-O-O moiety (O/O2 central atom group) are also determined. PMID:17983209

  20. Recently, crown ethers have become very popular extractants for metal ions separation from aqueous solution. Crown ethers form complex with metal ion.

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jayant K.

    Recently, crown ethers have become very popular extractants for metal ions separation from aqueous solution. Crown ethers form complex with metal ion. Selection of suitable crown ether and metal ion depends on various factors such as proper spatial orientation of the crown ether oxygen dipole in the direction

  1. Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by

    E-print Network

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3), its undeuterated analogue, and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) have been analyzed by means of supersonic

  2. 40 CFR 721.10333 - Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic). 721.10333 Section 721...10333 Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as substituted benzamine thio-ether (PMN P-03-840) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants...List § 63.62 Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10333 - Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic). 721.10333 Section 721...10333 Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as substituted benzamine thio-ether (PMN P-03-840) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721...3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide. 721.7000 Section...7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide. (a) Chemical...as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 ...polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721...3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate...Substances § 721.10605 Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate...identified generically as polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants...List § 63.62 Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721...3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to...

  16. Ether Phospholipids and Glycosylinositolphospholipids Are Not Required for Amastigote Virulence or for Inhibition of Macrophage

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    Ether Phospholipids and Glycosylinositolphospholipids Are Not Required for Amastigote Virulence Ether phospholipids are major components of the membranes of humans and Leishmania. In protozoan alkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase (ADS), the first committed step of ether lipid synthesis. Enzymatic analysis

  17. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants...List § 63.62 Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10333 - Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic). 721.10333 Section 721...10333 Substituted benzamine thio-ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as substituted benzamine thio-ether (PMN P-03-840) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721...3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic...Substances § 721.10017 Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic...identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic...Substances § 721.10017 Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic...identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer...

  2. 75 FR 28804 - An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers'' (EPA/600/R-08/086F). This...in EPA's 2006 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Project Plan. This...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721...3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721...Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance...alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject to...

  6. Novel high T{sub g} high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe] [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe

    1999-08-01

    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4{prime}-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 {times} 10{sup 5} g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl{sub 3}, THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  7. Novel high T[sub g] high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe)

    1999-08-01

    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4[prime]-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 [times] 10[sup 5] g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T[sub g]) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl[sub 3], THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  8. Metal ion complexation in organometallic crown ethers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio Berdini; Mauro Bassetti; Giovanna Mancini; Luigi Mandolini; Donato Monti

    1998-01-01

    The iron complexes [Fe(?5-ligand)(CO)2R] [ligand=C5H5 (Cp), R=Me (1); ligand=C5H5, R=CHMe2 (2); ligand=C9H7 (Ind), R=Me (3)] react with the crown ether functionalized phosphine [Ph2P–CH2-(aza-15-crown-5)] (L) to give the products of alkyl migratory insertion [Fe(?5–ligand)(COR)(CO)(L)] 4, 5 and 6, respectively. The cyclopentadienyl methyl complex [Fe(?5-C5H5)(CO)2Me] reacts with L only in refluxing hexane. The reactions of 2 and 3, in acetonitrile or chloroform,

  9. Antifungal activity of some diaryl ethers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Jian, Kun-Zhong; Guan, Qiu; Ye, Fei; Lv, Min

    2007-12-01

    Several diaryl ethers were synthesized and tested in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternate, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum and Alternaria brassicae. Compared to a commercial agricultural fungicide, hymexazol, especially compounds a, b, e, g and k were found to be more effective at 50 mug/ml against F. graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum. Meantime, some structure-activity relationships were also observed. PMID:18057754

  10. Fluorinated enol ethers: their synthesis and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Decostanzi, M; Campagne, J-M; Leclerc, E

    2015-07-21

    Thanks to the beneficial effect of fluorine substitution on the pharmacokinetic properties of molecules, an ever increasing number of marketed drugs incorporate a fluorine atom into their structure. As a consequence, the synthesis of fluorinated molecules has become a very active research field. Among the numerous approaches, fluorinated enol ethers are valuable building blocks that allow the introduction of a fluoro- or difluoromethyl group through a wide variety of reactions. The present review lists different methods for their preparation and sums up their numerous synthetic applications. PMID:26077713

  11. Production of durene from alcohols and ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, P. E.; Yan, T. Y.

    1985-06-18

    Durene is recovered from a mixture rich in durene and containing hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline range by cooling the mixture to a point where crystallization occurs and separating the crystallized durene. The durene subsequently is washed with a wash fluid. The wash fluid which can be methanol, is returned to a process wherein it is converted to gasoline and durene. The separated mother liquor is added to the gasoline fraction. The original mixture of durene and gasoline is obtained by the catalytic conversion of alcohols and ethers.

  12. Phenylethynyl-Terminated Poly(Arylene Ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) synthesized in wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratios and adding appropriate amounts of 4-phenylethynyl-4'-fluorobenzophenone to monomers to end-cap oligomers during polymerization. Have low molecular weights and low melt viscosities, and are easily processed as adhesives, composites, and moldings. Thermally cured to provide materials that are crosslinked and insoluble in common organic solvents. Exhibit increased resistance to solvents, greater tensile moduli, and better high-temperature properties. Useful as adhesives, composite matrices, and moldings, especially in applications in which combination of toughness and resistance to solvents needed.

  13. Polyamideimides containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, S. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Polyamidenimides were prepared from the reaction of trimellitic anhydride chloride with seven diamines containing carbonyl and ether groups between the aromatic rings. Several of these polyamideimides were semicrystalline as evidenced by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition temperatures ranged between 187 and 245 C, and crystalline transition temperatures ranged between 317 and 416 C. A series of copolyamideimides from a mixture of 1,3-bis(4-aminophenoxy 4-prime-benzoyl) benzene and 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy 4-prime-benzoyl)benzene were similarly prepared. These copolyamideimides were semicrystalline and formed tough, solvent resistant films with good tensile properties.

  14. Fluorinated Poly(Phenylene Ether Ketones)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; Cassidy, Patrick E.; Tullos, Gordon L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones) are colorless, transparent, low-dielectric-constant, highly thermally stable polymers. Particularly suitable for use as film and coating materials in electronic and thermal-control applications such as; passivant insulating coats and interlevel dielectrics in microelectronic circuits, or as protective transparent coats on solar cells or mirrors. Solubility and transparency of 12F-PEK along with its lower dielectric constant and other properties make it more useful as dielectric film and coating material in many applications.

  15. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

  16. PROTECTION OF TISSUE-CULTURE CELLS AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION. II. THE ACTIVITY OF HYPOXIA, DIMETHYL SULPHOXIDE, DIMETHYL SULPHONE, GLYCEROL AND CYSTEAMINE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND AT -196 C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Vos; M. C. A. C. Kaalen

    1962-01-01

    Protection against x irradiation by hypoxia, glycerol, dimethyl ; sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, cystearnine, and a combination of glycerol and ; cysteamine was investigated at +20 deg C and -198 deg C. The protective power of ; the treatment was assayed as the degree to which it prevented radiation damage, ; i.e., the loss of the reproductive integrity of tissue-culture cells.

  17. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)-based composite membrane for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Palanichamy Krishnan; Jin-Soo Park; Tae-Hyun Yang; Won-Yong Lee; Chang-Soo Kim

    2006-01-01

    The solid proton conductor zirconium phosphate sulfophenylenphosphonate of composition Zr(HPO4)0.65(SPP)1.35 where SPP denotes metasulfophenylenphosphonate was prepared in the amorphous gel form in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and characterized by 31P NMR. The composite membranes of SPEEK up to 50wt.% of zirconium phosphate sulfophenylenphosphonate content were prepared by introducing the solid proton conductor from the gel. The composite membranes were characterized using

  18. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers b7 vanadium(V) dipicolinate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Susan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternatives to current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals is becoming increasingly important due to concerns over climate change, growing world energy demand, and energy security issues. Using non-food derived biomass to produce renewable feedstocks for chemicals and fuels is a particularly attractive possibility. However, the majority of biomass is in the form of lignocellulose, which is often not fully utilized due to difficulties associated with breaking down both lignin and cellulose. Recently, a number of methods have been reported to transform cellulose directly into more valuable materials such as glucose, sorbitol, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural, and ethylene glycol. Less progress has been made with selective transformations of lignin, which is typically treated in paper and forest industries by kraft pulping (sodium hydroxide/sodium sulfide) or incineration. Our group has begun investigating aerobic oxidative C-C bond cleavage catalyzed by dipicolinate vanadium complexes, with the idea that a selective C-C cleavage reaction of this type could be used to produce valuable chemicals or intermediates from cellulose or lignin. Lignin is a randomized polymer containing methoxylated phenoxy propanol units. A number of different linkages occur naturally; one of the most prevalent is the {beta}-O-4 linkage shown in Figure 1, containing a C-C bond with 1,2-hydroxy ether substituents. While the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-diols has been reported for a number of metals, including vanadium, iron, manganese, ruthenium, and polyoxometalate complexes, C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers is much less common. We report herein vanadium-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds between alcohol and ether functionalities in several lignin model complexes. In order to explore the scope and potential of vanadium complexes to effect oxidative C-C bond cleavage in 1,2-hydroxy ethers, we examined the reactivity of the lignin model complexes pinacol monomethyl ether (A), 2-phenoxyethanol (B), and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol (C) (Figure 1). Reaction of (dipic)V{sup V}(O)O{sup i}Pr (1a) or (dipic)V{sup v}(O)OEt (lb) with A, B, or C in acetonitrile yielded new vanadium(V) complexes where the alcohol-ether ligand was bound in a chelating fashion. From the reaction of 1b with pinacol monomethyl ether (A) in acetonitrile solution, (dipic)V{sup v}(O)(pinOMe) (2) (PinOMe = 2,3-dimethyl-3-methoxy-2-butanoxide) was isolated in 61 % yield. Reaction of 1b with 2-phenoxyethanol (B) in acetonitrile gave the new complex (dipic)V{sup v}(O)(OPE) (3) (OPE = 2-phenoxyethoxide), which was isolated in 76% yield. In a similar fashion, 1a reacted with 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol (C) to give (dipic)V(O)(DPME) (4) (DPME = 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethoxide), which was isolated in 39% yield. Complexes 2, 3, and 4 were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. Compared to the previously reported vanadium(V) pinacolate complex (dipic)V(O)(pinOH) the X-ray structure of complex 2 reveals a slightly shorter V = O bond, 1.573(2) {angstrom} vs 1.588(2) {angstrom} for the pinOH structure. Complexes 3 and 4 display similar vanadium oxo bond distances of 1.568(2) {angstrom} and 1.576(2) {angstrom}, respectively. All three complexes show longer bonds to the ether-oxygen trans to the oxo (2.388(2) {angstrom} for 2, 2.547(2) {angstrom} for 3, and 2.438(2) {angstrom} for 4) than to the hydroxy-oxygen in the pinOH structure (2.252(2) {angstrom}).

  19. Diammonium hexakis(thiocyanato-?N)rhenate(IV) dimethyl sulfone tetrasolvate.

    PubMed

    Kochel, Andrzej; Ho?y?ska, Ma?gorzata

    2011-05-01

    The title compound, (NH(4))(2)[Re(NCS)(6)]·4C(2)H(6)O(2)S, was obtained by solvothermal synthesis as part of a project on rhenium thiocyanate catalysts and starting materials for further aggregation to molecular magnets. The compound is the ammonium salt of octahedral hexakis(thiocyanato-?N)rhenate(IV) anions, which lie on centres of inversion. The dimethyl sulfone solvent molecules are involved in R(4)(2)(8) and D N-H···O hydrogen-bonded motifs. N-H···S and S···S short contacts are also present. Hydrogen-bonded ammonium-dimethyl sulfone layers alternate with layers formed by the complex anion (with S···S short contacts) parallel to (100). PMID:21540528

  20. Toxic effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on human embryonic kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Liu, Zhenping; Gu, Liang; Yin, Rong; Li, Huarong; Zhang, Xiaobai; Cao, Tongcheng; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame-retardant additives in consumer and household products and can escape into the environment over time. PBDEs have become a global environmental organic pollutant due to the properties of persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. The well-studied toxic effects of PBDEs mainly include thyroid hormone disruption and neurotoxicity. There is no consistent conclusions on the carcinogenic potential of PBDEs to date. Here, we explored the toxic effects of BDE-209 on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). The comparison of the gene expression profiles of HEK293T cells with BDE-209 treatment and the negative control found that BDE-209 exposure may alter nucleosome organization through significantly changing the expression of histone gene clusters. The remodeled chromatin structure could further disturb systemic lupus erythematosus as one of the toxic effects of BDE-209. Additionally, gene sets of different cancer modules are positively correlated with BDE-209 exposure. This suggests that BDE-209 has carcinogenic potential for a variety of tumors. Collectively, BDE-209 has a broader toxicity not limited to disruption of thyroid hormone-related biological processes. Notably, the toxic effects of BDE-209 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is not the simply additive effects of BDE-209 and DMSO alone. PMID:24834073

  1. Solubilization of 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether under combined TX-100 and cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingjian; Lu, Guining; Wang, Rui; Guo, Chuling; Zhang, Hongliang; Dang, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    This paper is focused on the selection of cosolvents in the remediation of contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Triton X-100 (TX-100) and different cosolvents on the solubilization behavior of 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) and the washing of BDE-15 from a contaminated soil. (1)H NMR spectroscopies were used to elucidate the interactions among TX-100, cosolvents, and BDE-15 in aqueous micellar solution. Results showed that the solubility of BDE-15 was enhanced by the observed synergism among TX-100, BDE-15, and cosolvents, and the TX-100/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) system exhibited the best performance in the solubilization of BDE-15. Similar synergism was further evidenced in the washing of BDE-15 from a contaminated soil. With 10 % (v/v) DMSO and 6.4 mM TX-100 solution added, considerable synergistic effect was achieved in TX-100/DMSO system, leading to the highest removal efficiency (92.9 %) of BDE-15 from the soil, relative to that of 67.3 % with TX-100 alone at the same concentration. PMID:25269841

  2. Global Distribution of Halogenated Dimethyl Bipyrroles in Marine Mammal Blubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tittlemier; A. Borrell; J. Duffe; P. J. Duignan; P. Fair; A. Hall; P. Hoekstra; K. M. Kovacs; M. M. Krahn; M. Lebeuf; C. Lydersen; D. Muir; T. O'Hara; M. Olsson; J. Pranschke; P. Ross; U. Siebert; G. Stern; S. Tanabe; R. Norstrom

    2002-01-01

    Four halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles (HDBPs), hypothesized to be naturally produced, were quantitated in marine mammal blubber\\u000a from a number of species obtained from various locations worldwide. HDBPs were found in samples from all locations studied.\\u000a Concentrations of total HDBPs (?HDBPs) ranged from 0.4 ng\\/g lipid weight in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the White Sea to 2,540 ng\\/g lipid weight

  3. Regioselective synthesis of chiral dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene sulfones

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Enantiopure (R,R) and (S,S)-dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene monosulfones have been synthesized by the aerial oxidation of the chiral dithiolates generated from the propionitrile-protected precursors. Both enantiomers crystallize in the orthorhombic chiral space group P212121. They show a boat-type conformation of the TTF moiety, a rather rigid dithiin sulfone ring and the methyl groups in a bisequatorial conformation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate fully reversible oxidation in radical cation and dication species. PMID:26199666

  4. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on Gastric Secretion in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Bralow; M. Gruenstein; S. Hitanant; W. Johnson

    1973-01-01

    Gastric secretory studies using a 4-hour pylorusligation technique in rats were performed after using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent for gastric carcinogens Single intragastric doses of 1 ml 50% DMSO reduced the 4-hour volume (vol) by 48%, titratable acidity (TA) by 20%, and acid output (TAO) by 57.3%. Pepsin was not affected. With 1 ml 100% DMSO, gastric secretion

  5. Dimethyl sulphoxide dose–response on rat retinal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina I. Tsai; Bang V. Bui; Algis J. Vingrys

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), a common laboratory solvent, impacts retinal function.\\u000a Long Evans rats (n = 17) were intravitreally injected with five different doses of DMSO representative of those reported in the literature and\\u000a spanning over 3 log units of vitreal concentration (0.01–8%). Retinal function was evaluated 1 h after injection using electroretinograms,\\u000a and the waveform

  6. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  7. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes.

    E-print Network

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes. 4. Influencing Factors, Trends in the five Laurentian Great Lakes, and each was analyzed for 10 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers-PBDE congeners (9BDEs) in the sediments of all the Great Lakes was estimated to be approximately 5.2 ( 1.1 tonnes

  8. 48. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, 5TH LEVEL, LOOKING NORTH AT ETHER AND ALCOHOL CONDENSERS AT TOP OF TOWER. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  13. In the Mind's Eye: Thought Pictures and Ethereal Presences

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    In the Mind's Eye: Thought Pictures and Ethereal Presences 1 Wednesday Seminar The Italian Academy 15 October 2003 In the Mind's Eye: Thought-Pictures and Ethereal Presences Marina Warner (not mind has always sought after, but never attained, knowledge of these things...'i The principal faculty

  14. Cyclic imino ethers in practical step-growth polymerizations

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, B.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Dicarboxylic acids, glycols, diamines, epoxy resins, phenolics, etc., have significant uses in a variety of thermoplastics and thermosets. Cyclic imino ethers may be used to react with the functionalities on the aforesaid starting compounds, providing practical paths to a host of improved performance materials. For example, the dicarboxylic acid-cyclic imino ether reaction may be employed to produce super tough, poly(amide-ester) thermosets. Or, phenolics may be chain extended and/or crosslinked with cyclic imino ethers to produce poly(amide-ether) thermosets with highly attractive thermal, physical and mechanical properties, with a wide variety of composite applications. In the recycling area, it is also very practical to use cyclic imino ethers to chain extend, i.e., enhance the molecules weight, of recovered polyesters or polyamides to enhance performance of the recovered materials. The use of monomers and polymers containing two or more cyclic imino ether moieties for production of new materials will be discussed. The phenolic hydroxyl-cyclic imino ether reaction will receive the main focus as a practical route to new poly(amide-ether) thermosets, based on the authors experience in using this chemistry to design matrix resins for high performance composities.

  15. Imide/arylene ether copolymers with pendent trifluoromethyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene group and an imide block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene and a trifluoromethyl group in the polymer backbone. The copolymers were characterized and mechanical properties were determined and compared to the homopolymers.

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1910.1008 Section 1910.1008 Labor Regulations...and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. [61 FR 9245,...

  17. Ether theory of gravitation: why and how?

    E-print Network

    Mayeul Arminjon

    2007-05-31

    Gravitation might make a preferred frame appear, and with it a clear space/time separation--the latter being, a priori, needed by quantum mechanics (QM) in curved space-time. Several models of gravitation with an ether are discussed: they assume metrical effects in an heterogeneous ether and/or a Lorentz-symmetry breaking. One scalar model, starting from a semi-heuristic view of gravity as a pressure force, is detailed. It has been developed to a complete theory including continuum dynamics, cosmology, and links with electromagnetism and QM. To test the theory, an asymptotic scheme of post-Newtonian approximation has been built. That version of the theory which is discussed here predicts an internal-structure effect, even at the point-particle limit. The same might happen also in general relativity (GR) in some gauges, if one would use a similar scheme. Adjusting the equations of planetary motion on an ephemeris leaves a residual difference with it; one should adjust the equations using primary observations. The same effects on light rays are predicted as with GR, and a similar energy loss applies to binary pulsars.

  18. Emergent gravity and ether-drift experiments

    E-print Network

    M. Consoli; L. Pappalardo

    2010-05-04

    According to several authors, gravity might be a long-wavelength phenomenon emerging in some 'hydrodynamic limit' from the same physical, flat-space vacuum viewed as a form of superfluid medium. In this framework, light might propagate in an effective acoustic geometry and exhibit a tiny anisotropy that could be measurable in the present ether-drift experiments. By accepting this view of the vacuum, one should also consider the possibility of sizeable random fluctuations of the signal that reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying `quantum ether' and could be erroneously interpreted as instrumental noise. To test the present interpretation, we have extracted the mean amplitude of the signal from various experiments with different systematics, operating both at room temperature and in the cryogenic regime. They all give the same consistent value = O (10^{-15}) which is precisely the magnitude expected in an emergent-gravity approach, for an apparatus placed on the Earth's surface. Since physical implications could be substantial, it would be important to obtain more direct checks from the instantaneous raw data and, possibly, with new experimental set-ups operating in gravity-free environments.

  19. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas-phase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-04-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas-phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm ( ? 30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) in cold objects represent a challenge and may clarify the respective role of grain-surface and gas-phase chemistry. We propose here a new model to form DME and MF with gas-phase reactions in cold environments, where DME is the precursor of MF via an efficient reaction overlooked by previous models. Furthermore, methoxy, a precursor of DME, is also synthesized in the gas phase from methanol, which is desorbed by a non-thermal process from the ices. Our new model reproduces fairly well the observations towards L1544. It also explains, in a natural way, the observed correlation between DME and MF. We conclude that gas-phase reactions are major actors in the formation of MF, DME and methoxy in cold gas. This challenges the exclusive role of grain-surface chemistry and favours a combined grain-gas chemistry.

  20. Kinetic aspects of the thermal degradation of poly(dimethyl siloxane) and poly(dimethyl diphenyl siloxane)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish Deshpande; Mary E Rezac

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of degradation of polysiloxanes with different starting chemistries is reported in this paper. The polymers used in the study were vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(diphenyl-dimethyl)siloxane (3.5 and 25% diphenyl content, DP-3.5 and DP-25). These polymers were inert pyrolyzed under isothermal conditions at temperatures from 325 to 400 °C for 5 h. Additionally, these polymers were pyrolyzed under dynamic heating

  1. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) proton exchange membranes for fuel cell application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianfeng Li; Changpeng Liu; Hui Lu; Chengji Zhao; Zhe Wang; Wei Xing; Hui Na

    2005-01-01

    Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketones) (SPEEKKs) based membranes have been prepared and evaluated for proton exchange membranes (PEMs). Directly aromatic and nucleophilic substituting polycondensation was adapted to control the sulfonated process. SPEEKKs with different sulfonated degrees were prepared by adjusting the content of sulfonated monomer. All the SPEEKKs can easily be cast into tough membranes and show high thermal

  2. Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Hasegawa; Yasuyuki Suzuki; Yasunari Maekawa

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) was successfully prepared by radiation grafting of a styrene monomer into PEEK films and the consequent selective sulfonation of the grafting chains in the film state. Using milder sulfonation, the sulfonation reactions proceeded at the grafted chains in preference to the phenylene rings of PEEK main chains; as a result, the grafted

  3. Biodegradation of ethyl t -butyl ether (ETBE), methyl t -butyl ether (MTBE) and t -amyl methyl ether (TAME) by Gordonia terrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermina Hernandez-Perez; Françoise Fayolle; Jean-Paul Vandecasteele

    2001-01-01

    Gordonia terrae strain IFP 2001 was selected from activated sludge for its capacity to grow on ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) as sole carbon and energy source. ETBE was stoichiometrically degraded to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) and the activity was inducible. A constitutive strain, G. terrae IFP 2007, derived from strain IFP 2001, was also selected. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-amyl

  4. Synthesis and characterization of poly(silyl ether)s and modified poly(siloxane)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabry, Joseph Mark

    Activated dihydridocarbonyltris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium ( Ru) catalyzes the dehydrogenative silylation condensation copolymerization of ortho-quinones with alpha,o-dihydrido-oligodimethylsiloxanes to give high molecular weight copoly(arylene-1,2-dioxy/oligodimethylsiloxanylene)s in good chemical yield. The hydrosilylation polymerization of aliphatic o-dimethylsilyloxy ketones is also catalyzed by activated Ru to yield unsymmetrical poly(silyl ether)s. Likewise, Ru catalyzes the copolymerization of alpha,o-diketones with alpha,o-dihydrido-oligodimethylsiloxanes to yield symmetrical poly(silyl ether)s. A mechanism of the copolymerizations is proposed, in which beta-hydride elimination is favored over reductive elimination in the reaction of the ortho-quinones. Chiral centers affect the NMR spectra of the poly(silyl ether)s produced by hydrosilylation. The photoluminescence properties of the polymers were studied along with those of model compounds. The decrease in Tgs with increase in siloxane chain length as well as fluorescence spectra is discussed. RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3 (Ru), activated with a stoichiometric amount of styrene, catalyzes the anti-Markovnikov addition of an ortho C-H bond of benzophenone across the C-C double bonds of alpha,o-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)copoly(dimethylsiloxane/vinylmethylsiloxane), alpha,o-bis(vinyldimethsilyloxy)poly(dimethylsiloxane)s, and 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane to yield alpha,o-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)copoly[dimethylsiloxane/2-(2 '-benzophenonyl)ethylmethylsiloxane]s, alpha,o-bis[2-(2 '-benzophenonyl)ethyldimethylsilyloxy]poly(dimethylsiloxane)s, and 1,3-bis[2-(2'-benzophenonyl)ethyl]tetramethyldisiloxane, respectively. While the Mw/Mn and Tgs of the modified polysiloxanes are similar to those of the precursor polymers, an increase in molecular weight is observed upon heating. 1,3-bis[2-(2 '-Benzophenonyl)ethyl]tetramethyldisiloxane, a model compound, was utilized to test a mechanism for the increase in molecular weight. A mechanism is proposed. Fluorinated and non-fluorinated 1,9-bis(epoxyalkyl)pentasiloxanes have been prepared by the Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction of vinylepoxides with 1,9-dihydridopentasiloxanes. The 1,9-dihydridopentasiloxanes were prepared by the triflic acid-catalyzed ring-opening of the corresponding cyclotrisiloxanes in the presence of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane. Insoluble cross-linked thin films have been prepared by the diaryliodonium salt photo-acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of the 1,9-bis(epoxyalkyl)pentasiloxanes. These materials may be useful as anti-corrosion/foul-release coatings for marine applications.

  5. The effect of high-energy electron radiation on poly(arylene ether)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Siochi, E. J.; Croall, C. I.

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of four experimental poly(arylene ether)s of similar chemical structure were exposed to 1 MeV electrons while under high vacuum. The films received total exposures of 5 x 10 exp 7 and 1 x 10 exp 9 rads at a dose rate of 5 x 10 exp 7 rads/h and a pressure of 2 x 10 exp -7 torr. Films exposed to 5 x 10 exp 7 rads showed dramatic changes in molecular weight distribution. After exposures of 1 x 10 exp 9 rads the films were only partially soluble in chloroform and exhibited no detectable changes in the glass transition temperatures. Thin-film tensile properties were also altered by the exposure to electron radiation. The effect of the exposures as determined by various analyses is discussed.

  6. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Boyer, François; Puech, Pascal; Olivier, Philippe; Sapelkin, Andrei; King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard; Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri; Bacsa, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  7. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol monomethyl ether: metabolism, disposition, and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.R.; Hermann, E.A.; Young, J.T.; Landry, T.D.; Calhoun, L.L.

    1984-08-01

    Short-term and subchronic vapor inhalation studies have shown that there are pronounced differences in the toxicological properties of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME). Overexposure to EGME has resulted in adverse effects on testes, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues in laboratory animals. PGME does not affect these tissues, and instead, overexposure to PGME has been associated with increases in liver weight and central nervous system depression. EGME is primarily oxidized to methoxyacetic acid in male rats, while PGME apparently undergoes O-demethylation to form propylene glycol. Since methoxyacetic acid has been shown to have the same spectrum of toxicity as EGME in male rats, the observed differences in the toxicological properties of EGME and PGME are thought to be due to the fact that the two materials are biotransformed via different routes to different types of metabolites. 6 references, 3 figures, 12 tables.

  8. Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-02-04

    The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

  9. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Sik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Kwan - Soo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuiper, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA

    2009-01-01

    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  10. Photodegradation of dimethyl and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalates 

    E-print Network

    Hammargren, Thomas Fredric

    1976-01-01

    ) from Aldrich. The following solvents were "Nanograde" quality made by Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Ilissouri: acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, isooctane and petro- leum ether. For ultraviolet and visible spectra, methanol... (Certified A. C. S. "Spectranalyzed" from Fisher) and hexanes ( "SpectrAR" from Mallinckrodt) were used PI~ ~ t l~ k Photol sis of a refluxed solution of DEIIP in hexane. ? 2 liter of hexane containing 25 x 10 g DEEP was refluxed for 2 hours at 68'C...

  11. Chloroplast-Diphenyl Ether Interactions II 1

    PubMed Central

    Wettlaufer, S. H.; Alscher, Ruth; Strick, Christine

    1985-01-01

    Acifluorfen, a p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide, is inhibitory to those photosynthetic functions that require a functioning chloroplast envelope. Functions involving the stroma are also affected. Acifluorfen does not lyse intact spinach chloroplasts, yet does increase the sensitivity of CO2-dependent O2 evolution to exogenous inorganic phosphate without directly affecting the function of the phosphate translocator. Acifluorfen penetrates into the chloroplast stroma in a light-independent fashion. Once inside, it causes the inactivation of light and dithiothreitol-activated fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. Light-activated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP) is also inactivated by acifluorfen. These data suggest that acifluorfen stimulates a pathway for inactivation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP) which uses oxygen as a terminal oxidant and which involves thioredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. PMID:16664219

  12. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Groundwater Contamination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, is highly mobile in groundwater, dissolving and traveling faster than the other petroleum constituents which tend to biodegrade and adsorb to soil particles. This unit will introduce the problem of pollutants as they move through the various soil layers and contaminate the groundwater and challenge the students to investigate the effects of MTBE spills in the environment by researching the available literature on fuel oxygenates and learning their mode of transport through the soil. Experimentally determined data, obtained in lab activities, will facilitate building models of the contamination process of the groundwater. Mathematics modeling will involve the use of spreadsheet analysis of real-world-data obtained online.

  13. Model for photodegradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Vesely, M; Vajglova, Z; Kotas, P; Kristal, J; Ponec, R; Jiricny, V

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were, and in some countries still are, used as flame retardants for plastic materials. When released from plastics, PDBE cause harm to the environment. This creates the incentive for further investigation of the PBDE degradation. This work focused on a formulation of a PBDE photodegradation model based on the PBDE properties obtained by the quantum chemical calculations. The proposed model predicted degradation routes of arbitrary PBDE congener. The routes of selected congeners were validated by the two independently published data sets and showed the high fitting degree. The model can be easily modified for any reactor system if the initial reaction rate constant of one congener is available for the given system. PMID:25345925

  14. 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    E-print Network

    Vogel, Zvi

    2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor Lumi´r Hanus, the only known endocannabinoid in the ester series. We report now an example of a third, ether-type endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether), isolated from porcine brain. The structure

  15. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF ARYL-OXYGEN BOND ACTIVATION IN A NICKEL(0) DIPHOSPHINE-ETHER COMPLEX

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    6 CHAPTER 2 MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF ARYL-OXYGEN BOND ACTIVATION IN A NICKEL(0) DIPHOSPHINE-ETHER of the reductive cleavage of aryl ethers by nickel, the reactivity of terphenyl diphosphine aryl alkyl ethers adjacent to a methyl aryl ether bond were isolated. Heating these systems led to aryl-oxygen bond

  16. FT-ICR Study of Reaction of Cobalt Clusters with Alcohol, Ether and Hydrocarbon

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    FT-ICR Study of Reaction of Cobalt Clusters with Alcohol, Ether and Hydrocarbon Daisuke Yoshimatsu clusters of cobalt with ethanol, methane, ethylene and diethyl ether which are commonly used as carbon and diethyl ether (RT, 1×10-8 torr). For ethanol, ethylene and diethyl ether, the dehydrogenation reactions

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of six- and seven-membered ether rings based on the ring expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Nakata; Sumihiro Nomura; Hiroko Matsukura

    1996-01-01

    Six- and seven-membered ether rings were stereoselectively synthesized based on the rearrangement of the cyclic ether with the simultaneous ring expansion. Treatment of ether having a mesylate or bromide group as the leaving group on the side chain with Zn(OAc)2 or AgOAc stereoselectively produced the ring expanded ether in good yield.

  18. Bohmian trajectories and the ether: Where does the analogy fail?

    E-print Network

    Louis Marchildon

    2005-09-07

    Once considered essential to the explanation of electromagnetic phenomena, the ether was eventually discarded after the advent of special relativity. The lack of empirical signature of realist interpretative schemes of quantum mechanics, like Bohmian trajectories, has led some to conclude that, just like the ether, they can be dispensed with, replaced by the corresponding emergence of the concept of information. Although devices like Bohmian trajectories and the ether do present important analogies, I argue that there is also a crucial difference, related to distinct explanatory functions of quantum mechanics.

  19. Hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-?O)chromium(III) trichloride

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylichenko, Yuliya M.; Haukka, Matti; Pavlenko, Vadim O.; Fritsky, Igor O.; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cr(C2H6OS)6]Cl3, each CrIII ion is located on a three-fold inversion axis and is coordinated by six dimethyl­sulfoxide ligands [Cr—O = 1.970?(2)–1.972?(2)?Å; O—Cr—O = 88.19?(9) and 91.81?(9)°] in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The Cl? anions take part in the formation of weak C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds, which contribute to the crystal packing stabilization. PMID:21202768

  20. Dimethyl fumarate for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    For many years the only drugs licensed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) were administered by injection (interferon beta, glatiramer and ?natalizumab). Recently, three oral drugs have become available. We have previously reviewed the use of ?fingolimod for highly active relapsing-remitting MS1 and ?teriflunomide for the management of relapsing-remitting MS in adults.2 Here, we review the evidence for ?dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera-Biogen Idec Ltd) for the treatment of adults with relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:25213591