Science.gov

Sample records for diploid seedless watermelon

  1. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic tetraploid plants have been used for production of seedless triploid watermelon lines being pollinated with diploid plants. When compared to their diploid or triploid counterparts, the tetraploid exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Though many factors, including alternative splicing (AS),...

  2. Grafting increases lycopene in seedless watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although watermelon grafting has been done for years in Asia and Europe, this production method is still novel to the U.S. Fruit from four rootstocks with scions of the seedless watermelons Palomar, TriX313, Matrix, and Petite Perfection were compared for soluble solids content, pH, and carotenoids...

  3. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  4. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. PMID:25520388

  5. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A.; Vajja, Venkata G.; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K.; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. PMID:25520388

  6. Grafting Seedless Watermelons, How and Why? Will Grafting Help With Disease Control?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera has gained importance in the United States. Grafting vegetable crops, especially cucurbit’s, is very common in Europe and Asia. In these regions, the practice of crop ...

  7. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-01

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage. PMID:17002453

  8. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  9. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  10. RIPENING CHANGES IN MINI WATERMELON FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, seedless and seeded mini watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) of ripe, underripe, and overripe stages were evaluated for quality characteristics and changes in carotenoids and pectins. Similar to seeded, large watermelon, minimelon weight, pH, and soluble solids content increased in frui...

  11. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  12. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars.

    PubMed

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Roberts, Warren

    2006-04-01

    The lycopene content of 50 commercial cultivars of seeded and seedless red-fleshed watermelons was determined. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (<50 mg/kg fw), average (50-70 mg/kg fw), high (70-90 mg/kg fw), and very high (>90 mg/kg fw). Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, ranging from 33 to 100 mg/kg. Most of the seeded hybrid cultivars had average lycopene contents. Sixteen of the 33 seedless types had lycopene contents in the high and very high ranges. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant carotenoid (84-97%) in all watermelon cultivars measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, but the germplasm differed in the relative amounts of cis-lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytofluene. Red-fleshed watermelon genotypes vary extensively in carotenoid content and offer opportunities for developing watermelons with specifically enhanced carotenoids. PMID:16569049

  13. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage.

    PubMed

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Watermelon contains lycopene, a red carotenoid pigment that has strong antioxidant properties. The lycopene content of watermelon is substantial, contributing 8-20 mg per 180 g serving. There are no reports on carotenoid changes in whole watermelon during storage. Three types of watermelon, open-pollinated seeded, hybrid seeded, and seedless types, were stored at 5, 13, and 21 degrees C for 14 days and flesh color, composition, and carotenoid content were compared to those of fruit not stored. Watermelons stored at 21 degrees C had increased pH, chroma, and carotenoid content compared to fresh fruit. Compared to fresh fruit, watermelons stored at 21 degrees C gained 11-40% in lycopene and 50-139% in beta-carotene, whereas fruit held at 13 degrees C changed little in carotenoid content. These results indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelons can be affected by temperature and storage. PMID:16881688

  14. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  15. Effect of phytophthora capsici crown rot on watermelon rootstocks and grafts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera is also gaining acceptance in our l...

  16. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE ORANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, hereby releases for propagation the US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE citrus scion selection, formerly tested as USDA 1-10-60. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE resulted from irradiation of Ridge Pineapple seeds by C.J. Hearn in 1970 at the U.S. Horticultu...

  17. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  18. Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind.

    PubMed

    Rimando, Agnes M; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope M

    2005-06-17

    Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) is a natural and rich source of the non-essential amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is used in the nitric oxide system in humans and has potential antioxidant and vasodilatation roles. A method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to separate citrulline from glutamic acid, which co-elute when analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Watermelons were analyzed by GC-MS to determine the citrulline content among varieties, types, flesh colors, and tissues. Citrulline content ranged from 3.9 to 28.5 mg/g dry weight (dwt) and was similar between seeded and seedless types (16.6 and 20.3 mg/g dwt, respectively). Red flesh watermelons had slightly less citrulline than the yellow or orange flesh watermelons (7.4, 28.5 and 14.2 mg/g dwt, respectively). Rind contained more citrulline than flesh on a dry weight basis (24.7 and 16.7 mg/g dwt, respectively) but a little less on a fresh weight (fwt) basis (1.3 and 1.9 mg/g fwt, respectively). These results indicate that watermelon rind, an underutilized agricultural waste, offers a source of natural citrulline. PMID:16007998

  19. Evaluation of fungicide rotations for management of Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC in summer of 2013. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand and the field has been infested with Phytophthora capsici for the previous 2 years. Five-week-old seedlings of the seedless watermelon cultivar Vanessa growin...

  20. Evaluation of Actigard and fungicides for management of Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC, in summer of 2013. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand and the field has been infested with Phytophthora capsici for the previous 2 years. Five-week-old seedlings of the seedless watermelon cultivar Vanessa growi...

  1. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See § 52.1846...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See § 52.1846...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that have similar varietal characteristics; that have a good typical...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that have similar varietal characteristics; that have a good typical...

  7. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that...

  8. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that...

  11. LYCOPENE DEVELOPMENT IN WATERMELONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon contains 40-50 ug/g of lycopene, a carotenoid pigment found in only a few fruits and vegetables. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant and extraction of this pigment for use as a supplement offers potential for a value-added product from watermelon. This study was done to determine the mat...

  12. Watermelon Vine Declines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of diseases have been identified that cause the wilt, collapse and general decline of watermelon plants. These diseases occur in watermelon growing areas around the world and are generically referred to as vine declines. In the 1990’s, Monosporascus root rot was identified as a disease of...

  13. Watermelon, phytochemicals and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon fruit contains lycopene, a carotenoid pigment, and citrulline, an amino acid. These plant compounds may be helpful in preventing some chronic diseases. The amount of lycopene in watermelon ranges from 35 to 125 mg per kg of edible portion, and there is 2 to 4 mg per kg citrulline presen...

  14. Diploid versus Haploid Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticona, Armando; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo C.

    Using a bit string model, we show that asexual reproduction for diploids is more efficient than for haploids: it improves genetic material producing new individuals with less deleterious mutations. We also see that in a system where competition is present, diploids dominate, even though we consider some dominant loci.

  15. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shiu, J W; Slaughter, D C; Boyden, L E; Barrett, D M

    2016-06-01

    The textural properties of 5 seedless watermelon cultivars were assessed by descriptive analysis and the standard puncture test using a hollow probe with increased shearing properties. The use of descriptive analysis methodology was an effective means of quantifying watermelon sensory texture profiles for characterizing specific cultivars' characteristics. Of the 10 cultivars screened, 71% of the variation in the sensory attributes was measured using the 1st 2 principal components. Pairwise correlation of the hollow puncture probe and sensory parameters determined that initial slope, maximum force, and work after maximum force measurements all correlated well to the sensory attributes crisp and firm. These findings confirm that maximum force correlates well with not only firmness in watermelon, but crispness as well. The initial slope parameter also captures the sensory crispness of watermelon, but is not as practical to measure in the field as maximum force. The work after maximum force parameter is thought to reflect cellular arrangement and membrane integrity that in turn impact sensory firmness and crispness. Watermelon cultivar types were correctly predicted by puncture test measurements in heart tissue 87% of the time, although descriptive analysis was correct 54% of the time. PMID:27105291

  16. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  18. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes are: (a) Select size raisins means that no more than...

  19. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  20. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes are: (a) Select size raisins means that no more than...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  11. Carotenoids in watermelon and mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids, which impart yellow, orange, and/or red colors to many fruits, have antioxidant health properties. A series of experiments were undertaken to establish how storage affected carotenoids in cultivars of watermelon and mango in cooperation with U.S. commodity boards. Watermelon was assay...

  12. Ripening events in seeded watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeded watermelons generally start color development in the locule (seed cavity), with color progressing to the center of the fruit during the ripening process. Soluble solids content (SSR) is thought to be highest at the blossom end. In large-fruited watermelon where only a portion of the fruit is...

  13. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Watermelon Mosaic Virus Isolated from Watermelon in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rajbanshi, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was first reported in 1965 from the Rio Grande Valley, TX. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a watermelon mosaic virus isolate from watermelon collected from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. PMID:27103724

  14. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Watermelon Mosaic Virus Isolated from Watermelon in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rajbanshi, Naveen; Ali, Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was first reported in 1965 from the Rio Grande Valley, TX. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a watermelon mosaic virus isolate from watermelon collected from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. PMID:27103724

  15. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  16. Maturity and Postharvest Performance of US Early Pride Seedless Mandarins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes efforts underway at the US Horticultural Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL to develop seedless versions of seedy, but otherwise high quality citrus scions. Two approaches for development of seedless scions are discussed: 1) irradiation which has resulted in the release of 'US Seedle...

  17. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  18. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  19. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, A. E.; Esnard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm³ of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P ≤ 0.05) among cultivars and ranged up to 7.36. Sugar Baby, Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  20. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, A E; Esnard, J

    1994-12-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm(3) of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  1. New flesh colors in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently six published flesh colors in watermelon along with the associated genes for each of the designated flesh colors. Previous results have shown that segregation patterns did not fit with published results for canary yellow and red flesh. We believe that part of the problem has been...

  2. Watermelon foliar fungicide timing trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a persistent threat to watermelon production in Oklahoma. Several diseases that include anthracnose, downy mildew, and powdery mildew can result in yield and fruit quality losses when foliage is damaged. Effective fungicides are available for the control of these diseases. How...

  3. Potential Sources of Resistance in Watermelon Plant Introductions (PI) to Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) also known as mature watermelon vine decline has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at harvest time or one to two weeks prior to har...

  4. Evaluation of Select USDA Watermelon Plant Introductions (PI) for Tolerance to Watermelon Vine Decline, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a new and emerging disease in southwest and west central Florida. Watermelon plant introductions (PI) selected on the basis of a greenhouse screening against SqVYV were evaluated for tolerance to watermelon vine decline ...

  5. Tolerance of select watermelon plant introductions (PI) to watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD), also known as mature watermelon vine decline, has been a major limiting factor to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at harvest time or one to two weeks prior to h...

  6. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  7. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  8. USVL-220, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel watermelon breeding line was developed at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina. This breeding line contains the nuclear genome of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomic background of the desert spe...

  9. Differential Expression of Genes in Watermelon Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA library was constructed using watermelon flesh mRNA from three distinct developmental stages. The library was first normalized and then subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNAs (drivers). Random cDNA clones of the watermelon flesh subtraction library were sequenced from the 5’ end in ord...

  10. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  11. JUICE AND CAROTENOID YIELD FROM PROCESSED WATERMELON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most watermelon in the U.S. is consumed fresh. Development of valueadded products from watermelon is desirable for new market niches, and provides alternative markets for fruit that are cosmetically undesirable for the fresh market. The objective of this experiment was to determine if different proc...

  12. Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

  13. The Genome of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, is an economically important cucurbit crop. Here, we report a high quality draft genome sequence for watermelon C. lanatus developed with the next-generation sequencing technology. The assembled genome sequences cover 83% of the estimated 425 Mb watermel...

  14. Management of watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), the causal agent of watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida, is vectored by the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Biotype “B”). Watermelon plants mechanically inoculated at different growth stages from transplant to fruit formation with SqVYV developed WVD sy...

  15. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  16. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  17. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  18. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  19. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  20. Diploid males, diploid sperm production, and triploid females in the ant Tapinoma erraticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournault, Laurent; Aron, Serge

    2009-12-01

    Under complementary sex determination (CSD), females of Hymenoptera arise from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs. Incidentally, fertilized eggs that inherit two identical alleles at the CSD locus will develop into diploid males. Diploid males are usually unviable or sterile. In a few species, however, they produce diploid sperm and father a triploid female progeny. Diploid males have been reported in a number of social Hymenoptera, but the occurrence of triploid females has hardly ever been documented. Here, we report the presence of triploid females, diploid males, and diploid sperm (produced by diploid males and stored in queen spermathecae) in the ant Tapinoma erraticum. Moreover, we show variations in the frequency of triploids among female castes: Triploid females are more frequent among workers than virgin queens; they are absent among mated, reproductive queens. The frequency of triploid workers also varies between populations and between nests within populations.

  1. Computer simulation of arising of diploid genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, Victor S.; Tretyakov, Nikolay P.

    2008-07-01

    The haploid-diploid cycle where, under unfavorable conditions the population becomes diploid, is modeled by a Monte-Carlo method in the framework of the Jan-Stauffer-Moseley hypothesis. Diploidy and sex may have first arisen as a way to escape death, when a simple unicellular individual is threatened by too many deleterious mutations. Using a bit string model, we find that in a system where competition is present (through the Verhulst factor), diploids dominate. In this case the transition from haploid to essentially diploid population takes place in a short time interval reminiscent of phase transitions in physical systems.

  2. Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ambreen; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Niaz, Rai Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments. In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral. Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript. However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene. PMID:26417290

  3. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... week as provided in § 905.52, the committee shall compute the quantity of sizes 48 and 56 red seedless.... (c) The committee shall notify each handler of the quantity of size 48 and 56 red seedless grapefruit... red seedless grapefruit up to 10 percent greater than their allotment. The quantity of...

  4. Review of Viral Watermelon Vine Decline: a New and Emerging Threat to Watermelon Production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) is a new and emerging threat to watermelon production in southeast and west-central Florida and has caused more than $60 million in losses since 2004. The disease is caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae, genus: Ipomovirus) which is transmit...

  5. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Fruit Development in Three Seedy Citrus Genotypes and Their Seedless Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlessness is desirable for most citrus fruit, and identification of spontaneous or irradiated seedless mutants is important in developing citrus cultivars. We conducted a transcriptome analysis in early fruit development of three seedy citrus types (‘Fallglo’, a largely C. reticulata hybrid; ‘Pi...

  7. Research Update on Mature Watermelon Vine Decline in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature watermelon vine decline and fruit rot (MWVD) is a new, emerging disease that has caused devastating losses in the watermelon production region of southwest Florida since 2003 (Roberts et al., 2005). During the past few years, watermelon plants have been affected in each fall (September-Decem...

  8. Adding value to grafted watermelon: Novel benefits and potential pitfalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafted watermelons are commonly used in Asia and areas of Europe but are not widely used in the United States. The traditional reason for grafting watermelons has been for resistance to soil borne diseases such as Fusarium. We began to explore novel benefits which might make grafted watermelons m...

  9. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, watermelon plants of different ages were inoculated with SqVYV to characterize the physiological response to infection and provide new insights into watermelon vine decline. Physiological responses to...

  10. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  11. The Three Lineages of the Diploid Hybrid Verticillium longisporum Differ in Virulence and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Novakazi, Fluturë; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sandoya, German; Hayes, Ryan J; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2015-05-01

    Verticillium longisporum is an economically important vascular pathogen of Brassicaceae crops in different parts of the world. V. longisporum is a diploid hybrid that consists of three different lineages, each of which originated from a separate hybridization event between two different sets of parental species. We used 20 isolates representing the three V. longisporum lineages and the relative V. dahliae, and performed pathogenicity tests on 11 different hosts, including artichoke, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, horseradish, lettuce, linseed, oilseed rape (canola), tomato, and watermelon. V. longisporum was overall more virulent on the Brassicaceae crops than V. dahliae, which was more virulent than V. longisporum across the non-Brassicaceae crops. There were differences in virulence between the three V. longisporum lineages. V. longisporum lineage A1/D1 was the most virulent lineage on oilseed rape, and V. longisporum lineage A1/D2 was the most virulent lineage on cabbage and horseradish. We also found that on the non-Brassicaceae hosts eggplant, tomato, lettuce, and watermelon, V. longisporum was more or equally virulent than V. dahliae. This suggests that V. longisporum may have a wider potential host range than currently appreciated. PMID:25585057

  12. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  13. EST-PCR Markers Representing Watermelon Fruit Genes are Polymorphic among Watermelon Heirloom Cultivars Sharing a Narrow Genetic Base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date there are only a few sequenced-tagged site (STS) markers associated with genes controlling fruit quality in watermelon. In this study, we examined polymorphism in coding regions of genes expressed in watermelon fruit. A normalized cDNA library was constructed for watermelon fruit (Citrullu...

  14. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  15. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon 'Royal Sweet' or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R(2) = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R(2) = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R(2) = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm(3) soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm(3) of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  16. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm3 of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R2 = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R2 = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R2 = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm3 soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm3 of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  17. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  18. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  19. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-22

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs. PMID:26954263

  20. Breeding for phytonutrient content; examples from watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for high phytonutrient fruits and vegetables can be a fairly straightforward endeavor when the compounds of interest produce a visible effect or the methods for quantifying the compounds simple and inexpensive. Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon is one such compound, since the amount of r...

  1. Green-fleshed watermelon contains chlorophyll

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many popular and technical reports on watermelon ignore an uncommon color, green, even though mention of this color has been in the literature since 1901. However, what causes the green hue has not been reported. Since some cucurbits have chloroplasts, and chlorophyll in the flesh tissue, we surmi...

  2. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  3. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Watermelons for Sensing Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelons, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of the melons...

  4. Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

  5. Preemergence weed control in watermelon - Lane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is a major vegetable crop in Oklahoma. Weed control on this crop is crucial for commercial growers particularly as labor costs increase and availability of hoeing crews decrease. Weed infested fields can be a source of pest problems including insect and disease, in addition to the obvio...

  6. Economics of grafted vs conventional watermelon plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting of watermelons has been used in many countries to provide control of, or resistance to, certain soil borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt. The impact of grafting on postharvest quality has not been thoroughly examined. This report deals with the comparison of the costs of production betwe...

  7. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Watermelons for Sensing Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon varieties, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of t...

  8. Sensing Quality of Watermelons through Dielectric Permittivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of t...

  9. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense. PMID:27217091

  10. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  11. On the Genealogy of Asexual Diploids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Fumei; Langley, Charles H.; Song, Yun S.

    Given molecular genetic data from diploid individuals that, at present, reproduce mostly or exclusively asexually without recombination, an important problem in evolutionary biology is detecting evidence of past sexual reproduction (i.e., meiosis and mating) and recombination (both meiotic and mitotic). However, currently there is a lack of computational tools for carrying out such a study. In this paper, we formulate a new problem of reconstructing diploid genealogies under the assumption of no sexual reproduction or recombination, with the ultimate goal being to devise genealogy-based tools for testing deviation from these assumptions. We first consider the infinite-sites model of mutation and develop linear-time algorithms to test the existence of an asexual diploid genealogy compatible with the infinite-sites model of mutation, and to construct one if it exists. Then, we relax the infinite-sites assumption and develop an integer linear programming formulation to reconstruct asexual diploid genealogies with the minimum number of homoplasy (back or recurrent mutation) events. We apply our algorithms on simulated data sets with sizes of biological interest.

  12. Recombination-aware alignment of diploid individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally biological similarity search has been studied under the abstraction of a single string to represent each genome. The more realistic representation of diploid genomes, with two strings defining the genome, has so far been largely omitted in this context. With the development of sequencing techniques and better phasing routines through haplotype assembly algorithms, we are not far from the situation when individual diploid genomes could be represented in their full complexity with a pair-wise alignment defining the genome. Results We propose a generalization of global alignment that is designed to measure similarity between phased predictions of individual diploid genomes. This generalization takes into account that individual diploid genomes evolve through a mutation and recombination process, and that predictions may be erroneous in both dimensions. Even though our model is generic, we focus on the case where one wants to measure only the similarity of genome content allowing free recombination. This results into efficient algorithms for direct application in (i) evaluation of variation calling predictions and (ii) progressive multiple alignments based on labeled directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to represent profiles. The latter may be of more general interest, in connection to covering alignment of DAGs. Extensions of our model and algorithms can be foreseen to have applications in evaluating phasing algorithms, as well as more fundamental role in phasing child genome based on parent genomes. PMID:25572943

  13. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  14. Breeding potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most regions of the world, potato cultivars are tetraploid. However, complexities due to tetraploid genetics have slowed breeding progress and limited the implementation of breeding strategies commonly used in other major crops. We are developing diploid genetics resources, including partially in...

  15. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  16. Watermelon juice: A promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing of watermelons to produce the neutraceuticals lycopene and citrulline yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/Mt of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7-10% readily fermentable sugars, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was ...

  17. Year two: Effects of grafting on watermelon yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the second year of research on the effects of grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) onto rootstocks of squash and gourd. The study was conducted at Lane, Okla., in both 2004 and 2005. This report deals with the results from 2005. Treatments consisted of watermelon cultivars SF 800, SS 5...

  18. Exploiting genetic diversity in Citrullus spp. to enhance watermelon cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to many years of cultivation and selection for desirable fruit quality, a narrow genetic base exists among watermelon cultivars. There is a continuous need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) representing the different groups of waterm...

  19. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  20. Genes Expressed during Development and Ripening of Watermelon Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA library was constructed using watermelon flesh mRNA from three distinct developmental time-points and was normalized and then subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNA. Random cDNA clones of the watermelon flesh subtraction library were sequenced from the 5’ end in order to identify potentia...

  1. Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

  2. Patterns of Multi-Virus Infections in Florida Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly-transmitted viruses Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) have had serious impact on watermelon production in west-central and southwest Florida in recent years. We collected plants randomly from a commercial watermelon field in southwest Florida s...

  3. New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past several years, Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (causal agent: Phytophthora capsici) has been considered an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association. Management of Phytophthora fruit rot is particularly difficult because of the long durati...

  4. Resistance of Watermelon Germplasm to Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) seriously impact yields of watermelon throughout the southern U.S. Pre-plant fumigation of soil with methyl bromide is the primary method for controlling these pests in watermelon. Although host resistance would be one of the most economical and environmental...

  5. Impact of transplant method on watermelon yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon plants grown in semi-arid, subtropical south Texas (Lat. 26° N) are subject to wind and high solar loads. In an effort to provide an environment that would reduce wind-related sand blasting, early transplant desiccation, and vine damage and reduce soil temperatures, watermelon seedlings ...

  6. Tolerance to the Herbicide Clomazone in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pre-emergence herbicide clomazone (trade name: Command 3ME), is widely used in watermelon production in the US for suppression of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds growing in between plastic beds. Exposure of young watermelon plants to clomazone can cause moderate or severe injury that is expr...

  7. Sequencing the Genome of the Heirloom Watermelon Cultivar Charleston Gray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the watermelon cultivar Charleston Gray, a major heirloom which has been used in breeding programs of many watermelon cultivars, was sequenced. Our strategy involved a hybrid approach using the Illumina and 454/Titanium next-generation sequencing technologies. For Illumina, shotgun g...

  8. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  9. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a portion of sizes 48 and 56 of such variety is restricted. 905... § 905.153 Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a... three seasons. Each handler's average week shall be computed by adding the total volume of red...

  10. Partial leaf chemical profiles of a desert watermelon species (Citrullus colocynthis) and heirloom watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] and aphids [Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] are serious threats to watermelon by direct feeding and by transmitting viruses of important virus diseases. The desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) has been shown to exhibit resistance t...

  11. The expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance in transgenic watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.].

    PubMed

    Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V

    2003-08-01

    An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species. PMID:12783167

  12. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

  13. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV–visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  14. Seedless Laser Velocimetry Using Heterodyne Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A need exists for a seedless equivalent of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for use in low-turbulence or supersonic flows or elsewhere where seeding is undesirable or impractical. A compact laser velocimeter using heterodyne non-resonant laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) to measure a single component of velocity is described. Neither molecular (e.g. NO2) nor particulate seed is added to the flow. In non-resonant LITA two beams split from a short-pulse pump laser are crossed; interference produces two counterpropagating sound waves by electrostriction. A CW probe laser incident on the sound waves at the proper angle is directed towards a detector. Measurement of the beating between the Doppler-shifted light and a highly attenuated portion of the probe beam allows determination of one component of flow velocity, speed of sound, and temperature. The sound waves essentially take the place of the particulate seed used in LDV. The velocimeter was used to study the flow behind a rearward-facing step in NASA Langley Research Center's Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel. Comparison is made with pitot-static probe data in the freestream over the range 0 m/s - 55 m/s. Comparison with LDV is made in the recirculation region behind the step and in a well-developed boundary layer in front of the step. Good agreement is found in all cases.

  15. Shock-strength determination with seeded and seedless laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, G C; Meyers, James F; Hart, Roger C

    2009-04-01

    Two noninvasive laser diagnostics were independently used to measure time-averaged and spatially resolved pressure change across a two-dimensional (2D) shock wave. The first method is Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) which uses water seeding and generates 2D maps of three-orthogonal components of velocity. A DGV-measured change in flow direction behind an oblique shock provides an indirect determination of pressure change across the shock, when used with the known incoming Mach number and ideal shock relations (or Prandtl-Meyer equations for an expansion fan). This approach was demonstrated at Mach 2 on 2D shock and expansion waves generated from a flat plate. This technique also works for temperature change (as well as pressure) and for normal shocks (as well as oblique). The second method, laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), is a seedless approach that was used to generate 1D spatial profiles of streamwise Mach number, sound speed, pressure and temperature over the same oblique waves. Excellent agreement was obtained between DGV and LITA, suggesting that either technique is viable for shock-strength measurement.

  16. Shock-Strength Determination With Seeded and Seedless Laser Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Meyers, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Two nonintrusive laser diagnostics were independently used to demonstrate the measurement of time-averaged and spatially-resolved pressure change across a twodimensional (2-D) shock wave. The first method is Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) which uses water seeding and generates 2-D maps of 3-orthogonal components of velocity. A DGV-measured change in flow direction behind an oblique shock provides an indirect determination of pressure jump across the shock, when used with the known incoming Mach number and ideal shock relations (or Prandtl-Meyer flow equations for an expansion fan). This approach was demonstrated at Mach 2 on 2-D shocks and expansions generated from a flat plate at angles-of-attack approx. equals -2.4deg and +0.6deg, respectively. This technique also works for temperature jump (as well as pressure) and for normal shocks (as well as oblique). The second method, laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), is a seedless approach that was used to generate 1-D spatial profiles of streamwise Mach number, sound speed, pressure, and temperature across the same shock waves. Excellent agreement was obtained between the DGV and LITA methods, suggesting that either technique is viable for noninvasive shock-strength measurements.

  17. Seedless fruits and the disruption of a conserved genetic pathway in angiosperm ovule development

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María; Gasser, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the biological function of fruiting is the production and dissemination of seeds, humans have developed seedless fruits in a number of plant species to facilitate consumption. Here we describe a unique spontaneous seedless mutant (Thai seedless; Ts) of Annona squamosa (sugar apple), a member of the early-divergent magnoliid angiosperm clade. Ovules (seed precursors) of the mutant lack the outer of two normal integuments, a phenocopy of the inner no outer (ino) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning of the INO ortholog from A. squamosa confirmed conservation of the outer integument-specific expression pattern of this gene between the two species. All regions of the gene were detectable in wild-type A. squamosa and in other members of this genus. However, no region of the INO gene could be detected in Ts plants, indicating apparent deletion of the INO locus. These results provide a case of a candidate gene approach revealing the apparent molecular basis of a useful agronomic trait (seedless fruit) in a crop species, and indicate conservation of the role of a critical regulator of ovule development between eudicots and more ancient lineages of angiosperms. The outer integument is one synapomorphy of angiosperms separating them from other extant seed plants, and the results suggest that the evolution of this structure was contemporaneous with the derivation of INO from ancestral YABBY genes. Thus, a unique lateral structure appears to have coevolved with a novel gene family member essential for the structure's formation. PMID:21402944

  18. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  19. Evolutionary advantage of diploidal over polyploidal sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; Moss de Oliveira, S.; Sá Martins, J. S.

    2003-03-01

    We modify the Penna model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation-accumulation theory, in order to verify if there would be any evolutionary advantage of triploid over diploid organisms. We show that this is not the case, and that diploidal sex is always better than that involving three individuals.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation. PMID:27507492

  1. Identification of SNP Haplotypes and Prospects of Association Mapping in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is the fifth most economically important vegetable crop cultivated world-wide. Implementing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker technology in watermelon breeding and germplasm evaluation programs holds a key to improve horticulturally important traits. Next-generation sequencing...

  2. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  3. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  4. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods. PMID:25936063

  5. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  6. Response of Watermelon Germplasm to Southern Root-Knot Nematode in Field Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US. While there is no known resistance to southern root-knot nematode in watermelon cultivars to date, wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var...

  7. Using genomic data for enhancing disease and pest resistance in watermelon cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a continuous need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. The U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus spp. is a valuable source for enhancing disease and pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The watermelon genome sequence project brings new opportunities in ...

  8. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  12. 76 FR 25619 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and... proposed rule invites comments on changing the boundaries of all seven districts under the Watermelon... National Watermelon Promotion Board (Board). In addition, the Board is adding two importer seats based...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  15. Evaluation of virus resistant rootstocks to manage watermelon vine decline and diseases caused by other potyviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) is one of several watermelon-infecting potyviruses long present in the southeastern U.S. L...

  16. The Use of Lycopene-rich Watermelon Juice or Juice Concentrate in Different Food Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. ranks 4th in world production of watermelon. Watermelon is primarily consumed in whole or fresh-cut form; its foodservice uses rarely go beyond these forms. Watermelon is rich in lycopene, a carotenoid thought to protect against certain cancers and cardiovascular disease. In our previous st...

  17. Isolation and genetic mapping of NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogs in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-six watermelon disease resistance gene analogs (WRGA) were isolated from genotypes possessing disease resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 0, 1, and 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain, cucumber mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus. Deg...

  18. Rapid method for total carotenoid detection in canary yellow-fleshed watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in red watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) and pro-lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in most orange watermelon. However, yellow watermelons contain many different carotenoids, all in low to trace amounts. Since carotenoids have anti...

  19. Evolution of haploid selection in predominantly diploid organisms.

    PubMed

    Otto, Sarah P; Scott, Michael F; Immler, Simone

    2015-12-29

    Diploid organisms manipulate the extent to which their haploid gametes experience selection. Animals typically produce sperm with a diploid complement of most proteins and RNA, limiting selection on the haploid genotype. Plants, however, exhibit extensive expression in pollen, with actively transcribed haploid genomes. Here we analyze models that track the evolution of genes that modify the strength of haploid selection to predict when evolution intensifies and when it dampens the "selective arena" within which male gametes compete for fertilization. Considering deleterious mutations, evolution leads diploid mothers to strengthen selection among haploid sperm/pollen, because this reduces the mutation load inherited by their diploid offspring. If, however, selection acts in opposite directions in haploids and diploids ("ploidally antagonistic selection"), mothers evolve to reduce haploid selection to avoid selectively amplifying alleles harmful to their offspring. Consequently, with maternal control, selection in the haploid phase either is maximized or reaches an intermediate state, depending on the deleterious mutation rate relative to the extent of ploidally antagonistic selection. By contrast, evolution generally leads diploid fathers to mask mutations in their gametes to the maximum extent possible, whenever masking (e.g., through transcript sharing) increases the average fitness of a father's gametes. We discuss the implications of this maternal-paternal conflict over the extent of haploid selection and describe empirical studies needed to refine our understanding of haploid selection among seemingly diploid organisms. PMID:26669442

  20. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

  1. Tetraploid Artemisia annua hairy roots produce more artemisinin than diploids.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Gonzalez, L; Weathers, P J

    2003-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of diploid Artemisia annua L. (clone YUT16) grow rapidly and produce the antimalarial sesquiterpene artemisinin. Little is known about how polyploidy affects the growth of transformed hairy roots and the production of secondary metabolites. Using colchicine, we produced four stable tetraploid clones of A. annua L. from the YUT16 hairy root clone. Analysis showed major differences in growth and artemisinin production compared to the diploid clone. Tetraploid clones produced up to six times more artemisinin than the diploid parent. This study provides an initial step in increasing our understanding of the role of polyploidy in secondary metabolite production, especially in hairy roots. PMID:12789527

  2. dipSPAdes: Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Diploid Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bankevich, Anton; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While the number of sequenced diploid genomes have been steadily increasing in the last few years, assembly of highly polymorphic (HP) diploid genomes remains challenging. As a result, there is a shortage of tools for assembling HP genomes from the next generation sequencing (NGS) data. The initial approaches to assembling HP genomes were proposed in the pre-NGS era and are not well suited for NGS projects. To address this limitation, we developed the first de Bruijn graph assembler, dipSPAdes, for HP genomes that significantly improves on the state-of-the-art assemblers for HP diploid genomes. PMID:25734602

  3. Searching for gravitational-wave transients with a qualitative signal model: Seedless clustering strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, Eric; Coughlin, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Gravitational-wave bursts are observable as bright clusters of pixels in spectrograms of strain power. Clustering algorithms can be used to identify candidate gravitational-wave events. Clusters are often identified by grouping together seed pixels in which the power exceeds some threshold. If the gravitational-wave signal is long-lived, however, the excess power may be spread out over many pixels, none of which are bright enough to become seeds. Without seeds, the problem of detection through clustering becomes more complicated. In this paper, we investigate seedless clustering algorithms in searches for long-lived narrow-band gravitational-wave bursts. Using four astrophysically motivated test waveforms, we compare a seedless clustering algorithm to two algorithms using seeds. We find that the seedless algorithm can detect gravitational-wave signals (at a fixed false-alarm and false-dismissal rate) at distances between 1.5-2× those achieved with the seed-based clustering algorithms, corresponding to significantly increased detection volumes: 4.2-7.4×. This improvement in sensitivity may extend the reach of second-generation detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo deeper into astrophysically interesting distances.

  4. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in melon, watermelon and papaya pulps.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Ana L; Leitão, Mauro F F

    2004-04-01

    Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in low-acid fruits (melon, watermelon and papaya) at different times of incubation and at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 degrees C was studied. Fruit pulp portions with an average pH of 5.87, 5.50 and 4.87 for melon, watermelon and papaya, respectively, were obtained aseptically, homogenized, weighed and inoculated with suspensions (approximately 10(2) CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes. Generation times of 7.12, 13.03 and 15.05 h at 10 degrees C, 1.74, 2.17 and 6.42 h at 20 degrees C and 0.84, 1.00 and 1.16 h at 30 degrees C were obtained, respectively, for melon, watermelon and papaya. The results showed that L. monocytogenes grew in low-acid fruits at all tested temperatures, although growth was diminished, but not inhibited at 10 degrees C. PMID:15033271

  5. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

  6. Dielectric spectroscopy of watermelons for quality sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Stuart O.; Guo, Wen-chuan; Trabelsi, Samir; Kays, Stanley J.

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and an impedance analyser over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of the melons and also on tissue samples from the edible internal tissue. Moisture content and soluble solids content (SSC) were measured for internal tissue samples, and SSC (sweetness) was used as the quality factor for correlation with the dielectric properties. Individual dielectric constant and loss factor correlations with SSC were low, but a high correlation was obtained between the SSC and permittivity from a complex-plane plot of dielectric constant and loss factor, each divided by SSC. However, SSC prediction from the dielectric properties by this relationship was not as high as expected (coefficient of determination about 0.4). Permittivity data (dielectric constant and loss factor) for the melons are presented graphically to show their relationships with frequency for the four melon cultivars and for external surface and internal tissue measurements. A dielectric relaxation for the external surface measurements, which may be attributable to a combination of bound water, Maxwell-Wagner, molecular cluster or ion-related effects, is also illustrated. Coefficients of determination for complex-plane plots, moisture content and SSC relationship, and penetration depth are also shown graphically. Further studies are needed for determining the practicality of sensing melon quality from their dielectric properties.

  7. The canonical equation of adaptive dynamics for Mendelian diploids and haplo-diploids

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Johan A. J.; de Kovel, Carolien G. F.

    2013-01-01

    One of the powerful tools of adaptive dynamics is its so-called canonical equation (CE), a differential equation describing how the prevailing trait vector changes over evolutionary time. The derivation of the CE is based on two simplifying assumptions, separation of population dynamical and mutational time scales and small mutational steps. (It may appear that these two conditions rarely go together. However, for small step sizes the time-scale separation need not be very strict.) The CE was derived in 1996, with mathematical rigour being added in 2003. Both papers consider only well-mixed clonal populations with the simplest possible life histories. In 2008, the CE's reach was heuristically extended to locally well-mixed populations with general life histories. We, again heuristically, extend it further to Mendelian diploids and haplo-diploids. Away from strict time-scale separation the CE does an even better approximation job in the Mendelian than in the clonal case owing to gene substitutions occurring effectively in parallel, which obviates slowing down by clonal interference. PMID:24516713

  8. Ancestries of a recombining diploid population.

    PubMed

    Sainudiin, R; Thatte, B; Véber, A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the exact one-step transition probabilities of the number of lineages that are ancestral to a random sample from the current generation of a bi-parental population that is evolving under the discrete Wright-Fisher model with n diploid individuals. Our model allows for a per-generation recombination probability of r . When r = 1, our model is equivalent to Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999) model for the karyotic pedigree. When r = 0, our model is equivalent to Kingman's (Stoch Process Appl 13:235-248, 1982) discrete coalescent model for the cytoplasmic tree or sub-karyotic tree containing a DNA locus that is free of intra-locus recombination. When 0 < r < 1 our model can be thought to track a sub-karyotic ancestral graph containing a DNA sequence from an autosomal chromosome that has an intra-locus recombination probability r . Thus, our family of models indexed by r ∈ [0, 1] connects Kingman's discrete coalescent to Chang's pedigree in a continuous way as r goes from 0 to 1. For large populations, we also study three properties of the ancestral process corresponding to a given r ∈ (0, 1): the time Tn to a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the population, the time Un at which all individuals are either common ancestors of all present day individuals or ancestral to none of them, and the fraction of individuals that are common ancestors at time Un. These results generalize the three main results of Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999). When we appropriately rescale time and recombination probability by the population size, our model leads to the continuous time Markov chain called the ancestral recombination graph of Hudson (Theor Popul Biol 23:183-201, 1983) and Griffiths (The two-locus ancestral graph, Institute of Mathematical Statistics 100-117, 1991). PMID:25925241

  9. Crown blight of melons and crown decline of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  10. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  11. POST weed control using halosulfuron in direct-seeded watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is needed in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production to avoid losses in crop yield and marketability that result from weed interference. Not only does weed control provide direct benefits to crop yields, but uncontrolled weeds hamper the management of insect and disease pests and redu...

  12. Effect of preemergence herbicides on early seeded watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicides approved for watermelon may result in crop injury under cool or wet conditions. To obtain market prices associated with early harvest, planting may occur when conditions are sub optimal for seed germination and plant growth. Consequently, early planting may contribute to crop injury fro...

  13. Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici is distributed worldwide, and is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Fruit rot, caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. Resistance to fruit rot o...

  14. A GENETIC LINKAGE MAP AND A CDNA LIBRARY FOR WATERMELON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. The testcross map includes 312 markers (RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, SSR, and ASRP). This map covered a genetic distance of 1385 cM, and identified 11 large (50.7~155.2 cm), five intermediate (37.5-46.2...

  15. Evaluation of Reflex (fomesafen) herbicide for watermelon in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective preemergence herbicides are needed for weed control in watermelon grown from transplants. Reflex (fomesafen) was found to be effective and to exhibit crop safety in southeast USA. Trials were conducted during 2011 and 2012 in southeast Oklahoma to determine if this product would be useful...

  16. Permittivities of watermelon pulp and juice and correlation with quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permittivities from 10 to 4500 MHz at 24 'C were measured on pulp and juice of watermelons of different maturities with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. The dielectric constant of both materials decreased monotonically with increasing frequency and loss factor had minimum at ab...

  17. The Height and Range of Watermelons without Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    We determine the weak limit of the distribution of the random variables "height" and "range" on the set of p-watermelons without wall restriction as the number of steps tends to infinity. Additionally, we provide asymptotics for the moments of the random variable "height".

  18. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultivars from three locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of fresh fruit and vegetables face increasing production costs and more intense international market competition. Maximizing marketability by offering high quality produce that is also highly nutritious gives new market niches for some crops, such as watermelons, if appropriate germplasm ...

  19. Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is a good source of citrulline, an amino acid that can be converted to arginine in the human body. Arginine helps in cardiovascular and immune health. No studies have been conducted to evaluate plasma arginine response in humans following consumption of citrulline from natural plant so...

  20. DNA Polymorphism Among American Watermelon Cultivars Based on DNA Methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American watermelon heirlooms are diverse in their growth habits, fruit qualities and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Wide ranging DNA marker tools resolved a narrow molecular diversity among these collections. The current research explored additional insights such as extent of diversity a...

  1. Dielectric Properties of Watermelons and Correlation with Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of t...

  2. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). The disease mainly occurs in low lying areas of the fields where water logged conditions may be present. In recent years, the practice of grafting seed...

  3. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  4. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  5. Simple Sequence Repeats in Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat length polymorphisms were utilized to examine genetic relatedness among accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). A size-fractionated TaqI genomic library was screened for the occurrence of dimer and trimer simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total o...

  6. Dietectric Properties of Watermelons & Correlation with Soluble Solids Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the e...

  7. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  8. Genome size variation in diploid and tetraploid wild wheats

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Hakan; Tuna, Metin; Kilian, Benjamin; Mori, Naoki; Ohta, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Intra- and interspecific variations of C-values and the relationship between habitat factors and genome size were studied in natural populations of diploid and tetraploid wild wheats. Methodology The 1C nuclear DNA content of 376 individual plants representing 41 populations of diploid and tetraploid wild wheats was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and correlated with geographical and bioclimate variables. Principal results Based on analysis of variance, significant differences between diploid and tetraploid Triticum species were found. Differences among populations of T. boeoticum and T. dicoccoides were also statistically significant and argue for isolation between populations, except for T. araraticum. However, the variation among individuals of the same population was not statistically significant. Maximum genome size differences among populations for T. boeoticum (0.143 pg; 2.32 %), T. dicoccoides (0.314 pg; 2.49 %) and T. araraticum (0.116 pg; 0.98 %) argue for genome constancy in these species. There was no significant correlation between intra-population variance and geographical and bioclimate variables for T. boeoticum and T. dicoccoides. In contrast to the limited genome size variation at the intraspecific level, the interspecific variation was large: ∼0.5 pg/1C (8 %) at the diploid level (T. boeoticum vs. T. urartu) and ∼1 pg/1C (9.7 %) at the tetraploid level (T. dicoccoides vs. T. araraticum). Conclusions Low intraspecific genome size variation occurs in diploid and tetraploid wild wheats, and this limited variation is not correlated with geographical and climate variables. However, interspecific variation is significant at the diploid and tetraploid level. It can be concluded that the genome size of wild self-fertilizing Triticum species is generally stable, despite the presence of many potentially active retroelements. In natural habitats, it is very difficult to distinguish wild wheats from each other. However, all four

  9. Effects of ambient oxidant air pollution in the San Joaquin Valley on Thompson seedless grapes

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.; Ashcroft, R.

    1984-01-01

    Mature Thompson seedless grape vines were enclosed in specially constructed plastic covered chambers supplied with carbon filtered and non-filtered (ambient) air from time of bud break through leaf drop. Effects on vegetative growth and fruiting were determined for three seasons. No effects on fruit production were measured the first season after covering but vegetative growth increased 12% in chambers supplied with filtered air. By the third season fruit yields were 27.5% higher in the filtered as compared with ambient chambers. The only visible symptoms associated with exposure to the oxidants was accelerated senescence which appeared 3 weeks to 1 month earlier on vines receiving ambient or nonfiltered air.

  10. Common-Path Heterodyne Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics for Seedless Laser Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, G. C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a novel technique for the detection of heterodyne laser-induced thermal acoustics signals, which allows the construction of a highly stable seedless laser velocimeter. A common-path configuration is combined with quadrature detection to provide flow direction, greatly improve robustness to misalignment and vibration, and give reliable velocity measurement at low flow velocities. Comparison with Pitot tube measurements in the freestream of a wind tunnel shows root-mean-square errors of 0.67 m/s over the velocity range 0.55 m/s.

  11. Accumulation of weathered pp'-DDE in xylem sap of grafted watermelon.

    PubMed

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar

    2012-04-01

    Movement of weathered p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) from contaminated soil to the rhizosphere pore water to the xylem sap of grafted watermelon was studied under green house conditions. p,p'-DDE concentrations in pore water and xylem sap was compared in intact plants, homografted, and compatible heterografts of Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo and Citrullus lanatus plants. An average p,p'-DDE concentrations in pore water of contaminated soil ranged from 0.36 microg/L to 0.55 microg/L and there were no statistically significant among the cultivars. Conversely, the xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentration of heterografted watermelon having a zucchini rootstock and watermelon scion was 71 microg/L and it was greater than intact watermelon plants (0.49 microg/L) but less than that of intact plants of zucchini (141 microg/L). Homografting showed no effect on xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentrations of the identical cultivars. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) which is an average p,p'-DDE concentration in xylem sap over average p,p'-DDE in pore water were 344, 325, 197, 1.28, and 0.89 for intact plant of zucchini, homografted zucchini, heterografted watermelon, homografted watermelon, and intact plant of watermelon, respectively. Xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentrations of the heterografted watermelon plants were clearly influenced by plant phylogeny and enhanced by the zucchini rootstock compared to intact watermelon plants. PMID:22567720

  12. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. Results An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Conclusion Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future. PMID:22897898

  13. Inheritance of carotenoid content in tetraploid and diploid potato crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids have a wide range of human health benefits. Yellow-fleshed tetraploid potato cultivars have more than twice the concentration of carotenoids as white-fleshed cultivars. However, carotenoid concentrations in some diploid potatoes have been reported to be up to 13 times higher than in ‘Y...

  14. Genotyping by sequencing of a diploid potato F2 population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of multiplexed, restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) libraries is an attractive technology for generating genome-wide markers because of its technical simplicity and low costs per sample. To investigate its feasibility for potato, a diploid F2 population (S. tuberosum...

  15. Selection on Meiosis Genes in Diploid and Tetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kevin M.; Arnold, Brian; Xue, Katherine; Šurinová, Maria; O’Connell, Jeremy; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation is critical for fertility across eukaryotes, and core meiotic processes are well conserved even between kingdoms. Nevertheless, recent work in animals has shown that at least some meiosis genes are highly diverse or strongly differentiated among populations. What drives this remains largely unknown. We previously showed that autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa evolved stable meiosis, likely through reduced crossover rates, and that associated with this there is strong evidence for selection in a subset of meiosis genes known to affect axis formation, synapsis, and crossover frequency. Here, we use genome-wide data to study the molecular evolution of 70 meiosis genes in a much wider sample of A. arenosa. We sample the polyploid lineage, a diploid lineage from the Carpathian Mountains, and a more distantly related diploid lineage from the adjacent, but biogeographically distinct Pannonian Basin. We find that not only did selection act on meiosis genes in the polyploid lineage but also independently on a smaller subset of meiosis genes in Pannonian diploids. Functionally related genes are targeted by selection in these distinct contexts, and in two cases, independent sweeps occurred in the same loci. The tetraploid lineage has sustained selection on more genes, has more amino acid changes in each, and these more often affect conserved or potentially functional sites. We hypothesize that Pannonian diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa experienced selection on structural proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion, the formation of meiotic chromosome axes, and synapsis, likely for different underlying reasons. PMID:25543117

  16. 'Don' a Diploid Falcata Alfalfa for Western US Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Don' (Reg. No. CV-______, PI _______) a diploid falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp falcata L.) developed by the Forage and Range Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Recent interest in falcata alfalfa has been ...

  17. Does hybridization drive the transition to asexuality in diploid Boechera?

    PubMed

    Beck, James B; Alexander, Patrick J; Allphin, Loreen; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Rushworth, Catherine; Bailey, C Donovan; Windham, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    Gametophytic apomixis is a common form of asexual reproduction in plants. Virtually all gametophytic apomicts are polyploids, and some view polyploidy as a prerequisite for the transition to apomixis. However, any causal link between apomixis and polyploidy is complicated by the fact that most apomictic polyploids are allopolyploids, leading some to speculate that hybridization, rather than polyploidy, enables apomixis. Diploid apomixis presents a rare opportunity to isolate the role of hybridization, and a number of diploid apomicts have been documented in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae). Here, we present the results of a microsatellite study of 1393 morphologically and geographically diverse diploid individuals, evaluating the hypothesis that diploid Boechera apomicts are hybrids. This genus-wide dataset was made possible by the applicability of a core set of microsatellite loci in 69 of the 70 diploid Boechera species and by our ability to successfully genotype herbarium specimens of widely varying ages. With few exceptions, diploid apomicts exhibited markedly high levels of heterozygosity resulting from the combination of disparate genomes. This strongly suggests that most apomictic diploid Boechera lineages are of hybrid origin, and that the genomic consequences of hybridization allow for the transition to gametophytic apomixis in this genus. PMID:22486684

  18. Hybridization barriers between diploid Solanum tuberosum and wild Solanum raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato germplasm represents a unique, diverse and accessible resource for disease and pest resistance, along with useful agronomic traits that may be introgressed into the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Hybridization of diploid wild Solanum species with haploids (2x) of cultivated po...

  19. Assay for mutagenesis in heterozygous diploid human lymphoblasts

    DOEpatents

    Skopek, Thomas R.; Liber, Howard L.; Penman, Bruce W.; Thilly, William G.; Hoppe, IV, Henry

    1981-01-01

    An assay is disclosed for determining mutagenic damage caused by the administration of a known or suspected mutagen to diploid human lymphoblastoid cell lines. The gene locus employed for this assay is the gene for thymidine kinase, uridine kinase, or cytidine deaminase. Since human lymphoblastoid cells contain two genes for these enzymes, heterozygotes of human lymphoblastoid cells are used in this assay.

  20. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var. citroides) have been shown...

  1. Development and evaluation of quanitative early monitoring techniques for Squash vein yellowing virus, the cause of watermelon vine decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Although the late stage symptoms of watermelon vine decline are basically diagnostic for the presence of SqV...

  2. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  3. Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

  4. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV): a component of Watermelon Vine Decline in South Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon production has been greatly impacted in South Florida since 2003 when symptoms were first observed of a severe watermelon vine decline (WVD) that killed plants as the crop approached first harvest (Roberts et. al., 2005; Huber 2006). Since 2003, watermelon plants have been affected in ea...

  5. Characterization of transcriptome dynamics during watermelon fruit development: sequencing, assembly, annotation and gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is an important agriculture crop world-wide. The fruit of watermelon undergoes distinct stages of development with dramatic changes in its size, color, sweetness, texture and aroma. In order to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of these changes and significantly expand the watermelon transcript catalog, we have selected four critical stages of watermelon fruit development and used Roche/454 next-generation sequencing technology to generate a large expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset and a comprehensive transcriptome profile for watermelon fruit flesh tissues. Results We performed half Roche/454 GS-FLX run for each of the four watermelon fruit developmental stages (immature white, white-pink flesh, red flesh and over-ripe) and obtained 577,023 high quality ESTs with an average length of 302.8 bp. De novo assembly of these ESTs together with 11,786 watermelon ESTs collected from GenBank produced 75,068 unigenes with a total length of approximately 31.8 Mb. Overall 54.9% of the unigenes showed significant similarities to known sequences in GenBank non-redundant (nr) protein database and around two-thirds of them matched proteins of cucumber, the most closely-related species with a sequenced genome. The unigenes were further assigned with gene ontology (GO) terms and mapped to biochemical pathways. More than 5,000 SSRs were identified from the EST collection. Furthermore we carried out digital gene expression analysis of these ESTs and identified 3,023 genes that were differentially expressed during watermelon fruit development and ripening, which provided novel insights into watermelon fruit biology and a comprehensive resource of candidate genes for future functional analysis. We then generated profiles of several interesting metabolites that are important to fruit quality including pigmentation and sweetness. Integrative analysis of metabolite and digital gene

  6. No Need to Discriminate? Reproductive Diploid Males in a Parasitoid with Complementary Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Jan; Mazzi, Dominique; Dorn, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Diploid males in hymenopterans are generally either inviable or sterile, thus imposing a severe genetic load on populations. In species with the widespread single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), sex depends on the genotype at one single locus with multiple alleles. Haploid (hemizygous) individuals are always males. Diploid individuals develop into females when heterozygous and into males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. Our comparison of the mating and reproductive success of haploid and diploid males revealed that diploid males of the braconid parasitoid Cotesia glomerata sire viable and fertile diploid daughters. Females mated to diploid males, however, produced fewer daughters than females mated to haploid males. Nevertheless, females did not discriminate against diploid males as mating partners. Diploid males initiated courtship display sooner than haploid males and were larger in body size. Although in most species so far examined diploid males were recognized as genetic dead ends, we present a second example of a species with sl-CSD and commonly occurring functionally reproductive diploid males. Our study suggests that functionally reproductive diploid males might not be as rare as hitherto assumed. We argue that the frequent occurrence of inbreeding in combination with imperfect behavioural adaptations towards its avoidance promote the evolution of diploid male fertility. PMID:19551142

  7. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  8. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  9. Adsorption study of Ammonia Nitrogen by watermelon rind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A.; Yusof, L.; Beddu, N. S.; Galasin, N.; Lee, P. Y.; Lee, R. N. S.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of fruit waste for low-cost adsorbents as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing ammonia nitrogen from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption studies were conducted as a function of contact time and adsorbent dosage and it were carried out on four different adsorbents; fresh watermelon rind and modified watermelon rind with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Adsorbents were tested for characterization by using zeta potential test and all samples shows negative values thus makes it favourable for the adsorption process. The batch experimental result showed that adsorption process is rapid and equilibrium was established within 40 minutes of contact time. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate amounted in range of 96% to 99%, and the adsorption capacities were in range of 1.21 to 1.24 mg/g for all four different types of adsorbents used.

  10. Origin and Genetic Diversity of Diploid Parthenogenetic Artemia in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    There is wide interest in understanding how genetic diversity is generated and maintained in parthenogenetic lineages, as it will help clarify the debate of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. There are three mechanisms that can be responsible for the generation of genetic diversity of parthenogenetic lineages: contagious parthenogenesis, repeated hybridization and microorganism infections (e.g. Wolbachia). Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) are a good model system to investigate evolutionary transitions between reproductive systems as they include sexual species and lineages of obligate parthenogenetic populations of different ploidy level, which often co-occur. Diploid parthenogenetic lineages produce occasional fully functional rare males, interspecific hybridization is known to occur, but the mechanisms of origin of asexual lineages are not completely understood. Here we sequenced and analysed fragments of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from an extensive set of populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia and sexual species from Central and East Asia to investigate the evolutionary origin of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, and geographic origin of the parental taxa. Our results indicate that there are at least two, possibly three independent and recent maternal origins of parthenogenetic lineages, related to A. urmiana and Artemia sp. from Kazakhstan, but that the nuclear genes are very closely related in all the sexual species and parthenogegetic lineages except for A. sinica, who presumable took no part on the origin of diploid parthenogenetic strains. Our data cannot rule out either hybridization between any of the very closely related Asiatic sexual species or rare events of contagious parthenogenesis via rare males as the contributing mechanisms to the generation of genetic diversity in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia lineages. PMID:24376692

  11. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  12. Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Lyase in Germinating Watermelon Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1976-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.1.13) was found in seedlings of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (watermelon). The enzyme has pH optima of 4.4 and 5.5 and is inhibited by 0.2 mM nordihydroguaiaretic acid. It is present in two functional units with estimated molecular weights of 120,000 and 240,000, respectively. A new enzyme, tentatively termed hydroperoxide lyase, has been partially purified from watermelon seedlings. The enzyme, located principally in the region of the hypocotyl-root junction, catalyzes the conversion of 13-l-hydroperoxy-cis-9-trans-11-octadecadienoic acid to 12-oxo-trans-10-dodecenoic acid and hexanal. The hydroperoxide lyase enzyme from watermelon has a molecular weight in excess of 250,000, a pH optimum in the range of 6 to 6.5, and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. Its presence has also been demonstrated in other cucurbits. The maximum activity of both enzymes occurs on the 6th day of germination. The identification of the products of the hydroperoxide lyase reaction suggests that lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase may be involved in the conversion of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids to traumatic acid (trans-2-dodecenedioic acid). PMID:16659569

  13. An improved assay for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon and melon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of a watermelon seedling blight and fruit blotch (WFB), has emerged as a serious seedborne pathogen of watermelon, melons, pumpkin, and citron. Although attempts have been made to develop a simple routine laboratory seed assay to detect the...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  19. Patterns of Multi-Virus Infections of Watermelon at the Plant and Field Levels in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly-transmitted viruses Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) have had serious impact on watermelon production in west-central and southwest Florida in recent years. We collected plants randomly from a commercial watermelon field in southwest Florida s...

  20. Watermelon enhances arginine availability in an animal model of type-II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon fruit contain lycopene, a red pigment known for its ability to scavenge free hydroxyl radicals. L-Citrulline, an amino acid that acts as a vasodilator and is a precursor of L-arginine, is found in all cucurbits, but is most plentiful in watermelon. In a study with Zucker diabetic fatty ...

  1. Effect of actigard and other new fungicides on phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Between 2003 and 2008, we observed many watermelon farms in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, where growers did not harvest the crop due to severe fruit rot. The Natio...

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE TO MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA RACE 1 IN U.S. WATERMELON PLANT INTRODUCTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) reduce yields of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in the southern U.S. and world-wide. Root-knot nematodes are controlled in watermelon by pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or treatment with other nemat...

  4. Evaluation of several seed treatments for eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seedborne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several seed treatments for eradication of Aac from seed, healthy triploid watermelon seedlots were spiked with n...

  5. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of the watermelon pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial blight and fruit blotch of watermelon and other cucurbits, has caused great damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the USA. Understanding the origin of this emerging disease is important for controlling outbrea...

  6. Isolation, Sequence Analysis, and Linkage Mapping of NBS-LRR Disease Resistance Gene Analogs in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is susceptible to a wide range of pathogens. Sixty-six watermelon resistance gene homologs were cloned from ‘Calhoun Gray’, PI 296341, and PI 595203 using degenerate primers to select for the nucleotide binding site (NBS) from the NBS-LRR resist...

  7. The influence of rootstock selection on fruit quality attributes of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to control Fusarium wilt has been practiced in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East for decades. Until recently, grafting watermelon has not been practiced in the United States due to labor costs and land availability. There is some disagreement in the ...

  8. Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Plants belonging to the core collection of U.S. watermelon plant introductions (PI) were grown in a field on raised plastic beds to evaluate for fruit rot resistance in 2009. Fi...

  9. New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. It has also been considered as an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association (NWA). Managing Phytophthora fruit rot can be dif...

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of USDA Watermelon Core Collection for Tolerance to SqVYV, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants belonging to the USDA core collection of watermelon plant introductions (PI) were grown in 3.5-in pots filled with metromix in a greenhouse in Ft. Pierce FL. Four week old plants were mechanically inoculated with SqVYV, the causal agent of watermelon vine decline. Inoculum was prepared by g...

  11. Gene sequences present in Citrullus sp. having been lost during domestication of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide genetic diversity exists among Citrullus species, while watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base as a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit qualities. The recent international watermelon genome sequencing project reve...

  12. MSW-28 a full flavor crisp watermelon line with high lycopene and medium brix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional breeding techniques have increased the immediately-available sugar content in watermelon, up to 14%. This results in a sweet flavor but greatly limits the watermelon serving size for people concerned about dietary sugar intake. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States De...

  13. CHANGES IN CAROTENOID CONTENT DURING PROCESSING OF WATERMELON FOR JUICE CONCENTRATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) are used primarily as a fresh product in the U.S. There is interest in developing value added products for additional markets and for use of cosmetically damaged fruit. In this study, watermelons were processed into juice concentrates, using a series of heat and tre...

  14. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon in southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is a prevalent disease in most watermelon producing regions of the world. The disease was first reported in 1940 in Florida. It is particularly severe in the southeastern United States, where about 50% of the watermelon fruit are produced (FL, GA, AL, SC, N...

  15. A high resolution genetic map anchoring scaffolds of the sequenced watermelon genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high-density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of ...

  16. Effects of the watermelon vine decline virus on vining cucurbit germplasm including wild cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the casual agent of watermelon vine decline in south Florida, a disease that induces foliar chlorosis, necrosis and wilt, followed by plant death. Symptoms of wilt and death induced by SqVYV in watermelon have not been observed on any other known host species,...

  17. Effectiveness of Fungicides in Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon crops grown in most commercial production areas in the Southeast US are vulnerable to Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Phytophthora fruit rot is considered as an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association (NWA). Managing di...

  18. Watermelon transplanted by chisel, strip-tillage, and bedding methods produce similar yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon plants grown in semi-arid, subtropical south Texas (Lat. 26° N) are subject to wind and high solar loads. In an effort to provide an environment that would reduce wind-related sand blasting, early transplant desiccation, and vine damage and reduced soil temperatures, watermelon seedlings...

  19. Can You Tell the Density of the Watermelon from This Photograph?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foong, See Kit; Lim, Chim Chai

    2010-01-01

    Based on a photograph, the density of a watermelon floating in a pail of water is estimated with different levels of simplification--with and without consideration of refraction and three-dimensional effects. The watermelon was approximated as a sphere. The results of the theoretical estimations were verified experimentally. (Contains 6 figures.)

  20. Evaluation of Actigard and Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S., and has been considered as a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association (NWA). Managing Phytophthora fruit rot can be difficult because of the l...

  1. Identification and Utility of Markers Linked to the Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting watermelon in the United States. The ZYMV-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL) is considered a major limitation to commercial watermelon production in the entire United States. Experiments with F2 and BC1 plants, d...

  2. First Report Of Vine Decline Of Mature Watermelon Plants Caused By Olpidium Bornovanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Olpidium bornovanus as a root pathogen of field-grown watermelon, and describes its association with a late season watermelon vine decline in the field. This report provides an overview of this fungus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regu...

  3. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  4. Management of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifes...

  5. Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

  6. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  7. Root Exudates from Grafted-Root Watermelon Showed a Certain Contribution in Inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

  8. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

  9. [Production of rabies vaccine in animal diploid cells].

    PubMed

    Lucas, G; Reculard, P; Adamowicz, P; Vacher, B; Prunet, P

    1982-01-01

    Modalities for production of inactivated rabies vaccine derived from diploid hamster cell cultures are reported. The inactivated concentrated virus, purified by zonal centrifugation, is utilised for the preparation of vaccines destinated to carnivores, either in the form of monovalent vaccine or associated with distemper and canine contagious hepatitis vaccines. The inactivated concentrated virus is utilised for the preparation of bovine vaccine. The procedure is compatible with industrial production. The results concerning safety and potency tests of the experimental lots are presented. PMID:7128072

  10. Sexual conflict and the alternation of haploid and diploid generations

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David; Wilczek, Amity

    2006-01-01

    Land plants possess a multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte) that begins development while attached to a multicellular haploid progenitor (gametophyte). Although the closest algal relatives of land plants lack a multicellular sporophyte, they do produce a zygote that grows while attached to the maternal gametophyte. The diploid offspring shares one haploid set of genes with the haploid mother that supplies it with resources and a paternal haploid complement that is not shared with the mother. Sexual conflict can arise within the diploid offspring because the offspring's maternal genome will be transmitted in its entirety to all other sexual and asexual offspring that the mother may produce, but the offspring's paternally derived genes may be absent from these other offspring. Thus, the selective forces favouring the evolution of genomic imprinting may have been present from the origin of modern land plants. In bryophytes, where gametophytes are long-lived and capable of multiple bouts of asexual and sexual reproduction, we predict strong sexual conflict over allocation to sporophytes. Female gametophytes of pteridophytes produce a single sporophyte and often lack means of asexual reproduction. Therefore, sexual conflict is predicted to be attenuated. Finally, we explore similarities among models of mate choice, offspring choice and segregation distortion. PMID:16612891

  11. Extensive Recombination of a Yeast Diploid Hybrid through Meiotic Reversion

    PubMed Central

    Laureau, Raphaëlle; Loeillet, Sophie; Salinas, Francisco; Bergström, Anders; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Liti, Gianni; Nicolas, Alain

    2016-01-01

    In somatic cells, recombination between the homologous chromosomes followed by equational segregation leads to loss of heterozygosity events (LOH), allowing the expression of recessive alleles and the production of novel allele combinations that are potentially beneficial upon Darwinian selection. However, inter-homolog recombination in somatic cells is rare, thus reducing potential genetic variation. Here, we explored the property of S. cerevisiae to enter the meiotic developmental program, induce meiotic Spo11-dependent double-strand breaks genome-wide and return to mitotic growth, a process known as Return To Growth (RTG). Whole genome sequencing of 36 RTG strains derived from the hybrid S288c/SK1 diploid strain demonstrates that the RTGs are bona fide diploids with mosaic recombined genome, derived from either parental origin. Individual RTG genome-wide genotypes are comprised of 5 to 87 homozygous regions due to the loss of heterozygous (LOH) events of various lengths, varying between a few nucleotides up to several hundred kilobases. Furthermore, we show that reiteration of the RTG process shows incremental increases of homozygosity. Phenotype/genotype analysis of the RTG strains for the auxotrophic and arsenate resistance traits validates the potential of this procedure of genome diversification to rapidly map complex traits loci (QTLs) in diploid strains without undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:26828862

  12. Developmental, transcriptome, and genetic alterations associated with parthenocarpy in the grapevine seedless somatic variant Corinto bianco.

    PubMed

    Royo, Carolina; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Nebish, Anna; Martínez, Óscar; Rey, Manuel; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Ibáñez, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2016-01-01

    Seedlessness is a relevant trait in grapevine cultivars intended for fresh consumption or raisin production. Previous DNA marker analysis indicated that Corinto bianco (CB) is a parthenocarpic somatic variant of the seeded cultivar Pedro Ximenes (PX). This study compared both variant lines to determine the basis of this parthenocarpic phenotype. At maturity, CB seedless berries were 6-fold smaller than PX berries. The macrogametophyte was absent from CB ovules, and CB was also pollen sterile. Occasionally, one seed developed in 1.6% of CB berries. Microsatellite genotyping and flow cytometry analyses of seedlings generated from these seeds showed that most CB viable seeds were formed by fertilization of unreduced gametes generated by meiotic diplospory, a process that has not been described previously in grapevine. Microarray and RNA-sequencing analyses identified 1958 genes that were differentially expressed between CB and PX developing flowers. Genes downregulated in CB were enriched in gametophyte-preferentially expressed transcripts, indicating the absence of regular post-meiotic germline development in CB. RNA-sequencing was also used for genetic variant calling and 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms distinguishing the CB and PX variant lines were detected. Among these, CB-specific polymorphisms were considered as candidate parthenocarpy-responsible mutations, including a putative deleterious substitution in a HAL2-like protein. Collectively, these results revealed that the absence of a mature macrogametophyte, probably due to meiosis arrest, coupled with a process of fertilization-independent fruit growth, caused parthenocarpy in CB. This study provides a number of grapevine parthenocarpy-responsible candidate genes and shows how genomic approaches can shed light on the genetic origin of woody crop somatic variants. PMID:26454283

  13. Characters that differ between diploid and haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Matthias; Trenzcek, Tina; Fahrenhorst, Hartmut; Engels, Wolf

    2005-01-01

    Diploid males have long been considered a curiosity contradictory to the haplo-diploid mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera. In Apis mellifera, 'false' diploid male larvae are eliminated by worker cannibalism immediately after hatching. A 'cannibalism substance' produced by diploid drone larvae to induce worker-assisted suicide has been hypothesized, but it has never been detected. Diploid drones are only removed some hours after hatching. Older larvae are evidently not regarded as 'false males' and instead are regularly nursed by the brood-attending worker bees. As the pheromonal cues presumably are located on the surface of newly hatched bee larvae, we extracted the cuticular secretions and analyzed their chemical composition by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Larvae were sexed and then reared in vitro for up to three days. The GC-MS pattern that was obtained, with alkanes as the major compounds, was compared between diploid and haploid drone larvae. We also examined some physical parameters of adult drones. There was no difference between diploid and haploid males in their weight at the day of emergence. The diploid adult drones had fewer wing hooks and smaller testes. The sperm DNA content was 0.30 and 0.15 pg per nucleus, giving an exact 2:1 ratio for the gametocytes of diploid and haploid drones, respectively. Vitellogenin was found in the hemolymph of both types of imaginal drones at 5 to 6 days, with a significantly lower titer in the diploids. PMID:16475107

  14. Induction and Characterization of Artificial Diploids from the Haploid Yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takashi; Ohshima, Yoshinobu

    1987-01-01

    The yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii, which propagates as a haploid, was made into a diploid by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the regeneration of protoplasts. The diploid state was stably inherited; the cell volume was three times that of the parent strain and the cellular DNA content was two times that of the parental strain. No essential difference was found between diploids induced by DMSO and those formed through intraspecific protoplast fusion. The diploid strains sporulated fairly well, with their cells converting directly into asci. Random spore analysis revealed that diploids induced through protoplast fusion gave rise to auxotrophic segregants (haploids) with the parental genetic marker or to segregants formed by recombination, while diploids induced by DMSO from a doubly auxotrophic parent gave rise to no recombinant, indicating that it was chromosomally homoallelic in nature. The magnesium level in the protoplast regeneration medium was found to be an important factor for inducing diploid formation. At 0.2 mM magnesium diploids appeared even in the absence of DMSO, while at 2 mM magnesium diploids never appeared unless DMSO was added to the regeneration medium. Evidence is provided that the diploids induced by DMSO or a low magnesium level are due to direct diploidization but not protoplast fusion. UV light irradiation of intact cells (without protoplasts), 10% of which survived, also produced diploids among this surviving population. From these results we conclude that the perturbation of protoplast regeneration or of cell division by the treatments mentioned above somehow induced direct diploidization of T. delbrueckii. Images PMID:16347380

  15. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  16. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  17. Measurement of internal quality of watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Haiqing; Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Yu, Haiyan

    2006-10-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world. Soluble solids content (SSC) is major characteristic used for assessing watermelon internal quality. This study was about a method for nondestructive internal quality detection of watermelons by means of visible/Near Infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer when the watermelon was in motion (1.4m/s) and in static state. Spectra data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) method. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models and the PLS method can provide good results. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon both in motion and in static state, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon internal quality in a nondestructive way.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  20. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman; Teresa Destro, Maria; Landgraf, Mariza

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  1. Tetraploid citrus rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than diploid.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Basel; Allario, Thierry; Dambier, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2008-09-01

    Citrus trees are subject to several abiotic constraints such as salinity. Providing new rootstocks more tolerant is thus a requirement. In this article, we investigated salt stress tolerance of three tetraploid rootstock genotypes when compared to their respective diploid rootstocks (Poncirus trifoliata, Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin). Plant growth, leaf fall and ion contents were investigated. At the end of the experiment, leaf fall was observed only for diploid Poncirus trifoliata plants as well as chlorosis symptoms for Poncirus trifoliata and Carrizo citrange diploid plants. The diploid Cleopatra mandarin plants growth rate was not affected by salt stress and has even been increased for tetraploid Cleopatra mandarin. Ion contents investigation has shown lower accumulations of chloride ions in leaves of the tetraploid plants when compared to diploid plants. Our results suggest that citrus tetraploid rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than their corresponding diploid. PMID:18722990

  2. The importance of effective sampling for exploring the population dynamics of haploid-diploid seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A; Hoban, Sean M

    2016-02-01

    The mating system partitions genetic diversity within and among populations and the links between life history traits and mating systems have been extensively studied in diploid organisms. As such most evolutionary theory is focused on species for which sexual reproduction occurs between diploid male and diploid female individuals. However, there are many multicellular organisms with biphasic life cycles in which the haploid stage is prolonged and undergoes substantial somatic development. In particular, biphasic life cycles are found across green, brown and red macroalgae. Yet, few studies have addressed the population structure and genetic diversity in both the haploid and diploid stages in these life cycles. We have developed some broad guidelines with which to develop population genetic studies of haploid-diploid macroalgae and to quantify the relationship between power and sampling strategy. We address three common goals for studying macroalgal population dynamics, including haploid-diploid ratios, genetic structure and paternity analyses. PMID:26987084

  3. Performance comparisons between diploid and triploid sunshine bass in fresh water ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerby, J.H.; Everson, J.M.; Harrell, R.M.; Geiger, J.G.; Starling, C.C.; Revels, H.

    2002-01-01

    Diploid and triploid sunshine bass (white bass ??? x striped bass ???) were produced in 1990 at Florida's Richloam Fish Hatchery. Triploidy was induced with hydrostatic pressure. Fry were cultured to phase I in earthen ponds in Webster and Gainesville, FL, and transported to Leetown, WV, where they were held in circular flow-through fiberglass tanks. Ploidy of treated fish was determined with a Coulter counter and triploids were segregated from diploids. In April 1991, control diploid and triploid populations were graded to remove the largest and smallest individuals, and four 0.2-ha hypalon-lined ponds were stocked with 600 fish each; two ponds contained triploids and two contained diploids. Triploids and diploids were not significantly different in average fork length (FL) or weight at stocking. Triploids averaged 231 mm and 181.2 g, compared to diploid averages of 233 mm and 188.9 g. Monthly samples indicated that diploids grew faster than triploids; mean weights and lengths were both significantly different after 3 months. When harvested in October, triploids averaged 358 mm and 867.9 g, whereas diploids averaged 381 mm and 1153.5 g. Survival of triploids and diploids was 97.0% and 95.9%, respectively. Mean standing crop was 2496.3 kg/ha for triploids and 3280.6 kg/ha for diploids. Male diploids and most female diploids were sexually mature at 2 years of age. Sterility of triploids was confirmed as gonads remained reduced and dysfunctional at 5 years of age. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diploid biological evolution models with general smooth fitness landscapes and recombination.

    PubMed

    Saakian, David B; Kirakosyan, Zara; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2008-06-01

    Using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation approach, we obtain analytic equations for steady-state population distributions and mean fitness functions for Crow-Kimura and Eigen-type diploid biological evolution models with general smooth hypergeometric fitness landscapes. Our numerical solutions of diploid biological evolution models confirm the analytic equations obtained. We also study the parallel diploid model for the simple case of recombination and calculate the variance of distribution, which is consistent with numerical results. PMID:18643300

  5. [Enhancement of plantlet regenerative efficiency of watermelon in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan Mei; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance shoot regenerative efficiency of watermelon by optimizing culture parameters. Cotyledons at 4-day seedlings were explanted and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different combinations of hormones. In "Yixuan" cultivar, the plantlet regenerative frequency and shoots produced by per explant was as low as 10% and 0.4 respectively at all combinations tested when distal parts of cotyledons were inoculated. Whereas, maximum regenerative frequency of 100 percentage and 10.3 shoots regenerated from per explant were observed on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L IAA using basal parts of cotyledons as explants. Likewise, in "Jingxinmuben" cultivar, the highest regenerative frequency of 100 percentage and 6.9 shoots regenerated from per explant were obtained when proximal parts of cotyledons were cultured on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L IAA. In the present study, adventitious buds were initiated after only 4 d in culture and intact plantlets were obtained in 40 d culture. This will facilitate quicker gene transformation and polyploidy induction of watermelon in vitro. PMID:15789761

  6. Genetic variability of watermelon accessions based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    de S Gama, R N C; Santos, C A F; de C S Dias, R

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic variability of 40 watermelon accessions collected from 8 regions of Northeastern Brazil using microsatellite markers, in order to suggest strategies of conservation and utilization of genetic variability in this species. These accessions are not commercial cultivars. They were sampled in areas of traditional farmers that usually keep their own seeds for future plantings year after year. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated from a distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient, based on 41 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance was made by partitioning between and within geographical regions. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 37 to 96%; the dendrogram gave a co-phenetic value of 0.80. The among population genetic variability was high ( (^)ϕST = 0.319). Specific clusters of accessions sampled in 3 regions of Maranhão were observed while the other 5 regions did not presented specific clusters by regions. We conclude that watermelon genetic variability is not uniformly dispersed in the regions analyzed, indicating that geographical barriers or edaphoclimatic conditions have limited open mating. We suggest sampling a greater number of populations, so regional species diversity will be better represented and preserved in the germplasm bank. PMID:23546958

  7. Methionine restriction slows down senescence in human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kozieł, Rafał; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Albertini, Eva; Neuhaus, Michael; Netzberger, Christine; Bust, Maria; Madeo, Frank; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder

    2014-01-01

    Methionine restriction (MetR) extends lifespan in animal models including rodents. Using human diploid fibroblasts (HDF), we report here that MetR significantly extends their replicative lifespan, thereby postponing cellular senescence. MetR significantly decreased activity of mitochondrial complex IV and diminished the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Lifespan extension was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of subunits of mitochondrial complex IV, but also complex I, which was due to a decreased translation rate of several mtDNA-encoded subunits. Together, these findings indicate that MetR slows down aging in human cells by modulating mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiratory chain assembly. PMID:25273919

  8. Genome Size Variations in Diploid African Coffea Species

    PubMed Central

    NOIROT, M.; PONCET, V.; BARRE, P.; HAMON, P.; HAMON, S.; DE KOCHKO, A.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometry was conducted to evaluate genome size diversity among African diploid species of the Coffea genus. The study included 15 species and six new taxa from Congolese and Cameroonian forest regions which have yet to be botanically characterized. Between‐population differences were also recorded in some cases. These evaluations using an internal standard were highly correlated with previous results obtained with an external standard, but differences of up to 18 % existed for some species, involving stoichiometric errors. Consequently, genome size variation between species and within species are discussed as true genome size differences or stoichiometric errors. Environmental and phenotypic correlations with genome size are also discussed. PMID:14573524

  9. An intelligent procedure for watermelon ripeness detection based on vibration signals.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Rouzbeh; Moosavian, Ashkan; Rajabipour, Ali; Najafi, Gholamhassan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient procedure for ripeness detection of watermelon was presented. A nondestructive method was used based on vibration response to determine the internal quality of watermelon. The responses of samples to vibration excitation were optically recorded by a Laser Doppler (LD) vibrometer. Vibration data was collected from watermelons of two qualities, namely, ripe and unripe. Vibration signals were transformed from time-domain to frequency-domain by fast Fourier transform (FFT). Twenty nine features were extracted from the FFT amplitude and phase angle of the vibration signals. K-nearest neighbor (KNN) analysis was applied as a classifier in decision-making stage. The experimental results showed that the usage of the FFT amplitude of the vibration signals gave the maximum classification accuracy. This method allowed identification at a 95.0 % level of efficiency. Hence, the proposed method can reliably detect watermelon ripeness. PMID:25694721

  10. Statistical Analysis Of Heavy Metals Concentration In Watermelon Plants Irrigated By Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanjani, M. J.; Maghsoudi moud, A. A.; Saffari, V. R.; Hashamipor, S. M.; Soltanizadeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated by urban wastewater is a cause of serious concern due to the potentials health problems of consuming contaminated produce. In this study it is tried to model the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,…) as a function of their concentration in watermelon roots and stems. Our study shows there is a good relationship between them for most of collected data. By measuring the concentration in root and stem of watermelon plant samples before harvesting, the concentration of heavy metal in watermelon's fruit can be estimated by presented mathematical models. This study shows the concentrations of heavy metals in fruits, roots and stems of watermelon plants are very high and in dangerous level when irrigated by municipal waste water.

  11. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit. PMID:26019638

  12. Algorithm of orthogonal bi-axle for auto-separating of watermelon seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Guan, Miao; Yu, Daoqin; Wang, Jing

    2007-11-01

    During the process of watermelon seeds characteristic extraction as well as separation, watermelon seeds' major and minor axes, the length and width ratio have played a very important role in appearance regulating degree evaluation. It is quite difficult to find the answer of orthogonal bi-axes because the watermelon seeds are flat and irregular in shape and what's more there is no rule to follow. After a lot of experiments and research, the author proposed the algorithm of orthogonal bi-axes algorithm for granulated object. It has been put into practice and proved in the application of auto-separation system for watermelon seeds. This algorithm has the advantage of lower time complexity and higher precision compared with other algorithms. The algorithm can be used in the solution of other similar granulated objects, and has the widespread application value.

  13. Dissipation and residue of acetamiprid in watermelon and soil in the open field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junxue; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-09-01

    Residue dynamics of acetamiprid in watermelon and soil was studied in this paper utilizing liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LODs for acetamiprid in whole watermelon, melon flesh and soil were 0.002 mg/kg. The fortified recoveries ranged from 73.7% to 107.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.7%-5.9%. Acetamiprid dissipated in watermelon and soil with the half-life 3.12-3.92 days and 1.18-1.46 days in two locations Beijing and Shandong provinces, respectively. In the terminal residue experiment, no higher residue than 0.01 mg/kg in melon flesh and 0.3 mg/kg in whole watermelon and soil were detected. PMID:22885545

  14. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Shim, Chang-Ki; Kim, Yong-Ki; Jee, Hyeong-Jin; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Jong-Ho; Han, Eun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (106 sporangia/ml). At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840) showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904) were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora. PMID:25288932

  15. Kinetics of staurosporine-arrest of human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.P.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Habbersett, R.C.; Crissman, H.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the general protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine (Stsp), has a differential effect on the progression of normal and transformed cells. Low levels of Stsp (1.0 ng/ml) reversibly arrested normal diploid cells in early G1 phase, whereas concentrations of Stsp as high as 50-75 ng/ml had no effect on G1 progression in transformed cells. High concentrations of Stsp arrested normal cells in G1 and G2 phases but blocked transformed cells only in G2 phase of the cell cycle. To follow the accumulation of cells in G1 and/or G2 phases, asynchronous cultures of human diploid fibroblasts were treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 or 50 ng/ml staurosporine for 18 hours in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine. The kinetics of labeling with BrdU were determined with a two-laser flow cytometric technique that monitored emission of fluorescence from DNA-species stains that differed in the degree of BrdU-induced quenching of their fluorescence signals. Bivariate plots of Hoechst/mithramycin fluorescence signal ratio vs. Hoechst fluorescence identified the arrested cells as cohorts of cells in different positions across cell cycle at the time of Stsp addition.

  16. Partial diploidization of meiosis in autotetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, J L; Alfaro, D; Sanchez-Moran, E; Armstrong, S J; Franklin, F C H; Jones, G H

    2003-01-01

    Meiosis was analyzed cytogenetically in autotetraploids of Arabidopsis, including both established lines and newly generated autotetraploid plants. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S and 45S rDNA probes was used to identify the different chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis. Multivalents were observed frequently in all the lines analyzed, but there were significant differences in multivalent frequency not only between the newly generated tetraploids and the established lines but also among the different established lines. The new tetraploids showed high multivalent frequencies, exceeding the theoretical 66.66% predicted by the simple random-end pairing model, in some cases significantly, thus indicating that Arabidopsis autotetraploids have more than two autonomous pairing sites per chromosome, despite their small sizes. The established lines showed fewer multivalents than the new autotetraploids did, but the extent of this reduction was strongly line and chromosome dependent. One line in particular showed a large reduction in multivalents and a concomitant increase in bivalents, while the other lines showed lesser reductions in multivalents. The reduction in multivalents was not uniformly distributed across chromosomes. The smaller chromosomes, especially chromosomes 2 and 4, showed the most marked reductions while the largest chromosome (1) showed virtually no reduction compared to the new tetraploids. It is concluded that the established autotetraploid lines have undergone a partial diploidization of meiosis, but not necessarily genetical diploidization, since their creation. Possible mechanisms for the resulting change in meiotic chromosome behavior are discussed. PMID:14668400

  17. A monoecious and diploid Moran model of random mating.

    PubMed

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A

    2016-04-01

    An exact Markov chain is developed for a Moran model of random mating for monoecious diploid individuals with a given probability of self-fertilization. The model captures the dynamics of genetic variation at a biallelic locus. We compare the model with the corresponding diploid Wright-Fisher (WF) model. We also develop a novel diffusion approximation of both models, where the genotype frequency distribution dynamics is described by two partial differential equations, on different time scales. The first equation captures the more slowly varying allele frequencies, and it is the same for the Moran and WF models. The other equation captures departures of the fraction of heterozygous genotypes from a large population equilibrium curve that equals Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the absence of selfing. It is the distribution of a continuous time Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process for the Moran model and a discrete time autoregressive process for the WF model. One application of our results is to capture dynamics of the degree of non-random mating of both models, in terms of the fixation index fIS. Although fIS has a stable fixed point that only depends on the degree of selfing, the normally distributed oscillations around this fixed point are stochastically larger for the Moran than for the WF model. PMID:26807805

  18. Microencapsulation of human diploid fibroblasts in cationic polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Mallabone, C L; Crooks, C A; Sefton, M V

    1989-08-01

    Human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster ovary cells were encapsulated in several copolymers of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with methacrylic acid and/or methyl methacrylate. Copolymers containing 16 to 25% dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and less than or equal to 2.2% methacrylic acid (based on monomer mol%) supported human diploid fibroblast growth when the polymer was cast as a film on glass or polystyrene. The cells survived encapsulation and grew, but growth was only observed in those capsules which appeared to be flawed; the flaws were detected as an early loss of fluorescence, due to leakage of the FITC-dextran added as a marker to the encapsulated cell suspension. Presumably the capsule wall had too low a permeability to allow for unrestricted growth. Chinese hamster ovary cells behaved similarly in dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate capsules. Increasing the water content, by addition of methacrylic acid, did not improve matters, since these materials were not as good a substrate for cell growth as the others. Preparing materials that are sufficiently permeable, with low toxicity and high processability and which support the growth of anchorage-dependent cells is difficult, yet it remains an appropriate goal for further study. PMID:2804227

  19. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers. PMID:23653472

  20. Measurement of sugar content of watermelon using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in comparison with dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; Bao, Yidan

    2006-09-01

    The sugar content of watermelon is important to its taste thus influences the market. It's difficult to know whether the melon is sweet or not for consumers. We tried to develop a convenient meter to determine the sugar of watermelon. The first objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared reflectance spectrometer (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content of watermelon and absorption spectra. The NIRS reflectance of nondestructive watermelon was measured with a Visible/NIR spectrophotometer in 325-1075nm range. The sugar content of watermelon was obtained with a handhold sugar content meter. The second objective was to measure the watermelon's dielectric property, such as dielectric resistance, capacitance, quality factor and dielectric loss. A digital electric bridge instrument was used to get the dielectric property. The experimental results show that they were related to watermelon's sugar content. A comparison between the two methods was made in the paper. The model derived from NIRS reflection is useful for class identification of Zaochun Hongyu watermelon though it's not quite accurate in sweetness prediction (the max. deviation is 0.7). Electric property bears little relation to sugar content of watermelon at this experiment and it couldn't be used as non-destructive inspection method.

  1. ``alternative Self-Diploidization'' or ``asd'' Homothallism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Isolation of a Mutant, Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Interaction and Endomitotic Diploidization

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B. I.; Ishino-Arao, Y.; Takasugi, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukuda, M.; Fukui, M.; Miyakawa, I.; Sando, N.

    1990-01-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing a novel life cycle, named ``alternative self-diploidization'' or ``ASD'' homothallism, was obtained fortuitously. In this life cycle, MATα (or MATa) haplophase and MATα/MATα (or MATa/MATa) diplophase alternate. Germinated cells are haploid and mating. They soon become nonmating and sporogenous as they vegetatively grow. They sooner or later diploidize presumably via endomitosis. The diploid cells haploidize via normal meiosis. A single recessive nuclear mutation, named asd1-1, is responsible for ``ASD'' homothallism. In the ρ(0) cytoplasm, asd1-1 cells mate even if at a low efficiency and fail to diploidize. Since pet mutations do not have such effects, we conclude that a certain mitochondrial function other than respiration is required for manifestation of ``ASD'' homothallism. That is, ``ASD'' homothallism is the result of some sort of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. PMID:2204579

  2. ACC Synthase Genes are Polymorphic in Watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and Differentially Expressed in Flowers and in Response to Auxin and Gibberellin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. In watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.), ethylene promotes male flower development while inhibitors of ethylene promote pistillate (pistil-bearing) flower formation. This is opposite to the feminizing effec...

  3. Study of free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in air-dried raisins from three seedless grape varieties using HS-SPME with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wu, Guang-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Chen, Guang; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-15

    Volatile compounds in air-dried raisins from Turpan, China were analysed, with 77 volatiles identified in Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, and Crimson Seedless raisins, 37 of which had never been reported as raisin volatiles. Odour activity values (OAVs) of these volatiles were calculated; 20 compounds had OAVs above 1. The aroma characters of the three varieties were quite similar except for some differences in the intensity of each aroma character. The main free-form volatiles were ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal and geraniol, with β-damascenone, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal making the highest contribution to the aroma. Fruity and floral were the main characteristics of the free-form aromas in raisins. The main bound-form volatiles were benzyl alcohol and acetoin, with β-damascenone contributing most to the bound-form aromas, enhancing the floral, fruity and fatty aroma. PMID:25660896

  4. Diploid males and their triploid offspring in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus

    PubMed Central

    Liebert, Aviva E; Sumana, Annagiri; Starks, Philip T

    2005-01-01

    Although the hymenopteran sex-determining mechanism generally results in haploid males and diploid females, diploid males can be produced via homozygosity at the sex-determining locus. Diploid males have low fitness because they are effectively sterile or produce presumably sterile triploid offspring. Previously, triploid females were observed in three species of North American Polistes paper wasps, and this was interpreted as indirect evidence of diploid males. Here we report what is, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence: four of five early male-producing Polistes dominulus nests from three populations contained diploid males. Because haploid males were also found, however, the adaptive value of early males cannot be ignored. Using genetic and morphological data from triploid females, we also present evidence that both diploid males and triploid females remain undetected throughout the colony cycle. Consequently, diploid male production may result in a delayed fitness cost for two generations. This phenomenon is particularly relevant for introduced populations with few alleles at the sex-determining locus, but cannot be ignored in native populations without supporting genetic data. Future research using paper wasp populations to test theories of social evolution should explicitly consider the potential impacts of diploid males. PMID:17148166

  5. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Santos, Rayane C Dos; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-11-14

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development. PMID:25409766

  6. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development. PMID:25590744

  7. Seedless growth of zinc oxide flower-shaped structures on multilayer graphene by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A seedless growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) structures on multilayer (ML) graphene by electrochemical deposition without any pre-deposited ZnO seed layer or metal catalyst was studied. A high density of a mixture of vertically aligned/non-aligned ZnO rods and flower-shaped structures was obtained. ML graphene seems to generate the formation of flower-shaped structures due to the stacking boundaries. The nucleation of ZnO seems to be promoted at the stacking edges of ML graphene with the increase of applied current density, resulting in the formation of flower-shaped structures. The diameters of the rods/flower-shaped structures also increase with the applied current density. ZnO rods/flower-shaped structures with high aspect ratio over 5.0 and good crystallinity were obtained at the applied current densities of −0.5 and −1.0 mA/cm2. The growth mechanism was proposed. The growth involves the formation of ZnO nucleation below 80°C and the enhancement of the growth of vertically non-aligned rods and flower-shaped structures at 80°C. Such ZnO/graphene hybrid structure provides several potential applications in sensing devices. PMID:25024694

  8. Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

  9. Identification and validation of a core set of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Watermelon has a narrow genetic base, which makes it difficult in detection and utilization of the genetic variations, cultivar identification and increasing genetic diversity that are some important tasks for watermelon breeders. Molecular marker...

  10. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. PMID:25308777

  11. Update on the watermelon vine decline virus and other whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses in Florida, and their effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was shown in the mid-2000’s to cause a watermelon vine decline in southwest and west-central Florida. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have bee...

  12. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  13. RESISTANCE OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS SPP.) GERMPLASM TO THE PEANUT ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA RACE 1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the southern U.S. and world-wide. Currently, root-knot nematodes (RKN) are controlled in watermelon by pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or other nematicides....

  14. Progress and Challenges in Managing Watermelon Vine Decline caused by whitefly transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) is an emerging threat to watermelon production in south-west and west-central Florida. Losses in 2004-2005 due to WVD were estimated to be more than 60 million U.S. dollars. The disease is caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), family: Potyviridae, genus: Ip...

  15. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  16. First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

  17. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  18. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  19. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  20. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  1. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  2. Notice of Release of MSW-28: a Watermelon Line with Medium Brix, Full Flavor and Lycopene Content, and Crisp Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional breeding techniques have increased the immediately-available sugar content in watermelon, up to 14%. This results in a sweet flavor but greatly limits the watermelon serving size for people concerned about dietary sugar intake. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States De...

  3. Effects of Silver Plastic Mulch and Chemical Treatments on Development of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida is caused by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted virus called Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae). WVD has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south west and west central Florida for the pas...

  4. Dietary supplementation with watermelon pomace juice enhances arginine availability and ameliorates the metabolic syndrome in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is rich in L-citrulline, an effective precursor of L-arginine. This study was conducted to determine whether dietary supplementation with watermelon pomace juice could ameliorate the metabolic syndrome in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of noninsulin-dependent diabet...

  5. Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...

  6. Physiological effects induced by Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline that has had significant economic impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida during the past six years. Symptoms typically appear as a sudden decline of vines at...

  7. Influence of insecticides and reflective mulch on watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines a few weeks ...

  8. Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

  9. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes–whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace–twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  10. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes-whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace-twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  11. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    PubMed Central

    Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Acciarri, Nazareno; Sabatini, Emidio; Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Maestrelli, Andrea; Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Scalzo, Jessica; Mezzetti, Bruno; Spena, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM) fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM). Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82) transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH) nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC), when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment. PMID:16371162

  12. Cytotype distribution at a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in Chamerion (Epilobium) angustifolium (Onagraceae).

    PubMed

    Husband, B C; Schemske, D W

    1998-12-01

    In North America, the geographic distributions of diploid and tetraploid Chamerion (formerly Epilobium) angustifolium overlap in a narrow zone along the southern border of the boreal forest and along the Rocky Mountains. We examined the frequency and distribution of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes in a narrow (5 km) zone of sympatry across an elevational gradient and in putatively uniform diploid and tetraploid reference populations on the Beartooth Pass, in the Rocky Mountains of southern Montana-northern Wyoming. All five reference populations sampled were dominated by a single cytotype, but only one was completely uniform. In the zone of sympatry, 27 transects were sampled every 2 m for a total of 238 plants. Reproductive status (vegetative, flower buds, open flowers) was recorded, and the ploidy of each plant was determined by flow cytometry. Diploid and tetraploid plants predominated (36 and 55%, respectively) but were heterogeneously distributed among the transects. Six of the 27 transects were fixed for a single cytotype (four transects, diploid; two transects, tetraploid), and in seven others either diploids or tetraploids predominated (frequency >75%). Triploids represented 9% of the total sample and occurred most frequently in transects containing both diploids and tetraploids (G = 3.4, df = 2, P = 0.07). Diploids were more often reproductive (in bud, flower, or fruit) than either triploids or tetraploids (G = 12.0, df = 2, P < 0.001) and were the only cytotype to have produced open flowers. These results suggest that the zone of sympatry is best characterized as a mosaic rather than a cline, with diploid and tetraploids in close proximity and that the distribution of polyploidy is regulated by ecological sorting in a heterogeneous physical environment. PMID:21719413

  13. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations. PMID:11312845

  14. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  15. The use of chloroplast microsatellite markers for assessing cytoplasmic variation in a watermelon germplasm collection.

    PubMed

    Hu, J-B; Li, J-W; Li, Q; Ma, S-W; Wang, J-M

    2011-11-01

    Fifteen chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were tested to analyze cytoplasmic variation in a set of watermelon accessions containing 67 Chinese watermelon germplasms (CWGs) and 19 non-Chinese watermelon germplasms (NCGs), and 11 were polymorphic. These polymorphic cpSSR markers detected 2-4 alleles (mean = 2.8) in all the accessions, with diversity values ranging from 0.047 to 0.427 (mean = 0.252). Based on the polymorphic cpSSR loci, 17 distinct haplotypes were identified, of which six were from CWGs, seven were from NCGs, and four were shared by both of them. Most haplotypes from CWGs were nearly identical at the 11 cpSSR loci, but those from NCGs revealed higher variations. Of the haplotypes from CWGs, a predominant haplotype was found in 76.1% of CWGs, indicating that CWGs suffered a cytoplasmic bottleneck in domestication process and lost most of their cytoplasmic variability. To analyze the relationships among these 17 haplotypes, a dendrogram was constructed based on the cpSSR data using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA). Three distinct groups were generated, revealing a genetic divergence between CWGs and NCGs. From this analysis, we obtained five rare haplotypes which had quite low genetic similarity to the others and would be useful for watermelon breeding in China. The results enriched the knowledge in genetic diversity of CWGs and could be informative for broadening the genetic base of watermelon. PMID:21327542

  16. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  17. Molecular epidemiology of clonal diploids: a quick overview and a short DIY (do it yourself) notice.

    PubMed

    De Meeûs, Thierry; Lehmann, Laurent; Balloux, François

    2006-03-01

    In this short review we report the basic notions needed for understanding the population genetics of clonal diploids. We focus on the consequences of clonality on the distribution of genetic diversity within individuals, between individuals and between populations. We then summarise how to detect clonality in mainly sexual populations, conversely, how to detect sexuality in mainly clonal populations and also how genetic differentiation between populations is affected by clonality in diploids. This information is then used for building recipes on how to analyse and interpret genetic polymorphism data in molecular epidemiology studies of clonal diploids. PMID:16290062

  18. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  19. WATER USE OF VITIS VINIFERA L., CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS GROWN IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA. II. WATER USE OF MATURE VINES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use of Thompson Seedless grapevines was measured with a large weighing lysimeter from four to seven years (1990 to 1993) after planting. Above ground drip irrigation was used to water the vines. Vines growing within the lysimeter were pruned to four and six fruiting canes for the 1990 and 19...

  20. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality. PMID:25522520

  1. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance. PMID:26302171

  2. Extraction conditions affecting supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of lycopene from watermelon.

    PubMed

    Katherine, L S Vaughn; Edgar, C Clausen; Jerry, W King; Luke, R Howard; Julie, Carrier Danielle

    2008-11-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid linked to protection against certain forms of cancer, is found in produce such as papaya, red-fleshed tomatoes, grapefruit and watermelon. The preparation of a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) watermelon-lycopene extract could serve as a food grade source of this carotenoid. This study established preliminary conditions for enhancing SC-CO2 extraction of lycopene from watermelon. Freeze-dried watermelon was extracted with SC-CO2 and ethanol as an organic co-solvent. The lycopene concentration was determined by HPLC, with absorbance measured at 503 nm. In an initial set of experiments, the effects of extraction temperature (70-90 degrees C), pressure (20.7-41.4 MPa) and co-solvent ethanol addition (10-15%) were evaluated. A lycopene yield of 38 microg per gram of wet weight was obtained at 70 degrees C, 20.7 MPa, and 15% by volume ethanol. The extraction of fresh (non-freeze-dried) watermelon yielded 103+/-6 microg lycopene per gram fresh fruit weight. Of the parameters tested, temperature had the most effect on lycopene yield. Thus, in another set of experiments, the temperature was varied from 60-75 degrees C at an extraction pressure of 20.7 MPa in the presence of 15% ethanol. Studies showed that freeze-dried watermelon flesh loses lycopene in storage. In accounting for lycopene storage losses, lycopene yields at 60 degrees C extraction temperature were 14% greater than those obtained at 70 degrees C. PMID:18378137

  3. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  4. Watermelon extract reduces blood pressure but does not change sympathovagal balance in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Massa, Nayara Moreira Lacerda; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Joanna D'arc Gomes Rodrigues; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Gonçalves, Maria Da Conceição Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that watermelon extract reduces blood pressure through vasodilation. However, those studies have not verified whether sympathetic nervous activity is influenced by watermelon extract. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with watermelon extract for 6 weeks on blood pressure and sympathovagal balance of prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Forty volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, experimental and placebo-controlled study. They consumed 6 g of watermelon extract daily (n = 20; age 48.7 ± 1.9 years, 10 men) or a placebo (n = 20; age 47.4 ± 1.2 years, 11 men) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation were measured. Watermelon extract promoted a significant reduction in systolic (137.8 ± 3.9 to 126.0 ± 4.0 mmHg, p < 0.0001) and diastolic (79.2 ± 2.2 to 72.3 ± 2.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) blood pressure, but showed no differences compared to the placebo group. This significant reduction in blood pressure occurred without a significant change in sympathovagal balance from the beginning (1.7 ± 0.1) to the end of the study (1.7 ± 0.4). In conclusion, supplementation with watermelon extract reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals, but does not alter the cardiac autonomic modulation of these individuals. PMID:26947668

  5. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix (QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra (Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way. PMID:17266185

  6. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  7. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570

  8. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-07-01

    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus. PMID:26994807

  9. Application of magnetic resonance imaging to non-destructive void detection in watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Miki, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajikawa, H.; Shimada, M.; Kawate, Y.; Nishizawa, T.; Ikegaya, D.; Kimura, N.; Takabatake, K.; Sugiura, N.; Suzuki, M.

    A novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The possibility of utilizing MRI for non-destructive quality evaluation of watermelons was studied. In this study, we applied MRI to the detection of internal voids in watermelons. In order to increase the measurement rate, we employed a one-dimensional projection profile method instead of observing a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. The void detection was carried out with this technique over 30 samples and 28 samples were correctly evaluated. The measurement rate was 900 ms per sample, which is an acceptable speed for a sorting machine in the agricultural field.

  10. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    PubMed

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  11. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants

    PubMed Central

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30–80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  12. Qualitative inheritance of rind pattern and flesh color in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, Gabriele; Wehner, Todd C

    2006-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is a diverse species, with fruits of different sizes, shapes, rind patterns, and flesh colors. This study measured the inheritance of novel rind phenotypes and verified the genetics of white, red, salmon yellow, and canary yellow flesh colors. For each of the 11 crosses, six generations (P(a)S1, P(b)S1, F1, F2, BC1P(a), and BC1P(b)) were produced to form 11 families. Three new genes were identified and designated as follows: Scr for the scarlet red flesh color of Dixielee and Red-N-Sweet, Yb for the yellow belly (ground spot) of Black Diamond Yellow Belly, and ins for the intermittent stripes of Navajo Sweet. The inheritance of the C gene for the canary yellow flesh color was verified as single dominant, and a new inbred type line was developed possessing that gene. Aberrations in the segregation of red, white, and salmon yellow flesh colors were recorded, raising questions on the inheritance of these traits. Finally, the spotted phenotype from Moon and Stars was combined with light green and gray rind patterns for the development of novel cultivars with distinctive rind patterns. PMID:16489140

  13. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants.

    PubMed

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30-80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  14. The population genetics of clonal and partially clonal diploids.

    PubMed Central

    Balloux, François; Lehmann, Laurent; de Meeûs, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of variable rates of clonal reproduction on the population genetics of neutral markers are explored in diploid organisms within a subdivided population (island model). We use both analytical and stochastic simulation approaches. High rates of clonal reproduction will positively affect heterozygosity. As a consequence, nearly twice as many alleles per locus can be maintained and population differentiation estimated as F(ST) value is strongly decreased in purely clonal populations as compared to purely sexual ones. With increasing clonal reproduction, effective population size first slowly increases and then points toward extreme values when the reproductive system tends toward strict clonality. This reflects the fact that polymorphism is protected within individuals due to fixed heterozygosity. Contrarily, genotypic diversity smoothly decreases with increasing rates of clonal reproduction. Asexual populations thus maintain higher genetic diversity at each single locus but a lower number of different genotypes. Mixed clonal/sexual reproduction is nearly indistinguishable from strict sexual reproduction as long as the proportion of clonal reproduction is not strongly predominant for all quantities investigated, except for genotypic diversities (both at individual loci and over multiple loci). PMID:12930767

  15. The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Tian, Geng; Goodman, Laurie; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Junqing; Li, Jun; Zhang, Juanbin; Guo, Yiran; Feng, Binxiao; Li, Heng; Lu, Yao; Fang, Xiaodong; Liang, Huiqing; Du, Zhenglin; Li, Dong; Zhao, Yiqing; Hu, Yujie; Yang, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Hancheng; Hellmann, Ines; Inouye, Michael; Pool, John; Yi, Xin; Zhao, Jing; Duan, Jinjie; Zhou, Yan; Qin, Junjie; Ma, Lijia; Li, Guoqing; Yang, Zhentao; Zhang, Guojie; Yang, Bin; Yu, Chang; Liang, Fang; Li, Wenjie; Li, Shaochuan; Li, Dawei; Ni, Peixiang; Ruan, Jue; Li, Qibin; Zhu, Hongmei; Liu, Dongyuan; Lu, Zhike; Li, Ning; Guo, Guangwu; Zhang, Jianguo; Ye, Jia; Fang, Lin; Hao, Qin; Chen, Quan; Liang, Yu; Su, Yeyang; san, A.; Ping, Cuo; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Fang; Li, Li; Zhou, Ke; Zheng, Hongkun; Ren, Yuanyuan; Yang, Ling; Gao, Yang; Yang, Guohua; Li, Zhuo; Feng, Xiaoli; Kristiansen, Karsten; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Nielsen, Rasmus; Durbin, Richard; Bolund, Lars; Zhang, Xiuqing; Li, Songgang; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality consensus sequence for 92% of the Asian individual's genome. We identified approximately 3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside this region, of which 13.6% were not in the dbSNP database. Genotyping analysis showed that SNP identification had high accuracy and consistency, indicating the high sequence quality of this assembly. We also carried out heterozygote phasing and haplotype prediction against HapMap CHB and JPT haplotypes (Chinese and Japanese, respectively), sequence comparison with the two available individual genomes (J. D. Watson and J. C. Venter), and structural variation identification. These variations were considered for their potential biological impact. Our sequence data and analyses demonstrate the potential usefulness of next-generation sequencing technologies for personal genomics. PMID:18987735

  16. Enhancer Runaway and the Evolution of Diploid Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fyon, Frédéric; Cailleau, Aurélie; Lenormand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that the evolution of gene expression plays a major role in adaptation and speciation. Understanding the evolution of gene regulatory regions is indeed an essential step in linking genotypes and phenotypes and in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying evolutionary change. The common view is that expression traits (protein folding, expression timing, tissue localization and concentration) are under natural selection at the individual level. Here, we use a theoretical approach to show that, in addition, in diploid organisms, enhancer strength (i.e., the ability of enhancers to activate transcription) may increase in a runaway process due to competition for expression between homologous enhancer alleles. These alleles may be viewed as self-promoting genetic elements, as they spread without conferring a benefit at the individual level. They gain a selective advantage by getting associated to better genetic backgrounds: deleterious mutations are more efficiently purged when linked to stronger enhancers. This process, which has been entirely overlooked so far, may help understand the observed overrepresentation of cis-acting regulatory changes in between-species phenotypic differences, and sheds a new light on investigating the contribution of gene expression evolution to adaptation. PMID:26561855

  17. Trait responses of invasive aquatic macrophyte congeners: colonizing diploid outperforms polyploid

    PubMed Central

    Grewell, Brenda J.; Skaer Thomason, Meghan J.; Futrell, Caryn J.; Iannucci, Maria; Drenovsky, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding traits underlying colonization and niche breadth of invasive plants is key to developing sustainable management solutions to curtail invasions at the establishment phase, when efforts are often most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate how two invasive congeners differing in ploidy respond to high and lowresource availability following establishment from asexual fragments. Because polyploids are expected to have wider niche breadths than diploid ancestors, we predicted that a decaploid species would have superior ability to maximize resource uptake and use, and outperform a diploid congener when colonizing environments with contrasting light and nutrient availability. A mesocosm experiment was designed to test the main and interactive effects of ploidy (diploid and decaploid) and soil nutrient availability (low and high) nested within light environments (shade and sun) of two invasive aquatic plant congeners. Counter to our predictions, the diploid congener outperformed the decaploid in the early stage of growth. Although growth was similar and low in the cytotypes at low nutrient availability, the diploid species had much higher growth rate and biomass accumulation than the polyploid with nutrient enrichment, irrespective of light environment. Our results also revealed extreme differences in time to anthesis between the cytotypes. The rapid growth and earlier flowering of the diploid congener relative to the decaploid congener represent alternate strategies for establishment and success. PMID:26921139

  18. Ribosomal DNA locus variation and REMAP analysis of the diploid and triploid complexes of Lilium lancifolium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Lee, Sung-Il; Rai, Rameshwar; Kim, Nam-Soo; Kim, Jong Hwa

    2016-08-01

    Lilium lancifolium Thunb. (2n = 2x = 24) is a cytologically conspicuous species with both diploids and triploids in nature. Cytological and molecular genetic analyses were carried out in both diploids and triploids that were collected from 55 geographical locations in Korea, Japan, and China. While the 5S rRNA gene loci were located at duplicated loci on the long arm of chromosome 2, the 45S rRNA gene loci were present in chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11. While the loci on chromosomes 1 and 7 were constant, the loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11 were variable in some plants so that the L. lancifolium accessions were grouped into 7 cytotypes in diploids and 12 cytotypes in triploids. REMAP marker analysis revealed that the diploids were classified into seven clusters, and the triploids were classified into a large cluster. Geographic, cytological, and genetic differentiations were not related in both the diploid and triploid accessions of L. lancifolium. Thus, current genetic variations occurred prior to the geographic differentiation in both diploids and triploids, and the 45S rDNA cytotype variations occurred after geographic differentiation in the current habitats of L. lancifolium. PMID:27458741

  19. The evolutionary advantage of haploid versus diploid microbes in nutrient-poor environments.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Iwasa, Yoh; Day, Troy

    2015-10-21

    Sexual eukaryotic organisms are characterized by haploid and diploid nuclear phases. In many organisms, growth and development occur in both haploid and diploid phases, and the relative length of these phases exhibits considerable diversity. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the maintenance of this diversity of life cycles and the advantage of being haploid versus that of being diploid. The nutrient-limitation hypothesis postulates that haploid cells, because they are small and thus have a higher surface area to volume ratio, are advantageous in nutrient-poor environments. In this paper, we examine this hypothesis theoretically and determine the conditions under which it holds. On the basis of our analysis, we make the following predictions. First, the relative advantages of different ploidy levels strongly depend on the ploidy-dependent energy conversion efficiency and the scaling of mortality with cell size. Specifically, haploids enjoy a higher intrinsic population growth rate than diploids do under nutrient-poor conditions, but under nutrient-rich conditions the intrinsic population growth rate of diploids is higher, provided that the energy conversion efficiency of diploids is higher than that of haploids and the scaling of mortality with cell size is weak. Second, differences in nutrient concentration in the inflowing medium have almost no effect on the relative advantage of ploidy levels at population equilibrium. Our study illustrates the importance of explicit modeling of microbial life history and population dynamics to understand the evolution of ploidy levels. PMID:26247141

  20. The presence of the enhanced K/Na discrimination trait in diploid Triticum species.

    PubMed

    Gorham, J; Bristol, A; Young, E M; Wyn Jones, R G

    1991-10-01

    A number of accessions of the three species of diploid wheat, Triticum boeoticum, T. monococcum, and T. urartu, were grown in 50 mol m(-3) NaCl+2.5 mol m(-3) CaCl2. Sodium accumulation in the leaves was low and potassium concentrations remained high. This was not the case in T. durum grown under the same conditions, and indicates the presence in diploid wheats of the enhanced K/Na discrimination character which has previously been found in Aegilops squarrosa and hexaploid wheat. None of the accessions of diploid wheat showed poor K/Na discrimination, which suggests that if the A genome of modern tetraploid wheats was derived from a diploid Triticum species, then the enhanced K/Na discrimination character became altered after the formation of the original allopolyploid. Another possibility is that a diploid wheat that did not have the enhanced K/Na discrimination character was involved in the hybridization event which produced tetraploid wheat, and that this diploid is now extinct or has not yet been discovered. PMID:24213448

  1. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    SciTech Connect

    Kishigami, Satoshi Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  2. Trait responses of invasive aquatic macrophyte congeners: colonizing diploid outperforms polyploid.

    PubMed

    Grewell, Brenda J; Skaer Thomason, Meghan J; Futrell, Caryn J; Iannucci, Maria; Drenovsky, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding traits underlying colonization and niche breadth of invasive plants is key to developing sustainable management solutions to curtail invasions at the establishment phase, when efforts are often most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate how two invasive congeners differing in ploidy respond to high and lowresource availability following establishment from asexual fragments. Because polyploids are expected to have wider niche breadths than diploid ancestors, we predicted that a decaploid species would have superior ability to maximize resource uptake and use, and outperform a diploid congener when colonizing environments with contrasting light and nutrient availability. A mesocosm experiment was designed to test the main and interactive effects of ploidy (diploid and decaploid) and soil nutrient availability (low and high) nested within light environments (shade and sun) of two invasive aquatic plant congeners. Counter to our predictions, the diploid congener outperformed the decaploid in the early stage of growth. Although growth was similar and low in the cytotypes at low nutrient availability, the diploid species had much higher growth rate and biomass accumulation than the polyploid with nutrient enrichment, irrespective of light environment. Our results also revealed extreme differences in time to anthesis between the cytotypes. The rapid growth and earlier flowering of the diploid congener relative to the decaploid congener represent alternate strategies for establishment and success. PMID:26921139

  3. Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D.; Liechty, Zach S.; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton. PMID:23979935

  4. Insights into the evolution of cotton diploids and polyploids from whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Page, Justin T; Huynh, Mark D; Liechty, Zach S; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F; Udall, Joshua A

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton. PMID:23979935

  5. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  6. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  7. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. PMID:23845786

  8. Obstruction of adaptation in diploids by recessive, strongly deleterious alleles

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Zoe June; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Blundell, Jamie R.

    2015-01-01

    Recessive deleterious mutations are common, causing many genetic disorders in humans and producing inbreeding depression in the majority of sexually reproducing diploids. The abundance of recessive deleterious mutations in natural populations suggests they are likely to be present on a chromosome when a new adaptive mutation occurs, yet the dynamics of recessive deleterious hitchhikers and their impact on adaptation remains poorly understood. Here we model how a recessive deleterious mutation impacts the fate of a genetically linked dominant beneficial mutation. The frequency trajectory of the adaptive mutation in this case is dramatically altered and results in what we have termed a “staggered sweep.” It is named for its three-phased trajectory: (i) Initially, the two linked mutations have a selective advantage while rare and will increase in frequency together, then (ii), at higher frequencies, the recessive hitchhiker is exposed to selection and can cause a balanced state via heterozygote advantage (the staggered phase), and (iii) finally, if recombination unlinks the two mutations, then the beneficial mutation can complete the sweep to fixation. Using both analytics and simulations, we show that strongly deleterious recessive mutations can substantially decrease the probability of fixation for nearby beneficial mutations, thus creating zones in the genome where adaptation is suppressed. These mutations can also significantly prolong the number of generations a beneficial mutation takes to sweep to fixation, and cause the genomic signature of selection to resemble that of soft or partial sweeps. We show that recessive deleterious variation could impact adaptation in humans and Drosophila. PMID:25941393

  9. Sex-determination system in the diploid yeast Zygosaccharomyces sapae.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Dakal, Tikam Chand; Giudici, Paolo; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Sexual reproduction and breeding systems are driving forces for genetic diversity. The mating-type (MAT) locus represents a mutation and chromosome rearrangement hotspot in yeasts. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii complex yeasts are naturally faced with hostile low water activity (aw) environments and are characterized by gene copy number variation, genome instability, and aneuploidy/allodiploidy. Here, we investigated sex-determination system in Zygosaccharomyces sapae diploid strain ABT301(T), a member of the Z. rouxii complex. We cloned three divergent mating type-like (MTL) α-idiomorph sequences and designated them as ZsMTLα copies 1, 2, and 3. They encode homologs of Z. rouxii CBS 732(T) MATα2 (amino acid sequence identities spanning from 67.0 to 99.5%) and MATα1 (identity range 81.5-99.5%). ABT301(T) possesses two divergent HO genes encoding distinct endonucleases 100% and 92.3% identical to Z. rouxii HO. Cloning of MATA: -idiomorph resulted in a single ZsMTLA: locus encoding two Z. rouxii-like proteins MATA: 1 and MATA: 2. To assign the cloned ZsMTLα and ZsMTLA: idiomorphs as MAT, HML, and HMR cassettes, we analyzed their flanking regions. Three ZsMTLα loci exhibited the DIC1-MAT-SLA2 gene order canonical for MAT expression loci. Furthermore, four putative HML cassettes were identified, two containing the ZsMTLα copy 1 and the remaining harboring ZsMTLα copies 2 and 3. Finally, the ZsMTLA: locus was 3'-flanked by SLA2, suggesting the status of MAT expression locus. In conclusion, Z. sapae ABT301(T) displays an aααα genotype missing of the HMR silent cassette. Our results demonstrated that mating-type switching is a hypermutagenic process in Z. rouxii complex that generates genetic diversity de novo. This error-prone mechanism could be suitable to generate progenies more rapidly adaptable to hostile environments. PMID:24939186

  10. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in watermelon in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  11. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in Watermelon in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  12. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  13. Potential Sources of Resistance to Broad Mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) in Watermelon Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred and nineteen United States plant introductions (PI) belonging to the watermelon core collection were evaluated for broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) infestation and injury that occurred naturally in a field planting. Of the 219 PI, nine (4%) had no visible broad mite injury ...

  14. Screening the USDA watermelon germplasm collection for drought tolerance at the seedling stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the growing threat of global warming, drought stress could severely affect the normal growth and development of crop plants. To alleviate such adverse effect, there is a need to screen watermelon germplasm collections to identify genetic sources for potential drought tolerance. In the pre...

  15. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single 454 (Life Sciences Sequencing Technology) run of Charleston Gray watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) genomic DNA was performed and sequence data were assembled. A large scale identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) was performed and SSR sequence data were used for the develo...

  16. Linkage Mapping of NBS-LRR Disease Resistance Gene Analogs in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon disease resistance gene analogs (WRGA) from ‘Calhoun Gray’, PI 296341, and PI 595203 were isolated using degenerate primers specific for the nucleotide binding sites (NBS) from the NBS-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) resistance gene family. Following cloning, sequencing, and analysis of these ...

  17. Evaluation of watermelon and related species for resistance to race 1W powdery mildew resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race 1 and race 2 powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) has been reported on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) in the United States for six years. In this study, the entire available U.S. Plant Introduction collection of Citrullus sp. was evaluated for resistance to P. xanthii r...

  18. Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric properties of honeydew melon and watermelon juice and correlations with sugar content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of juice of three honeydew melon cultivars and four watermelon cultivars of different maturities were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit juice and moisture ...

  19. Use of external indicators to predict maturity of mini-watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal-size watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], cultivars Valdoria and Vanessa were evaluated at 20, 30, 40 or 50 days after anthesis to determine a means of determining maturity at harvest. Fruit circumference, weight, ground-spot color, and number of senescent tendrils were measured for ea...

  20. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Crown Rot and Powdery Mildew, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting watermelon onto rootstocks of other cucurbit genera to manage soil-borne diseases is a relatively new strategy being tested in the US. Grafting is being successfully used to manage various soil borne diseases in parts of Asia and Europe. Commercial rootstocks obtained from various seed co...

  1. Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Phytophthora Blight of Watermelon in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important disease of cucurbits in the eastern U.S. Fungicides, crop rotation, and water management are recommended to control the disease. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) poses a particularly difficult challenge to disease control because o...

  2. Identifying resistance to powdery mildew race 2W in the USDA-ARS watermelon germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii has become a common disease of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] in the United States. The disease can be controlled with fungicides. However, it is more economical and environmentally safe to use genetic resistance against this di...

  3. Foliar disease control demonstrations for watermelon: Distant presentation of field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a serious concern of watermelon producers. In Oklahoma, for instance, several distinct foliar fungal diseases can result in complete crop loss when conditions are conducive to disease development. Proper fungicide use can reduce or prevent losses to these diseases. An educatio...

  4. Antioxidants Status of Humans after Intervention with Watermelon and Tomato Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon and tomato are both excellent sources of lycopene with similar compositions of other carotenoids. In plant extract studies, both foods exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Increased antioxidant capacity of plasma as measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyd...

  5. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  6. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  7. 78 FR 10104 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... final rule was published in the Federal Register on February 28, 1995 [60 FR ] 10795] containing this...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  8. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... 121, small agricultural producers as those having annual receipts of no more than $750,000 and...

  9. Cost benefit analyses of using grafted watermelon transplants for Fusarium wilt disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt continue to plague watermelon growers in intensive production areas where land resources are scarce and rotation of various crops is limited. Risk management alternatives, available to the farmer, have been reduced by the loss of soil fumigation chemicals s...

  10. Host resistance to phytophthora fruit rot in U.S. watermelon plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by P. capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then, the dise...

  11. Management of Whitefly Populations for the Control of Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were designed to confirm that a new ipomovirus, Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), causes watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida and is transmitted by the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Biotype “B”). Two field studies were conducted in 2006 at SWFREC, Immokalee, FL, in the sp...

  12. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  13. Tolerance to powdery mildew conferred in susceptible watermelon scion by grafting on resistant rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open field production. We have developed several watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible cultivar Mickey Lee ...

  14. Host Plant Resistance to Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), by Some Wild Types of Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), is an important pest of many vegetable crops. It damages crops by feeding and vectoring viruses. Potential sources of plant resistance against M. persicae were examined for watermelon. A multiple choice experiment was conducted with leaves of six wi...

  15. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  16. Pilot survey results to prioritize research needs in the watermelon industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is useful for researchers of any commodity to occasionally survey their clientele to monitor for new developments and make sure their research is focused on major problems. A discussion at the Watermelon Research and Development Working Group meeting in Asheville, NC (2006) led to the development...

  17. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  18. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  19. Cost benefit analyses of using grafted watermelons for disease control and the fresh-cut market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt continue to plague watermelon growers in intensive production areas where land resources are scarce and rotation of various crops is limited. Risk management alternatives, available to the farmer, have been reduced by the loss of soil fumigation chemicals s...

  20. Outbreak of powdery mildew on watermelon fruit caused by podosphera xanthii in southwest Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by the obligate parasite Podosphera xanthii occurs commonly on foliage, petioles and stems of most cucurbit vegetable crops grown in the U.S. (1). However, in the field, fruit infection on cucurbits including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is rarely, if ever, observed. Consequ...

  1. Genetic Diversity among Watermelon Citrullus spp. Accessions Based on HFO-TAG Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb. collected in southern Africa are a valuable source for enhancing disease and pest resi...

  2. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  3. Combining Reflective Mulch and Host Plant Resistance for Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of reflective mulch and host plant resistance for the management of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum & Nakai]. Whitefly abundance data were collected under both g...

  4. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. To determine the distribution of vir...

  5. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  6. A metabolomics approach to identify and quantify the phytochemicals in watermelons by quantitative (1)HNMR.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) contains many health-promoting compounds, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic acids and amino acids including l-citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. Reported HPLC method for quantification of l-citrulline and sugars in watermelon involves, time-consuming sample preparation, post-column color development and detection with fluorescence and refractive index detectors. The present study describes development of a method to identify and quantify amino acids and sugars simultaneously from watermelon samples using quantitative proton NMR. Lyophilized watermelon samples (30-50mg) were extracted with deuterium oxide (D2O) by sonication and the centrifuged extract was directly used for quantification and identification with (1)HNMR. An external coaxial insert containing a 65µL of 0.012% 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-(2,2,3,3-d4) acid sodium salt (TSP-d4) in D2O was used as a quantitative reference. The levels of l-citrulline and sugars were measured in less than 6min. This rapid quantitation method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and robustness. The limit of detection for l-citrulline was 38µg/mL and the limit of quantification was 71µg/mL; for sugars, the limits were 59-94µg/mL and 120µg/mL, respectively. This method can be used widely for confirmation and rapid quantitation of multiple compounds in large number of biological or breeding samples for routine analysis. PMID:27130118

  7. Old Dogs, Children, and Watermelon Wine: Focus on the Older Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1978-01-01

    Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)

  8. Epidemiology and Association of Four Insect-Vectored Viruses in Florida Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in the pa...

  9. Epidemiological Analysis of Multi-Virus Infections of Watermelon in Experimental Fields in Southwest Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  10. Distribution of Four Viruses in Single and Mixed Infections Within Infected Watermelon Plants in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  11. Evaluation of Cultural Practices and Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of new fungicides to manage Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon. The soil at the experimental field in Charleston, SC, was Yonges loamy fine sand. The field was sprayed with Roundup Pro (1 pt/A) and Strategy (2 pt/A) after bedding but prior to...

  12. Microarray-Based Analysis of Gene Modulation During Watermelon Fruit Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated at three distinct developmental stages (12, 24, and 36 days post pollination) from watermelon flesh of the heirloom cultivar Illiniwake Red. The library was first normalized and then subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNAs. Random cDNA clones (8...

  13. Resistant Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Rootstocks for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Grafted Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is an important re-emerging pest of watermelon. Several factors have contributed to re-emergence of RKN including: 1) ban of methyl bromide for soil fumigation; 2) reduced land area for crop rotation; and 3) continuous cropping of cucurbits u...

  14. 76 FR 42009 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    .... Afterwards, an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) will issue a decision. If the petitioner disagrees with the ALJ... after publication in the Federal Register because the Board's term of office begins January 1, 2012, and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting...

  15. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  16. Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...

  17. The effect of l-citrulline and watermelon juice supplementation on anaerobic and aerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Gadomski, Stephen J; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2015-01-01

    Citrulline has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, leading to an interest in watermelon given its high citrulline concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single, pre-exercise dose of l-citrulline, watermelon juice, or a placebo on the total maximum number of repetitions completed over 5 sets, time to exhaustion, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), anaerobic threshold, and flow-mediated vasodilation. A randomised double-blind within-participants study design was used to examine these effects among 22 participants (n = 11 males). Supplementation included either a 7.5% sucrose drink containing 6 g of l-citrulline, 710 mL of watermelon juice (~1.0 g citrulline), or a 7.5% sucrose placebo drink. Supplementation was administered 1 or 2 h before exercise testing to investigate a timing effect. There was no significant effect between the three supplements for the total number of repetitions, time to exhaustion, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, or flow-mediated vasodilation. There was also no interaction observed relative to gender or supplement timing (P > 0.05). A single dose of l-citrulline or watermelon juice as a pre-exercise supplement appears to be ineffective in improving exercise performance; however, greater doses of l-citrulline have been shown to be safe and are currently left unexamined. PMID:25517106

  18. Efficiency and economic feasibility of pest control systems in watermelon cropping.

    PubMed

    Lima, C H O; Sarmento, R A; Rosado, J F; Silveira, M C A C; Santos, G R; Pedro Neto, M; Erasmo, E A L; Nascimento, I R; Picanço, M C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency and feasibility of two different watermelon pest control systems on pest infestations, natural enemies, and on the productivity and sustainability of watermelon cropping. Two independent experiments were carried out during the dry season of 2011. Both experiments were carried out using a randomized block experimental design, with three treatments; weekly application of pesticide (WAP), integrated pest management (IPM), and nonpesticide application (control); and four replicates. Arthropods sampling was performed every 2 d by direct counting at five randomly selected points in each plot. Samples were taken by beating the leaves from the apical portion of the plant against a white plastic tray. Arthropods that moved along the soil surface were sampled weekly using pitfall traps. Both WAP and IPM treatments negatively affected the arthropod population. We conclude that IPM is an attractive strategy for watermelon cropping both economically and environmentally because it provides the grower with an option to lower production cost, achieves the same production, and there is less need for pesticide application when compared with the prophylactic control treatment when pesticides are applied on a weekly basis. This has not been reported for watermelon before. PMID:25026672

  19. Evaluation of Watermelon Plant Introductions (PI) for Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted at the US Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. In 2009, we evaluated about 180 plant introductions (PI) belonging to the watermelon core collection with the USDA, ARS, germplasm resources information network (GRIN). Based...

  20. Identification and Utility of Markers Linked to the Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Florida stain (ZYMV-FL) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting watermelon in the United States. Inheritance of resistance to ZYMV-FL is conferred by a single recessive gene. Described here is single-reaction, polymerase chain reaction-based marker l...

  1. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  2. GENETIC LINKAGE MAP FOR WATERMELON: SEGREGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage map is being constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. About 51.0% and 31.8% of the markers in the testcross and F2 populations are skewed from the expected segregation ratios. AFLP markers appeared to be clustered on linkage regions, while IS...

  3. Effect of Reflective Plastic Mulch and Insecticide Sprays on Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida, 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a new and emerging disease in southwest and west central Florida that is transmitted by the silver-leaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines at harvest time or one to t...

  4. Effect of grafting on resistant rootstocks on development of powdery mildew on susceptible watermelon scion, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC, to determine if grafting a powdery mildew susceptible variety (scion) onto watermelon rootstocks with resistance to powdery mildew would provide resistance to foliage of the susceptible scion. Plants of ...

  5. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  6. Evaluation of Cultural Practices and Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was conducted at the US Vegetable Laboratory farms in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. The fields were sprayed with Sandea (1 oz/A) prior to planting for managing weeds. Four week old seedlings of a susceptible watermelon cultivar “Mickey Lee” grown in 50-cell j...

  7. Epidemiological Analysis of Multi-Virus Infections of Watermelon in Experimental Fields in Southwest Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly-transmitted viruses Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) have had serious impact on watermelon production in west-central and southwest Florida in recent years. We monitored the progress of SqVYV and CuLCrV and whitefly density in 2.5 acre experim...

  8. Variation in carotenoids among mini watermelons produced in four locations in the Eastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen miniwatermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars or lines (cultigens), all representing mini size (less than 4 kg), were grown in South and North Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The watermelon was produced at each location using plasticulture (black plastic mulch and drip irrigati...

  9. Nature’s packaging and organization of carotenoids in watermelon and cantaloupe chromoplasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a means to better understand factors influencing the bioavailability of carotenoids from natural sources, the properties of plant-derived precipitates of watermelon lycopene and cantaloupe B-carotene were examined in an aqueous environment. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses revealed that...

  10. Purple Nutsedge Tuber Productivity as Affected by Organic Mulches in a Watermelon Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the tuber productivity of the weed purple nutsedge (PN) and the yield of ‘Crimson Sweet' watermelon when grown with or without organic soil bed mulches [hays of millet (Pennisetum glaucum), nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), sunnhemp (Crotalaria...

  11. Seedless Pattern Growth of Quasi-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Cover Glass Substrates in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsanulhaq, Q.; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hahn, Y. B.

    2010-03-01

    A hybrid technique for the selective growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on wanted areas of thin cover glass substrates was developed without the use of seed layer of ZnO. This method utilizes electron-beam lithography for pattern transfer on seedless substrate, followed by solution method for the bottom-up growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on the patterned substrates. The arrays of highly crystalline ZnO nanorods having diameter of 60 ± 10 nm and length of 750 ± 50 nm were selectively grown on different shape patterns and exhibited a remarkable uniformity in terms of diameter, length, and density. The room temperature cathodluminescence measurements showed a strong ultraviolet emission at 381 nm and broad visible emission at 585-610 nm were observed in the spectrum.

  12. ``Seedless'' vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si and Ge nanowires: The origin of bimodal diameter distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Eric; Drucker, Jeff

    2009-03-01

    We identify a previously uncharacterized vapor-liquid-solid growth mode that can produce small diameter, epitaxial ⟨110⟩ oriented Si and Ge nanowires (NWs). Disilane or digermane pyrolysis evolves H2 causing the monolayer thick Au/Si(111) layer between three dimensional Au seeds to dewet and form small Au islands. Under some conditions, these small islands facilitate "seedless" growth of small diameter NWs distinct from larger NWs that grow from the deposited seeds leading to a bimodal diameter distribution. We identify the precursor pressures and growth temperature regimes for which Si and Ge NW growth occurs in the absence of deposited seeds from the dewetted Au/Si(111) layer.

  13. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs. PMID:25429734

  14. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  15. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    PubMed

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-01

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions. PMID:25729959

  16. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  17. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  18. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  19. In vitro regeneration ability of diploid and autotetraploid plants of Cichorium intybus L.

    PubMed

    Ravandi, E Ghotbi; Rezanejad, F; Dehghan, E

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidy has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of plants and is a valuable tool for obtaining useful characteristics. Because of the novelty of polyploids, comparison of their in vitro culture response with diploids would be notable. In this study, leaf explants from diploid, autotetraploid and mixoploid plants of Cichorium intybus L. were cultured in vitro on the similar media and under same conditions. The ploidy level of the obtained calluses and regenerants were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The callogenic response of leaf explants cultured on the callus induction medium did not depend on the ploidy level of their parental plants. According to the flow cytometry analysis, the increased ploidy levels (4x) and (8x) were observed in the callus cultures with diploid and tetraploid origin, respectively. A considerable difference was observed between the ploidy level of mixoploid plants and their calluses, indicating the dominance of diploid cells in the callus tissue. The results showed that polyploidy led to the loss of organogenic potential as the tetraploid origin calluses failed to regenerate, while the diploid origin calluses successfully regenerated to whole plants. PMID:25016827

  20. Comparison of Leaf Proteomes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivar NZ199 Diploid and Autotetraploid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  1. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  2. Sex-Determination System in the Diploid Yeast Zygosaccharomyces sapae

    PubMed Central

    Solieri, Lisa; Dakal, Tikam Chand; Giudici, Paolo; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Sexual reproduction and breeding systems are driving forces for genetic diversity. The mating-type (MAT) locus represents a mutation and chromosome rearrangement hotspot in yeasts. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii complex yeasts are naturally faced with hostile low water activity (aw) environments and are characterized by gene copy number variation, genome instability, and aneuploidy/allodiploidy. Here, we investigated sex-determination system in Zygosaccharomyces sapae diploid strain ABT301T, a member of the Z. rouxii complex. We cloned three divergent mating type-like (MTL) α-idiomorph sequences and designated them as ZsMTLα copies 1, 2, and 3. They encode homologs of Z. rouxii CBS 732T MATα2 (amino acid sequence identities spanning from 67.0 to 99.5%) and MATα1 (identity range 81.5–99.5%). ABT301T possesses two divergent HO genes encoding distinct endonucleases 100% and 92.3% identical to Z. rouxii HO. Cloning of MATa-idiomorph resulted in a single ZsMTLa locus encoding two Z. rouxii-like proteins MATa1 and MATa2. To assign the cloned ZsMTLα and ZsMTLa idiomorphs as MAT, HML, and HMR cassettes, we analyzed their flanking regions. Three ZsMTLα loci exhibited the DIC1-MAT-SLA2 gene order canonical for MAT expression loci. Furthermore, four putative HML cassettes were identified, two containing the ZsMTLα copy 1 and the remaining harboring ZsMTLα copies 2 and 3. Finally, the ZsMTLa locus was 3′-flanked by SLA2, suggesting the status of MAT expression locus. In conclusion, Z. sapae ABT301T displays an aααα genotype missing of the HMR silent cassette. Our results demonstrated that mating-type switching is a hypermutagenic process in Z. rouxii complex that generates genetic diversity de novo. This error-prone mechanism could be suitable to generate progenies more rapidly adaptable to hostile environments. PMID:24939186

  3. RNA sequencing reveals high resolution expression change of major plant hormone pathway genes after young seedless grape berries treated with gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lijuan; Li, Yanmei; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Zhao, Fengxia; Ma, Huiqin

    2014-12-01

    Seedless varieties are of particular importance to the table-grape and raisin industries. Gibberellin (GA) application is widely used in the early stages of seedless berry development to increase berry size and economic value. However, the underlying mechanism of GA induction of berry enlargement is not well understood. Here, RNA-sequencing analysis of 'Centennial Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) berries treated with GA3 12 days after flowering is reported. Pair-wise comparison of GA3-treated and control samples detected 165, 444, 463 genes with an over two-fold change in expression 1, 3, and 7 days after GA3 treatment, respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes increased with time after GA3 treatment, and the differential expression was dominated by downregulation. Significantly modulated expression included genes encoding synthesis and catabolism to manage plant hormone homeostasis, hormone transporters, receptors and key components in signaling pathways; exogenous GA3 induced multipoint cross talk with auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, ABA and ethylene. The temporal gene-expression patterns of cell-wall-modification enzymes, cytoskeleton and membrane components and transporters revealed a pivotal role for cell-wall-relaxation genes in GA3-induced berry enlargement. Our results provide the first sequential transcriptomic atlas of exogenous GA3-induced berry enlargement and reveal the complexity of GA3's effect on berry sizing. PMID:25443848

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the haploid–diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Byers, James E.; Greig, Thomas W.; Strand, Allan E.; Weinberger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci are popular molecular markers due to their resolution in distinguishing individual genotypes. However, they have rarely been used to explore the population dynamics in species with biphasic life cycles in which both haploid and diploid stages develop into independent, functional organisms. We developed microsatellite loci for the haploid–diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a widespread non-native species in coastal estuaries of the Northern hemisphere. Forty-two loci were screened for amplification and polymorphism. Nine of these loci were polymorphic across four populations of the extant range with two to eleven alleles observed. Mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.265 to 0.527 and 0.317 to 0.387, respectively. Overall, these markers will aid in the study of the invasive history of this seaweed and further studies on the population dynamics of this important haploid–diploid primary producer. PMID:26339541

  5. Genetic Polymorphism and Evolution in Parthenogenetic Animals. II. Diploid and Polyploid SOLENOBIA TRIQUETRELLA (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lokki, Juhani; Suomalainen, Esko; Saura, Anssi; Lankinen, Pekka

    1975-01-01

    Genic polymorphism at sixteen enzyme loci of four different chromosomal races of Solenobia triquetrella (bisexual, two diploid parthenogenetic races and tetraploid parthenogenetic) has been studied by starch gel electrophoresis. Isolated small diploid bisexual populations have rather uniform allele frequencies at all loci which we have studied. Diploid and tetraploid parthenogenetic individuals of this species are in general as heterozygous as bisexual ones. All parthenogenetic local populations are different from each other in the Alps. These parthenogenetic genotypes cannot be derived from a common ancestor through single mutations but rather bear evidence for a polyphyletic origin of parthenogenesis in Solenobia triquetrella. In the marginal distribution areas of the species in northern Europe single genotypes are spread over far larger areas than in the mountain regions of central Europe. This may be due to the old origin of parthenogenesis and polyploidy in northern Europe. No new parthenogenetic and polyploid strains have lately arisen in the regions outside of the Alps. PMID:1126629

  6. Heterofertilization exhibited by trifluralin-induced bicellular pollen on diploid and tetraploid maize crosses.

    PubMed

    Kato, A

    2001-12-01

    The heterofertilization rates and fertility of trifluralin-induced bicellular pollen were investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). A diploid inbred line, Oh43 (r1/r1), and a tetraploid line, Q28-1 (r1/r1/r1/r1), were pollinated with a trifluralin treated diploid stock heterozygous for R1-scm2. The gene R1-scm2 conditions purple pigmentation in both the embryo and the aleurone layer. Heterofertilized kernels were detected as discordant kernels, i.e., yellow kernel with purple embryo or purple kernel with white embryo. The diploid-diploid crosses treated with 0.2-0.3% Trefanocide solution (0.09-0.13% trifluralin) resulted in incidences of discordant kernels (3.7-4.8%) that were significantly higher than the control (2.3%). Most of the seedlings (86%) of the discordant kernels in the 0.3% treatment were triploids or triploid-class aneuploids. In tetraploid-diploid crosses, trifluralin treatments increased the number of plump kernels on the tetraploid ears. In the 0.3% treatment, 5.2% of ovaries produced plump kernels on the ears and most of the seedlings (92%) were tetraploids or tetraploid-class aneuploids, whereas in the control, only 1.5% ovaries produced plump kernels and most of the seedlings (98%) were triploids or triploid-class aneuploids. A high rate of discordance was observed among the plump kernels both in the treated plots (36.1-48.0%) and in the control (33.3%). Consequently, almost all of the plump kernels from the tetraploid-diploid crosses were considered to be the results of heterofertilization. PMID:11768215

  7. [Differentiation of haploid and diploid rape plants at the cytological and morphological levels].

    PubMed

    Soroka, A I

    2013-01-01

    Some cytological and morphological characteristics of haploid and dihaploid plants of winter rape obtained via anther culture were studied. It was shown that in haploid plants the number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells and the size of the stomata guard cells themselves were much smaller, and the number of stomata per unit area was greater than in doubled haploids and diploids. Haploids were also characterized by a smaller size of petals and anthers, and in general, a smaller flower compared to dihaploids and diploids. PMID:23745361

  8. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to common scab and cold-induced sweetening from the diploid potato Solanum chacoense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild diploid potato has historically been an important source of genetic variation for variety development in S. tuberosum. In previous research, the diploid line S. chacoense 524-8 had consistently displayed resistance to common scab, a widespread disease caused by the soil-borne bacterial pathogen...

  9. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  10. Molecular characterization of a GA-inducible gene, Cvsus1, in developing watermelon seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonyul; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Jinwon; An, Gynheung

    2002-10-31

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed development, we isolated a seed-preferential gene from ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. The gene Cvsus1 encodes a protein that is 86% identical to the Vicia faba sucrose synthase expressed in developing seeds. RNA blot analysis showed that Cvsus1 was preferentially expressed in watermelon seeds. We also investigated gene expression levels both in pollinated seeds and in parthenocarpic seeds, which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcript level of Cvsus1 was rapidly increased during normal seed development, the expression was not significantly increased in the parthenocarpic seeds. However, treating the parthenocarpic fruits with GA3 strongly induced Cvsus1 expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that Cvsus1 is induced in maternal tissues via signals from the zygotic tissues, and that GA may be one of those signals. PMID:12442898

  11. Management of 41 persons exposed to a rabid dog: unplanned experience with human diploid vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, G.; Stead, S.; Zbitnew, A.; Rhodes, A. J.; Zalan, E.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-six persons -- veterinarians, technicians and students at a veterinary clinic -- were unwittingly exposed to a rabid dog over a period of 21/2 days. One veterinarian received a penetrating bite, two other individuals were grabbed by the dog but the skin was not penetrated, and many were exposed to saliva or urine or both. In addition, the owner of the dog and his wife and three children, while not bitten, were exposed to saliva. The diagnosis was made post mortem when specimens of the dog's brain were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. All but one of the students had been vaccinated against rabies with hamster kidney vaccine, but eight members of the veterinary college's staff had not been so vaccinated. Treatment started with duck embryo vaccine; if necessary, rabies (human) immune globulin was also given. When one student reacted severely to the first dose of duck embryo vaccine permission was sought to bring a human diploid vaccine into Canada. In five patients the human diploid vaccine was substituted for the duck embryo vaccine because of severe reactions to the latter. Twenty-five staff members and the family of five received both vaccines. Reactions to the human diploid vaccine were minor and transient. Recommendations include the early licensing of the human diploid vaccine in Canada. PMID:445300

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum monococcum (2n), a close ancestor of the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, was used as a model to study components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. Constructed were genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. mo...

  13. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  14. Meiotic recombination in sexual diploid and apomictic triploid dandelions (Taraxacum officinale L.).

    PubMed

    van Baarlen, P; van Dijk, P J; Hoekstra, R F; de Jong, J H

    2000-10-01

    Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Previous studies have demonstrated unexpectedly high levels of genetic variation in the apomictic populations, suggesting the occurrence of genetic segregation in the apomicts and (or) hybridization between sexual and apomictic individuals. In this study we analysed meiosis in both sexual diploid and apomictic triploid plants to find mechanisms that could account for the high levels of genetic variation in the apomicts. Microscopic study of microsporocytes in the triploid apomicts revealed that the levels of chromosome pairing and chiasma formation at meiotic prophase I were lower than in that of the sexual diploids, but still sufficient to assume recombination between the homologues. Nomarski DIC (differential interference contrast) microscopy of optically cleared megasporocytes in the apomicts demonstrated incidental formation of tetrads, which suggests that hybridization can occur in triploid apomicts. PMID:11081973

  15. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  16. Karyotype Analysis in Wild Diploid, Tetraploid, and Hexaploid Strawberries, Fragaria (Rosaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Strawberry, genus Fragaria (Rosaceae) has a basic chromosome count of x = 7, and is comprised of 20 wild species having an euploid series from diploid (2n = 2x = 14) through decaploid (2n = 10x = 70). Few karyotypes of species in this genus have been reported. The objective of this research was ...

  17. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  18. Synthesis of trigeneric hybrids of hexaploid wheat with diploid wheatgrasses: Specificity of chromosome pairing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild grasses in the tribe Triticeae are excellent sources of genes for superior traits, including resistance to various diseases. Diploid wheatgrasses – Lophopyrum elongatum (Host) Á. Löve (2n = 2x = 14; EE genome) and Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul. & Rayss) Á. Löve (2n = 2x = 14; JJ genome) – are...

  19. Genotyping-by-sequencing of a diploid potato F2 population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping-by-sequencing, or GBS, is an attractive technology for genome-wide markers because of its low per-sample cost and lack of ascertainment bias. To investigate its feasibility for potato, we used GBS at 96-plex to genotype a diploid F2 population created from the inbred lines DM (S. tuberosu...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF RB-ORTHOLOGOUS GENES FROM LATE BLIGHT RESISTANT DIPLOID POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potatoes and tomatoes. A gene RB, cloned from the Mexican diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight. To identify RB-like genes and understand ...

  1. FveGD: an online resource for diploid strawberry (fragaria vesca) genomics data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid strawberry species commonly known as the alpine or woodland strawberry, is a versatile experimental plant system that is an emerging model for the Rosaceae family. An ancestral F. vesca genome contributed to the genome of the octoploid dessert strawberry (F. xananassa) and...

  2. Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

  3. Length variations of i-type low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in diploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Huang, Z; Wei, Y-M; Yan, Z-H; Ma, Z-C; Zheng, Y-L

    2008-04-01

    Allelic variation of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) is associated with the significant differences of dough quality in bread and durum wheat, and has been widely evaluated at protein level in wheat and its relatives. In this study, a PCR primer set, targeting the high variable repetitive domains, was employed to assay the length variation of i-type LMW-GS genes in the A-genomes of diploid wheats, the diploid progenitors of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A total of 71 accessions of diploid wheats, belonging to two wild and one cultivated species, were investigated. The higher variations of repetitive length in i-type LMW-GS genes were found in diploid wheats with Nei's genetic variation index (H) of 0.834. The two wild species, T. boeoticum and T. urartu, were found to possess the similar degree of variability, with the Nei's genetic variation index of 0.806 and 0.783, respectively. Less variations were detected in T. monococcum (H = 0.680), a cultivated species domesticated from T. boeoticum. The sufficient variations found in this study could be used as valuable sources for the enrichment of the genetic variations and the alteration of flour-processing properties of the cultivated wheat. To our knowledge, it was the first time that an analysis of length variation targeting a particular group of genes of LMW-GS complex multigene families was conducted. PMID:18666554

  4. Flower and early fruit development in a diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca is being recognized as an ideal model for the more complex octoploid commercial strawberry (Fragaria ' ananassa) due to the recent completion of a draft genome sequence of F. vesca, short seed to seed cycle, and facile transformation. These features pot...

  5. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow fruited genotype) were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectromet...

  6. Genetic diversity of diploid Japanese strawberry species based on microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Agricultural Research Service (ARS) - National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, is a genebank that preserves strawberry genetic resources. In 2004, representatives of two Japanese diploid species, F. iinumae Makino and F. n...

  7. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazrgar, Masood; Gourabi, Hamid; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Fakhri, Mostafa; Hassani, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohamad; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridi- zation (FISH) to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%), while 2(6.7%) were diploid, and 2(6.7%) were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5%) were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5%) were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05); however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells. PMID:26985346

  8. Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation patterns and inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. A total of 28 different a...

  9. The diploid D genome cottons (Gossypium spp.) of the new world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diploid D genome cottons (Gossypium spp.) of the New World are part of a great reservoir of important genes for improving fiber quality, pest and disease resistance, and drought and salt tolerance in the modern cultivated Upland/Acala (G. hirsutum) and Pima [also known as Sea Island or Egyptian ...

  10. Transfer of crown rust resistance from diploid oat Avena strigosa into hexaploid cultivated oat A. sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New sources of resistance to crown rust, Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Eriks.), the major fungal disease of cultivated oat, Avena sativa L. (2n = 6x = 42), are constantly needed due to frequent, rapid shifts in the virulence pattern of the pathogen. Crown rust resistance identified in the diploid...

  11. Diverse functions of KNOX transcription factors in the diploid body plan of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KNOX genes were initially found as shoot meristem regulators in angiosperms. Recent studies in diverse plant lineages however, have revealed the divergence of KNOX gene function during the evolution of diploid body plans. Using genomic approaches, class I KNOX transcription factors have been shown t...

  12. Complex karyotypes in flow cytometrically DNA-diploid squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Akervall, J.; Jin, Y.; Baldetorp, B.; Mertens, F.; Wennerberg, J.

    1998-01-01

    In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), DNA ploidy as determined by flow cytometry (FCM) has been found to yield prognostic information but only for tumours at oral sites. Cytogenetic findings have indicated complex karyotype to be a correlate of poor clinical outcome. In the present study, 73 SCCHN were investigated with the two techniques. Aneuploid cell populations were identified in 49 (67%) cases by FCM but in only 21 (29%) cases by cytogenetic analysis. The chromosome index (CI), calculated as the mean chromosome number divided by 46, was compared with the respective DNA index (DI) obtained by FCM in 15 tumours, non-diploid according to both techniques, DI being systematically 12% higher than CI in this subgroup. Eight (33%) of the 24 tumours diploid according to FCM had complex karyotypes, three of the tumours being cytogenetically hypodiploid, three diploid and two non-diploid. The findings in the present study may partly explain the low prognostic value of ploidy status as assessed by FCM that has been observed in SCCHN. In addition, we conclude that FCM yields information of the genetic changes that is too unspecific, and that cytogenetic analysis shows a high rate of unsuccessful investigations, thus diminishing the value of the two methods as prognostic factors in SCCHN. Images Figure 1 PMID:9569043

  13. Proteomic analysis of skeletal deformity in diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae.

    PubMed

    Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Dorafshan, Salar; Johari, Seyed Ali

    2016-09-01

    A proteomic screening approach was employed to achieve a better understanding of the changes that occur in protein expression patterns associated with skeletal deformities in both diploid and triploid rainbow trout larvae. Triploidy was induced through the application of heat shock of 28°C for 10min to eggs 10-min post fertilization in an aquarium equipped with a heater. Percentage of skeletal deformity in heat-shocked larvae (2.88±0.30, mean±S.E.) was significantly (P<0.05) greater than that of the diploids (0.55±0.24). At five days after hatching, proteins of normal and deformed specimens of deyolked larvae were subjected to proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Among the identified protein spots from diploids, creatine kinase was found to be increased in larvae with skeletal deformities, while apolipoprotein A-I-2, apolipoprotein A-II and calmodulin were found to be decreased in deformed fish. Among the five protein spots that were identified in heat-shocked fish, apolipoprotein A-I-2, apolipoprotein A-II, parvalbumin, myosin light chain 1-1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase were found to be decreased in deformed larvae. The identification of nine protein spots showing altered expression in deformed fish allows us to reach a preliminary view of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development of skeletal malformations in diploid and triploid fish. PMID:27219664

  14. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2011-01-01

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’, were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, ‘Florida-47’. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and ‘Tetsukabuto’ (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion ‘Athena’. Two watermelon rootstocks included ‘Emphasis’, a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid ‘StrongTosa’, which were grafted to the scion ‘TriX Palomar’ and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

  15. Purification and characterization of glutamate N-acetyltransferase involved in citrulline accumulation in wild watermelon.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kentaro; Akashi, Kinya; Yokota, Akiho

    2005-10-01

    Citrulline is an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger that can accumulate at concentrations of up to 30 mm in the leaves of wild watermelon during drought in the presence of strong light; however, the mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In this study, we characterized wild watermelon glutamate N-acetyltransferase (CLGAT) that catalyses the transacetylation reaction between acetylornithine and glutamate to form acetylglutamate and ornithine, thereby functioning in the first and fifth steps in citrulline biosynthesis. CLGAT enzyme purified 7000-fold from leaves was composed of two subunits with different N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analysis of the corresponding cDNA revealed that these two subunits have molecular masses of 21.3 and 23.5 kDa and are derived from a single precursor polypeptide, suggesting that the CLGAT precursor is cleaved autocatalytically at the conserved ATML motif, as in other glutamate N-acetyltransferases of microorganisms. A green fluorescence protein assay revealed that the first 26-amino acid sequence at the N-terminus of the precursor functions as a chloroplast transit peptide. The CLGAT exhibited thermostability up to 70 degrees C, suggesting an increase in enzyme activity under high leaf temperature conditions during drought/strong-light stresses. Moreover, CLGAT was not inhibited by citrulline or arginine at physiologically relevant high concentrations. These findings suggest that CLGAT can effectively participate in the biosynthesis of citrulline in wild watermelon leaves during drought/strong-light stress. PMID:16218965

  16. Water Use for Cultivation Management of Watermelon in Upland Field on Sand Dune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Iwao; Senge, Masateru; Itou, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    Early-maturing cultivation of watermelon in a plastic tunnel was invetigated in upland field on sand dune on the coast of the Japan Sea to find water use to control blowing sand and to transplant seedlings. This region has low precipitation, low humidity, and strong wind in March and April, when sand is readily blown in the field. Water is used to control blowing sand on days with precipitation below 5 mm, minimum humidity below the meteorological average in April, and maximum wind velocity above the meteorological average in April. For the rooting and growth of watermelon seedlings, soil temperature needs to be raised because it is low in April. Ridges are mulched with transparent, porous polyethylene films 10 or more days before transplanting the seedlings and irrigated with sprinklers on fine days for the thermal storage of solar energy. The stored heat steams the mulched ridges to raise soil temperature to 15°C or higher on the day of transplanting the seedlings. The total amount of irrigation water used for watermelon cultivation was 432.7 mm, of which 23.6 mm was for blowing sand control and 26.6 mm was for transplanting the seedlings. The combined amount, 50.2 mm, is 11.6% of the total amount of water used for cultivation management.

  17. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality. PMID:25829594

  18. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2011-09-01

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; 'TX301', 'Multifort', and 'Aloha', were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, 'Florida-47'. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion 'Athena'. Two watermelon rootstocks included 'Emphasis', a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid 'StrongTosa', which were grafted to the scion 'TriX Palomar' and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

  19. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: another example of museomics.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-01-01

    Type specimens are permanently preserved biological specimens that fix the usage of species names. This method became widespread from 1935 onwards and is now obligatory. We used DNA sequencing of types and more recent collections of wild and cultivated melons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Citrullus and the correct names for its species. We discovered that the type specimen of the name Citrullus lanatus, prepared by a Linnaean collector in South Africa in 1773, is not the species now thought of as watermelon. Instead, it is a representative of another species that is sister to C. ecirrhosus, a tendril-less South African endemic. The closest relative of the watermelon instead is a West African species. Our nuclear and plastid data furthermore reveal that there are seven species of Citrullus, not four as assumed. Our study implies that sweet watermelon originates from West, not southern Africa as previously believed, and that the South African citron melon has been independently domesticated. These findings affect and explain numerous studies on the origin of these two crops that led to contradictory results because of the erroneous merging of several distinct species. PMID:25358433

  20. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    PubMed

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

  1. Comparative analysis of testis transcriptomes from triploid and fertile diploid cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Wei; Ren, Li; Hu, Fangzhou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of fish is a key factor in fish breeding. RNA-seq is widely used in high-throughput sequencing and provides a rapid method to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying a biological process. To probe fertility-related molecular mechanisms, we obtained testis transcriptomes from diploid and triploid cyprinid fish and tested for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the testis. A total of 6730 transcripts were differentially expressed between the triploid and diploid fish. In these transcripts, 2428 transcripts showed reduced expression and 4302 transcripts were overexpressed in triploid fish compared to the diploid fish. Functional analyses revealed that partial genes related to reproductive, developmental, and locomotion processes, and the axoneme, were differentially expressed in triploid fish relative to diploid fish. Pathway analysis indicated that variations in the gene expression levels of the "ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathway" and the "apoptotic pathway" played a central role in the sterility of triploid male fish. A series of genes (DNAHs, DNAL1, IFTs, and DNAAF1) associated with sperm flagellar assembly and motility, and testis-specific candidate markers (Tcte1, Tekt1, Tekt4, Spag17, Spag5, Spag9a, Spag1b, and Spef2), had low expression levels in the testis of triploid fish. We validated these DEGs in triploid fish using quantitative PCR to quantify expression of eight representative genes. Furthermore, 276 putative transcription factors, 6 chromatin remodeling factors, and 35 transcription cofactors exhibited differential expression in triploid compared to diploid fish. This study provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms causing sterility in male triploid fish. PMID:25761592

  2. The development and application of a plant bioassay to elucidate toxic principles directed at watermelon by Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum cause wilt and death of numerous agronomic crops worldwide. The objective of this research was to develop a bioassay for Fusarium toxins directed toward watermelon. Watermelon seedlings were grown to the two leaf stage; the roots were washed and trimmed. Two...

  3. Influence of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides rootstocks and their F1 hybrids on yield and response to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are an important re-emerging pest of watermelon in the U.S. and worldwide. The re-emergence of root-knot nematodes (RKN) in watermelon and other cucurbits is largely due to the intensive cultivation of vegetable crops on limited agricultural land...

  4. Genetic relationships in the desert watermelon citrullus colocynthis as viewed with high-frequency, oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. are a viable source for enhancing disease and pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. However, there is information about their genetic diversity and relationships to watermelon cultivars. Genetic diversity and relationships were ...

  5. Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida, USA – reservoirs, genome characterization and mixed infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005, shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. SqVYV has been isolated from declining watermelons for the past six growing seasons in southwes...

  6. Seedless Polyol Synthesis and CO Oxidation Activity of Monodisperse (111) and (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals in Sub-10 nm Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yawen; Grass, Michael E.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-03-15

    Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac){sub 2}]{sub 2} as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twined hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl{sub 3} as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed Br{sup -} ions from alkylammonium bromides, which led to (100)-oriented nanocubes. Monolayer films of the (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra and (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were deposited on silicon wafers in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough to make model 2D nanoarray catalysts. These nanocatalysts were active for CO oxidation by O{sub 2}, and the turnover frequency was independent of nanoparticle shape, consistent with that previously observed for Rh(111) and Rh(100) single crystals.

  7. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test.

  8. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (P<0.05). Additionally, higher populations of A. citrulli survived when the bacteria were localized to the embryo/endosperm versus the seed coat, suggesting that tissue localization is important for

  9. High-Resolution Genetic Map for Understanding the Effect of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate on Nucleotide Diversity in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Umesh K.; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan. R.; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C.; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima’s D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. PMID:25227227

  10. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  11. Analysis of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus mixed and pseudo-recombination infections.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) are limiting factors for cucurbit production in south and southeastern Iran. ToLCPMV infects all cucurbit crops (except watermelons) whereas WmCSV is somewhat limited to watermelon, causing detrimental effects on fruit production. In a survey, we detected WmCSV in all watermelon growing farms in Fars province (southern Iran). Given that WmCSV and ToLCPMV are present in the same geographical location in Iran, we studied the interaction of two viruses. Co-infection using agroinfectious clones of WmCSV and ToLCPMV caused severe symptoms in watermelon and zucchini in comparison to symptoms observed from individual infections. Interestingly, inoculation of zucchini with WmCSV DNA-A and ToLCPMV DNA-B agroinfectious clones or vice versa produced a viable pseudo-recombinant and induced systemic symptoms. This demonstrates that replication-associated protein of DNA-A of each virus is able to bind to cis elements of the DNA-B molecules of another virus. PMID:26433951

  12. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

  13. Mutation in the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4) led to andromonoecy in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gaojie; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Shi, Jianting; Tian, Shouwei; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Shen, Huolin; Gao, Junping; Xu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been reported previously that ethylene plays a critical role in sex determination in cucurbit species, how the andromonoecy that carries both the male and hermaphroditic flowers is determined in watermelon is still unknown. Here we showed that the watermelon gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4), expressed specifically in carpel primordia, determines the andromonoecy in watermelon. Among four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and one InDel identified in the coding region of CitACS4, the C364W mutation located in the conserved box 6 was co-segregated with andromonoecy. Enzymatic analyses showed that the C364W mutation caused a reduced activity in CitACS4. We believe that the reduced CitACS4 activity may hamper the programmed cell death in stamen primordia, leading to the formation of hermaphroditic flowers. PMID:26839981

  14. Tetraploidization of diploid Dioscorea results in activation of the antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Chun-Gen; Yao, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Polyploidy is reported to show increased tolerance to environmental stress. In this work, tetraploid plants of Dioscorea zingiberensis were obtained by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. The highest tetraploid induction rate was achieved by treatment with 0.15% colchicine for 24h. Diploid and tetraploid plants were exposed to normal (28 degrees C) and high temperature (42 degrees C) for 5d during which physiological indices were measured. Compared with diploid plants, relative electrolyte leakage and contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide were lower in tetraploids, while activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were stimulated and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) were maintained at high concentrations. These results indicate that tetraploid plants possess a stronger antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance. PMID:19692145

  15. Production of Early Diploid Males by European Colonies of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax

    PubMed Central

    Darrouzet, Eric; Gévar, Jérémy; Guignard, Quentin; Aron, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The invasive yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax was accidentally introduced in Europe in the early 2000s. As is the case in colonies of other wasp and hornet species, V. velutina colonies are known to produce sexuals (males and new queens) at the end of the summer. We show that early-stage colonies in French populations frequently produce males well before the usual reproductive period. The vast majority of the males produced are diploid, which is consistent with the loss of genetic diversity previously reported in introduced populations in France. Since males do not participate in colony activities, the production of early diploid males at the expense of workers is expected to hamper colony growth and, ultimately, decrease the expansion of the species in its invasive range in Europe. PMID:26414951

  16. Microsatellite development for the genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) reveals diploid and polyploid species1

    PubMed Central

    Tosso, Felicien; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Kaymak, Esra; Daïnou, Kasso; Duminil, Jérôme; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) were designed for Guibourtia tessmannii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae), a highly exploited African timber tree, to study population genetic structure and gene flow. Methods and Results: We developed 16 polymorphic nSSRs from a genomic library tested in three populations of G. tessmannii and two populations of G. coleosperma. These nSSRs display three to 14 alleles per locus (mean 8.94) in G. tessmannii. Cross-amplification tests in nine congeneric species demonstrated that the genus Guibourtia contains diploid and polyploid species. Flow cytometry results combined with nSSR profiles suggest that G. tessmannii is octoploid. Conclusions: nSSRs revealed that African Guibourtia species include both diploid and polyploid species. These markers will provide information on the mating system, patterns of gene flow, and genetic structure of African Guibourtia species. PMID:27437170

  17. BAC libraries of Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestors of polyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Akhunov, E D; Akhunova, A R; Dvorák, J

    2005-11-01

    Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii are respectively the immediate diploid sources, or their closest relatives, of the A, B and D genomes of polyploid wheats. Here we report the construction and characterization of arrayed large-insert libraries in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector, one for each of these diploid species. The libraries are equivalent to 3.7, 5.4 and 4.1 of the T. urartu, Ae. speltoides, Ae. tauschii genomes, respectively. The predicted levels of genome coverage were confirmed by library hybridization with single-copy genes. The libraries were used to estimate the proportion of known repeated nucleotide sequences and gene content in each genome by BAC-end sequencing. Repeated sequence families previously detected in Triticeae accounted for 57, 61 and 57% of the T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii genomes, and coding regions accounted for 5.8, 4.5 and 4.8%, respectively. PMID:16177898

  18. Comparison of Cell and Nuclear Size Difference between Diploid and Induced Triploid in Marine Medaka, Oryzias dancena

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Im, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyun Woo; Lim, Sang Gu; Park, In-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The influence of triploidization on cell and nucleus size characteristics of the same tissues of erythrocyte, retina, kidney, hepatocyte and midgut epithelium in marine medaka, Oryzias dancena has been determined histologically. Induced triploid fish are produced by cold shock treatments. Likewise, the size of horizontal cell nucleus in inner nuclear layer of retina, ganglion cell nucleus in ganglion cell layer of retina, proximal tubule cell of kidney, hepatocytes and nuclear height of midgut epithelium all appear to be significantly larger than diploid (p<0.05). On the other hand, retina thickness is larger in diploid than induced triploid (p<0.05). Induced triploid shows low density of cell number. Results of this study suggest that same characteristics in the induced triploid exhibiting larger cells and nucleus sizes with fewer number of cells than the diploid can be useful criteria for the distinction between diploid and induced triploid, and also the ploidy level in marine medaka. PMID:27004269

  19. An Ancestral Recombination Graph for Diploid Populations with Skewed Offspring Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Matthias; Blath, Jochen; Eldon, Bjarki

    2013-01-01

    A large offspring-number diploid biparental multilocus population model of Moran type is our object of study. At each time step, a pair of diploid individuals drawn uniformly at random contributes offspring to the population. The number of offspring can be large relative to the total population size. Similar “heavily skewed” reproduction mechanisms have been recently considered by various authors (cf. e.g., Eldon and Wakeley 2006, 2008) and reviewed by Hedgecock and Pudovkin (2011). Each diploid parental individual contributes exactly one chromosome to each diploid offspring, and hence ancestral lineages can coalesce only when in distinct individuals. A separation-of-timescales phenomenon is thus observed. A result of Möhle (1998) is extended to obtain convergence of the ancestral process to an ancestral recombination graph necessarily admitting simultaneous multiple mergers of ancestral lineages. The usual ancestral recombination graph is obtained as a special case of our model when the parents contribute only one offspring to the population each time. Due to diploidy and large offspring numbers, novel effects appear. For example, the marginal genealogy at each locus admits simultaneous multiple mergers in up to four groups, and different loci remain substantially correlated even as the recombination rate grows large. Thus, genealogies for loci far apart on the same chromosome remain correlated. Correlation in coalescence times for two loci is derived and shown to be a function of the coalescence parameters of our model. Extending the observations by Eldon and Wakeley (2008), predictions of linkage disequilibrium are shown to be functions of the reproduction parameters of our model, in addition to the recombination rate. Correlations in ratios of coalescence times between loci can be high, even when the recombination rate is high and sample size is large, in large offspring-number populations, as suggested by simulations, hinting at how to distinguish between

  20. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  1. Quantitative assay for mutation in diploid human lymphoblasts using microtiter plates

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, E.A.; Thilly, W.G.; Penman, B.W.; Liber, H.L.; Rand, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    A microtiter plating technique which eliminates the need for soft agar and fibroblast feeder layers to determine the colony-forming ability of diploid human lymphoblast lines was described. The calculation of cloning efficiency is based on the Poisson distribution, and a statistical method for calculating confidence intervals is presented. This technique has been applied to the comcomitant examination of induced mutation at the putative loci for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, thymidine, kinase, and Na/sup +//K/sup +/ adenosine triphosphatase.

  2. Chromosomal diversification and karyotype evolution of diploids in the cytologically diverse genus Prospero (Hyacinthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospero (Hyacinthaceae) provides a unique system to assess the impact of genome rearrangements on plant diversification and evolution. The genus exhibits remarkable chromosomal variation but very little morphological differentiation. Basic numbers of x = 4, 5, 6 and 7, extensive polyploidy, and numerous polymorphic chromosome variants were described, but only three species are commonly recognized: P. obtusifolium, P. hanburyi, and P. autumnale s.l., the latter comprising four diploid cytotypes. The relationship between evolutionary patterns and chromosomal variation in diploids, the basic modules of the extensive cytological diversity, is presented. Results Evolutionary inferences were derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 35S rDNA, genome size estimations, and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 35S rDNA of 49 diploids in the three species and all cytotypes of P. autumnale s.l. All species and cytotypes possess a single 35S rDNA locus, interstitial except in P. hanburyi where it is sub-terminal, and one or two 5S rDNA loci (occasionally a third in P. obtusifolium) at fixed locations. The localization of the two rDNA types is unique for each species and cytotype. Phylogenetic data in the P. autumnale complex enable tracing of the evolution of rDNA loci, genome size, and direction of chromosomal fusions: mixed descending dysploidy of x = 7 to x = 6 and independently to x = 5, rather than successive descending dysploidy, is proposed. Conclusions All diploid cytotypes are recovered as well-defined evolutionary lineages. The cytogenetic and phylogenetic approaches have provided excellent phylogenetic markers to infer the direction of chromosomal change in Prospero. Evolution in Prospero, especially in the P. autumnale complex, has been driven by differentiation of an ancestral karyotype largely unaccompanied by morphological change. These new results provide a framework for detailed

  3. S-phase cells of the lymphoplasmocytic compartment in hyperdiploid multiple myeloma are diploid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraldsdottir, V.; Haanen, C.; Kalsbeek-Batenburg, E.; Olthuis, F.

    1995-10-01

    In vivo S-phase cell labeling with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) was performed in six multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Myeloma cells from four patients were hyperploid. In three out of four patients, DNA/IdUrd flow cytometry revealed that most of the labeled cells, which had divided during the period, elapsed between flash labeling and sampling, had returned to the diploid G0/G1 compartment and not to the hyperdiploid peak. To eliminate contaminating cells belonging to the normal hematopoiesis, plasmocytic and lymphocytic cells were fractionated and analyzed separately. Cell enrichment was performed with use of murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against plasmocytic and lymphocytic cell markers and subsequent magnetic activated cell sorting with immunobeads, i.e., polystyrene magnetic particles coated with sheep anti-mouse IgG. The IdUrd-labeled cells were predominantly lymphocytic cells, returning after mitosis to the diploid G0/G1 peak. Although this pattern of S-phase cells in hyperdiploid MM, belonging to the diploid cell compartment, was observed in three out of four hyperploid cases and although the number of observations is small, S-phase cells may demonstrate an aspect of tumor cell kinetics in hyperploid MM, which has been debated for many years and which indicates the existence of a non-plasmocytic stem cell compartment that feeds the plasmocytoma. The behavior of the labeled cells as observed in a few cases of MM provides another, hitherto undescribed, argument that, at least in some MM patients, a part of the proliferating tumor cells may be diploid lymphocytic (precursor) cells. These findings should be considered when targeting and monitoring treatment of MM and also in purging procedures of bone marrow in patients to be treated by ablative cytotoxic therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. 57 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Comparative Genome-Wide Screening Identifies a Conserved Doxorubicin Repair Network That Is Diploid Specific in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Westmoreland, Tammy J.; Wickramasekara, Sajith M.; Guo, Andrew Y.; Selim, Alice L.; Winsor, Tiffany S.; Greenleaf, Arno L.; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; Olson, John A.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Bennett, Craig B.

    2009-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) induces DNA double-strand break (DSB) damage. In order to identify conserved genes that mediate DOX resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid deletion collection and identified 376 deletion strains in which exposure to DOX was lethal or severely reduced growth fitness. This diploid screen identified 5-fold more DOX resistance genes than a comparable screen using the isogenic haploid derivative. Since DSB damage is repaired primarily by homologous recombination in yeast, and haploid cells lack an available DNA homolog in G1 and early S phase, this suggests that our diploid screen may have detected the loss of repair functions in G1 or early S phase prior to complete DNA replication. To test this, we compared the relative DOX sensitivity of 30 diploid deletion mutants identified under our screening conditions to their isogenic haploid counterpart, most of which (n = 26) were not detected in the haploid screen. For six mutants (bem1Δ, ctf4Δ, ctk1Δ, hfi1Δ,nup133Δ, tho2Δ) DOX-induced lethality was absent or greatly reduced in the haploid as compared to the isogenic diploid derivative. Moreover, unlike WT, all six diploid mutants displayed severe G1/S phase cell cycle progression defects when exposed to DOX and some were significantly enhanced (ctk1Δ and hfi1Δ) or deficient (tho2Δ) for recombination. Using these and other “THO2-like” hypo-recombinogenic, diploid-specific DOX sensitive mutants (mft1Δ, thp1Δ, thp2Δ) we utilized known genetic/proteomic interactions to construct an interactive functional genomic network which predicted additional DOX resistance genes not detected in the primary screen. Most (76%) of the DOX resistance genes detected in this diploid yeast screen are evolutionarily conserved suggesting the human orthologs are candidates for mediating DOX resistance by impacting on checkpoint and recombination functions in G1 and/or early S phases. PMID:19503795

  5. Conditions in Home and Transplant Soils Have Differential Effects on the Performance of Diploid and Allotetraploid Anthericum Species

    PubMed Central

    Černá, Lucie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased levels of heterozygosity, polyploids are expected to have a greater ability to adapt to different environments than their diploid ancestors. While this theoretical pattern has been suggested repeatedly, studies comparing adaptability to changing conditions in diploids and polyploids are rare. The aim of the study was to determine the importance of environmental conditions of origin as well as target conditions on performance of two Anthericum species, allotetraploid A. liliago and diploid A. ramosum and to explore whether the two species differ in the ability to adapt to these environmental conditions. Specifically, we performed a common garden experiment using soil from 6 localities within the species’ natural range, and we simulated the forest and open environments in which they might occur. We compared the performance of diploid A. ramosum and allotetraploid A. liliago originating from different locations in the different soils. The performance of the two species was not affected by simulated shading but differed strongly between the different target soils. Growth of the tetraploids was not affected by the origin of the plants. In contrast, diploids from the most nutrient poor soil performed best in the richest soil, indicating that diploids from deprived environments have an increased ability to acquire nutrients when available. They are thus able to profit from transfer to novel nutrient rich environments. Therefore, the results of the study did not support the general expectation that the polyploids should have a greater ability than the diploids to adapt to a wide range of conditions. In contrast, the results are in line with the observation that diploids occupy a wider range of environments than the allotetraploids in our system. PMID:25607545

  6. Transcriptome analysis of functional differentiation between haploid and diploid cells of Emiliania huxleyi, a globally significant photosynthetic calcifying cell

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotes are classified as either haplontic, diplontic, or haplo-diplontic, depending on which ploidy levels undergo mitotic cell division in the life cycle. Emiliania huxleyi is one of the most abundant phytoplankton species in the ocean, playing an important role in global carbon fluxes, and represents haptophytes, an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms that diverged early in eukaryotic evolution. This species is haplo-diplontic. Little is known about the haploid cells, but they have been hypothesized to allow persistence of the species between the yearly blooms of diploid cells. We sequenced over 38,000 expressed sequence tags from haploid and diploid E. huxleyi normalized cDNA libraries to identify genes involved in important processes specific to each life phase (2N calcification or 1N motility), and to better understand the haploid phase of this prominent haplo-diplontic organism. Results The haploid and diploid transcriptomes showed a dramatic differentiation, with approximately 20% greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells than in haploid cells and only ≤ 50% of transcripts estimated to be common between the two phases. The major functional category of transcripts differentiating haploids included signal transduction and motility genes. Diploid-specific transcripts included Ca2+, H+, and HCO3- pumps. Potential factors differentiating the transcriptomes included haploid-specific Myb transcription factor homologs and an unusual diploid-specific histone H4 homolog. Conclusions This study permitted the identification of genes likely involved in diploid-specific biomineralization, haploid-specific motility, and transcriptional control. Greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells suggests they may be more versatile for exploiting a diversity of rich environments whereas haploid cells are intrinsically more streamlined. PMID:19832986

  7. Comparative Small RNA Analysis of Pollen Development in Autotetraploid and Diploid Rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Wu, Jinwen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant reproduction. However, knowledge on microRNAome analysis in autotetraploid rice is rather limited. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNAomes during pollen development in diploid and polyploid rice. A total of 172 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) were detected in autotetraploid rice compared to its diploid counterpart, and 57 miRNAs were specifically expressed in autotetraploid rice. Of the 172 DEM, 115 and 61 miRNAs exhibited up- and down-regulation, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis on the targets of up-regulated DEM showed that they were enriched in transport and membrane in pre-meiotic interphase, reproduction in meiosis, and nucleotide binding in single microspore stage. osa-miR5788 and osa-miR1432-5p_R+1 were up-regulated in meiosis and their targets revealed interaction with the meiosis-related genes, suggesting that they may involve in the genes regulation associated with the chromosome behavior. Abundant 24 nt siRNAs associated with transposable elements were found in autotetraploid rice during pollen development; however, they significantly declined in diploid rice, suggesting that 24 nt siRNAs may play a role in pollen development. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the effect of polyploidy on small RNA expression patterns during pollen development that cause pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice. PMID:27077850

  8. Comparative Small RNA Analysis of Pollen Development in Autotetraploid and Diploid Rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Wu, Jinwen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant reproduction. However, knowledge on microRNAome analysis in autotetraploid rice is rather limited. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNAomes during pollen development in diploid and polyploid rice. A total of 172 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) were detected in autotetraploid rice compared to its diploid counterpart, and 57 miRNAs were specifically expressed in autotetraploid rice. Of the 172 DEM, 115 and 61 miRNAs exhibited up- and down-regulation, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis on the targets of up-regulated DEM showed that they were enriched in transport and membrane in pre-meiotic interphase, reproduction in meiosis, and nucleotide binding in single microspore stage. osa-miR5788 and osa-miR1432-5p_R+1 were up-regulated in meiosis and their targets revealed interaction with the meiosis-related genes, suggesting that they may involve in the genes regulation associated with the chromosome behavior. Abundant 24 nt siRNAs associated with transposable elements were found in autotetraploid rice during pollen development; however, they significantly declined in diploid rice, suggesting that 24 nt siRNAs may play a role in pollen development. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the effect of polyploidy on small RNA expression patterns during pollen development that cause pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice. PMID:27077850

  9. In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from diploid Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua.

    PubMed

    Gu, X F; Yang, A F; Meng, H; Zhang, J R

    2005-12-01

    Tetraploid plants of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua were obtained with in vitro colchicine treatment. Shoot tips from in vitro-grown plants were treated with five different concentrations of colchicine (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3%) in liquid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962), and shaken (100 rpm) at 25 degrees C in darkness for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, respectively. Tetraploids were obtained at a frequency of over 3% by using 0.05% colchicine (48 h, 72 h) and 0.1% colchicine (24 h, 48 h) treatment as determined by flow cytometry. Cytological and morphological evidence confirmed the results of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome number of diploid plants was 24 and that of tetraploid plants was 48. The stomata sizes of tetraploid plants were significantly larger than those of diploid plants, while the frequency of stomata were reduced significantly. Similarly, the chloroplast number of guard cells of tetraploid plants increased significantly. The selected tetraploid plants were grafted onto mature trees of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua in the field, resulted in thicker stems, rounder and succulent leaves, larger flowers and a delay in florescence time (3-4 days later) than diploid plants. PMID:16094528

  10. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  11. HDAC2 and TXNL1 distinguish aneuploid from diploid colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gemoll, Timo; Roblick, Uwe J.; Szymczak, Silke; Braunschweig, Till; Becker, Susanne; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Ziegler, Andreas; Hellman, Ulf; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ried, Thomas; Jörnvall, Hans; Auer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    DNA aneuploidy has been identified as a prognostic factor for epithelial malignancies. Further understanding of the translation of DNA aneuploidy into protein expression will help to define novel biomarkers to improve therapies and prognosis. DNA ploidy was assessed by image cytometry. Comparison of gel-electrophoresis-based protein expression patterns of three diploid and four aneuploid colorectal cancer cell lines detected 64 ploidy-associated proteins. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis resulting in two overlapping high-ranked networks maintaining Cellular Assembly and Organization, Cell Cycle, and Cellular Growth and Proliferation. CAPZA1, TXNL1, and HDAC2 were significantly validated by Western blotting in cell lines and the latter two showed expression differences also in clinical samples using a tissue microarray of normal mucosa (n = 19), diploid (n = 31), and aneuploid (n = 47) carcinomas. The results suggest that distinct protein expression patterns, affecting TXNL1 and HDAC2, distinguish aneuploid with poor prognosis from diploid colorectal cancers. PMID:21290163

  12. Induction of gynogenesis in muskellunge with irradiated sperm of yellow perch proves diploid muskellunge male homogamety.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, K; Rinchard, J; Lin, F; Garcia-Abiado, M A; Schmidt, D

    2000-06-15

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in muskellunge Esox masquinongy using UV-irradiated muskellunge sperm as the first step in producing monosex females. In this approach, we have to rely on negative controls as an indirect reference for sperm genetic material destruction. In the first experiment, equal proportions of gynogenetic females and males were produced. Negative controls, UV-irradiated sperm without heat shock, yielded some normal hatching larvae, described as spontaneous diploids. In the second experiment, muskellunge eggs were activated using sperm from yellow perch. Because hybrids between these species are not viable, we produced unambiguous gynogens. When UV-irradiated yellow perch sperm was used to inseminate muskellunge eggs, haploids resulted (22.5% +/- 2.8% survival to the eyed stage). To produce diploid gynogens, a heat shock of 31 degrees C was applied to inseminated eggs 20 min after activation for a duration of 6 min. This process yielded several hundreds of gynogens for rearing. Several treatments of masculinizing hormone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), were carried out. Fish were dissected and gonads examined histologically for sex determination. Gynogens produced using yellow-perch sperm confirmed the presence of males in the control group, whereas the MT bath treatment (400 microg/liter) resulted in the production of fish with ovotestis. These results provide evidence for male homogamety in muskellunge and imply that a change of strategy is needed to produce monosex populations. PMID:10861556

  13. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Ovarian Tissues from Diploid and Tetraploid Loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weiwei; Liu, Chuanshu; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Yeke

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly was utilized to produce a transcriptome of ovarian tissues from three-year-old diploid and tetraploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). A total of 28,369 unigenes were obtained, comprising 10,546 unigenes with length longer than 1000 bp. More than 73% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The RNA-seq data revealed that 2253 genes were differentially expressed between diploid and tetraploid loaches, including 1263 up-regulated and 990 down-regulated genes in tetraploid loach. Some differentially expressed genes, such as vitellogenin (Vtg), gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor type A (GnRHRA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14a (MAPK14a), ATP synthase subunit alpha (atp5a), and synaptonemal complex protein 1 (Scp1), were involved in regulation of cell proliferation, division, gene transcription, ovarian development and energy metabolism, suggesting that these genes were related to egg diameter of the loach. Results of transcriptome profiling here were validated using real time quantitative PCR in ten selected genes. The present study provided insights into the transcriptome profile of ovarian tissues from diploid and tetraploid loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, which was made available to the research community for functional genomics, comparative genomics, polyploidy evolution and molecular breeding of this loach and other related species. PMID:26184186

  14. Genome-wide methylation study of diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    PubMed

    Covelo-Soto, L; Leunda, P M; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Morán, P

    2015-06-01

    The induction of triploidization in fish is a very common practice in aquaculture. Although triploidization has been applied successfully in many salmonid species, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the maintenance of the normal functions of the new polyploid genome. By means of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, genome-wide methylation changes associated with triploidization were assessed in DNA samples obtained from diploid and triploid siblings of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Simple comparative body measurements showed that the triploid trout used in the study were statistically bigger, however, not heavier than their diploid counterparts. The statistical analysis of the MSAP data showed no significant differences between diploid and triploid brown trout in respect to brain, gill, heart, liver, kidney or muscle samples. Nonetheless, local analysis pointed to the possibility of differences in connection with concrete loci. This is the first study that has investigated DNA methylation alterations associated with triploidization in brown trout. Our results set the basis for new studies to be undertaken and provide a new approach concerning triploidization effects of the salmonid genome while also contributing to the better understanding of the genome-wide methylation processes. PMID:25917300

  15. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes). PMID:27067711

  16. Genetic analysis of seedling resistance to crown rust in five diploid oat (Avena strigosa) accessions.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A L; Park, R F

    2016-02-01

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks., is a serious menace in oats, for which resistance is an effective means of control. Wild diploid oat accessions are a source of novel resistances that first need to be characterised prior to introgression into locally adapted oat cultivars. A genetic analysis of resistance to crown rust was carried out in three diverse diploid oat accessions (CIav6956, CIav9020, PI292226) and two cultivars (Saia and Glabrota) of A. strigosa. A single major gene conditioning resistance to Australian crown rust pathotype (Pt) 0000-2 was identified in each of the three accessions. Allelism tests suggested that these genes are either the same, allelic, or tightly linked with less than 1 % recombination. Similarly, a single gene was identified in Glabrota, and possibly two genes in Saia; both cultivars previously reported to carry two and three crown rust resistance genes, respectively. The identified seedling resistance genes could be deployed in combination with other resistance gene(s) to enhance durability of resistance to crown rust in hexaploid oat. Current diploid and hexaploid linkage maps and molecular anchor markers (simple sequence repeat [SSR] and diversity array technology [DArT] markers) should facilitate their mapping and introgression into hexaploid oat. PMID:26143064

  17. Biased introgression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes: a comparison of diploid and haplodiploid systems.

    PubMed

    Patten, Manus M; Carioscia, Sara A; Linnen, Catherine R

    2015-10-01

    Hybridization between recently diverged species, even if infrequent, can lead to the introgression of genes from one species into another. The rates of mitochondrial and nuclear introgression often differ, with some taxa showing biases for mitochondrial introgression and others for nuclear introgression. Several hypotheses exist to explain such biases, including adaptive introgression, sex differences in dispersal rates, sex-specific prezygotic isolation and sex-specific fitness of hybrids (e.g. Haldane's rule). We derive a simple population genetic model that permits an analysis of sex-specific demographic and fitness parameters and measures the relative rates of mitochondrial and nuclear introgression between hybridizing pairs. We do this separately for diploid and haplodiploid species. For diploid taxa, we recover results consistent with previous hypotheses: an excess of one sex among the hybridizing migrants or sex-specific prezygotic isolation causes a bias for one type of marker or the other; when Haldane's rule is obeyed, we find a mitochondrial bias in XY systems and a nuclear bias in ZW systems. For haplodiploid taxa, the model reveals that owing to their unique transmission genetics, they are seemingly assured of strong mitochondrial biases in introgression rates, unlike diploid taxa, where the relative fitness of male and female hybrids can tip the bias in either direction. This heretofore overlooked aspect of hybridization in haplodiploids provides what is perhaps the most likely explanation for differential introgression of mitochondrial and nuclear markers and raises concerns about the use of mitochondrial DNA barcodes for species delimitation in these taxa. PMID:26173469

  18. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  19. Determination of residues of cyantraniliprole and its metabolite J9Z38 in watermelon and soil using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuqing; Zhang, Changpeng; Zhu, Yahong; Wu, Min; Cai, Xiaoming; Ping, Lifeng; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of cyantraniliprole (HGW86) and its metabolite J9Z38 in watermelon and soil by ultra-performance LC (UPLC)/MS/MS. Target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile-water, cleaned up on a silica gel column, and determined by UPLC/MS/MS. Average recoveries of cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 in watermelon and soil at three levels (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg) ranged from 85.71 to 105.74%, with RSDs of 0.90-6.34%. The LOQs for cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 were determined to be 0.00021, 0.00015, 0.0010, and 0.00090 mg/kg in watermelon and soil samples, respectively. This method was used to determine the cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 residues in watermelon and soil samples for studies on their dissipation. The trial results showed that the half-lives of cyantraniliprole obtained after treatments were 1.1 and 4.1 days in watermelon and soil in Zhejiang, and 2.7 and 2.6 days in watermelon and soil in Hunan, respectively. The average levels of cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 residues in watermelon and soil were all < 0.01 mg/kg within the 14-day interval after treatment. PMID:24645528

  20. Reciprocal and nonreciprocal recombination in diploid clones from Bacillus subtilis protoplast fusion: Association with the replication origin and terminus

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Magda H.; Hotchkiss, Rollin D.

    1983-01-01

    The primary heterodiploid bacteria regenerated after Bacillus subtilis fusion, although generally noncomplementing diploids, behave in pedigree analysis as multipotential systems. Individual diploid colonies yielding complete reciprocal recombinant (RR) progeny—often accompanied by one or both parents—constitute 10-30% of the total recombinant-forming units. The RR (reciprocal for 8-11 genes) usually occur in equivalent numbers both among and within individual colonies. Novel for bacteria, they demonstrate that entire parental genomes brought together within a diploid protoplast are retained as two independent replicons able to undergo classical recombination characteristic of eukaryotic gametogenesis. Parental or recombinant genomes are also subject to multiple rounds of recombination without obligate segregation and often not reciprocal. Diploid recombinant clones, sharing streptomycin resistance but reciprocal for auxotrophic markers, have displayed a partial ability to make a facultative shift in chromosome expression. They have also produced two types of prototrophs: a stable one (presumably haploid and recombinant) and an unstable one, (diploid and temporarily complementing at low frequency). It follows that chromosome extinction may affect both parental and recombinant chromosomes and does not interfere with recombination. Analysis of the number and chromosomal distribution of crossovers in all recombinants and those from single diploid clones shows increased frequency of exchange in the regions of the replication origin and terminus, possibly a result of the association of these sites with the cell wall or membrane. PMID:16593292