Science.gov

Sample records for dinoflagellate cyst distribution

  1. Dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments from Thermaikos Gulf, Greece: Effects of resuspension events on vertical cyst distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakourou, A.; Orlova, T. Y.; Assimakopoulou, G.; Pagou, K.

    2005-12-01

    A qualitative and semi-quantitative study of recent dinoflagellate cysts has been undertaken in the NW part of Aegean Sea, Thermaikos Gulf (Eastern Mediteranean), before (September 2001), during (October 2001) and after 120 days (February 2002) of intensive trawling activities. This is the first survey of recent dinoflagellate cysts from Greek marine coastal environments. Sediment samples were collected with a corer and the vertical distribution of the cysts was studied at five different layers, from 0 to 10 cm. Dinoflagellate cysts were both abundant and diverse. Cysts were found over the whole sampling area and periods, with concentrations ranging between 247-3202 cysts cm -3. Thirty-six cyst types were encountered, of which 32 were identified to species level, representing 12 genera. It seems that significant local resuspension, related to the onset of the trawling period and stirring up of the sediment, contributed to mixing of the upper layers, resulting to more homogenous cyst profiles in the sediment. Viable cysts constituted 16-60% of the total cyst abundance. The abundance peaks of viable cysts within the subsurface sediment layers, observed during the undisturbed period, disappeared during October. In February, the reduction of cyst concentration was associated to a loss of viable cysts, whilst the ratio of viable/empty cysts ranged between 0.30 and 0.67. The abundance of the different dinoflagellate species, in their active form, was monitored in order to detect any relationship between the concentration of cysts in the top 10 cm of sediment and blooms of algae in the water column. Cysts of potentially toxic species, causing Paralitic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), such as Alexandrium cf. tamarense, A. cf. affine, A. cf. minutum, as well as Gymnodinium catenatum, were detected in the cyst survey.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DINOFLAGELLATE CYST ASSEMBLAGES IN SHALLOW LAGOONS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples from 24 sites within eleven back-barrier lagoons of Rhode Island and Massachusetts (USA) contain abundant (200-6000 cysts cm-3) and diverse (up to 40 taxa) dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The lowest cyst concentrations and diversity are observed in lagoo...

  3. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm−3) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  4. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  5. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrea M; Pospelova, Vera; Coffin, Michael R S; Latimer, James S; Chmura, Gail L

    2016-08-01

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has an important influence on cyst assemblages. Due to greater seasonal variations in SSTs and SSSs in estuaries compared to the open ocean, cyst assemblages show distinct latitudinal trends. The estuarine context is important for understanding present-day species distribution, the factors controlling them, and to better predict how they may change in the future. PMID:27547344

  6. Distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific of Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez-Bedoya, L. F.; de Vernal, A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Radi, T.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2007-05-01

    A qualitative and quantitative study of recent organic-walled dinoflagellate dinocysts recovered in sediments has been undertaken in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. A sediment core was collected in 2004 with a Reineck-type corer using a plastic tube (7 cm i.d); and it was subsampled at 0.3 cm intervals down to 10 cm depth and then at 1 cm intervals at further depths. The 210Pb and 137Cs-derived sedimentation and mass accumulation rates at the site were found to vary from 0.033 to 0.209 cm yr-1, and from 0.05 to 0.29 g cm-2 yr-1., respectively. The cysts concentrations ranged between 477 and 2300 cysts g-1 and the cysts fluxes between 68 a 494 cysts cm-2 yr-1. Twenty-three cyst taxa were identified: Brigantedinium spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyii, Bitectatodinium spongium, Spiniferites delicatus, Quinquecuspis concreta, Echinidinium transparantum, Operculodinium centrocarpum, Selenopemphix quanta, Type Echinidinium granulatum, Echinidinium aculeatum, Protoperidinium americanum, Echinidinium delicatum, Selenopemphix nephroides, Cyst of Protoperidinum stellatum, Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Islandinium spp., Votadinium spinosum, Polykrikos kofoidii, Pentapharsodinium dalei, Tuberculodinium vancampoe, Spiniferites mirabilis, Votadinium calvum and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus. The assemblages included cysts of both phototrophic and heterotrophic species, with variation of their respective abundance reflecting changes in the trophic structure of the upper water mass, especially after 1950, with a decrease from ~30% to 15% of photototrophic species, likely as a response to pollution (including cultural eutrophication) created by the industrial development of the adjacent coastal zone. Brigantedinium spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyii and Bitectatodinium spongium, were the dominant species found in the core and are most likely influenced by the seasonal upwelling that characterize the study area, as indicated by the predominance of planktonic foraminiferal

  7. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  8. Eutrophication signals in the sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Barrie

    2009-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the current status of eutrophication signals from the sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters, particularly of NW Europe. There is a dearth of the multi-decadal time series data from plankton needed to document eutrophication, and the cysts may provide an alternative source of information. Two different eutrophication signals have been described so far from cyst records: 1) from the Oslofjord, comprising a marked increase in total cyst concentrations (interpreted as probably reflecting increased phytoplankton productivity), with Lingulodinium polyedrum cysts accounting for most of the increase (interpreted as a species particularly benefiting from added nutrients from cultural eutrophication in late summer when nutrients otherwise may be limiting); and 2) the heterotroph signal, from several other Norwegian fjords and Tokyo Bay, Japan, involving both cases of increased cyst concentrations and others with no particular increase, but with a marked proportional increase in cysts of heterotrophic species (interpreted as reflecting increased diatoms and possibly other prey for the heterotrophic dinoflagellates and/or more unfavourable conditions for autotrophs, e.g. from shading). These signals should be used critically, and there is a particular need to distinguish between eutrophication signals and climate signals that may be co-occurring at a given time. Work by various authors has generally supported the concept of these cyst-based signals since they were first published, including both further records from cored sediments from other parts of the world and studies relating cyst distributions in surface sediments to gradients of pollution and nutrients from sewage discharge. Recent, unpublished work by Dale and Sætre, linked cyst signals in cored sediments to the timing of collapse of local fisheries at different times within the past fifty years in four fjord systems along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast

  9. Complex response of dinoflagellate distribution patterns to cooler early Oligocene global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Mark; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Williams, Mark; Riding, James; De Schepper, Stijn; Sabbe, Koen

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of dinoflagellate cysts using two new global ocean datasets for the Mid Eocene (Bartonian) and Early Oligocene (Rupelian) reveals unexpected changes in their global distribution. The impact of Rupelian cooling appears to be globally asymmetric; the dinoflagellate cyst cooling signal is clearer in the southern hemisphere, but much less evident in the northern hemisphere. Additionally, a significant number of species with low and mid-latitude northern hemisphere occurrences in the Bartonian, unexpectedly extend their northward ranges in the Rupelian, including some 'warm water' forms. This may show that Rupelian dinoflagellate cyst distribution is a response to changes in a range of environmental variables linked to climate-cooling, for example changes in nutrient fluxes triggered by glacially-induced base-level fall, or complex reorganisation of ocean current systems between the Bartonian and Rupelian. Apparent lack of a clear climate-cooling signal in Rupelian dinoflagellate cyst distribution may in part reflect published evidence suggesting that summer SSTs in the early Rupelian northern hemisphere were only slightly reduced compared to the later part of the Eocene, despite much colder winters. The relatively broad temperature tolerance of many extant dinoflagellate species, and dormant cyst formation during short-lived environmental deterioration, may have contributed to allowing Rupelian dinoflagellates to thrive in more highly seasonal but otherwise hospitable, northern hemisphere oceans.

  10. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORD AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA AND NARRAGANSETT BAY ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay over the last 350 yr provides to determine if cysts are sensitive to environmental change caused by human activity in the watershed. Changes in the total number, and absolute and...

  11. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  12. Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with pre-Triassic ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldowan, J. Michael; Dahl, Jeremy; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Fago, Frederick J.; Shetty, Rupa; Watt, David S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1996-02-01

    New data from numerous detailed mass-spectrometric studies have detected triaromatic dinosteroids in Precambrian to Cenozoic rock samples. Triaromatic dinosteroids are organic geochemicals derived from dinosterols, compounds known in modern organisms to be the nearly exclusive widely occurring products of dinoflagellates. We observed the ubiquitous occurrence of these dinosteroids in 49 Late Triassic through Cretaceous marine source rocks and the absence of them in 13 Permian-Carboniferous source rocks synergistic with the dinoflagellate cyst record. However, finding dinosteroids in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian strata presents challenging results for molecular paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, palynologists, and especially for those concerned with the food web at various times of biological crisis. Other than the few species known as parasites and symbionts, many other dinoflagellate species are important as primary producers. The presence of Precambrian to Devonian triaromatic dinosteroids gives chemostratigraphic evidence of dinoflagellates (or other organisms with similar chemosynthetic capabilities) in rocks significantly older than the oldest undisputed dinoflagellate fossils (dinoflagellate cysts from the Middle Triassic, ˜ 240 Ma), and older than the putative Silurian ˜ 420 Ma) dinocyst,Arpylorus antiquus (Calandra) Sargent, from Tunisia. This systematic chemostratigraphic approach can shed light not only on lineages of dinoflagellates and their precursors, but potentially on many other lineages, especially bacteria, algae, plants, and possibly some metazoans.

  13. Correlation and paleoenvironments of middle Paleogene marine beds based on dinoflagellate cysts in southwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerstein, G. Raquel; González Estebenet, M. Sol; Alperín, Marta I.; Casadío, Silvio A.; Archangelsky, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    An understanding of paleonvironmental and paleoceanographic evolution of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean during the Palaeogene is prevented by the lack of precise tools to date and correlate the sedimentary units. Palynological samples collected in the upper portion of the Man Aike Formation, which crops out southern Lago Argentino area, in the southwest of the Austral Basin (50°21‧45″S-72°14‧30″W), contain well preserved marine organic dinoflagellate cysts, which are potentially important biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental indicators. Herein we describe the composition of the Man Aike Formation's dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and compare them to similar assemblages collected in the same basin in the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation using Compositional Statistical Analysis. The dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the upper part of the Man Aike Formation are highly correlated to the assemblages from the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation from outcropping sections (51°31‧13″S-72°15‧11″W) and with the lower part of sediment cores drilled by Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales in the Río Turbio Formation area. These dinoflagellate cyst assemblages show a very low correlation with the assemblages from the upper part of the Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales's cores. The comparison of our results with the high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinoflagellate cyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene allow us to date some of the dinoflagellate events recorded in formations of southwestern Patagonia. The assemblages from the Man Aike Formation and the lower part of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation relate to the zones SPDZ11 and SPDZ12 and are assigned to the mid-middle Eocene (late Lutetian to early Bartonian). The biostratigraphy proposed herein constrains the age of the Man Aike Formation and equivalent units based on calcareous microfossil data, mollusks affinities and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic values to an

  14. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin. PMID:23966031

  15. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  16. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of palaeoenvironmental and sea-level change: the Late Cenomanian - Early Coniacian (Cretaceous) of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olde, Kate; Jarvis, Ian; Pearce, Martin; Tocher, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous represented a period of greenhouse climate of Earth history, and was characterised by high temperatures, high atmospheric CO2 and high eustatic sea level, with large areas of shallow, warm, epicontinental sea. Understanding the dynamics of the Late Cretaceous climate is important for understanding the Earth System and the impact of modern climate change. The productive Late Cretaceous oceans led to the deposition of a large portion of the world's oil and gas resources, so reconstruction of depositional environments and refinement of stratigraphic correlation are important for the petroleum industry. Dinoflagellates were a prolific and diverse group within the phyto- and zooplankton throughout Late Cretaceous oceans, and their cysts display good preservation across different facies, and so are a good group for biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental study. Selected results from a high-resolution quantitative study of the palynology from 5 European Upper Cenomanian to the Lower Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) sections are summarised, along with their carbon stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. The sections are from a range of palaeolatitudes and basins, including the North Sea Basin, the Anglo-Paris Basin, the Bohemian Basin, the Polish Trough and the Vocontian Basin. Palynological assemblages differ between sections in the concentration of palynomorphs, proportions of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs, and in the diversity and varying proportions of species of dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocyst distribution is considered to have been controlled largely by nutrient levels, but was also impacted by temperature, sea level, and water mass changes. Influxes of certain species are related to changes in salinity, changes in temperature, and water mass change, and increased communication between basins. High dinocyst abundance, and particularly a high proportion of peridinioid cysts (which are thought to be derived from eutrophy

  17. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial. PMID:27441285

  18. The last glacial-interglacial transition and dinoflagellate cysts in the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouis-Zargouni, Imene; Turon, Jean-Louis; Londeix, Laurent; Kallel, Néjib; Essallami, Latifa

    2012-02-01

    Using the analysis of dinoflagellate cysts in three deep-sea sediments cores situated in the Sicilian-Tunisian Strait, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Alboran Sea, we reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes that took place during the last glacial-interglacial transition in the western Mediterranean Sea. The development of the warm microflora Impagidinium aculeatum and especially Spiniferites mirabilis appears to be an important proxy for recognizing warm periods as the Bölling/Alleröd and the Early Holocene. Bitectatodinium tepikiense, Spiniferites elongatus and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus mark the end of the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas. This cold microfloral association confirms the drastic climate changes in the western Mediterranean Sea synchronous to the dry and cold climate which occurred in the South European margin. The dinocyst N. labyrinthus shows high percentages in all studied regions during the Younger Dryas. Its distribution reveals a significant increase from the South to the North of this basin during this cold brief event. Thus, we note that this species can be considered as a new eco-stratigraphical tracer of the Younger Dryas in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Alexandrium minutum resting cyst distribution dynamics in a confined site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglès, Sílvia; Jordi, Antoni; Garcés, Esther; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Palanques, Albert

    2010-02-01

    The life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum consists of an asexual stage, characterized by motile vegetative cells, and a sexual stage, a resting cyst that once formed remains dormant in the sediment. Insight into the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of resting cysts is essential to understanding the dynamics of the vegetative phase. In investigations carried out between January 2005 and January 2008 in Arenys de Mar harbor (northwestern Mediterranean Sea), the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. minutum resting cysts and of the sediments were studied during different bloom stages of the vegetative population. Maximum cyst abundance was recorded mainly in the innermost part of the harbor while the lowest abundance always occurred near the harbor entrance, consistent with the distribution of silt-clay sediment fractions. The tendency of cysts in sediments to increase after bloom periods was clearly associated with new cyst formation, while cyst abundance decreased during non-bloom periods. Exceptions to this trend were observed in stations dominated by the deposition of coarse sediments. High correlation between the presence of cysts and clays during non-bloom periods indicates that cysts behave as passive sediment particles and are influenced by the same hydrodynamic processes as clays. In Arenys de Mar, the main physical forcing affecting sediment resuspension is the seiche, which was studied using in situ measurements and numerical models to interpret the observed distribution patterns. During non-bloom periods, cyst losses were smaller when the seiche was more active and at the station where the seiche-induced current was larger. Thus, seiche-forced resuspension appears to reduce cyst losses by reallocating cysts back to the sediment surface such that their burial in the sediment is avoided. The observed vertical profiles of the cysts were consistent with this process.

  20. Environmental significance of dinoflagellate cysts from the proximal part of the Po-river discharge plume (off southern Italy, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Chen, Liang; Möbius, Jürgen; Mahmoud, Magdy S.

    2009-11-01

    To determine the relationship between region specific dinoflagellate cyst distribution in the Po-river discharge area and oceanic environmental conditions, surface sediments of 48 sites in the middle and distal part of the discharge plume area have been studied. Establishing such a relationship is a prerequisite to create reconstructions of the eutrophication history as well as the palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanography history of the area. Literature based information about the sedimentation rates based on 210Pb dating methods are available for 18 sites. This enables the calculation of cyst accumulation rates of individual cyst species which reflect their cyst production. Correlation of the accumulation rates of individual species with environmental parameters of the upper waters allows us to adapt and refine the ecological characteristics of a selection of cyst species. This latter is trivial since the current concepts on the ecological significance of dinoflagellate cyst have to be revised as a result of the current developments in the dinoflagellate research field. These developments have elucidated that a considerable part of the relative abundance datasets that form the basis for the present day ecological concepts of dinoflagellate cysts might have suffered from so called "closed sum effects" and have been overprinted by early diagenetic processes. The dinoflagellate cyst association reflects both upper and bottom water circulation. Based on the relative abundance data four associations can be distinguished that are characteristic for the major oceanographic settings in the region. (1) River discharge association. This association consists of Echinidinium spp., Lejeunecysta sabrina, Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Polykrikos kofoidii, Polykrikos schwarzii, cysts of Protoperidinium stellatum, Selenopemphix quanta and reworked cysts. These species have high relative abundances in sites where bottom waters are low in oxygen and upper waters are influenced by river

  1. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito; Mudie, Petra J.; Marret, Fabienne; Aksu, Ali E.; Hiscott, Richard N.; Verleye, Thomas J.; Mousing, Erik A.; Smyrnova, Ludmila L.; Bagheri, Siamak; Mansor, Mashhor; Pospelova, Vera; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2012-04-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ˜14 ± 0.91 psu around 9.9 cal ka BP to a minimum ˜12.3 ± 0.91 psu around 8.5 cal ka BP, reaching current salinities of ˜17.1 ± 0.91 psu around 4.1 cal ka BP. The resolution of our sampling is about 250 years, and it fails to reveal a catastrophic salinization event at ˜9.14 cal ka BP advocated by other researchers. The dinoflagellate cyst salinity-proxy does not record large Holocene salinity fluctuations, and after early Holocene freshening, it shows correspondence to the regional sea-level curve of Brückner et al. (2010) derived from Balabanov (2007).

  2. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORDS AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN TWO NEIGHBORING ESTUARIES, NEW BEDFORD HARBOR AND APPONAGANSETT BAY, MASSACHUSETTS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay demonstrate sensitivity to environmental change caused by human activity in the watersheds over the last 500 years. Changes in the species richness, as well as absolute and relative abundan...

  3. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  4. Assessing strength and dynamics of the Oligocene Antarctic Circumpolar Current using organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, P.; Houben, A. J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Oligocene Epoch (33.9-23 Ma) is the time interval in the Cenozoic that saw the establishment of a continental-scale Antarctic ice-sheet. Numerical modelling studies suggest that alongside continental ice, first sea-ice conditions may have started along the East Antarctic Margin, but this conclusion lacks support from field evidence. Other numerical models predict that hysteresis effects within the ice sheet will make a continental-size Antarctic ice sheet rather insensitive to warming. In contrast, deep-water benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope records across the Oligocene suggest dramatic waxing and waning of Antarctic ice sheets. The role of opening of Southern Ocean Gateways on the process of building and sustaining Antarctic continental ice has been questioned in the past. Particularly uncertain is the timing of the installation of a strong Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), and the dynamics of its strength in the earlier phases of Gateway throughflow. Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 318 drilled the Antarctic Margin in 2010, and recovered sediments from the early phase of Antarctic glaciation. With this record, we can now evaluate the robustness of the results of the numerical models and the oceanographic changes with field data. Sediments recovered from Site U1356 yields a thick and relatively complete (albeit compromised by core gaps) Oligocene succession both of which are chrono-stratigraphically well-calibrated with use of nannoplankton- dinocyst- and magnetostratigraphy. Notably, this record yields well-preserved dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocysts are the fossilizable remains of dinoflagellates, some of which are today specifically linked to the high (seasonal) productivity of the ecosystems associated with sea-ice and oceanic fronts. In the earliest Oligocene, just after the onset of Antarctic glaciation, we document the installation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages that bear remarkable similarity with those of the present

  5. Late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic changes in the Northeast Pacific as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of the core MD02-2515. In this study, we document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages, three dinoflagellate cyst zones were established and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 1 to 3. MISs 1 and 3 are dominated by cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates, whereas MIS 2 is characterized by enhanced variability and a greater proportion of cysts produced by autotrophic taxa. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record where it is characterized by an increase in warm taxa, such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where warmer conditions are recorded and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of tropical species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium, and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations, and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes.

  6. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of millennial scale climatic and oceanographic variability in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, *Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2015-04-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in Late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of core MD02-2515. This is one of the first studies in the Northeast Pacific to document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the Late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages three major dinoflagellate cyst zones were established, and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages 1 to 3. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record, and is characterized by an increase in warm water taxa such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where cooler sea-surface conditions are not recorded, and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of warm water species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes. Keywords: Dansgaard-Oeschger events; dinoflagellate cyst; Gulf of California; late Quaternary climate change; upwelling; Younger Dryas.

  7. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates while this is an ecologically important group with a unique fossil record. We performed dilute batch experiments with four harmful dinoflagellate species known for their ability to form organic cysts: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations characterizing past, modern and projected future values (∼5-50 μmol L-1), representing atmospheric pCO2 of 180, 380, 800 and 1200 μatm. In all tested species, 13C fractionation depends on CO2 with a slope of up to 0.17‰ (μmol L)-1. Even more consistent correlations were found between 13C fractionation and the combined effects of particulate organic carbon quota (POC quota; pg C cell-1) and CO2. Carbon isotope fractionation as well as its response to CO2 is species-specific. These results may be interpreted as a first step towards a proxy for past pCO2 based on carbon isotope ratios of fossil organic dinoflagellate cysts. However, additional culture experiments focusing on environmental variables other than pCO2, physiological underpinning of the recorded response, testing for possible offsets in 13C values between cells and cysts, as well as field calibration studies are required to establish a reliable proxy.

  8. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance was twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.

  9. Dinoflagellate cysts and benthic foraminifera in surface sediments from the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, L.; Rubino, F.; Frontalini, F.; Belmonte, M.; Di Leo, A.; Giandomenico, S.; Greco, M.; Lirer, F.; Spada, L.; Vallefuoco, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal areas have traditionally been places of human settlement, with the increasing development of cities, industries and other human-related activities possibly having an impact on the aquatic ecosystem. These impacts may take the form of pollution from industrial, domestic, agricultural or mining activities. For this reason, attention to marine environmental problems has recently increased and the search for new methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of coastal-marine areas become more and more active and accurate. In this context biological indicators result a useful tool to provide indication of environmental conditions including the presence or absence of contaminants; in fact biological monitoring is more directly related to the ecological health of an ecosystem than are chemical data. The increasing importance of bioindicators is also encouraged within the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good ecological status in all European water bodies (i.e., rivers, lakes and coastal waters). Among the wide range of bioindicators, 5 biological elements are listed within the WFD: phytoplankton, macroalgae, angiosperms, benthic invertebrates and fishes. Benthic invertebrates as foraminifera represent a group of protozoa widely distributed in all brackish and marine environments which are used in studies assessing the environmental quality of areas subject to intense human activity. Moreover in coastal marine environments benthic and pelagic domain present several relationships, one of these is represented by the life cycles of phytoplankton species, as Dinoflagellates, which include the production of benthic stages (cysts). These dormant stages, which accumulate in confined marine muddy areas, such as ports, lagoons or estuaries, can reach high densities, similar to the seed banks of terrestrial plants. The cysts have a high preservation potential and can rest in/on the sediments for decades. Due to this peculiar

  10. A magneto- and chemostratigraphically calibrated dinoflagellate cyst zonation of the early Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-09-01

    Investigation of the early Palaeogene palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological evolution of the Polar Regions is hindered by the absence of calcite microfossils in sedimentary archives, which are conventionally the main dating tool. To overcome this problem, we have generated large datasets of organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages from Southern Ocean shelf sediments over the past decade, and we here calibrate these to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) using magnetostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy. This now for the first time allows a high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinocyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene (58-36 million years ago; Ma). We compile published dinocyst chronologies from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1171D on the South Tasman Rise, Hole 1172A/D on the East Tasman Plateau and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1356A on the Wilkes Land margin. Correlation to dinocyst zonations from New Zealand lead to revisions of the magnetostratigraphic age model at Holes 1171D and 1172A/D. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope records reveal the stratigraphic location of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~ 56 Ma) and the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (~ 40 Ma), respectively. The resulting zonation consists of thirteen dinocyst zones, calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), which can likely be applied to the entire Southern Ocean. Finally, we apply the revised stratigraphy to all published TEX86 data, a biomarker-based proxy for sea surface temperature (SST), from ODP Site 1172 to assess long-term climate evolution. This shows that Southwest Pacific SST trends mimic the global compilation of benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes even better than previously appreciated.

  11. Cold-Induced Cysts of the Photosynthetic Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Have an Arrested Circadian Bioluminescence Rhythm and Lower Levels of Protein Phosphorylation1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Letourneau, Louis; Morse, David

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic, eukaryotic, and primarily marine plankton. Temporary cyst formation is a well-known physiological response of dinoflagellate cells to environmental stresses. However, the molecular underpinnings of cold-induced cyst physiology have never been described. Cultures of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum readily form temporary cysts when placed at low (8°C ± 1°C) temperature and excyst to form normal motile cells following a return to normal temperature (18°C ± 1°C). The normal circadian bioluminescence rhythm and the expected changes in Luciferin Binding Protein abundance were arrested in L. polyedrum cysts. Furthermore, after excystment, the bioluminescence rhythm initiates at a time corresponding to zeitgeber 12, independent of the time when the cells encysted. Phosphoprotein staining after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as column-based phosphoprotein enrichment followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, showed cyst proteins are hypophosphorylated when compared with those from motile cells, with the most marked decreases found for predicted Casein Kinase2 target sites. In contrast to the phosphoproteome, the cyst proteome is not markedly different from motile cells, as assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to changes in the phosphoproteome, RNA sequencing revealed that cysts show a significant decrease in the levels of 132 RNAs. Of the 42 RNAs that were identified by sequence analysis, 21 correspond to plastid-encoded gene products and 11 to nuclear-encoded cell wall/plasma membrane components. Our data are consistent with a model in which the highly reduced metabolism in cysts is achieved primarily by alterations in the phosphoproteome. The stalling of the circadian rhythm suggests temporary cysts may provide an interesting model to address the circadian system of dinoflagellates. PMID:24335505

  12. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  13. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Sonja; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Willems, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoclimate leading to global cooling forming the precursor of the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (NHG). These climate changes are thought to be strongly controlled by oceanographic modifications although the nature of the relationship between ocean and climate change is far from clear. It has for instance been observed that in this time interval the modern deepwater circulation system; the thermohaline circulation was established. It is thought that tectonic events, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway, played a key role in the progressing of these Miocene oceanographic changes (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990; Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. A key region to study these interactions is the Caribbean region, notably the Ceara Rise since it is an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. Here we intent to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. For this, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 11 Ma, we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts suggesting enhanced productivity and better carbonate preservation that can be related to the intensification of NADW formation (Woodruff & Savin 1989). At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input increases. This could be a signal for the initiation of the

  14. The Benguela upwelling related to the Miocene cooling events and the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Sonja; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Bickert, Torsten; Willems, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Sediment samples from ODP Site 1085 were investigated in order to obtain more information on the initiation and development of the Benguela upwelling system during the middle and upper Miocene. In particular, our intent was to establish the causes of the upwelling as well as the response of the upwelling regime to the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Based on changes in the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst association, we found an initial increase of the dinoflagellate cyst productivity, probably related to the initiation of upwelling about 11.8 Ma ago. Two distinct increases in cyst productivity in conjunction with temperature decreases of the upper water masses reflect upwelling pulses off Namibia and occur at the end of the Miocene cooling events Mi5 (about 11.5 Ma) and Mi6 (about 10.5 Ma). Both cooling events are associated with an ice volume increase in Antarctica and are thought to have led to an increase in southeasterly winds, possibly causing these two upwelling pulses. We demonstrate a decrease in dinoflagellate cyst productivity and enhanced terrigenous input via the Orange River after the Mi5 event. At about 11.1 Ma, the dinoflagellate cyst productivity increases again. The polar cyst species Caracomia arctica occurs here for the first time. This implies an influence of subantarctic mode water and therefore a change in the quality of the upwelling water which allowed the Benguela upwelling to develop into modern conditions. From about 10.4 Ma, C. arctica forms a permanent part of the association, pointing to an establishment of the upwelling regime.

  15. The first record of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Upper Cretaceous of the Volga River Region.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, V S

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic position of the microproblematics previously considered to be Foraminifera or Calcisphaerulidae is established. The first record from Russia of calcareous cysts of Dinoflagellata is presented. The microfossils originate from the Maastrichtian siliceous clay of the Volga River Region. PMID:27021362

  16. Spatial distribution and viability of Alexandrium tamarense resting cysts in surface sediments from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Stéphanie; Roy, Suzanne; Starr, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 (as defined by Lilly et al., 2007) is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. In August 2008, a major bloom of A. tamarense developed in the SLE and caused major mortality of fish, seabirds and marine mammals notably in the vicinity of a marine park. Eleven months later, surface (0-5 cm) and deeper (5-10 cm) sediments were sampled to determine resting cysts concentrations, locate prospective cyst seedbeds and examine if these had changed following this major bloom. This information is thought to be important to understand inter-annual patterns in algal toxicity, cyst abundance being a good predictor of subsequent bloom magnitude in some regions. Surface cyst distribution was heterogeneous and it confirmed the location of the cyst seedbed previously reported on the north shore near the Manicouagan/aux-Outardes Rivers (>500 cysts cm-3). A zone of cyst accumulation was also observed on the south shore of the SLE (maximum of 1200 cysts cm-3), with higher concentrations relative to previous cyst mapping in the 1980s. A mismatch was observed between the zones with high surface cyst concentrations and those where the highest PSP toxins were detected (used as a proxy for vegetative cells in the water column). Cyst concentrations were negatively correlated with PSP levels from the same sites, suggesting that cysts were formed and deposited away from the major sites of toxicity. Deposition likely took place near the end of the bloom, once it had reached the eastern boundary of the SLE. PSP toxicity was worse near the peak of the bloom, which occurred westward of this region. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of local blooms, influenced by the estuarine and mesoscale circulation. Interestingly, the major bloom of August 2008 was not followed by particularly large cyst deposition or by any major bloom in 2009 in this region. Cyst viability

  17. Analysis of the hydrographic conditions and cyst beds in the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina, that favor dinoflagellate population development including toxigenic species and their toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krock, Bernd; Borel, C. Marcela; Barrera, Facundo; Tillmann, Urban; Fabro, Elena; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Ferrario, Martha; Garzón Cardona, John E.; Koch, Boris P.; Alonso, Cecilia; Lara, Rubén

    2015-08-01

    The overlay of cooler nutrient enriched Beagle-Magellan water with warmer nutrient depleted shelf water and a strong stratification of the water column in the San Jorge Gulf region, Argentina, coincided with relatively high dinoflagellate abundances in April 2012, up to 34,000 cells L- 1. This dinoflagellate proliferation was dominated by Ceratium spp., but environmental conditions also favored to a lesser amount the occurrence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, such as Alexandrium tamarense and Protoceratium reticulatum, whose toxins were hardly detected in any other areas along the expedition transect of the R/V Puerto Deseado between 38 and 56°S (Ushuaia-Mar del Plata) in March/April 2012. Generally vegetative cells of A. tamarense and P. reticulatum co-occurred with their respective phycotoxins in the water column and their cysts in the upper sediment layers. Two strains of A. tamarense were isolated from the bloom sample and morphologically characterized. Their PSP toxin profiles consisted of C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 and to a lesser amount of neosaxitoxin and confirmed earlier data from this region. The ratios between autotrophic picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were higher in shelf waters in the north than in Beagle-Magellan waters in the south of San Jorge Gulf.

  18. Warm mid-Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the southern Tethys Ocean and cool high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Arctic Ocean: asymmetric worldwide distribution of dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masure, Edwige; Desmares, Delphine; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Dealing with 87 articles and using a Geographical Information System, Masure and Vrielynck (2009) have mapped worldwide biogeography of 38 Late Albian dinoflagellate cysts and have demonstrated Cretaceous oceanic bioclimatic belts. For comparison 30 Aptian species derived from 49 studies (Masure et al., 2013) and 49 Cenomanian species recorded from 33 articles have been encountered. Tropical, Subtropical, Boreal, Austral, bipolar and cosmopolitan species have been identified and Cretaceous dinoflagellate biomes are introduced. Asymmetric distribution of Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian subtropical Tethyan species, from 40°N to 70°S, demonstrates asymmetric Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients with warm water masses in high latitudes of Southern Ocean. The SST gradients were stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. We note that Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian dinoflagellates restricted to subtropical and subpolar latitudes met and mixed at 35-40°N, while they mixed from 30°S to 70°S and from 50°S to 70°S respectively in the Southern Hemisphere. Mixing belts extend on 5° in the Northern Hemisphere and along 40° (Aptian) and 20° (Late Albian/Cenomanian) in the Southern one. The board southern mixing belt of Tethyan and Austral dinoflagellates suggest co-occurrence of warm and cold currents. We record climatic changes such as the Early Aptian cooler period and Late Aptian and Albian warming through the poleward migration of species constrained to cool water masses. These species sensitive to temperature migrated from 35°N to 55°N through the shallow Greenland-Norwergian Seaway connecting the Central Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. While Tethyan species did not migrate staying at 40°N. We suggest that the Greenland-Norwergian Seaway might has been a barrier until Late Albian/Cenomanian for oceanic Tethyan dinoflagellates stopped either by the shallow water column or temperature and salinity

  19. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the Southern Ocean during the Oligocene Icehouse: tracers for Antarctic Sea ice, productivity and oceanic frontal systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sangiorgi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The Oligocene Epoch (33.9-23 Ma) is the time interval in the Cenozoic that saw the establishment of a continental-scale Antarctic ice-sheet. Numerical modelling studies suggest that alongside, first sea-ice conditions may have started along the East Antarctic Margin. Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 318 drilled the Antarctic Margin in 2010, and recovered sediments from this early phase of Antarctic glaciation. With this record, we can now evaluate the robustness of the results of these numerical models with field data. Particularly the sediments recovered from Site U1356 yield a thick and relatively complete (albeit compromised by core gaps) Oligocene succession that is chronostratigraphically well-calibrated with use of nannoplankton- dinocyst- and magnetostratigraphy. Notably, this record yields well-preserved dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocysts are the fossilizable remains of dinoflagellates, some of which are today specifically linked to the high (seasonal) productivity of the ecosystems associated with sea-ice and oceanic fronts. Up to now, well-calibrated and complete records of dinocyst assemblages beyond the Pleistocene become progressively scarcer going further back in time. In the earliest Oligocene, just after the onset of Antarctic glaciation, we document the installation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages that bear remarkable similarity with those of the present-day Southern Ocean. We interpret this as a regime-shift in plankton communities in response to the installation of the seasonally highly productive sea-ice ecosystem. Following this initial installation, we document variable dinocyst assemblages during the remainder of the Oligocene. These patterns argue that changes in sea-ice extent, and/or the intensity of the vertical mixing of the water column occurred in response to the waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet and feedbacks. I will present a paleo-environmental reconstruction of the Oligocene Southern Ocean surface waters

  20. Potential distribution of the invasive freshwater dinoflagellate Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans (Dinophyta) in South America.

    PubMed

    Meichtry de Zaburlín, Norma; Vogler, Roberto E; Molina, María J; Llano, Víctor M

    2016-04-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium are predominantly found in marine environments, with a few species in inland waters. Over the last decades, the freshwater species Ceratium hirundinella and Ceratium furcoides have colonized and invaded several South American basins. The purpose of this study was to create a distribution model for the invasive dinoflagellate C. furcoides in South America in order to further investigate the basins at potential risk, as well as the environmental conditions that influence its expansion. This species is known to develop blooms due to its mobility, resistance to sedimentation, and optimized use of resources. Although nontoxic, blooms of the species cause many problems to both the natural ecosystems and water users. Potential distribution was predicted by using a maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt). Model was run with 101 occurrences obtained from the scientific literature, and climatic, hydrological and topographic variables. The developed model had a very good performance for the study area. The most susceptible areas identified were mainly concentrated in the basins between southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. Besides already affected regions, new potentially suitable areas were identified in temperate regions of South America. The information generated here will be useful for authorities responsible for water and watershed management to monitor the spread of this species and address problems related to its establishment in new environments. PMID:27037585

  1. Variability in surface water properties of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean related to the Miocene Cooling Events, evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent major climatic shifts to colder global temperatures. These periods of cooling (Mi-Events) were characterized by oxygen isotopic shifts that have been related to size changes of the Antarctic and Arctic ice-sheets (e.g. Miller et al., 1991, St. John, 2008). The start and development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) during this time-interval is of major interest, as it changed the atmospheric and oceanic circulation pattern which led to the initiation of upwelling off the south western African coast (Paulsen et al., 2007). However, the complex interaction between the initiation and development of the upwelling in the western South Atlantic and its interaction with the evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as well as the built-up of the Antarctic ice-sheet is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst associations. Within this study 53 samples were taken from sediment core ODP 175 1085A off the coast of Namibia and investigated by defining the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblage. The general cooling trend during the middle- and upper Miocene is clearly reflected in the dinocyst record by the decrease of species adapted to warm water conditions (Calciodinellum albatrosianum and Thoracosphaera heimii) and the appearance and increase of Caracomia arctica after ~ 11.1 Ma. C. arctica is a cold water species which today is only present south of the polar front. The concentration of C. arctica varies with a cyclicity of about 200-400 kyrs which reflects an eccentricity signal. We assume that observed changes in association such as the appearance of C. arctica can either be related to the initiation of the upwelling activity in the region, which is suggested to occur at ~11.6 Ma (Paulsen & Bickert 2007), or might be the

  2. Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Sandall, L. J.; Wysong, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 552 soybean fields in 20 counties in Nebraska in 1986-88 revealed 35 fields infested with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Identification was confirmed with a greenhouse bioassay, using 'Lee 74' soybean, and by the application of a DNA hybridization probe derived from SCN mitochondrial DNA. Most of the SCN-infested fields were located on the Missouri River floodplain and in the southeastern corner of the state. PMID:19287657

  3. Glacial-Interglacial, Orbital and Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle at Shackleton Site U1385 based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying Site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated (sub)millennial-scale (~600 year interval) dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from Shackleton Site U1385 (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity/upwelling over the last 152 kyrs. In addition, our approach allows for detailed land-sea correlations, because we also counted assemblages of pollen and spores from higher plants. Dinocyst SST and upwelling proxies, as well as warm/cold pollen proxies from Site U1385 show glacial-interglacial, orbital and stadial-interstadial climate variability and correlate very well to Uk'37, planktic foraminifer δ18O and Ca/Ti proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and Greenland Ice Core δ18O. The palynological proxies capture (almost) all Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the last glacial cycle, also before ~70 ka, where millennial-scale variability is overprinted by precession. We compare the performance and results of the palynology of Site U1385 to proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and conclude that palynology strengthens the potential of this site to form a multi-proxy reference section for millennial scale climate variability across the Pleistocene-Holocene. Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down

  4. Dinoflagellate cysts at the base of ODP Hole 911A (Yermak Plateau) indicate surface water warming during the Lower Pliocene or Upper Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Fabian, Karl; Husum, Katrine; Knies, Jochen; de Schepper, Stijn

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) analyses it is attempted to find the age of the sediments at the base of the drill core ODP Hole 911A, located at the Yermak Plateau, northwest of Svalbard. The dinocyst assemblages in this part of the core (503.6 and 503.7 mbsf) stand out from the rest of the analysed samples by being relatively diverse. Additionally, they contain a lot of reworked (Eocene and Cretaceous) dinocysts and other palynomorphs (spores and pollen). Unfortunately, there are few biostratigraphic markers and most of the species occur in both the Miocene and Pliocene. At present it is not possible to assign a high-resolution age to the base of the core based on dinocysts. However, the dinocysts at 503.6 and 503.7 mbsf. indicate an Early Pliocene or Upper Miocene age. The dinocysts indicate warm surface waters and ice-free conditions in the marginal areas of the Arctic Ocean. The occurrence of Operculodinium centrocarpum combined with the absence of species associated with sea-ice indicate North Atlantic Current activity and ice-free conditions. In addition, other species point toward warm surface waters (e.g. Lingulodinium machaerophorum indicating summer sea surface temperatures not below 12°C). Although it is not possible to detect any hiatus, or condensed sediment sequence at the base of the core, the dinocysts indicate very different sea surface conditions above 503.6 mbsf. compared to those below this stratigraphic level. This study is part of a collaboration project between the Geological Survey of Norway and the University of Oslo, and partly funded by the petroleum industry (Det Norske, Statoil and BG Norge).

  5. Differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in a cyclonic eddy confined in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monter, Erik; Monreal-Gómez, María. Adela; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Aldeco-Ramírez, Javier; Merino-Ibarra, Martín.

    2014-09-01

    The differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, was analyzed in summer of 2009, when a cyclonic eddy confined in the bay dominated the circulation. An uplift of the nutricline in the eddy drove high concentrations of nutrients to the euphotic layer. A differential phytoplankton distribution was observed to be associated with the eddy: there was an abundance of dinoflagellates close to the center of the cyclonic eddy, whereas diatoms were more abundant at the periphery. A significant inverse correlation (R = -0.62, p < 0.002) was found between the temperature at 25 m depth and the dinoflagellates abundance. Based on the temporal evolution of chlorophyll measured by MODIS satellite images, and a conceptual model proposed for the lifecycle of eddies, the cyclonic eddy may have been an old decaying structure. The effect of the cyclonic eddy on the phytoplankton distribution in this small semienclosed region was apparently similar to that found in larger eddies in the open ocean, but this is the first time such a differential distribution has been found associated to a confined eddy.

  6. The distribution of intra-genomically variable dinoflagellate symbionts at Lord Howe Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Pontasch, Stefanie; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2016-06-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellates of corals and other marine invertebrates ( Symbiodinium) are essential to the development of shallow-water coral reefs. This genus contains considerable genetic diversity and a corresponding range of physiological and ecological traits. Most genetic variation arises through the accumulation of somatic mutations that arise during asexual reproduction. Yet growing evidence suggests that occasional sexual reproductive events also occur within, and perhaps between, Symbiodinium lineages, further contributing to the pool of genetic variation available for evolutionary adaptation. Intra-genomic variation can therefore arise from both sexual and asexual reproductive processes, making it difficult to discern its underlying causes and consequences. We used quantitative PCR targeting the ITS2 locus to estimate proportions of genetically homogeneous symbionts and intra-genomically variable Symbiodinium (IGV Symbiodinium) in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis at Lord Howe Island, Australia. We then sampled colonies through time and at a variety of spatial scales to find out whether the distribution of these symbionts followed patterns consistent with niche partitioning. Estimated ratios of homogeneous to IGV Symbiodinium varied between colonies within sites (metres to tens of metres) and between sites separated by hundreds to thousands of metres, but remained stable within colonies through time. Symbiont ratios followed a temperature gradient, with the local thermal maximum emerging as a negative predictor for the estimated proportional abundance of IGV Symbiodinium. While this pattern may result from fine-scale spatial population structure, it is consistent with an increased susceptibility to thermal stress, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that generate IGV (such as inter-lineage recombination and the accumulation of somatic mutations at the ITS2 locus) may have important implications for the fitness of the symbiont and

  7. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  8. Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

    2013-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera. PMID:24210944

  9. Seasonality in the distribution of dinoflagellates with special reference to harmful algal species in tropical coastal environment, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gouri; Mohanty, A K; Samantara, M K; Satpathy, K K

    2014-10-01

    A study was carried out in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, to find out the seasonal variation in dinoflagellate community structure. Samples were collected for a period of 4 years during 2006-2010. During the study 69 species of dinoflagellates were encountered among which Ceratium furca and Prorocentrum micans were most common during all the seasons. Genus Ceratium was found to be the most diverse one with 23 species which was followed by genus Protoperidinium with 16 species. Of 69 species, 27 species were considered as dominant based on their abundance during pre-monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post-monsoon (POM) periods. Relatively high density and diversity of dinoflagellates were encountered during the PRM period as compared to the MON and POM periods. Abundance pattern of dinoflagellates for three seasons showed the following trend: PRM > POM > MON. Salinity showed a positive correlation with dinoflagellate community showing its importance in dinoflagellate growth and sustenance. Ammonia and phosphate developed negative correlation with dinoflagellate density indicating the utilization of these nutrients by the dinoflagellate community. The presence of three dinoflagellate associations, broadly representing the three seasons experienced at this location, was evident from the cluster analysis. The study revealed presence of 19 relatively abundant toxic/red tide forming dinoflagellate species in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam. PMID:25012144

  10. Spatial distribution of the phytoplankton in the White Sea during atypical domination of dinoflagellates (July 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyash, L. V.; Zhitina, L. S.; Belevich, T. A.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Pantyulin, A. N.; Tolstikov, A. V.; Chultsova, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The species composition and biomass of phytoplankton, concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and nutrients, and accompanying hydrophysical conditions have been studied in the White Sea on July 6-11, 2009. The temperature of the surface water layer was lower than the multiyear average in July. Dinoflagellates dominated in the entire studied area; this was not the typical event for July. We suggest that domination of dinoflagellates was caused by low water temperature, when the nutrient regeneration rate was insufficient to support diatom growth. The abundance of microalgae and the structure of the phytoplankton community depended on the water structure. Variations in the phytoplankton community structure were caused not by substitution of specific species but rather by variability of the abundance of a single species, Heterocapsa triquetra. The highest phytoplankton biomass has been recorded in weakly stratified waters, where tidal mixing supplied the income of inorganic nutrients. The income of nutrients to the photic layer was limited in the stratified waters of Dvina Bay during the summer low-water period, so the phytoplankton abundance was low. We suggest that the lens of surface desalinated water presumably originated from the outlet of the Dvina River was registered in the central part of the White Sea.

  11. Suspended Alexandrium spp. hypnozygote cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.

    2005-09-01

    The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.

  12. Application of 210Pb-derived sedimentation rates and dinoflagellate cyst analyses in understanding Pyrodinium bahamense harmful algal blooms in Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sombrito, E Z; Bulos, A dM; Sta Maria, E J; Honrado, M C V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Furio, Elsa F

    2004-01-01

    The number of areas affected by toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) in the Philippines has been increasing since its first recorded occurrence in 1983. Thus far, HAB has been reported in about 20 areas in the Philippines including major fishery production areas. The HAB-causing organism (Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum) produces a cyst during its life cycle. Pyrodinium cysts which are deposited in the sediment column may play a role in initiating a toxic bloom. 210Pb-derived sedimentation rate studies in the two important fishing grounds of Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Palawan have shown that Pyrodinium cysts may have been present in the sediment even before the first recorded toxic algal bloom in these areas. High sedimentation rates (approximately 1 cm/year) have been observed in the northern and western parts of Manila Bay. The results indicate that the sedimentation processes occurring in these bays would require subsurface cyst concentration analysis in evaluating the potential of an area to act as seed bed. PMID:15245847

  13. Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

    2012-12-01

    As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity

  14. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in Coastal Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Uehara, Keita; Shah, Md Mahfuzur Rahman; Suda, Shoichiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Background The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP): one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. Methods/Principal Finding A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006–2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8–D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2), two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi) and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8–D10 as

  15. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  16. Dinoflagellate biogeochemistry: developing new proxies for past carbon cycling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijs, A.; Hoins, M.; van de Waal, D.; Reichart, G.; Rost, B.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels for time intervals that are beyond the reach of the ice cores (> ~850 kyr) remain one of the grand challenges of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental research. Despite recent progress in analytical techniques and application in several proxies, uncertainties in reconstructed values remain large. Based on culturing experiments combined with gene expression analysis and physiological assays, we quantify and mechanistically underpin the geochemical response of dinoflagellates and their cysts to various CO2 concentrations. The results confirm theoretical inferences that the isotopic composition of both organic and calcite dinoflagellate cysts may serve as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry, notably pCO2. We found a strong effect (~10x as strong as in foraminifera) of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of a calcareous dinoflagellate cyst. Moreover, we found that the stable carbon isotopic composition of four dinoflagellate species, of which two have organic dinocyst fossil records down to the early Cenozoic and Cretaceous, strongly respond to pCO2. Critically, the experiments show that the mechanisms forcing the changes in fractionation factors differ between species, opening a suite of opportunities to study past carbon cycling as well as protist physiology during Earth System perturbations. The dinoflagellate Apectodinium dominated dinoflagellate assemblages during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Will its carbon isotopic composition reveal CO2 concentrations at that time?

  17. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457. PMID:27009990

  18. Sedimentary Records of Harmful Bloom-Producing Dinoflagellates from Alvarado Lagoon (Southwestern Gulf of Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, A.; Mertens, K. N.; ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sánchez Cabeza, J. A.; de Vernal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages were studied from a sediment core collected in Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico) in order to evaluate their use as tracers of toxic algal blooms. The sedimentary record spans the last ~560 years (CE) and shows high abundances of Polysphaeridium zoharyi, the cyst of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, which is known to cause toxic blooms. Cyst fluxes in the sediment of the Alvarado lagoon suggest frequent blooms of Pyrodinium bahamense in the past hundreds of years. Moreover, the high concentrations of the cysts (~ 4000 cysts g-1) in the "modern" surface sediment reveal that the area is susceptible to be affected by future blooms, especially during seasons of heavy rain and wind, when cysts are resuspended in the water column. The dinoflagellate cyst bank in sediment deserves special attention as it may constitute a source for the export of cells in adjacent regions. The cyst of other harmful dinoflagellates have been recovered in the sediment. They notably include those of the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum, which is here reported for the first time.

  19. Distribution patterns and biomass estimates of diatoms and autotrophic dinoflagellates in the NE Atlantic during June and July 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yallop, M. L.

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microphytoplankton communities were determined from samples collected in the northeast Atlantic Ocean in the early summer of 1996 during the PRIME Cruise of the RRS Discovery. A combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques was used to determine the species composition of two of the main groups of phytoplankton: Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyta. Two series of samples were collected; the first set of samples was collected between 18 and 29 June 1996 during a Lagrangian time-series study in the vicinity of 59°N 20°W tracking a mesoscale cold-core eddy; the second set of samples was collected between 4 and 10 July 1996 during a transect along the 20°W meridian from 59 to 37°N. A total of 155 samples were analysed over various depths down to 150 m, and 78 phytoplankton species were identified. Samples taken during the Lagrangian time-series study were dominated by diatom species, including Ephemera planamembranacea and Pseudo-nitzschia species, whilst the main representative of the microphytoplankton dinoflagellates was Ceratium fusus. On the transect, several Ceratium species were common, including C. furca C. fusus, and C. lineatum, and three other autotrophic dinoflagellates were frequent including Prorocentrum minimum, Oxytoxum scolopax and Gonyaulax polygramma. A number of diatoms dominated the profiles along the transect including Leptocylindrus mediterraneus, Thalassiosira oestrupii, and representatives of the genera Haslea and Pseudo-nitzschia. Standing stocks of both groups were low and typical of post-bloom carbon levels. Diatom biomass exceeded that of dinoflagellate biomass in the eddy although the reverse situation was seen in the more southerly stations along the transect. Maximum abundances of the dinoflagellate communities were situated in the surface waters within the mixed layer, while depth maxima of certain diatoms were noted at around 40 m below the depth of the mixed layer

  20. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24865274

  1. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts ... cyst often contains a small amount of blood. Ovarian cysts are more common in the childbearing years between ...

  2. Alexandrium fundyense cyst dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Stock, Charles A.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Bronzino Nelson, Amy; Thompson, Brian; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Keller, Maureen; Matrai, Patricia A.; Martin, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    The flux of cells from germinated cysts is critical in the population dynamics of many dinoflagellates. Here, data from a large-scale cyst survey are combined with surveys in other years to yield an Alexandrium fundyense cyst distribution map for the Gulf of Maine that is massive in geographic extent and cyst abundance. The benthic cyst population extends nearly 500 km alongshore. Embedded within it are several distinct accumulation zones or "seedbeds," each 3000-5000 km 2 in area. Maximal cyst abundances range from 2-20×10 6 cysts m -2. Cysts are equally or more abundant in deeper sediment layers; nearshore, cysts are fewer by a factor of 10 or more. This cyst distribution reflects sedimentary dynamics and the location of blooms in overlying surface waters. The flux of germinated cells from sediments was estimated using a combination of laboratory measurements of cyst germination and autofluorescence and observations of cyst autofluorescence in the field. These measurements constrained a germination function that, when applied to the cyst distribution map, provided an estimate of the germination inoculum for a physical/biological numerical model. In the laboratory studies, virtually all cysts incubated at different temperatures and light regimes became autofluorescent, but the rate of development was slower at lower temperatures, with no difference between light and dark incubations. Germination rates were highest at elevated temperatures, and were 2-fold greater in the light than in the dark. Laboratory and field fluorescence measurements suggest that>70% of the cysts in the top cm of sediment would germinate over a 60-90 day period in offshore waters. The combination of laboratory germination experiments and numerical modeling predicts nearly 100% germination of cysts in the top cm of sediment and resulting early season cell concentrations that are comparable in magnitude to observed cell distributions. It cannot account for late-season peaks in cell abundance

  3. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    PubMed Central

    Pilskaln, C.H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B.A.; Anderson, D.M.; McGillicuddy, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50–60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m−3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016 . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region. PMID:25419055

  4. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilskaln, C. H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B. A.; Anderson, D. M.; McGillicuddy, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50-60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m-3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016. Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region.

  5. Dinoflagellates in a mesotrophic, tropical environment influenced by monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Chandrashekar Anil, Arga; Patil, Jagadish S.; Hegde, Sahana; D'Silva, Maria Shamina; Chourasia, Molji

    2008-03-01

    The changes in dinoflagellate community structure in both - the water column and sediment in a mesotrophic, tropical port environment were investigated in this study. Since the South West Monsoon (SWM) is the main source of climatic variation, observations were made during two consecutive post-monsoon periods (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon period (2002). The pre-monsoon period supported a more diverse dinoflagellate community in the water column compared to both post-monsoon periods. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were abundant in the water column as well as sediment. A seasonal cycling between vegetative and resting cysts of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates governed by the environmental characteristics of the study area was observed. Temperature, salinity and suspended particulate matter were the main factors affecting dinoflagellate community structure in both the water column and sediment. The dominant dinoflagellates in the water column differed during both post-monsoon periods that followed two dissimilar monsoon events. Prorocentroids and gonyaulacoids dominated the water column subsequent to the 2001 SWM, whereas dinophysoids and unidentified tiny dinoflagellates dominated during the next post-monsoon period. The 2001 SWM started in May, peaked during June-July and reduced gradually to end in October. The 2002 SWM was erratic; it started late (in June) and ended earlier (in September). These observations highlight the potential of the SWM to influence the community structure of dinoflagellates in tropical waters and points to the importance of long-term studies to discern robust variations in dinoflagellate communities in response to fluctuating monsoon regimes.

  6. Circadian rhythm of a red-tide dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum in the port of Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico, its thecal morphology, nomenclature and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Okolodkov, Yuri B; Campos-Bautista, Guadalupe; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael

    2016-07-15

    A circadian rhythm of the dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum was studied at a time-series station in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in May 2007. Different substrates (water column, the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, macroalgae, coral rubble and sandy sediment surface) were sampled at the site at 1.5-3.5m depth. In the samples of coral rubble, P. quadridentatum was scarce. In the water column, the species showed an abundance peak at 15:00. The cell abundance of P. quadridentatum in Thalassia samples increased from 15:00 until 18:00 (1.81×10(4)cells/gsubstratewet weight), and then continuously decreased until 06:00. Changes in P. quadridentatum cell abundance on macroalgae followed the same trend as on Thalassia, with the maximal value at 18:00. The higher abundance of P. quadridentatum (up to 1.40×10(4)cells/gSWW) in macroalgae samples showed the preference for seaweeds. P. quadridentatum has a neritic tropical-boreal distribution. A new combination is proposed: Peridinium quadridentatum var. trispiniferum. PMID:27197764

  7. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ075 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Ovarian Cysts • What is an ovarian cyst? • What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts? • How are ovarian cysts diagnosed? • How are ovarian ...

  8. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. PMID:26725189

  9. Marine dinoflagellates show induced life-history shifts to escape parasite infection in response to water-borne signals.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gunilla B; Norén, Fredrik; Selander, Erik; Pavia, Henrik

    2004-04-01

    Many dinoflagellate species form dormant resting cysts as a part of their life cycle, and in some freshwater species, hatching of these cysts can be delayed by the presence of water-borne signals from grazing zooplankton. Some marine dinoflagellates can form temporary cysts, which may function to resist unfavourable short-term environmental conditions. We investigated whether the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is able to induce an increased resistance to the parasitic flagellate Parvilucifera infectans by forming temporary cysts. We performed several laboratory experiments where dinoflagellates were exposed either to direct contact with parasites or to filtered water from cultures of parasite-infected conspecifics (parasite-derived signals). Infection by P. infectans is lethal to motile A. ostenfeldii cells, but temporary cysts were more resistant to parasite infection. Furthermore, A. ostenfeldii induced a shift in life-history stage (from motile cells to temporary cysts) when exposed to parasite-derived water-borne signals. The response was relaxed within a couple of hours, indicating that A. ostenfeldii may use this behaviour as a short-term escape mechanism to avoid parasite infection. The results suggest that intraspecies chemical communication evoked by biotic interactions can be an important mechanism controlling life-history shifts in marine dinoflagellates, which may have implications for the development of toxic algal blooms. PMID:15209107

  10. Environmental forcings of Paleogene Southern Ocean dinoflagellate biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Pross, Jörg; Warnaar, Jeroen; Stickley, Catherine E.; Huber, Matthew; Guerstein, Raquel; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sluijs, Appy; Visscher, Henk; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2011-02-01

    Despite warm polar climates and low meridional temperature gradients, a number of different high-latitude plankton assemblages were, to varying extents, dominated by endemic species during most of the Paleogene. To better understand the evolution of Paleogene plankton endemism in the high southern latitudes, we investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of the fossil remains of dinoflagellates, i.e., organic-walled cysts (dinocysts), and their response to changes in regional sea surface temperature (SST). We show that Paleocene and early Eocene (˜65-50 Ma) Southern Ocean dinocyst assemblages were largely cosmopolitan in nature but that a distinct switch from cosmopolitan-dominated to endemic-dominated assemblages (the so-called “transantarctic flora”) occurred around the early-middle Eocene boundary (˜50 Ma). The spatial distribution and relative abundance patterns of this transantarctic flora correspond well with surface water circulation patterns as reconstructed through general circulation model experiments throughout the Eocene. We quantitatively compare dinocyst assemblages with previously published TEX86-based SST reconstructions through the early and middle Eocene from a key locality in the southwest Pacific Ocean, ODP Leg 189 Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. We conclude that the middle Eocene onset of the proliferation of the transantarctic flora is not linearly correlated with regional SST records and that only after the transantarctic flora became fully established later in the middle Eocene, possibly triggered by large-scale changes in surface-ocean nutrient availability, were abundances of endemic dinocysts modulated by regional SST variations.

  11. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office ...

  12. BAKER'S CYST

    PubMed Central

    Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule). PMID:27027065

  13. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome . Symptoms Ovarian cysts often cause no symptoms. An ... You may need other treatments if you have polycystic ovary syndrome or another disorder that can cause cysts. Outlook ( ...

  14. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance

  15. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Keafer, Bruce A; Kleindinst, Judith L; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Martin, Jennifer L; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H; Smith, Juliette L; Sherwood, Christopher R; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm(-3)) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance

  16. An Illustrated Key to the Cyst-Forming Genera and Species of Heteroderidae in the Western Hemisphere with Species Morphometrics and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, R. H.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1983-01-01

    Diagnoses of the cyst-forming genera of Heteroderidae (viz., Heterodera, Sarisodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Cactodera, and Dolichodera) and distribution and morphometrics of the 34 known cyst species in the Western Hemisphere are presented along with an illustrated key for the identification of these genera and species. The key is based mainly on cysts and larvae, and important morphological and diagnostic features are extensively shown by LM and SEM illustrations. The genus Bidera is placed as a new synonym under the genus Heterodera. PMID:19295764

  17. Patterns of Toxoplasma gondii cyst distribution in the forebrain associate with individual variation in predator odor avoidance and anxiety-related behavior in male Long-Evans rats

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Andrew K.; Strassmann, Patrick S.; Lee, I-Ping; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the world’s most successful brain parasites. T. gondii engages in parasite manipulation of host behavior and infection has been epidemiologically linked to numerous psychiatric disorders. Mechanisms by which T. gondii alters host behavior are not well understood, but neuroanatomical cyst presence and the localized host immune response to cysts are potential candidates. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that T. gondii manipulation of specific host behaviors is dependent on neuroanatomical location of cysts in a time-dependent function post-infection. We examined neuroanatomical cyst distribution (53 forebrain regions) in infected rats after predator odor aversion behavior and anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and open field arena, across a 6-week time course. In addition, we examined evidence for microglial response to the parasite across the time course. Our findings demonstrate that while cysts are randomly distributed throughout the forebrain, individual variation in cyst localization, beginning 3 weeks post-infection, can explain individual variation in the effects of T. gondii on behavior. Additionally, not all infected rats develop cysts in the forebrain, and attenuation of predator odor aversion and changes in anxiety-related behavior are linked with cyst presence in specific forebrain areas. Finally, the immune response to cysts is striking. These data provide the foundation for testing hypotheses about proximate mechanisms by which T. gondii alters behavior in specific brain regions, including consequences of establishment of a homeostasis between T. gondii and the host immune response. PMID:24269877

  18. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: Long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e

  19. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004–2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3–4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0–1 and the 0–3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0–3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell

  20. Arachnoid Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Arachnoid Cysts Information Page Synonym(s): Intracranial Cysts Table of Contents ( ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What are Arachnoid Cysts? Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that ...

  1. The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for the Behavioral Manipulation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Berenreiterová, Miroslava; Flegr, Jaroslav; Kuběna, Aleš A.; Němec, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii reportedly manipulates rodent behavior to enhance the likelihood of transmission to its definitive cat host. The proximate mechanisms underlying this adaptive manipulation remain largely unclear, though a growing body of evidence suggests that the parasite-entrained dysregulation of dopamine metabolism plays a central role. Paradoxically, the distribution of the parasite in the brain has received only scant attention. Methodology/Principal Findings The distributions of T. gondii cysts and histopathological lesions in the brains of CD1 mice with latent toxoplasmosis were analyzed using standard histological techniques. Mice were infected per orally with 10 tissue cysts of the avirulent HIF strain of T. gondii at six months of age and examined 18 weeks later. The cysts were distributed throughout the brain and selective tropism of the parasite toward a particular functional system was not observed. Importantly, the cysts were not preferentially associated with the dopaminergic system and absent from the hypothalamic defensive system. The striking interindividual differences in the total parasite load and cyst distribution indicate a probabilistic nature of brain infestation. Still, some brain regions were consistently more infected than others. These included the olfactory bulb, the entorhinal, somatosensory, motor and orbital, frontal association and visual cortices, and, importantly, the hippocampus and the amygdala. By contrast, a consistently low incidence of tissue cysts was recorded in the cerebellum, the pontine nuclei, the caudate putamen and virtually all compact masses of myelinated axons. Numerous perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrations of inflammatory cells were observed, but they were not associated with intracellular cysts. Conclusion/Significance The observed pattern of T. gondii distribution stems from uneven brain colonization during acute infection and explains numerous behavioral

  2. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. They are usually characterized as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water- ... of the time, they are simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water- ...

  3. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the cysts ... failure, dialysis or kidney transplants. Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) usually happens in people who are on ...

  4. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... or is protruding from the vagina. It is important to contact your provider for an exam for any cyst or mass you notice. Alternative Names Inclusion cyst; Gartner duct cyst Images Female reproductive anatomy Uterus Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) References Baggish ...

  5. Myxoid Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... question & answer discussion forum widgets for professionals dermatology education rash and rashes clinical tools ... These cysts form in the middle aged and the elderly. Overview A myxoid cyst, also known as a digital mucous cyst or pseudocyst, is a growth usually ...

  6. Epidermoid Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... epidermis) grows into the middle layer of the skin (dermis). This may occur due to injury or blocked hair follicles. The lesion may be ... the cyst. However, this is a temporary measure. After this treatment, a cyst will refill with the cheesy contents because the lining of the cyst has not been removed. ... Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp. ...

  7. Molecular Detection of Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates in Surface Waters of the Patagonian Shelf during Early Austral Summer 2008

    PubMed Central

    Valiadi, Martha; Painter, Stuart C.; Allen, John T.; Balch, William M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in the Patagonian Shelf region using “universal” PCR primers for the dinoflagellate luciferase gene. Luciferase gene sequences and single cell PCR tests, in conjunction with taxonomic identification by microscopy, allowed us to identify and quantify bioluminescent dinoflagellates. We compared these data to coincidental discrete optical measurements of stimulable bioluminescence intensity. Molecular detection of the luciferase gene showed that bioluminescent dinoflagellates were widespread across the majority of the Patagonian Shelf region. Their presence was comparatively underestimated by optical bioluminescence measurements, whose magnitude was affected by interspecific differences in bioluminescence intensity and by the presence of other bioluminescent organisms. Molecular and microscopy data showed that the complex hydrography of the area played an important role in determining the distribution and composition of dinoflagellate populations. Dinoflagellates were absent south of the Falkland Islands where the cold, nutrient-rich, and well-mixed waters of the Falklands Current favoured diatoms instead. Diverse populations of dinoflagellates were present in the warmer, more stratified waters of the Patagonian Shelf and Falklands Current as it warmed northwards. Here, the dinoflagellate population composition could be related to distinct water masses. Our results provide new insight into the prevalence of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in Patagonian Shelf waters and demonstrate that a molecular approach to the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in natural waters is a promising tool for ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:24918444

  8. Molecular detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Patagonian shelf during early austral summer 2008.

    PubMed

    Valiadi, Martha; Painter, Stuart C; Allen, John T; Balch, William M; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M Debora

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in the Patagonian Shelf region using "universal" PCR primers for the dinoflagellate luciferase gene. Luciferase gene sequences and single cell PCR tests, in conjunction with taxonomic identification by microscopy, allowed us to identify and quantify bioluminescent dinoflagellates. We compared these data to coincidental discrete optical measurements of stimulable bioluminescence intensity. Molecular detection of the luciferase gene showed that bioluminescent dinoflagellates were widespread across the majority of the Patagonian Shelf region. Their presence was comparatively underestimated by optical bioluminescence measurements, whose magnitude was affected by interspecific differences in bioluminescence intensity and by the presence of other bioluminescent organisms. Molecular and microscopy data showed that the complex hydrography of the area played an important role in determining the distribution and composition of dinoflagellate populations. Dinoflagellates were absent south of the Falkland Islands where the cold, nutrient-rich, and well-mixed waters of the Falklands Current favoured diatoms instead. Diverse populations of dinoflagellates were present in the warmer, more stratified waters of the Patagonian Shelf and Falklands Current as it warmed northwards. Here, the dinoflagellate population composition could be related to distinct water masses. Our results provide new insight into the prevalence of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in Patagonian Shelf waters and demonstrate that a molecular approach to the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in natural waters is a promising tool for ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:24918444

  9. Immunological and physiological responses of the periwinkle Littorina littorea during and after exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Neves, Raquel A F; Figueiredo, Gisela M; Valentin, Jean Louis; da Silva Scardua, Patricia Mirella; Hégaret, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produce phycotoxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Blooms of Alexandrium minutum reach very high concentrations of vegetative cells in the water column; and when these blooms occur, large numbers of toxic cysts can be produced and deposited on sediments becoming available to benthic species. The present study investigated the potential effect of exposure to toxic cysts of A. minutum on the periwinkle Littorinalittorea. Snails were exposed for nine days to pellicle cysts of toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates, A. minutum and Heterocapsa triquetra, respectively, followed by six days of depuration while they were fed only H. triquetra. Toxin accumulation, condition index, immune and histopathological responses were analyzed. Histological alterations were also monitored in snails exposed to a harmful A. minutum bloom, which naturally occurred in the Bay of Brest. Snails exposed to toxic cysts showed abnormal behavior that seems to be toxin-induced and possibly related to muscle paralysis. Periwinkles accumulated toxins by preying on toxic cysts and accumulation appeared dependent on the time of exposure, increasing during intoxication period but tending to stabilize during depuration period. Toxic exposure also seemed to negatively affect hemocyte viability and functions, as ROS production and phagocytosis. Histological analyses revealed that toxic exposure induced damages on digestive organs of snails, both in laboratory and natural systems. This study demonstrates that an exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum leads to sublethal effects on L. littorea, which may alter individual fitness and increase the susceptibility of snails to pathogens and diseases. PMID:25621399

  10. Urethroid cyst.

    PubMed

    Paslin, D

    1983-01-01

    Cysts found on the ventral surface of the penis have been pathogenetically ascribed to defective embryologic closure of the median raphe, to anomalous developmental rests of the periurethral glands of Littre, and to the ectopic development of apocrine cystadenoma in the penile skin. This case reports a previously unrecognized but compelling pathogenesis for at least some ventral penile cysts, namely the anomalous congenital outgrowth of the entodermal urethral lining, giving rise to what is here designated as a urethroid cyst. PMID:6849573

  11. Using Gordiid cysts to discover the hidden diversity, potential distribution,
    and new species of Gordiids (Phylum Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Harkins, Cleo; Shannon, Ryan; Papeş, Monica; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sampled aquatic snails for the presence of hairworm cysts from 46 streams in Payne County, Oklahoma. Gordiid cysts were found at 70 % (32/46) of sites examined. Based on cyst morphology, we were able to identify three morphological types of gordiid cysts, including Paragordius, Gordius, and Chordodes/Neochordodes. Using our gordiid cyst presence data in conjunction with environmental variables, we developed an ecological niche model using Maxent to identify areas suitable for snail infections with gordiids. The model successfully predicted all presence localities of gordiid cysts in snails over a geographic area of 1,810 km2. We used this information, along with arthropod host infections and crowdsourcing, citizen scientists sampling for adult free-living worms during peak emergent times in areas predicted suitable by the model, to document Paragordius varius, Chordodes morgani, and a new species of gordiid (Gordius n. sp.). To our knowledge, this is the first ecological niche model attempted on such a narrow geographic scale (county level) that recovered known locations successfully. We provide new scanning electron micrographs and molecular data for these species. Our field data and ecological niche model clearly indicate that gordiid cysts are easy to detect in the environment and together these sampling techniques can be useful in discovering new species of gordiids, even in relatively well sampled areas for these cryptic parasites. PMID:27394355

  12. Cob gene pyrosequencing enables characterization of benthic dinoflagellate diversity and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; Neilan, Brett A; Brown, Mark V; Hoppenrath, Mona; Murray, Shauna A

    2014-02-01

    Dinoflagellates in marine benthic habitats living epiphytically on macroalgae are an important but highly understudied group of protists. Many produce toxins that can have severe economic impacts on marine-based economies, and improved monitoring tools are required to enhance the management of toxin-related hazards. We analysed the distribution and diversity of epibenthic dinoflagellates inhabiting eight sites in Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Broome and Exmouth, Western Australia. We used pyrosequencing approaches based on two DNA barcoding marker genes - 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) - and compared these to an approach based on clone libraries (197 sequences) using the cob gene. Dinoflagellate sequences accounted for 133 [64 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU)] out of 10 529 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from all samples. However, using the dinoflagellate specific assay targeting the cob gene marker, we obtained 9748 (1217 unique OTU) dinoflagellate sequences from the same environmental samples, providing the largest, to date, set of dinoflagellate cob gene sequences and reliable estimates of total dinoflagellate richness within the samples and biogeographic comparisons between samples. This study also reports the presence of potentially toxic species of the genera Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, Coolia, Prorocentrum and Amphidinium from the above-mentioned geographical regions. PMID:24147781

  13. Putting the N in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2013-01-01

    The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic data to assess the mechanism and impact of nitrogen metabolism in dinoflagellates and to compare the dinoflagellate responses with those of diatoms. PMID:24363653

  14. Tarlov Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the herpes simplex virus, which thrives in an alkaline environment, can cause Tarlov cysts to become symptomatic. Making the body less alkaline, through diet or supplements, may lessen symptoms. Microsurgical ...

  15. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  16. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  17. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  18. Unique carotenoid lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. of dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a large group of unicellular alge in marine and fresh water. Some are an endosymbiont of marine animals. Photosynthetic dinoflagellates have peridinin, a light-harvesting carotenoid. In addition, a unique carotenoid, P457, was found from Amphinidium. The presence of P457 in Symbiodinium derived from marine animals has not been reported. We reconfirmed the molecular structure of P457, a neoxanthin-like carotenoid with an aldehyde group and a lactoside, from Symbiodinium sp. NBRC 104787 isolated from a sea anemone. In addition, we investigated the distribution of P457 and peridinin in various Symbiodinium and scleractinian coral species, and possible biosynthetic pathways of these carotenoids are proposed. PMID:22428117

  19. Choledochal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Singham, Janakie; Yoshida, Eric M.; Scudamore, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Much about the etiology, pathophysiology, natural course and optimal treatment of cystic disease of the biliary tree remains under debate. Gastroenterologists, surgeons and radiologists alike still strive to optimize their roles in the management of choledochal cysts. To that end, much has been written about this disease entity, and the purpose of this 3-part review is to organize the available literature and present the various theories currently argued by the experts. In part 1, we discuss the background of the disease, describing the etiology, classification, pathogenesis and malignant potential of choledochal cysts. PMID:19865581

  20. Ocean Acidification Reduces Growth and Calcification in a Marine Dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii. PMID:23776586

  1. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Georgi K.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed. PMID:26646152

  2. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  3. Biliary cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, P D

    1975-01-01

    This review brings the total number of biliary cysts reported in the world literature to 955. Eighty-one per cent of patients are females and 61% were discovered before age ten. The classical triad of right upper quadrant pain, right upper quandrant mass, and juandice is present in 38% of cases. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from less than one week to more than 40 years. The etiology is multifaceted and evidence of the existence of both acquired and congenital cysts is presented. The most useful diagnostic tool is fiberoptic endoscopy with retrograde contrast injection of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. The incidence of biliary carcinoma in patients with biliary cysts is found to be 2.5%; 24 cases have been reported. Considerable controversy has existed concerning the best operative procedure for biliary cysts; no treatment or medical treatment yielding a 97% mortality rate. In an analysis of 235 patients presented since 1968 with an average followup of 5.2 years, the best procedure appears to be excision with either choledochocholedocostomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative mortality for all procedures is now 3 to 4%. PMID:1103760

  4. 13C fractionation of dinoflagellates - a new proxy for past CO2 levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoins, M.; Van de Waal, D. B.; Eberlein, T.; Reichart, G.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2012-12-01

    Reliable reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels prior to ~1 million years ago are required to quantify climate sensitivity as well as ocean acidification in response to past carbon cycle perturbations. Despite recent progress, however, uncertainties in reconstructed values especially from the Paleogene and older, are still very large. We aim to develop a new proxy for CO2 concentrations based on the carbon isotopic fractionation of autotrophic marine dinoflagellates. Dinoflagellates feature RubisCO (type II) with the lowest CO2 affinity of all eukaryote phytoplankton, which makes this group inherently sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry. Along with growth and carbon production also the 13C versus 12C incorporation, i.e., the 13C fractionation (ɛp), will likely be affected. Hence, the carbon isotopic composition of dinoflagellates may ultimately reflect the prevailing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Crucially, microfossils of dinoflagellates, i.e. organic dinoflagellate cysts, have been recovered from ocean sediments as old as the Triassic (i.e. ~215 Ma BP). We performed dilute batch experiments with four dinoflagellate species: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at various CO2 concentrations representing the Last Glacial Maximum (180 ppm), present day (380 ppm), and future projections (and estimates for distant past levels; 950 ppm and 1400 ppm). Consistent with expectations, ɛp increased with CO2 concentration in all four species (with a slope of up to 0.19 ‰ μM-1), while growth and carbon production (μc) had little effect. ɛp in relation to CO2 varied between species and strains, but the relation of ɛp to μc/CO2 was more consistent. First results of underlying processes affecting ɛp, including carbon acquisition and leakage, will be discussed. Considering that the cysts of P. reticulatum (Operculodinium centrocarpum) and G. spinifera (Spiniferites sp.) are

  5. Middle Eocene paleocirculation of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, the anteroom to an ice-house world: evidence from dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raquel Guerstein, G.; Daners, Gloria; Palma, Elbio; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Premaor, Eduardo; Amenábar, Cecilia R.; Belgaburo, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene dinoflagellate cyst organic walled assemblages from sections located in the Antarctic Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz province and south of Chile are mainly represented by endemic taxa, which are also dominant in several circum - Antarctic sites located southern 45° S. Some members of this endemic Antarctic assemblage, including especies of Enneadocysta, Deflandrea, Vozzhennikovia, and Spinidinium, have been recognised in sites along the Southwest Atlantic Ocean Shelf at Colorado (˜38° S), Punta del Este (˜36° S) and Pelotas (˜30° S) basins. Northern 30° S, at Jequitinhonha (˜17oS) and Sergipe (˜11° S) basins, there is no evidence of the endemic Antarctic members, except for Enneadocysta dictyostila, recorded in very low proportion. Based on its positive correlation with CaCO3 percentages we assume that this species is the unique member of the endemic assemblage apparently tolerant to warm surface waters. Previous research developed in the Tasman area has related the presence of endemic taxa at mid- latitudes to a strong clockwise subpolar gyre favoured by the partial continental blockage of the Tasmanian Gateways and the Drake Passage. In this work we propose that the dinoflagellate cyst distribution along the South Atlantic Ocean Shelf can be explained by a similar dynamical mechanism induced by a cyclonic subpolar gyre on the South Atlantic Ocean. The western boundary current of this gyre, starting on the west Antarctic continental slope, would follow a similar path to the present Malvinas Current on the Patagonian slope. Modelling and observational studies at the Patagonian shelf-break have shown that a cyclonic western boundary current promotes upwelling and intrusion of cold oceanic waters to the shelf and intensifies the northward shelf transport. In a similar way we hypothesize that during the Middle Eocene the western boundary current of a proto-Weddell Gyre transported the circum-antarctic waters and the endemic components

  6. Do All Dinoflagellates have an Extranuclear Spindle?

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunyoung; Nam, Seung Won; Shin, Woongghi; Park, Myung Gil; Coats, D Wayne

    2015-11-01

    The syndinean dinoflagellates are a diverse assemblage of alveolate endoparasites that branch basal to the core dinoflagellates. Because of their phylogenetic position, the syndineans are considered key model microorganisms in understanding early evolution in the dinoflagellates. Closed mitosis with an extranuclear spindle that traverses the nucleus in cytoplasmic grooves or tunnels is viewed as one of the morphological features shared by syndinean and core dinoflagellates. Here we describe nuclear morphology and mitosis in the syndinean dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp. from Akashiwo sanguinea, a member of the A. ceratii complex, as revealed by protargol silver impregnation, DNA specific fluorochromes, and transmission electron microscopy. Our observations show that not all species classified as dinoflagellates have an extranuclear spindle. In Amoebophrya sp. from A. sanguinea, an extranuclear microtubule cylinder located in a depression in the nuclear surface during interphase moves into the nucleoplasm via sequential membrane fusion events and develops into an entirely intranuclear spindle. Results suggest that the intranuclear spindle of Amoebophrya spp. may have evolved from an ancestral extranuclear spindle and indicate the need for taxonomic revision of the Amoebophryidae. PMID:26491972

  7. Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Díaz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Bahía Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

  8. First report of fossilized cysts produced by the benthic Bysmatrum subsalsum (Dinophyceae) from a shallow Mexican lagoon in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Limoges, Audrey; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ruíz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Cysts belonging to the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum were recovered from palynologically treated sediments collected in the Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico). The cysts are proximate, reflecting the features of the parent thecal stage, and their autofluorescence implies a dinosporin composition similar to the cyst walls of phototrophic species. This finding is important for our understanding of B. subsalsum life cycle transitions and ecology. Encystment may play an important role in the bloom dynamics of this species as it can enable the formation of a sediment cyst bank that allows reinoculation of the water column when conditions become favorable. This is the first report of a fossilized cyst produced by a benthic dinoflagellate recovered from sub-recent sediments. PMID:26986270

  9. Description of two species of early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone-hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina-like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. PMID:22719825

  10. Description of Two Species of Early Branching Dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone–hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina–like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. PMID:22719825

  11. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  12. A metagenetic approach to determine the diversity and distribution of cyst nematodes at the level of the country, the field and the individual.

    PubMed

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Reid, Alex; Pickup, Jon; Anderson, Eric; Cock, Peter J A; Blaxter, Mark; Urwin, Peter E; Jones, John T; Blok, Vivian C

    2015-12-01

    Distinct populations of the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida exist in the UK that differ in their ability to overcome various sources of resistance. An efficient method for distinguishing between populations would enable pathogen-informed cultivar choice in the field. Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA) annually undertake national DNA diagnostic tests to determine the presence of PCN in potato seed and ware land by extracting DNA from soil floats. These DNA samples provide a unique resource for monitoring the distribution of PCN and further interrogation of the diversity within species. We identify a region of mitochondrial DNA descriptive of three main groups of G. pallida present in the UK and adopt a metagenetic approach to the sequencing and analysis of all SASA samples simultaneously. Using this approach, we describe the distribution of G. pallida mitotypes across Scotland with field-scale resolution. Most fields contain a single mitotype, one-fifth contain a mix of mitotypes, and less than 3% contain all three mitotypes. Within mixed fields, we were able to quantify the relative abundance of each mitotype across an order of magnitude. Local areas within mixed fields are dominated by certain mitotypes and indicate towards a complex underlying 'pathoscape'. Finally, we assess mitotype distribution at the level of the individual cyst and provide evidence of 'hybrids'. This study provides a method for accurate, quantitative and high-throughput typing of up to one thousand fields simultaneously, while revealing novel insights into the national genetic variability of an economically important plant parasite. PMID:26607216

  13. High Sequence Variability, Diverse Subcellular Localizations, and Ecological Implications of Alkaline Phosphatase in Dinoflagellates and Other Eukaryotic Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Cui, Yudong; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme for phytoplankton to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is limited. While three major types of AP and their correspondingly diverse subcellular localization have been recognized in bacteria, little is known about AP in eukaryotic phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates. Here, we isolated a full-length AP cDNA from a latest-diverging dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, and conducted comparative analyses with homologs from a relatively basal (Amphidinium carterae) and late-diverging (Karenia brevis) lineage of dinoflagellates as well as other eukaryotic algae. New data and previous studies indicate that AP is common in dinoflagellates and most other major eukaryotic groups of phytoplankton. AP sequences are more variable than many other genes studied in dinoflagellates, and are divergent among different eukaryotic phytoplankton lineages. Sequence comparison to the other characterized APs suggests that dinoflagellates and some other eukaryotic phytoplankton possess the putative AP as phoA type, but some other eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to have other types. Phylogenetic analyses based on AP amino acid sequences indicated that the “red-type” eukaryotic lineages formed a monophyletic group, suggesting a common origin of their APs. As different amino acid sequences have been found to predictably determine different spatial distribution in the cells, which may facilitate access to different pools of DOP, existing computational models were adopted to predict the subcellular localizations of putative AP in the three dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Results showed different subcellular localizations of APs in different dinoflagellates and other lineages. The linkage between AP sequence divergence, subcellular localization, and ecological niche differentiation requires rigorous experimental verification, and this study now provides a framework for such a future effort

  14. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Yum, Lauren K; Desalvo, Michael K; Lindquist, Erika; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Voolstra, Christian R; Medina, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22529998

  15. Baker’s cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker's cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...

  16. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are simple ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs ...

  17. Beware the Tarlov cyst.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

  18. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  19. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  20. Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are not only important marine primary producers and grazers, but also the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. It has been reported that many dinoflagellate species can produce various natural toxins. These toxins can be extremely toxic and many of them are effective at far lower dosages than conventional chemical agents. Consumption of seafood contaminated by algal toxins results in various seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (ASP). Most of these poisonings are caused by neurotoxins which present themselves with highly specific effects on the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve impulse transmission. Neurotoxins are a varied group of compounds, both chemically and pharmacologically. They vary in both chemical structure and mechanism of action, and produce very distinct biological effects, which provides a potential application of these toxins in pharmacology and toxicology. This review summarizes the origin, structure and clinical symptoms of PSP, NSP, CFP, AZP, yessotoxin and palytoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:18728731

  1. Recognizing diversity in coral symbiotic dinoflagellate communities.

    PubMed

    Apprill, Amy M; Gates, Ruth D

    2007-03-01

    A detailed understanding of how diversity in endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities maps onto the physiological range of coral hosts is critical to predicting how coral reef ecosystems will respond to climate change. Species-level taxonomy of the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium has been predominantly examined using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal array (rDNA ITS2) and downstream screening for dominant types using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Here, ITS2 diversity in the communities of Symbiodinium harboured by two Hawaiian coral species was explored using direct sequencing of clone libraries. We resolved sixfold to eightfold greater diversity per coral species than previously reported, the majority of which corresponds to a novel and distinct phylogenetic lineage. We evaluated how these sequences migrate in DGGE and demonstrate that this method does not effectively resolve this diversity. We conclude that the Porites spp. examined here harbour diverse assemblages of novel Symbiodinium types and that cloning and sequencing is an effective methodological approach for resolving the complexity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities harboured by reef corals. PMID:17391401

  2. Semimembranosus ganglion cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P.; Bhat, Ramachandra V.

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any adjacent bursae. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ganglion cyst. PMID:25276481

  3. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m-2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m-2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey-silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water column

  4. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m−2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m−2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey–silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  5. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m−2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m−2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey–silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  6. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Lin, Xin; Li, Wujiao; Li, Ling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhang, Huan; Ji, Zhiliang; Cai, Meichun; Zhuang, Yunyun; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Lingxiao; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhaobao; Liu, Xin; Yu, Sheng; Zeng, Peng; Hao, Han; Zou, Quan; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Ying; Xu, Chunyan; Meng, Shanshan; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2015-11-01

    Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro)transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral. We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying the molecular basis and evolution of coral symbiosis. PMID:26542574

  7. Baker’s Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Frush, Todd J.; Noyes, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Popliteal synovial cysts, also known as Baker’s cysts, are commonly found in association with intra-articular knee disorders, such as osteoarthritis and meniscus tears. Histologically, the cyst walls resemble synovial tissue with fibrosis evident, and there may be chronic nonspecific inflammation present. Osteocartilaginous loose bodies may also be found within the cyst, even if they are not seen in the knee joint. Baker’s cysts can be a source of posterior knee pain that persists despite surgical treatment of the intra-articular lesion, and they are routinely discovered on magnetic resonance imaging scans of the symptomatic knee. Symptoms related to a popliteal cyst origin are infrequent and may be related to size. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was conducted with keywords related to the history, diagnosis, and treatment of Baker’s cysts—namely, Baker’s cyst, popliteal cyst, diagnosis, treatment, formation of popliteal cyst, surgical indications, and complications. Bibliographies from these references were also reviewed to identify related and pertinent literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Baker’s cysts are commonly found associated with intra-articular knee disorders. Proper diagnosis, examination, and treatment are paramount in alleviating the pain and discomfort associated with Baker’s cysts. Conclusion: A capsular opening to the semimembranosus–medial head gastrocnemius bursa is a commonly found normal anatomic variant. It is thought that this can lead to the formation of a popliteal cyst in the presence of chronic knee effusions as a result of intra-articular pathology. Management of symptomatic popliteal cysts is conservative. The intra-articular pathology should be first addressed by arthroscopy. If surgical excision later becomes necessary, a limited posteromedial approach is often employed. Other treatments, such as arthroscopic debridement and closure of the valvular mechanism

  8. Splenic cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y H; Sheih, C P; Horng, S S; Liao, Y J; Lu, W T; Li, Y W; Kao, S P

    1997-01-01

    Splenic cysts were found, incidentally, in eight children during the past nine years (1987-1995) in Taipei Municipal Women's and Children's Hospital. Five of the children were boys and three were girls. The age at diagnosis ranged from 8 to 15 years. Evidence of possible splenic cyst development was found initially by ultrasonography; six patients received further evaluation with computerized tomography (CT); one patient received radionuclide scanning. The cysts ranged from 2 cm to 14 cm in diameter. Four of the patients received surgical treatment (three partial splenectomy and one total splenectomy) because of huge splenic cysts (diameter > 10 cm). Subsequent pathological examination revealed that all cysts had epithelial cell lining in the cyst wall, meaning they were all congenital in origin. The remaining four cases were followed up at the Out-patient Clinic here. All cases had a benign clinical course. PMID:9066189

  9. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed. PMID:23308314

  10. Intravesical hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sallami, Sataa; Nouira, Yassine; Kallel, Yousri; Gargouri, Mourad; Horchani, Ali

    2005-11-01

    A case of intravesical hydatid cyst is reported. The cyst was completely evacuated cystoscopically with intravesical instillation of a scolicidal agent (hydrogen peroxide) to destroy scolices and daughter cysts. The postoperative course was uneventful, and follow-up did not show evidence of recurrence. Because this is the first case, to our knowledge, to be reported, little is known about the nonoperative management of such hydatid localization. A recommendation is made, however, to adopt this minimally invasive procedure. PMID:16286147

  11. Pilonidal cyst resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), vitamin E, clopidogrel (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), ...

  12. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

  13. Penile epidermal inclusion cyst.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pradeep; Mansoor, M N; Jalali, Sanjay; Sharma, Abhishek

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst of penis in a five-year-old boy, who had presented to the outpatient department of our hospital. Epidermal inclusion cysts are benign lesions that can develop in any part of the body. However, the finding of an epidermal inclusion cyst in the penis is rare. The child was operated and discharged uneventfully. The objective of reporting this case is to highlight the rare possibility of an inclusion cyst arising from penis as a late complication of circumcision. PMID:20589475

  14. Pineal cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Boudhrioua, V; Linglart, A; Ancel, P Y; Falip, C; Bougnères, P F; Adamsbaum, C

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of pineal cysts found on MRI in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed under the same technical conditions for checking the idiopathic nature of short stature (ISS group, n = 116) and for the investigation of central precocious puberty (CPP) over a 3-year period (n = 56). Dimensions, wall and septal thickness, number of locules, signal intensity, and the presence of a solid component were analysed. Ten of 19 cysts were re-evaluated (follow-up interval 4-28 months). The prevalence of the pineal cysts was compared between the two groups using χ2 and Fisher's exact tests, and a significance threshold of p < 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of cysts was comparable in the two groups, CPP (10.7%) and ISS (11.2%). Cyst characteristics were similar in the two groups and 74% had thin septations. None of the cysts changed on follow-up. None of the children with pineal cysts exhibited neurological signs. CONCLUSION: Benign pineal cysts are a common finding in young children. High-resolution MRI demonstrates that these cysts are often septated. This pattern is a normal variant and does not require follow-up MR imaging or IV contrast media. PMID:22347985

  15. Inducible Mixotrophy in the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Prorocentrum minimum is a neritic dinoflagellate that forms seasonal blooms and red tides in estuarine ecosystems. While known to be mixotrophic, previous attempts to document feeding on algal prey have yielded low grazing rates. In this study, growth and ingestion rates of P. minimum were measured as a function of nitrogen (-N) and phosphorous (-P) starvation. A P. minimum isolate from Chesapeake Bay was found to ingest cryptophyte prey when in stationary phase and when starved of N or P. Prorocentrum minimum ingested two strains of Teleaulax amphioxeia at higher rates than six other cryptophyte species. In all cases -P treatments resulted in the highest grazing. Ingestion rates of -P cells on T. amphioxeia saturated at ~5 prey per predator per day, while ingestion by -N cells saturated at 1 prey per predator per day. In the presence of prey, -P treated cells reached a maximum mixotrophic growth rate (μmax ) of 0.5 d(-1), while -N cells had a μmax of 0.18 d(-1). Calculations of ingested C, N, and P due to feeding on T. amphioxeia revealed that phagotrophy can be an important source of all three elements. While P. minimum is a proficient phototroph, inducible phagotrophy is an important nutritional source for this dinoflagellate. PMID:25510417

  16. Intracellular pH of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbin, E. M.; Davy, S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) is likely to play a key role in maintaining the functional success of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, yet until now the pHi of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) has never been quantified. Flow cytometry was used in conjunction with the ratiometric fluorescent dye BCECF to monitor changes in pHi over a daily light/dark cycle. The pHi of Symbiodinium type B1 freshly isolated from the model sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella was 7.25 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE) in the light and 7.10 ± 0.02 in the dark. A comparable effect of irradiance was seen across a variety of cultured Symbiodinium genotypes (types A1, B1, E1, E2, F1, and F5) which varied between pHi 7.21-7.39 in the light and 7.06-7.14 in the dark. Of note, there was a significant genotypic difference in pHi, irrespective of irradiance.

  17. Genome evolution of a tertiary dinoflagellate plastid.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Tove M; Minge, Marianne A; Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2011-01-01

    The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata. PMID:21541332

  18. Genome Evolution of a Tertiary Dinoflagellate Plastid

    PubMed Central

    Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2011-01-01

    The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata. PMID:21541332

  19. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors. PMID:26061152

  20. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of symbiotic dinoflagellates from planktonic foraminifera and radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Gast, R J; Caron, D A

    1996-11-01

    Recent analyses of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (srDNA) from dinoflagellate symbionts of cnidaria have confirmed historical descriptions of a diverse but well-defined clade, Symbiodinium, as well as several other independent symbiont lineages (Rowan 1991; Rowan and Powers 1992; Sadler et al. 1992; McNally et al 1994). Dinoflagellates also occur as intracellular symbionts in a number of pelagic protistan taxa, but the srDNA of these symbionts has not been examined. We analyzed the srDNA sequences of the symbiotic dinoflagellates from four planktonic foraminiferal species and six radiolarian species. The symbionts from these sarcodines formed two distinct lineages within the dinoflagellates. Within each lineage, symbionts obtained from different host species showed few, if any, srDNA sequence differences. The planktonic foraminiferal symbionts were most closely related to Gymnodinium simplex and the Symbiodinium clade, whereas the radiolarian symbionts were most closely related to the dinoflagellate symbiont from the oceanic chondrophore, Velella velella. Therefore, although the dinoflagellate symbionts of foraminifera appear to be a sister taxon of the symbionts from benthic foraminifera and invertebrates, the symbionts of radiolaria are distinct and arose from an independent lineage of dinoflagellate symbionts that shares common ancestry with the symbiont of at least one pelagic metazoan. The lack of srDNA variability within the sarcodine symbiont lineages suggests that coevolution of host and symbiont has not occurred. PMID:8896371

  2. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  3. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

  4. Treatment of Ganglion Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Fung, B.; Lung, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence. PMID:24967120

  5. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats. PMID:26243150

  6. Endocrine cells in median raphe cysts of the penis.

    PubMed

    Fetissof, F; Lorette, G; Dubois, M P; Philippe, A; Tharanne, M J; Jobard, P

    1985-12-01

    Serotonin-storing cells are distributed in all tissues derived from cloaca. They were observed in the cavernous portion of penile urethra whereas they were absent from the glans portion. Serotonin cells were detected in several morphologic varieties of median raphe cysts. It is suggested that these cysts arise from the endodermal part of urethra. PMID:3831998

  7. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Melih; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts. PMID:26702290

  8. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  9. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C. L.; Nielsen, Lasse T.; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over “third-hand” chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  10. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value‧ (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (μ) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while μ reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  11. [Intraventricular arachnoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Rico-Cotelo, María; Diaz-Cabanas, Lucía; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-Gonzalez, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Intracranial arachnoids cysts are considered benign developmental anomalies that occur within the arachnoid membrane and generally contain clear and colourless fluid resembling cerebrospinal fluid. The prevalence of these cysts is higher in the first two decades of life, and the incidence is widely quoted as approximately 1% of all space-occupying intracranial lesions. Arachnoids cysts in the elderly person are a rare occurrence. We report the unusual presentation of a woman with an intraventricular arachnoid cyst treated with endoscopic technique. CASE REPORT. A 75-year-old woman presented with progressive hemiparesis of two years duration. Cranial MR imaging showed a right parieto-occipital intraventricular cyst with local mass effect and moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. A right-sided burr hole was made and the arachnoids cyst was reached and cysto-ventricle shunting was realized. This was followed by a septum pellucidum fenestration. There were no complications during the surgery and the patient presented no symptoms at time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS. The neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular arachnoid cysts was effective with few complications. PMID:23799598

  12. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  13. The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum retain functionally overlapping mitochondria from two evolutionarily distinct lineages

    PubMed Central

    Imanian, Behzad; Keeling, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    Background The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum are distinguished by the presence of a tertiary plastid derived from a diatom endosymbiont. The diatom is fully integrated with the host cell cycle and is so altered in structure as to be difficult to recognize it as a diatom, and yet it retains a number of features normally lost in tertiary and secondary endosymbionts, most notably mitochondria. The dinoflagellate host is also reported to retain mitochondrion-like structures, making these cells unique in retaining two evolutionarily distinct mitochondria. This redundancy raises the question of whether the organelles share any functions in common or have distributed functions between them. Results We show that both host and endosymbiont mitochondrial genomes encode genes for electron transport proteins. We have characterized cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1), cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2), cytochrome oxidase 3 (cox3), cytochrome b (cob), and large subunit of ribosomal RNA (LSUrRNA) of endosymbiont mitochondrial ancestry, and cox1 and cob of host mitochondrial ancestry. We show that all genes are transcribed and that those ascribed to the host mitochondrial genome are extensively edited at the RNA level, as expected for a dinoflagellate mitochondrion-encoded gene. We also found evidence for extensive recombination in the host mitochondrial genes and that recombination products are also transcribed, as expected for a dinoflagellate. Conclusion Durinskia baltica and K. foliaceum retain two mitochondria from evolutionarily distinct lineages, and the functions of these organelles are at least partially overlapping, since both express genes for proteins in electron transport. PMID:17892581

  14. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  15. Evolution of Saxitoxin Synthesis in Cyanobacteria and Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Kulis, David M.; Anderson, Donald M.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Plumley, F. Gerald; Erdner, Deana L.

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates produce a variety of toxic secondary metabolites that have a significant impact on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also made by some freshwater cyanobacteria. Genes involved in STX synthesis have been identified in cyanobacteria but are yet to be reported in the massive genomes of dinoflagellates. We have assembled comprehensive transcriptome data sets for several STX-producing dinoflagellates and a related non-toxic species and have identified 265 putative homologs of 13 cyanobacterial STX synthesis genes, including all of the genes directly involved in toxin synthesis. Putative homologs of four proteins group closely in phylogenies with cyanobacteria and are likely the functional homologs of sxtA, sxtG, and sxtB in dinoflagellates. However, the phylogenies do not support the transfer of these genes directly between toxic cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. SxtA is split into two proteins in the dinoflagellates corresponding to the N-terminal portion containing the methyltransferase and acyl carrier protein domains and a C-terminal portion with the aminotransferase domain. Homologs of sxtB and N-terminal sxtA are present in non-toxic strains, suggesting their functions may not be limited to saxitoxin production. Only homologs of the C-terminus of sxtA and sxtG were found exclusively in toxic strains. A more thorough survey of STX+ dinoflagellates will be needed to determine if these two genes may be specific to SXT production in dinoflagellates. The A. tamarense transcriptome does not contain homologs for the remaining STX genes. Nevertheless, we identified candidate genes with similar predicted biochemical activities that account for the missing functions. These results suggest that the STX synthesis pathway was likely assembled independently in the distantly related cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although using some

  16. Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayda, Theodore J.; Reynolds, Colin S.

    2003-03-01

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed to govern bloom-species selection and community organisation within these habitats. Assembly is moulded around an abiotic template of light energy, nutrient supply and physical mixing in permutative combinations. Species selected will have one of three basic ( C-, S-, R-) strategies: colonist species ( C-) which predominate in chemically disturbed habitats; nutrient stress tolerant species ( S-), and species ( R-) tolerant of shear/stress forces in physically disturbed water masses. This organisational plan of three major habitat variables and three major adaptive strategies is termed the 3-3 plan. The bloom behaviour and habitat specialisation of dinoflagellates and diatoms are compared. Dinoflagellates behave as annual species, bloom soloists, are ecophysiologically diverse, and habitat specialists whose blooms tend to be monospecific. Diatoms behave as perennial species, guild members, are habitat cosmopolites, have a relatively uniform bloom strategy based on species-rich pools and exhibit limited habitat specialisation. Dinoflagellate bloom-species selection follows a taxonomic hierarchical pathway which progresses from phylogenetic to generic to species selection, and in that sequence. Each hierarchical taxonomic level has its own adaptive requirements subject to rules of assembly. Dinoflagellates would appear to be well suited to exploit marine habitats and to be competitive with other phylogenetic groups, yet fail to do so.

  17. Fibrosis and Simple Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... lobular) Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) Adenosis Fibroadenomas Phyllodes tumors Intraductal papillomas Granular cell tumors Fat necrosis ... caused by fibrosis and/or cysts, which are benign changes in breast tissue that happen in many ...

  18. Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sharifah, MIA; Nor Hazla, MH; Suraya, A; Tan, SP

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour. PMID:22279501

  19. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Çakıroglu, Basri; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Sinanoğlu, Orhun; Ateş, Lora; Aksoy, Süleyman Hilmi; Özcan, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report. PMID:25659561

  20. Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

    2014-12-01

    Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

  1. Development of a Dinoflagellate-Oriented PCR Primer Set Leads to Detection of Picoplanktonic Dinoflagellates from Long Island Sound†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Miranda, Lilibeth; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    We developed dinoflagellate-specific 18S rRNA gene primers. PCR amplification using these oligonucleotides for a picoplanktonic DNA sample from Long Island Sound yielded 24 clones, and all but one of these clones were dinoflagellates primarily belonging to undescribed and Amoebophrya-like lineages. These results highlight the need for a systematic investigation of picodinoflagellate diversity in both coastal and oceanic ecosystems. PMID:16885319

  2. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  3. Juxtafacet Spinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This was a retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine through posterior laminectomy in combination with transpedicular screw fixation. Overview of Literature Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine contribute significantly to narrowing of the spinal canal and lateral thecal sac and nerve root compression. Cysts form as a result of arthrotic disruption of the facet joint, leading to degenerative spondylolisthesis in up to 40% of patients. Methods Retrospective data from 6 patients, treated during the period of March 2007 to February 2011, were analyzed. All preoperative and postoperative manifestations, extension/flexion radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography records were reviewed. All underwent surgery for synovial cysts with excision and decompression combined with posterior fixation. The result of surgery was evaluated with Macnab's classification. An excellent or good outcome was considered as satisfactory. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale was used for evaluation of back pain. Results All patients included in this study had excellent outcomes as regarding to improvement of all preoperative manifestations and returning to normal daily activities. Only 2 cases developed postoperative transient cerebro-spinal fluid leak and were treated conservatively and improved during the follow up period. Conclusions Although this study included a small number of cases and we could not have statistically significant results, the good outcome of decompression of synovial cysts combined with posterior fixation and fusion encouraged us to recommend this approach for patients with juxtafacet synovial cysts. PMID:26949457

  4. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

  5. [Choledochal cysts: surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Gogolja, D; Visnjić, S; Milić, Z; Tomić, K; Car, A; Roić, G; Fattorini, I

    2000-03-01

    The excision of the choledochal cyst with bile drainage through intestinal conduit is a standard operative procedure in the surgical management of choledochal cysts. During the last eight years five patients have been treated with this operation at the University Children's Hospital in Zagreb. All the patients were girls aged from two months to twelve years. The classical triad of pain, jaundice and abdominal mass was observed in only one patient, an eight-year-old girl. The only symptom in infancy was jaundice. Diagnosis was made by abdominal ultrasound, bibliography, CT scan with hepatotropic contrast and in older children by ERCP. Four cysts were type Todani I, and one cyst was Todani type II. The complete excision of the choledochal cyst with the Roux-Y jejunal conduit without antireflux valve was performed. There was neither operative morbidity nor mortality. Three months postoperatively the control ultrasonography and liver laboratory tests were without abnormalities. The routine control which followed did not show episodes of cholangitis, lithiasis, lipid malabsorption, blood clotting abnormalities or growth failure. The complete excision of the cyst with Roux-Y hepaticoenterostomy is an operative treatment with good results in infancy and childhood. PMID:10932533

  6. Ozonation of the marine dinoflagellate alga Amphidinium sp.--implications for ballast water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Oemcke, D J; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2005-12-01

    Ozone has been investigated for its potential to remove marine dinoflagellate algae from ships' ballast water. Dinoflagellate algae, Amphidinium sp. isolated from the Great Barrier Reef, Townsville, Australia were used as indicators since these produce a type of cyst that is difficult to inactivate, but are relatively easy to culture. The ozonation experiments have demonstrated a high ozone demand for inactivation of the algal cultures, which increases as the culture ages. The main ozone demand in seawater is due to its reaction with bromide to form bromine compounds. The non-bromide ozone demand has been estimated by measuring the residuals produced after various doses of ozone. The Amphidinium sp. show an unexpected response to both ozonation and bromination, with an instantaneous inactivation of the organisms for all doses that produced an oxidant residual in the seawater, followed by an effect of the disinfection residual. The standard design procedure of comparing Ct will not be effective for predicting the response of the organism to varying dose, C, and contact time, t, and a plot of ozone produced oxidant residual against organism inactivation for various contact times is proposed for design purposes. High doses of ozone (5-11 mg/L) and up to 6h of residual contact were required for a 4-log inactivation of the Amphidinium sp. Ozonation is likely to be a difficult technology to implement for organisms with this ozone requirement in combination with characteristics of ballast tanks, which contain areas of sediments high in detritus and areas of corrosion. PMID:16289281

  7. Nuclear and cytoplasmic actin in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Ausseil, J; Géraud, M L

    1996-01-01

    Experiments using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-actin antibodies allowed us to demonstrate the presence of F- or G-actin in original protists, dinoflagellates, either by biochemistry, immunofluorescence and in TEM. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and immunoblottings made either from total or nuclear protein extracts revealed the presence of a 44-kDa band reacting with monoclonal anti-actin antibody in two species, Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii, and thus demonstrated the presence of actin in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. After squash preparation of P micans cells, actin was identified within the nucleus and in some regions of the cytoplasm by immunofluorescence microscopy. Labelling of both the nucleolus and the centrosome region was evident together with amorphous nucleoplasmic material surrounding the chromosomes. The use of cryosections of intact P micans and C cohnii cells for immunofluorescence along with staining with DAPI to delineate the chromosomes themselves, yielded finer resolution of the intranuclear network labelling pattern and allowed us to complete our observations, in particular on the cytoplasmic labelling. In P micans, in addition to the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels passing through the nucleus in dividing cells are labelled. In C cohnii, the cortex, the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels, the region surrounding the nucleus, the filaments linking it to the cortex and the cleavage furrow are also labelled. In the nucleus of the two species, there is a prominent "weft' of fine actin filaments in the nucleoplasm forming a matrix of varying density around the persistent chromosomes. This actin matrix, of unknown function, is most conspicuous at the end of the S-phase of the cell cycle. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin, used as diagnostic cytochemical probes for polymeric actin (F-actin), gave similar results. Positive TEM immunolabelling of intranuclear actin confirms its presence in the nucleoplasm, in the

  8. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology. PMID:26962426

  9. Choledochal cysts: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popova-Jovanovska, R; Genadieva-Dimitrova, M; Trajkovska, M; Serafimoski, V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the different diagnostic procedures and treatment in patients diagnosed with congenital choledochal cysts. Choledochal cysts are congenital anomalies of the bile ducts and include cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic biliary ducts or both. The study shows ten patients diagnosed as having choledochal cysts. Diagnosis was established by clinical and radiographic findings including: ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatograpy (MRCP), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and cytological examination of the bile juice. In the study choledochal cysts were classified according to the Todani classification. Most common cysts were type I (six cases); type III (one case), type IVa (one case) and two patients were type V cysts (Caroli disease). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, jaundice and cholangitis. US findings were sensitive for the preliminary diagnosis of choledochal cysts in all the patients. MRCP accurately defined the cyst anatomy and the site of the biliary origin in all the cases with extrahepatic cysts. In three cases ERCP clearly demonstrated the cyst and by PTC smaller cysts were well defined. Cytological examination of the bile juice obtained during the PTC procedure showed malignant cells in one case. Therefore pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and pathological examination showed associated cholangiocarcinoma. Five years after the operation the patient was well and free of the disease. Five patients underwent surgical treatment with a total cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy while the surgical approach in two patients was partial cyst excision and cystojejunostomy. Patients with Caroli disease were conservatively treated and 3 with interventional endoscopic procedures. Despite US evidence suggesting choledochal cyst diagnosis, other supportive radiographic imaging modalities such as MRCP, ERCP and

  10. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay. PMID:19481563

  11. Quaternary coastal evolution and vegetation history of northern New South Wales, Australia, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMinn, Andrew

    1992-11-01

    The Richmond River Valley of northern N.S.W. contains a late Pleistocene succession dating back to approximately 250,000 yr B.P. Dinoflagellate and spore-pollen assemblages from the lowest interval, the lower "Dungarubba Clay" of Drury (1982), indicate deposition in a restricted estuarine environment at approximately 250,000 yr. Deposition in the overlying interval, the upper "Dungarubba Clay" and "Gundurimba Clay", at approximately 120,000 yr B.P., began in a restricted estuary, but rising sea level caused inundation and deposition in a more open, marine-dominated environment. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the last interglaciation (stage 5) are interpreted by analogy with those from the morphologically similar, modern Broken Bay, N.S.W. They are indicative of an open, marine-dominated environment and imply that barrier formation in the Richmond River Valley, and possibly elsewhere in northern N.S.W., did not commence until after the initial postglacial transgression. Synchronous changes in sea level and rainforest development suggest that there was no significant time lag between climate and sea-level change.

  12. Thyroglossal cyst: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhamay; Saha, A M; Mukherjee, Dhrubyajyoti

    2013-07-01

    To highlight the difference in symptoms, clinical features and management of an intralingual thyroglossal cyst from a classical thyroglossal cyst. We present here the case of a 10 year old boy, who presented to us with the chief complaint of difficulty in speech for 2 years. A marble shaped swelling was seen on the base of the tongue. It was diagnosed as an intralingual thyroglossal cyst. He underwent a Sistrunk operation and the cyst was removed from the base of the tongue. Literature search revealed the rarity of this intralingual thyroglossal cyst, its atypical presentation and difference in way of management. A case report and review of literature regarding this unusual unusual entity is presented. An intralingual thyroglossal cyst is the rarest form of a thyroglossal cyst, and differs from a classical thyroglossal cyst totally in presentation and management. PMID:24427642

  13. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  14. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  15. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Richard G; Howe, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  16. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, Richard G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  17. Oral mucoceles; extravasation cysts and retention cysts. A study of 298 cases.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Carina; Olsson Bergland, Kamilla; Walhjalt, Hanna; Magnusson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Oral mucoceles can be divided in two different forms, extravasation and retention cysts. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of each form, sex- and age distribution, location, recurrences, referent and the differences between the two forms. A total of three-hundred-five cases were retrieved from the Department of Oral Pathology at the Institution of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University between 1993 and 2003. Seven referrals were disregarded because there was insufficient information, leaving 298 cases for this study. In relation to other studies, our study investigated a larger number of cases. Extravasation cysts were the most common type (258 cases). There was a slight predominance among women (55%) and the most frequent location was the lower lip (71%). 84% occurred between the ages of 0 and 40 years with peak incidence in the second decade (34%). 62% of the referrals came from specialists, 28% from general practitioners, and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Retention cysts were not found as frequently as extravasation cysts (40 cases) and the occurrence in women was also a bit higher (58%). We found a more even distribution regarding age and location. The most common locations were floor of the mouth (25%), cheek (20%), and lower lip (18%). They occurred more often between the ages of 11 and 30 (31%), and between 50 and 80 (50%). 75% of the referrals came from specialists, 15% from general practitioners,and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Recurrences were unusual for both cyst types. 17 cases of extravasation cysts were reported as recurrences and one case of retention cyst. PMID:19994562

  18. Historical records from dated sediment cores reveal the multidecadal dynamic of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Bay of Brest (France).

    PubMed

    Klouch, Khadidja Z; Schmidt, Sabine; Andrieux-Loyer, Françoise; Le Gac, Mickaël; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Qui-Minet, Zujaila N; Quéré, Julien; Bigeard, Estelle; Guillou, Laure; Siano, Raffaele

    2016-07-01

    The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about 150 years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA (aDNA) quantification and cyst revivification data obtained from two dated sediment cores of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). The first genetic traces of the species presence in the study area dated back to 1873 ± 6. Specific aDNA could be quantified by a newly developed real-time PCR assay in the upper core layers, in which the germination of the species (in up to 17-19-year-old sediments) was also obtained. In both cores studied, our quantitative paleogenetic data showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the abundance of A. minutum ITS1 rDNA copies over time, corroborating three decades of local plankton data that have documented an increasing trend in the species cell abundance. By comparison, paleogenetic data of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella donghaienis did not show a coherent trend between the cores studied, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a species-specific dynamic of A. minutum in the study area. This work contributes to the development of paleoecological research, further showing its potential for biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary studies on marine microbes. PMID:27162179

  19. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  20. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Horak, Ales; Andrew, Rose L.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Andersen, Robert A.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Jameson, Ian; Hoppenrath, Mona; Véron, Benoît; Kasai, Fumai; Brand, Jerry; James, Erick R.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known “species”, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of

  1. Haemorrhagic Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst with Ligamentum Flavum Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ghent, Finn; Davidson, Trent; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Juxtafacet cysts are an uncommon cause of radiculopathy. They occur most frequently in the lumbar region, and their distribution across the spine correlates with mobility. Haemorrhagic complications are rare and may occur in the absence of any provocation, although there is some association with anticoagulation and trauma. We present a case of acute radiculopathy due to an L5/S1 juxtafacet cyst with unprovoked haemorrhage which was found to extend into ligamentum flavum. The patient underwent uncomplicated microscope assisted decompression with excellent results. The demographics, presentation, aetiology, and management of juxtafacet cysts are discussed. PMID:25580330

  2. Colloid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grasu, Beatrice L; Alberico, Anthony M

    2011-01-01

    Colloid cysts are a rare clinical finding with a unique clinical presentation: non-specific paroxysmal headaches. The current recommended treatment is microsurgery, which poses the greatest risk to the patient but allows complete removal of the cyst to prevent recurrence. A 41-year old man presented with a colloid cyst located in the foramen of Monro causing obstructive hydrocephalus. He had paroxysmal headaches and memory and personality changes. Transcortical transventricle microsurgery was performed to remove the entire cyst. A temporary shunt was placed to prevent post-operative hydrocephalus. Normal neurological function returned upon cyst removal. PMID:22034805

  3. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators. PMID:24102740

  4. An analysis of dinoflagellate metabolism using EST data.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Erin R; Howe, Christopher J; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2013-03-01

    The dinoflagellates are an important group of eukaryotic, single celled algae. They are the sister group of the Apicomplexa, a group of intracellular parasites and photosynthetic algae including the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Many apicomplexan mitochondria have a number of unusual features, including the lack of a pyruvate dehydrogenase and the existence of a branched TCA cycle. Here, we analyse dinoflagellate EST (expressed sequence tag) data to determine whether these features are apicomplexan-specific, or if they are more widespread. We show that dinoflagellates have replaced a key subunit (E1) of pyruvate dehydrogenase with a subunit of bacterial origin and that transcripts encoding many of the proteins that are essential in a conventional ATP synthase/Complex V are absent, as is the case in Apicomplexa. There is a pathway for synthesis of starch or glycogen as a storage carbohydrate. Transcripts encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase are present, consistent with ultrastructural reports of a glyoxysome. Finally, evidence for a conventional haem biosynthesis pathway is found, in contrast to the Apicomplexa, Chromera and early branching dinoflagellates (Perkinsus, Oxyrrhis). PMID:23085481

  5. Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Polyketides in Marine Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Svendsen, Helene M.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2010-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided. PMID:20479965

  6. STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

  7. Characterization of Two Dinoflagellate Cold Shock Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, Mathieu; Roy, Sougata; Pelletier, Sarah; Averback, Alexandra; Lanthier, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly two-thirds of the proteins annotated as transcription factors in dinoflagellate transcriptomes are cold shock domain-containing proteins (CSPs), an uncommon condition in eukaryotic organisms. However, no functional analysis has ever been reported for a dinoflagellate CSP, and so it is not known if they do in fact act as transcription factors. We describe here some of the properties of two CSPs from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, LpCSP1 and LpCSP2, which contain a glycine-rich C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cold shock domain phylogenetically related to those in bacteria. However, neither of the two LpCSPs act like the bacterial CSP, since they do not functionally complement the Escherichia coli quadruple cold shock domain protein mutant BX04, and cold shock does not induce LpCSP1 and LpCSP2 to detectable levels, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both CSPs bind to RNA and single-stranded DNA in a nonspecific manner in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and both proteins also bind double-stranded DNA nonspecifically, albeit more weakly. These CSPs are thus unlikely to act alone as sequence-specific transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Dinoflagellate transcriptomes contain cold shock domain proteins as the major component of the proteins annotated as transcription factors. We show here that the major family of cold shock domain proteins in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium do not bind specific sequences, suggesting that transcriptional control is not a predominant mechanism for regulating gene expression in this group of protists. PMID:27303711

  8. Angiomyolipoma With Epithelial Cysts.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michael A; Rao, Priya

    2016-06-01

    Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the kidney that enters in the differential diagnosis of adult cystic renal neoplasms. These tumors demonstrate a slight female predominance and can present either incidentally or with symptoms, commonly flank pain and hematuria. Unlike conventional angiomyolipoma, this variant is characterized grossly by both solid and cystic areas, and histologically by the presence of single or multiple cysts lined by epithelial cells, a subepithelial "cambium-like" layer of small stromal cells with a prominent capillary vasculature, and a thick exterior wall composed of poorly formed fascicles of smooth muscle and thick-walled dysplastic blood vessels. Tumors show a distinct immunohistochemical profile and are often reactive for melanocytic markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A), as well as estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. These tumors have an indolent clinical course, with no reports of progression or metastasis in reported cases thus far. PMID:27232352

  9. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. PMID:25866380

  10. Intrasphenoidal rathke cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Megdiche-Bazarbacha, H; Ben Hammouda, K; Aicha, A B; Sebai, R; Belghith, L; Khaldi, M; Touibi, S

    2006-05-01

    Symptomatic Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are reported in the sellar and suprasellar regions, but no case of sphenoidal RCC has been reported. We report a case of sphenoidal RCC in a 41-year-old man. The lesion was revealed by headaches and diplopia. Symptoms disappeared transiently after a spontaneous rhinorrhea but relapsed 4 months later. MR imaging showed a cystic sphenoidal lesion, isointense on T1-weighted images (WI) with peripheral gadolinium enhancement and hyperintense on T2 WI. The patient underwent surgery through a transrhinoseptal approach. The wall of the sphenoid sinus was paper-thin. The cyst contained a motor-oil-like fluid and communicated widely with the nasal fossa. Its wall was partially extracted. Symptoms and signs ceased after surgery. MR imaging performed 1 year later showed the disappearance of the sphenoidal cyst. Embryological origin of RCCs is discussed. The hypothesis of a continuum between the different epithelial cystic lesions of the sellar and parasellar region is discussed. Imaging has an important impact on the diagnosis; nevertheless, the specific characterization remains difficult. PMID:16687551

  11. Conjunctival cysts in anophthalmic orbits.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, T J; Koornneef, L; Zonneveld, F W

    1991-01-01

    Five out of 149 patients (3%) who received an intraorbital implant to prevent or treat the disfiguring symptoms associated with the postenucleation socket syndrome developed intraorbital conjunctival cysts. All five patients had received a secondary implant two 14 months previously. After excision of the cysts four patients required additional surgery for lack of conjunctiva and/or recurrent cyst formation. The clinical findings, mechanism of development, and management of this rare but serious complication of socket surgery are described. Images PMID:2043576

  12. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  13. Brandtodinium gen. nov. and B. nutricula comb. Nov. (Dinophyceae), a dinoflagellate commonly found in symbiosis with polycystine radiolarians.

    PubMed

    Probert, Ian; Siano, Raffaele; Poirier, Camille; Decelle, Johan; Biard, Tristan; Tuji, Akihiro; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Not, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic interactions between pelagic hosts and microalgae have received little attention, although they are widespread in the photic layer of the world ocean, where they play a fundamental role in the ecology of the planktonic ecosystem. Polycystine radiolarians (including the orders Spumellaria, Collodaria and Nassellaria) are planktonic heterotrophic protists that are widely distributed and often abundant in the ocean. Many polycystines host symbiotic microalgae within their cytoplasm, mostly thought to be the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella nutricula, a species originally described by Karl Brandt in the late nineteenth century as Zooxanthella nutricula. The free-living stage of this dinoflagellate has never been characterized in terms of morphology and thecal plate tabulation. We examined morphological characters and sequenced conservative ribosomal markers of clonal cultures of the free-living stage of symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from radiolarian hosts from the three polycystine orders. In addition, we sequenced symbiont genes directly from several polycystine-symbiont holobiont specimens from different oceanic regions. Thecal plate arrangement of the free-living stage does not match that of Scrippsiella or related genera, and LSU and SSU rDNA-based molecular phylogenies place these symbionts in a distinct clade within the Peridiniales. Both phylogenetic analyses and the comparison of morphological features of culture strains with those reported for other closely related species support the erection of a new genus that we name Brandtodinium gen. nov. and the recombination of S. nutricula as B. nutricula comb. nov. PMID:26988195

  14. Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts (MLC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... new treatments for the disease. Are there other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC)? Other names for Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC) include: ...

  15. Neurenteric cysts of the spine.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jesse J; Casey, James N; McNeill, Ian T; Sherman, Jonathan H

    2010-01-01

    Neurenteric cysts account for 0.7-1.3% of spinal axis tumors. These rare lesions result from the inappropriate partitioning of the embryonic notochordal plate and presumptive endoderm during the third week of human development. Heterotopic rests of epithelium reminiscent of gastrointestinal and respiratory tissue lead to eventual formation of compressive cystic lesions of the pediatric and adult spine. Histopathological analysis of neurenteric tissue reveals a highly characteristic structure of columnar or cuboidal epithelium with or without cilia and mucus globules. Patients with symptomatic neurenteric cysts typically present in the second and third decades of life with size-dependent myelopathic and/or radicular signs. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are essential diagnostic tools for the delineation of cyst form and overlying osseous architecture. A variety of approaches have been employed in the treatment of neurenteric cysts each with a goal of total surgical resection. Although long-term outcome analyses are limited, data available indicate that surgical intervention in the case of neurenteric cysts results in a high frequency of resolution of neurological deficit with minimal morbidity. However, recurrence rates as high as 37% have been reported with incomplete resection secondary to factors such as cyst adhesion to surrounding structure and unclear dissection planes. Here we present a systematic review of English language literature from January 1966 to December 2009 utilizing MEDLINE with the following search terminology: neurenteric cyst, enterogenous cyst, spinal cord tumor, spinal dysraphism, intraspinal cyst, intramedullary cyst, and intradural cyst. In addition, the references of publications returned from the MEDLINE search criteria were surveyed in order to examine other pertinent reports. PMID:20890417

  16. Arachnoid cyst slit valves: the mechanism for arachnoid cyst enlargement.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Safain, Mina G; Heilman, Carl B

    2013-07-01

    Arachnoid cysts are common, accounting for approximately 1% of intracranial mass lesions. Most are congenital, clinically silent, and remain static in size. Occasionally, they increase in size and produce symptoms due to mass effect or obstruction. The mechanism of enlargement of arachnoid cysts is controversial. One-way slit valves are often hypothesized as the mechanism for enlargement. The authors present 4 cases of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts in which a slit valve was identified. The patients presented with hydrocephalus due to enlargement of the cyst. The valve was located in the arachnoid wall of the cyst directly over the basilar artery. The authors believe this slit valve was responsible for the net influx of CSF into the cyst and for its enlargement. They also present 1 case of an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa that had a small circular opening but lacked a slit valve. This cyst did not enlarge but surgery was required because of rupture and the development of a subdural hygroma. One-way slit valves exist and are a possible mechanism of enlargement of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts. The valve was located directly over the basilar artery in each of these cases. Caudad-to-cephalad CSF flow during the cardiac cycle increased the opening of the valve, whereas cephalad-to-caudad CSF flow during the remainder of the cardiac cycle pushed the slit opening against the basilar artery and decreased the size of the opening. Arachnoid cysts that communicate CSF via circular, nonslit valves are probably more likely to remain stable. PMID:23662935

  17. Large lateral meniscal ganglion cyst extending into the intercondylar fossa of the knee.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Alwin; Eberhardt, Christian; Hailer, Nils P

    2004-07-01

    We report the case of a 31-year-old, otherwise healthy man with a large intra-articular meniscal ganglion cyst (27.7 x 13.5 mm) originating from the dorsal horn of the lateral meniscus. Clinically, the patient presented with knee pain in a squatting position. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large intra-articular cyst in the posterior compartment. At arthroscopic surgery, the ganglion cyst was found in the intercondylar space posteriorly to the posterior cruciate ligament. After removal of the ganglion cyst, a horizontal tear in the dorsal horn of the lateral meniscus was revealed and treated by partial meniscectomy. To our knowledge, a meniscal ganglion cyst originating from the lateral meniscus and extending into the joint is an extremely rare event, with only two previous reported cases. We review the current literature on the pathogenesis, distribution, and treatment of meniscal ganglion cysts. PMID:15243414

  18. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdner, D. L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D. M.

    2010-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10 cysts/cm 3 sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation ( p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1-3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the

  19. SxtA gene sequence analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norshaha, Safida Anira; Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is typically known for the production of potent neurotoxins such as saxitoxin, affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). These phenomena is related to the harmful algal blooms (HABs) that is believed to be influenced by environmental and nutritional factors. Previous study has revealed that SxtA gene is a starting gene that involved in the saxitoxin production pathway. The aim of this study was to analyse the sequence of the sxtA gene in A. minutum. The dinoflagellates culture was cultured at temperature 26°C with 16:8-hour light:dark photocycle. After the samples were harvested, RNA was extracted, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesised and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were then purified and cloned before sequenced. The SxtA sequence obtained was then analyzed in order to identify the presence of SxtA gene in Alexandrium minutum.

  20. Cerebral arachnoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, M. J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The case histories of 14 children are described in which hydrocephalus was found on investigation to be associated with a cyst of the posterior fossa or subarachnoid cisterns. The neuroradiological and histological findings are described. The cysts are considered to be developmental in origin. Their recognition and management are discussed. Images PMID:5315217

  1. Epidermal and urethroid penile cyst.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A L; Dutoit, M; Boucheron, S

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a 74-year-old man who presented with a 2-cm nodule on the ventral face of the penis, showing histologically a cyst lined by both epidermal and urethroid epithelium. The authors discuss the various histological forms of raphe median cysts of the penis. PMID:1676220

  2. Epidermal cyst of median raphe.

    PubMed

    LaNasa, J A

    1976-10-01

    Cysts of the penis are rare and references to them in standard textbooks are sketchy. A case report of a congenital epidermal cyst of the median raphe of the penis is presented; therapy involved excision of the mass. Review of the literature is given. PMID:973298

  3. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

    2008-05-01

    We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

  4. Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

  5. Dinoflagellates and ciliates at Helgoland Roads, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löder, Martin Günther Joachim; Kraberg, Alexandra Claudia; Aberle, Nicole; Peters, Silvia; Wiltshire, Karen Helen

    2012-03-01

    A monitoring programme for microzooplankton was started at the long-term sampling station "Kabeltonne" at Helgoland Roads (54°11.3'N; 7°54.0'E) in January 2007 in order to provide more detailed knowledge on microzooplankton occurrence, composition and seasonality patterns at this site and to complement the existing plankton data series. Ciliate and dinoflagellate cell concentration and carbon biomass were recorded on a weekly basis. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were considerably more important in terms of biomass than ciliates, especially during the summer months. However, in early spring, ciliates were the major group of microzooplankton grazers as they responded more quickly to phytoplankton food availability. Mixotrophic dinoflagellates played a secondary role in terms of biomass when compared to heterotrophic species; nevertheless, they made up an intense late summer bloom in 2007. The photosynthetic ciliate Myrionecta rubra bloomed at the end of the sampling period. Due to its high biomass when compared to crustacean plankton especially during the spring bloom, microzooplankton should be regarded as the more important phytoplankton grazer group at Helgoland Roads. Based on these results, analyses of biotic and abiotic factors driving microzooplankton composition and abundance are necessary for a full understanding of this important component of the plankton.

  6. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roberto; Liu, Li; Lopez, Jose; An, Tianying; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS) genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum. PMID:18728765

  7. Proof that dinoflagellate spliced leader (DinoSL) is a useful hook for fishing dinoflagellate transcripts from mixed microbial samples: Symbiodinium kawagutii as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Gill, John; Lin, Senjie

    2013-07-01

    The ability to analyze dinoflagellate lineage-specific transcriptomes in the natural environment would be powerful for gaining understanding on how these organisms thrive in diverse environments and how they form harmful algal blooms and produce biotoxins. This can be made possible by lineage-specific mRNA markers such as the dinoflagellate-specific trans-spliced leader (DinoSL). By constructing and sequencing a 5'-cap selective full-length cDNA library for a monoculture of the coral reef endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii and a DinoSL-based cDNA library for a mixture of S. kawagutii and other phytoplankton, we found DinoSL in essentially all full-length cDNAs in the 5'-cap selective library. We also discovered that the DinoSL-based library contained functionally diverse transcripts all belonging to dinoflagellates with no evidence of biases toward certain groups of functional genes. The results verified that DinoSL is specific to dinoflagellate mRNAs and is ubiquitous in the dinoflagellate transcriptomes. Annotation of the unigene dataset generated from the two libraries combined indicated high functional diversity of the transcriptome and revealed some biochemical pathways previously undocumented in Symbiodinium such as an mRNA splicing machinery potentially serving both cis- and trans-splicing. The protocol will be useful for transcriptomic studies of Symbiodinium in hospite and other dinoflagellates in natural environments. PMID:23773861

  8. Penile Epidermal Cyst: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumaraguru, Veerapandian; Prabhu, Ravi; Kannan, Narayanasamy Subbaraju

    2016-05-01

    Epidermal cysts also known as epidermoid cysts, is one of the common benign tumours presenting anywhere in the body. However, epidermal cyst in the penis is very rare. This condition in children is usually congenital due to abnormal embryologic closure of the median raphe; hence, it is termed as median raphe cysts (MRCs). Penile epidermal cysts may occur in adults following trauma or surgery due to epidermal elements being trapped within closed space. During wound healing, trapped squamous epithelium, undergoing keratinisation leads to cyst formation. Here, we report a rare case of patient with a penile epidermoid cyst whose main complaints was discomfort during coitus. PMID:27437298

  9. Penile Epidermal Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumaraguru, Veerapandian; Prabhu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cysts also known as epidermoid cysts, is one of the common benign tumours presenting anywhere in the body. However, epidermal cyst in the penis is very rare. This condition in children is usually congenital due to abnormal embryologic closure of the median raphe; hence, it is termed as median raphe cysts (MRCs). Penile epidermal cysts may occur in adults following trauma or surgery due to epidermal elements being trapped within closed space. During wound healing, trapped squamous epithelium, undergoing keratinisation leads to cyst formation. Here, we report a rare case of patient with a penile epidermoid cyst whose main complaints was discomfort during coitus. PMID:27437298

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome and Transcriptome of the Basal Dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp.: Character Evolution within the Highly Derived Mitochondrial Genomes of Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Gornik, S. G.; Waller, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    The sister phyla dinoflagellates and apicomplexans inherited a drastically reduced mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) containing only three protein-coding (cob, cox1, and cox3) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In apicomplexans, single copies of these genes are encoded on the smallest known mtDNA chromosome (6 kb). In dinoflagellates, however, the genome has undergone further substantial modifications, including massive genome amplification and recombination resulting in multiple copies of each gene and gene fragments linked in numerous combinations. Furthermore, protein-encoding genes have lost standard stop codons, trans-splicing of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is required to generate complete cox3 transcripts, and extensive RNA editing recodes most genes. From taxa investigated to date, it is unclear when many of these unusual dinoflagellate mtDNA characters evolved. To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial genome and transcriptome character states of the deep branching dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Genomic data show that like later-branching dinoflagellates Hematodinium sp. also contains an inflated, heavily recombined genome of multicopy genes and gene fragments. Although stop codons are also lacking for cox1 and cob, cox3 still encodes a conventional stop codon. Extensive editing of mRNAs also occurs in Hematodinium sp. The mtDNA of basal dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. indicates that much of the mtDNA modification in dinoflagellates occurred early in this lineage, including genome amplification and recombination, and decreased use of standard stop codons. Trans-splicing, on the other hand, occurred after Hematodinium sp. diverged. Only RNA editing presents a nonlinear pattern of evolution in dinoflagellates as this process occurs in Hematodinium sp. but is absent in some later-branching taxa indicating that this process was either lost in some lineages or developed more than once during the evolution of the highly unusual

  11. Relationship of cyst nematode gene frequencies to soybean resistance.

    PubMed

    Luedders, V D

    1989-06-01

    Soybean (S, Glycine max (L.) Merr.) lines with relatively few cysts of soybean cyst nematode (CN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) populations are usually called CN-resistant. The phenotype of number of cysts per plant is of the CN-S (Cyst Nematode-Soybean) association and determined by the interactions of genes for avirulence-resistance. The acronym "alins" was proposed for these alleles for incompatibility, with "xalin" representing the interaction X of one microsymbiont malin with its host h-alin. These alins are dominant in the gene-for-gene model but may be mostly recessive with CN-S. Definitive genetic studies have been hindered by the heterogeneity of sexually reproducing CN populations and lack of the appropriate genetic models. Loegering's abstract interorganismal genetic model was modified so that one model represented all four possible interactions of dominant-recessive alins for an incompatible phenotype. This involved redefining the Boolean algebra symbol 1 to represent both the alins AND their frequencies. The model was used to derive the relationship: {ie893-01} where the expectation E of cysts (of any CN-S combination, as proportion of number of cysts on a check cultivar) is proportional to the product Π of CN genotypic frequencies expressed as functions of m-alin frequencies. Each m-alin is at a different locus, i.e., {ie893-02}. The number of terms multiplied for each CN-S is equal to the number of alins in the S line (or F2 plant). There are too many unknowns in the equation to solve for any of them. The relationship does explain the continuous distributions of phenotypes that were nearly always observed. Basic genetic principles were used to concurrently derive the models and to obtain discontinuous distributions of numbers of cyst phenotypes in segregating generations due to one recessive alin in a CN-"susceptible" soybean line. PMID:24232909

  12. Lagrangian particle tracking of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom within the Tampa Bay estuary.

    PubMed

    Havens, Heather; Luther, Mark E; Meyers, Steven D; Heil, Cynthia A

    2010-12-01

    A coastal risk assessment system simulates the basic physical mechanisms underlying contaminant transport in Tampa Bay. This risk assessment system, comprised of a three-dimensional numerical circulation model coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking model, simulates the transport and dispersion of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom. Instantaneous velocity output from the circulation model drives the movement of particles, each representing a fraction of a K. brevis bloom, within the model grid cells. Hindcast simulations of the spatial distribution of the K. brevis bloom are presented and compared with water sample concentrations collected during the peak of the bloom. Probability calculations, herein called transport quotients, allow for rapid analysis of bay-wide K. brevis transport showing locations most likely to be impacted by the contaminant. Maps constructed from the transport quotients provide managers with a bay-wide snapshot of areas in Tampa Bay most at risk during a hazardous bloom event. PMID:20825953

  13. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  14. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts.

    PubMed

    Tarlov, I M

    1970-12-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. PMID:5531903

  15. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    PubMed

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

  16. [Microsurgical treatment of intracraneal arachnoid cysts].

    PubMed

    Saura Rojas, J Enrique; Horcajadas Almansa, Ángel; Ros López, Bienvenido

    2016-01-01

    Craniotomy and fenestration of membranes is one of the main treatment options for symptomatic arachnoid cysts. Open surgery advantages include, direct inspection of the cyst, biopsy sampling, fenestration in multilocular cysts and, in certain locations, cyst communication to basal cisterns. The aim of this paper is to review the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment modality for arachnoid cysts taking into account the different anatomical locations. PMID:25891259

  17. Bovine IgG subclasses and fertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Riesle, Silke; García, María Pía; Hidalgo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Saenz, Leonardo; Paredes, Rodolfo

    2014-09-15

    Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, causing important health problems to humans and major economical losses in infected livestock. Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of hydatid disease, induces a humoral immune response in the intermediate host (human and herbivorous) against hydatid cyst antigens. Specifically, IgGs are found in the laminar and germinal layers and inside the lumen of fertile and infertile hydatid cysts. In the germinal layer of infertile cysts IgGs are found in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer of fertile cysts; a fraction of those IgGs are associated with high affinity to germinal layer proteins, suggesting their binding to specific parasite antigens. We have previously shown that those immunoglobulins, bound with high affinity to the germinal layer of hydatid cysts, induce apoptosis leading to cyst infertility. In the present work the presence of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the germinal layer of both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts is reported. IgG1 is the most relevant immunoglobulin subclass present in the germinal layer of infertile cysts and bound with high affinity to that parasite structure. Contrarily, though the IgG2 subclass was also found in the germinal and adventitial layers, those immunoglobulins show low affinity to parasite antigens. We propose that the binding of an IgG1 subclass to parasite antigens present in the germinal layer is involved in the mechanism of cyst infertility. PMID:24962125

  18. [Neurosurgical aspects of arachnoid cysts].

    PubMed

    Maier, F; Steube, D; Hamm, K D

    1986-01-01

    After an analysis of the patients treated in the last five years, a report is given on 9 cases of arachnoid cysts as a rare form of intracranial space occupation. The etiology of the arachnoid cysts has not been fully cleared up yet, but the semipermeability of the cyst membrane appears to be an important pathogenetic factor. Today, the diagnosis of the disease is verified by CT techniques. In case of the occurrence of clinical symptoms the treatment should always be carried out in the form of an operation. PMID:3564765

  19. Splenic hydatid cyst attacking retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Bülent; Uçtum, Yalım; Kutanış, Rıza

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease most commonly affects the liver and lungs but no organ is immune. Splenic hydatid cyst is a rare clinical entity. Although the patients are usually asymptomatic, the disease may present with secondary infection, adhesion to adjacent organs with fistulisation or rupture into abdominal cavity. We present a 67 year old women with splenic hydatid cyst. Severe adhesions and tumorlike growth were found in the retroperitoneal region. To our knowledge, retroperitoneal invasion with a splenic hydatid cyst is a very rare clinical condition. Total splenectomy was performed without complication. PMID:21391192

  20. Nasopalatine canal cyst: often missed

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Neeta; Agarwal, Rashmi; Pandey, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Nasopalatine canal cyst may occur within the nasopalatine canal or in the soft tissues of the palate, at the opening of the canal, where it is called the ‘cyst of the palatine papilla’. These are normally asymptomatic, constituting casual radiological findings. We present a case report of a male patient with infected nasopalatine canal cyst seen clinically as swelling over palate. Radiographic interpretation should be thoroughly performed for maxillary anterior region and any occlusal radiograph in routine radiography to screen this entity and must be distinguished from other maxillary anterior radiolucencies by the clinician. PMID:23536642

  1. Choroid plexus cysts and aneuploidy.

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, D; Yankowitz, J

    1998-01-01

    The association of choroid plexus cysts with fetal aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 18, was first noted in 1986. Through the years there have been numerous reports on this subject, but no consensus has been reached with regard to chromosomal risk. In this review, we attempt to summarise published reports on second trimester choroid plexus cysts, with an emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of each report. Based on these reports, additional malformations are a significant risk factor for aneuploidy and an indication for determination of fetal karyotype. The management of isolated choroid plexus cysts remains controversial. PMID:9678699

  2. Renal hydatid cyst treatment: retroperitoneoscopic "closed cyst" pericystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ender; Bostanci, Yakup; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin; Yakupoglu, Yarkin Kamil; Yilmaz, Ali Faik; Sarıkaya, Saban

    2011-03-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is an endemic disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus spp. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. The treatment methods for renal hydatid disease require some form of intervention, ranging from traditional open techniques to laparoscopic techniques. Herein, we present a large hydatid cyst in the lower pole of the left kidney in a 43-year-old male patient who was treated by the "closed cyst" method via the retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach to prevent soiling of the peritoneal cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a renal hydatid cyst treated by preserving the renal parenchyma by pericystectomy via the retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic approach in an adult patient. No complications occurred during the perioperative and postoperative periods. After 9 months of follow up, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of clinical recurrence. Retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic closed cyst pericystectomy can be an alternative minimally invasive treatment technique for the treatment of renal hydatid disease. PMID:21226768

  3. A method for estimating the contribution of seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare in field infestations with potato cyst nematodes on a national scale.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries. PMID:22696943

  4. EFFECT OF FLUID SHEAR AND IRRADIANCE ON POPULATION GROWTH AND CELLULAR TOXIN CONTENT OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE ALEXANDRIUM FUNDYENSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for in situ turbulence to inhibit dinoflagellate population growth has been demonstrated by experimentally exposing dinoflagellate cultures to quantified shear flow. However, despite interest in understanding environmental factors that affect the growth of toxic din...

  5. Aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Timothy B; Ward, James P; Alaia, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare skeletal tumors that most commonly occur in the first two decades of life. They primarily develop about the knee but may arise in any portion of the axial or appendicular skeleton. Pathogenesis of these tumors remains controversial and may be vascular, traumatic, or genetic. Radiographic features include a dilated, radiolucent lesion typically located within the metaphyseal portion of the bone, with fluid-fluid levels visible on MRI. Histologic features include blood-filled lakes interposed between fibrous stromata. Differential diagnosis includes conditions such as telangiectatic osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The mainstay of treatment is curettage and bone graft, with or without adjuvant treatment. Other management options include cryotherapy, sclerotherapy, radionuclide ablation, and en bloc resection. The recurrence rate is low after appropriate treatment; however, more than one procedure may be required to completely eradicate the lesion. PMID:22474093

  6. [Cilia and renal cysts].

    PubMed

    Paces-Fessy, Mélanie

    2014-11-01

    Advances in genomics, bioinformatics and the creation of model organisms have identified many genes associated with polycystic kidney diseases. Historically, these genes were not necessarily associated with ciliopathies, but it appeared that many connections can be made between the cystic kidney disease and function of the primary cilium. Indeed, the proteins encoded by these genes are localized to the cilium itself, to the basal body or are known to regulate the expression and localization of ciliary proteins. The goal of this article is to describe the multiple cellular processes that may lead to the development of renal cysts if they are deregulated. These include changes in proliferation rate, cell polarity or signaling pathways involved in embryonic kidney development. To highlight the role of the primary cilium in cystogenesis, I will discuss several studies investigating the function of ciliary genes and cilia in the kidneys of different model organisms. PMID:25388585

  7. STRATEGIES OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATE SURVIVAL AND SOME RULES OF ASSEMBLY. (R829368)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed t...

  8. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  9. Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Nataliia V; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species-specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions. PMID:25603395

  10. New-old hemoglobin-like proteins of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Leggat, William; Kaniewska, Paulina; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78–99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15–21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6–7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted in an increased Hb-1 gene expression of 31% after 72 h only, whereas transcript abundance of the Hb-2 gene was enhanced by up to 59% by both 1-day and 3-day thermal stress conditions. Nutrient stress also increased gene expression of Hb-2 gene by 70%. Our findings describe the differential expression patterns of two novel Hb genes from symbiotic dinoflagellates and their polymorphic nature. Furthermore, the inducible nature of Hb-2 gene by both thermal and nutrient stressors indicates a prospective role of this form of hemoglobin in the initial coral–algal responses to changes in environmental conditions. This novel hemoglobin has potential use as a stress biomarker. PMID:23610627

  11. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  12. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a major pest of potato crops in... some weeds. The PCN is thought to have originated in Peru and is now widely distributed in many potato-growing regions of the world. PCN infestations may be expressed as patches of poor growth. Affected...

  13. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  14. Spliced leader–based metatranscriptomic analyses lead to recognition of hidden genomic features in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Tran, Bao; Gill, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) for a specific lineage of eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Dinoflagellata) would be instrumental for unraveling the genetic mechanisms by which these microbes respond to the natural environment, but it has not been exploited because of technical difficulties. Using the recently discovered dinoflagellate mRNA-specific spliced leader as a selective primer, we constructed cDNA libraries (e-cDNAs) from one marine and two freshwater plankton assemblages. Small-scale sequencing of the e-cDNAs revealed functionally diverse transcriptomes proven to be of dinoflagellate origin. A set of dinoflagellate common genes and transcripts of dominant dinoflagellate species were identified. Further analyses of the dataset prompted us to delve into the existing, largely unannotated dinoflagellate EST datasets (DinoEST). Consequently, all four nucleosome core histones, two histone modification proteins, and a nucleosome assembly protein were detected, clearly indicating the presence of nucleosome-like machinery long thought not to exist in dinoflagellates. The isolation of rhodopsin from taxonomically and ecotypically diverse dinoflagellates and its structural similarity and phylogenetic affinity to xanthorhodopsin suggest a common genetic potential in dinoflagellates to use solar energy nonphotosynthetically. Furthermore, we found 55 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RPs) from the e-cDNAs and 24 more from DinoEST, showing that the dinoflagellate phylum possesses all 79 eukaryotic RPs. Our results suggest that a sophisticated eukaryotic molecular machine operates in dinoflagellates that likely encodes many more unsuspected physiological capabilities and, meanwhile, demonstrate that unique spliced leaders are useful for profiling lineage-specific microbial transcriptomes in situ. PMID:21041634

  15. Diagnosis of sacral perineural cysts by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tabas, J H; Deeb, Z L

    1986-07-01

    Three cases of sacral perineural cysts associated with chronic low-back pain are described with their myelography, computed tomography, and plain film findings. Significant findings include multiple cystic dilatations of lumbosacral nerve root sheaths, enlargement of the sacral foramina by masses isodense with cerebrospinal fluid, and asymmetric epidural fat distribution. Recognition of these findings on unenhanced computed tomography scans should preclude further evaluation by myelography and intrathecal metrizamide (Amipaque) computed tomography. These cysts are usually not the primary cause of back and leg pain. PMID:2942338

  16. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    PubMed Central

    Xue-qiang, Yan; Nan-nan, Zheng; Lei, Yu; Wei, Lu; Hong-qiang, Bian; Jun, Yang; Xu-fei, Duan; Xin-ke, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition. PMID:26958055

  17. Neurenteric cysts of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Roder, Constantin; Ebner, Florian H; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2013-12-01

    Neurenteric cysts in the central nervous system are rare developmental malformations. Usually the cysts are located ventral to the high thoracic or low cervical spinal cord. Only a few cases of intracranial neurenteric cysts have been reported in the literature to date. We report two cases of intracranial neurenteric cysts in the cerebellopontine angle with totally different radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic appearance. As seen in these cases, the imaging spectrum of neurenteric cysts can be diverse, including malignancy-suspecting partial rim-enhancement or low-grade glioma features. Microsurgical therapy should include endoscopic assistance to ensure complete removal of cyst content. PMID:23397125

  18. A Standard Greenhouse Method for Assessing Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance in Soybean: SCE08 (Standardized Cyst Evaluation 2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is distributed throughout the soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production areas of the United States and Canada. SCN remains the most economically important pathogen of soybean in North America; the most recent estimate of soybean yield...

  19. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. PMID:26375331

  20. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    PubMed

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. PMID:27011070

  1. SELDI-TOF analysis of glioblastoma cyst fluid is an approach for assessing cellular protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Hoelscher, Martin; Richter, Nina; Melle, Christian; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Schaenzer, Anne; Nestler, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In about 10% of glioblastoma patients, preoperative MRI discloses the presence of tumor cysts. Whereas the impact of cystic appearance on prognosis has been discussed extensively, only little is known about the tumor cyst fluid. In this study, we tested the feasibility of the surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technique to detect cyst fluid proteins. Methods: Cyst fluid was collected from 21 glioblastoma patients for SELDI-TOF analysis and compared to control cerebrospinal fluids from 15 patients with spinal stenosis. Resulting protein peaks with significant differences between groups were further described, using the molecular weight in an internet search of protein databases and publications. Two potential cyst fluid proteins, basigin and ferritin light chain, were selected for immunohistological detection in the histologic slides of the patients, metallothionein (MT) served as negative control. Results: As supposed from the results of the SELDI-TOF analysis, basigin and ferritin were detected immunohistochemically in the cyst wall, whereas MT was more equally distributed between the cyst wall and the surrounding tumor tissue. Median survival time of the patients was 20 months (range 2 to 102 months) and correlated with age, but not with expression of the three proteins. Discussion: The SELDI-TOF approach reveals a number of proteins, potentially present in glioblastoma cyst fluid. Identification of these proteins in tumor cells may help understand the pathogenetic pathways and the prognostic value of cystic changes. PMID:24225180

  2. Arthroscopic management of popliteal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Amite; Chahar, Deepak; Pathrot, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of popliteal cyst is controversial. Owing to high failure rates in open procedures, recent trend is towards arthroscopic decompression and simultaneous management of intraarticular pathology. We retrospectively analysed clinical results of symptomatic popliteal cysts after arthroscopic management at 24 month followup. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of hospital database for patients presenting with pathology suggestive of a popliteal cyst from June 2007 to December 2012 was done. Twelve cases of popliteal cyst not responding to NSAIDS and with Rauschning and Lindgren Grade 2 or 3 who consented for surgical intervention were included in the study. All patients underwent arthroscopic decompression using a posteromedial portal along with management of intraarticular pathologies as encountered. Furthermore, the unidirectional valvular effect was corrected to a bidirectional one by widening the cyst joint interface. The results were assessed as per the Rauschning and Lindgren criteria. Results: All patients were followed for a minimum of 24 months (range 24-36 months). It revealed that among the study group, six patients achieved Grade 0 status while five had a minimal limitation of range of motion accompanied by occasional pain (Grade 1). One patient had a failure of treatment with no change in the clinical grading. Conclusion: Arthroscopic approach gives easy access to decompression with the simultaneous management of articular pathologies. PMID:27053804

  3. A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

    2007-08-01

    Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations. PMID:17688070

  4. Ganglion cysts and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, J J; Bertoni, J M; Jaeger, S H

    1988-09-01

    We review 12 cases of ganglion cyst with carpal tunnel syndrome in 11 patients seen at the Hand Rehabilitation Center. Mean age was 42 years (range, 28 to 60 years). One half of the cysts were associated with direct trauma, usually with wrist hyperextension. Symptoms usually developed after the appearance or sudden growth of the cyst. Motor conduction or distal sensory latency was abnormal in seven of eight studied cases. Tinel's sign on tapping the cyst may be pathognomonic for this syndrome. Cyst removal and incision of the flexor retinaculum relieved the symptoms in 11 cases. The other case had total resolution after spontaneous cyst rupture. This syndrome is successfully treated with cyst decompression with release of the carpal canal and has an excellent prognosis. To our knowledge this represents the largest operative series of carpal tunnel syndrome and ganglion cyst. PMID:3241055

  5. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence. PMID:27468088

  6. NanoSIMS study of trophic interactions in the coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Mathieu, Pernice; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Djediat, Chakib; Spangenberg, Jorge; Alexander, Duncan; Hignette, Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Meibom, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Tropical and subtropical reef-building corals generally form a stable endosymbiotic association with autotrophic single-celled dinoflagellate algae, commonly known as "zooxanthellae", which is crucial for the development of coral reef ecosystems. In the present work, the spatial and temporal dynamics of trophic interactions between corals and their dinoflagellates was investigated in situ and at a subcellular level in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative NanoSIMS isotopic imaging of tissue ultra-thin sections (70 nm) were combined to precisely track the assimilation and the fate of 15N-labeled compounds (ammonium, nitrate and aspartic acid) within each symbiotic partner of the coral-dinoflagellate association. Among our main results, we found that (i) both dinoflagellate algae and coral tissue rapidly assimilate ammonium and aspartic acid from the environment, (ii) however only the dinoflagellates assimilate nitrate, (ii) nitrogen is rapidly and temporary stored within the dinoflagellate cells into uric acid crystals, and (iii) the dinoflagellate endosymbionts translocate nitrogenous compounds to their coral host. This study paves the way for exploring in details the wide range of metabolic interactions between partners of any symbiosis in the biosphere.

  7. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne A; Cavalier-Smith, Tom; Nedreklepp, Joachim M; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harbour diverse plastids obtained from several algal groups, including haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and prasinophytes. Their major plastid type with the accessory pigment peridinin is found in the vast majority of photosynthetic species. Some species of dinoflagellates have other aberrantly pigmented plastids. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the "green" dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum and show that it is sister to Lepidodinium viride, indicating that their common ancestor obtained the prasinophyte (or other green alga) plastid in one event. As the placement of dinoflagellate species that acquired green algal or haptophyte plastids is unclear from small and large subunit (LSU) rRNA trees, we tested the usefulness of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 gene for dinoflagellate phylogeny by sequencing it from four species with aberrant plastids (G. chlorophorum, Karlodinium micrum, Karenia brevis, and Karenia mikimotoi) plus Alexandrium tamarense, and constructing phylogenetic trees for Hsp90 and rRNAs, separately and together. Analyses of the Hsp90 and concatenated data suggest an ancestral origin of the peridinin-containing plastid, and two independent replacements of the peridinin plastid soon after the early radiation of the dinoflagellates. Thus, the Hsp90 gene seems to be a promising phylogenetic marker for dinoflagellate phylogeny. PMID:16677346

  8. When Naked Became Armored: An Eight-Gene Phylogeny Reveals Monophyletic Origin of Theca in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Murray, Shauna A.; Stüken, Anke; Rhodes, Lesley; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium. PMID:23185516

  9. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  10. Discovery of Nuclear-Encoded Genes for the Neurotoxin Saxitoxin in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Kellmann, Ralf; Murray, Shauna A.; Neilan, Brett A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2011-01-01

    Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death. In freshwaters, the toxin is produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria; in marine waters, it is associated with eukaryotic dinoflagellates. However, several studies suggest that saxitoxin is not produced by dinoflagellates themselves, but by co-cultured bacteria. Here, we show that genes required for saxitoxin synthesis are encoded in the nuclear genomes of dinoflagellates. We sequenced >1.2×106 mRNA transcripts from the two saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate strains Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and A. minutum CCMP113 using high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, we used in silico transcriptome analyses, RACE, qPCR and conventional PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. These approaches successfully identified genes required for saxitoxin-synthesis in the two transcriptomes. We focused on sxtA, the unique starting gene of saxitoxin synthesis, and show that the dinoflagellate transcripts of sxtA have the same domain structure as the cyanobacterial sxtA genes. But, in contrast to the bacterial homologs, the dinoflagellate transcripts are monocistronic, have a higher GC content, occur in multiple copies, contain typical dinoflagellate spliced-leader sequences and eukaryotic polyA-tails. Further, we investigated 28 saxitoxin-producing and non-producing dinoflagellate strains from six different genera for the presence of genomic sxtA homologs. Our results show very good agreement between the presence of sxtA and saxitoxin-synthesis, except in three strains of A. tamarense, for which we amplified sxtA, but did not detect the toxin. Our work opens for possibilities to develop molecular tools to detect saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in the environment. PMID:21625593