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Sample records for dipyrimidine lesions determine

  1. Noninvasive methods for determining lesion depth from vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Braue, Ernest H; Graham, John S; Doxzon, Bryce F; Hanssen, Kelly A; Lumpkin, Horace L; Stevenson, Robert S; Deckert, Robin R; Dalal, Stephen J; Mitcheltree, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Before sulfur mustard (HD) injuries can be effectively treated, assessment of lesion depth must occur. Accurate depth assessment is important because it dictates how aggressive treatment needs to be to minimize or prevent cosmetic and functional deficits. Depth of injury typically is assessed by physical examination. Diagnosing very superficial and very deep lesions is relatively easy for the experienced burn surgeon. Lesions of intermediate depth, however, are often problematic in determining the need for grafting. This study was a preliminary evaluation of two noninvasive bioengineering methodologies, laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICGFI), to determine their ability to accurately diagnose depth of sulfur mustard lesions in a weanling swine model. Histological evaluation was used to assess the accuracy of the imaging techniques in determining burn depth. Six female weanling swine (8-12 kg) were exposed to 400 microl of neat sulfur mustard on six ventral sites for 2, 8, 30, or 60 minutes. This exposure regimen produced lesions of varying depths from superficial to deep dermal. Evaluations of lesion depth using the bioengineering techniques were conducted at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. After euthanasia at 72 hours after exposure, skin biopsies were taken from each site and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin histological evaluation to determine the true depth of the lesion. Results demonstrated that LDPI and ICGFI were useful tools to characterize skin perfusion and provided a good estimate of HD lesion depth. Traditional LDPI and the novel prototype ICGFI instrumentation used in this study produced images of blood flow through skin lesions, which provided a useful assessment of burn depth. LDPI and ICGFI accurately predicted the need for aggressive treatment (30- and 60-minute HD lesions) and nonaggressive treatment (2- and 8-minute HD lesions) for the lesions generated in this study. Histological

  2. Determination of lesion size by ultrasound during radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Awad, S; Eick, O

    2003-01-01

    The catheter tip temperature that is used to control the radiofrequency generator output poorly correlates to lesion size. We, therefore, evaluated lesions created in vitro using a B-mode ultrasound imaging device as a potential means to assess lesion generation during RF applications non-invasively. Porcine ventricular tissue was immersed in saline solution at 37 degrees C. The catheter was fixed in a holder and positioned in a parallel orientation to the tissue with an array transducer (7.5 MHz) app. 3 cm above the tissue. Lesions were produced either in a temperature controlled mode with a 4-mm tip catheter with different target temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 degrees C, 80 W maximum output) or in a power controlled mode (25, 50 and 75 W, 20 ml/min irrigation flow) using an irrigated tip catheter. Different contact forces (0.5 N, 1.0 N) were tested, and RF was delivered for 60 s. A total of 138 lesions was produced. Out of these, 128 could be identified on the ultrasound image. The lesion depth and volume was on average 4.1 +/- 1.6 mm and 52 +/- 53 mm3 as determined by ultrasound and 3.9 +/- 1.7 mm and 52 +/- 55 mm3 as measured thereafter, respectively. A linear correlation between the lesion size determined by ultrasound and that measured thereafter was demonstrated with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87 for lesion depth and r = 0.93 for lesion volume. We conclude that lesions can be assessed by B-mode ultrasound imaging. PMID:12910859

  3. Spectroscopic and electronic structure calculation of a potential antibacterial agent incorporating pyrido-dipyrimidine-dione moiety using first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatma, Shaheen; Bishnoi, Abha; Singh, Vineeta; Al-Omary, Fatmah A. M.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Pathak, Shilendra; Srivastava, Ruchi; Prasad, Onkar; Sinha, Leena

    2016-04-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of geometrical structure, energy and vibrational wavenumbers of a novel functionalized pyrido-pyrimidine compound (a prospective antibacterial agent), chemically known as 6-Methyl,13,14,15-Trihydro-14-(4-Nitrophenyl)pyrido[1,2-a:1‧,2‧-a‧] pyrido[2″,3″-d:6″,5″-d‧]dipyrimidine-13,15-dione (C24H16N6O4), were carried out, using B3LYP/6311++G(d,p) method. Comprehensive interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of the compound under study is based on potential energy distribution. A good coherence between experimental and theoretical wavenumbers shows the preciseness of the assignments. NLO properties like the dipole moment, polarizability, first static hyperpolarizability and molecular electrostatic potential surface have been calculated to get a better cognizance of the properties of the title compound. Molecular docking results reveal that the title compound exhibit inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling. PMID:26900846

  5. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification in Determining the Histological Diagnosis of Malignant Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Nikiforaki, Katerina; Constantinides, Manolis; Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Stoikou, Ioanna; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Organtzis, John; Papadaki, Eleni; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kioumis, Ioannis; Kouskouras, Constantinos; Akriviadis, Evaggelos; Drevelegas, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusion Weighted Imaging is an established diagnostic tool for accurate differential diagnosis between benign and malignant liver lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of Histogram Analysis of ADC quantification in determining the histological diagnosis as well as the grade of malignant liver tumours. To our knowledge, there is no study evaluating the role of Histogram Analysis of ADC quantification in determining the histological diagnosis as well as the grade of malignant liver tumours. Methods: During five years, 115 patients with known liver lesions underwent Diffusion Weighted Imaging in 3Tesla MR scanner prior to core needle biopsy. Histogram analyses of ADC in regions of interest were drawn and were correlated with biopsy histological diagnosis and grading. Results: Histogram analysis of ADC values shows that 5th and 30th percentile parameters have statistically significant potency of discrimination between primary and secondary lesions groups (p values 0.0036 and 0.0125 respectively). Skewness of the histogram can help discriminate between good and poor differentiated (p value 0.17). Discrimination between primary malignancy site in metastases failed for the present number of patients in each subgroup. Conclusion: Statistical parameters reflecting the shape of the left side of the ADC histogram can be useful for discriminating between primary and secondary lesions and also between well differentiated versus moderate or poor. For the secondary malignancies, they failed to predict the original site of tumour. PMID:27076855

  6. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  7. Determining the Variability of Lesion Size Measurements from CT Patient Data Sets Acquired under “No Change” Conditions12

    PubMed Central

    McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Kim, Grace Hyun; Zhao, Binsheng; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Clunie, David; Cohen, Kristin; Petrick, Nicholas; Fenimore, Charles; Lu, Z.Q. John; Buckler, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the variability of lesion size measurements in computed tomography data sets of patients imaged under a “no change” (“coffee break”) condition and to determine the impact of two reading paradigms on measurement variability. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Using data sets from 32 non-small cell lung cancer patients scanned twice within 15 minutes (“no change”), measurements were performed by five radiologists in two phases: (1) independent reading of each computed tomography dataset (timepoint): (2) a locked, sequential reading of datasets. Readers performed measurements using several sizing methods, including one-dimensional (1D) longest in-slice dimension and 3D semi-automated segmented volume. Change in size was estimated by comparing measurements performed on both timepoints for the same lesion, for each reader and each measurement method. For each reading paradigm, results were pooled across lesions, across readers, and across both readers and lesions, for each measurement method. RESULTS: The mean percent difference (± SD) when pooled across both readers and lesions for 1D and 3D measurements extracted from contours was 2.8 ± 22.2% and 23.4 ± 105.0%, respectively, for the independent reads. For the locked, sequential reads, the mean percent differences (± SD) reduced to 2.52 ± 14.2% and 7.4 ± 44.2% for the 1D and 3D measurements, respectively. CONCLUSION: Even under a “no change” condition between scans, there is variation in lesion size measurements due to repeat scans and variations in reader, lesion, and measurement method. This variation is reduced when using a locked, sequential reading paradigm compared to an independent reading paradigm. PMID:25749178

  8. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D; Elos, Mihret T; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S; Chen, Xiaomi; Wang, Jing H

    2016-03-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  9. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D.; Elos, Mihret T.; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S.; Chen, Xiaomi

    2016-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  10. Effectiveness of Toki’s criteria and determination of variables for identification of HPV L1 protein in oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R.; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of Toki’s criteria in identifying the HPV L1 protein in oral lesions with the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to determine which criteria optimize such identification. Study Design: Retrospective study of 277 cases diagnosed as HPV lesions at 22 years. Tests of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), kappa coefficients, and chi2 values, as well as two logistic regression analyses (p≤0.05), were conducted. Results: Of the lesions studied, 96.4% (267 of 277) were positive for HPV using Toki’s criteria and 28.5% (79 of 277) were positive for L1 by IHC. Toki’s criteria showed sensitivity=93.67%, specificity=2.53%, PPV=6.99%, and NPV=46.55%. Neither concordance nor statistically significant associations were observed between both tests. The logistic regression of Toki’s criteria was useful in the diagnosis of L1, correctly classified 71.8% of the lesions positive for L1, and showed a Hosmer-Lemeshow adjustment of p=0.614 and a Nagelkerke’s coefficient of determination of 6.8%. The explanatory variables statistically significant at p≤0.05 were dyskeratosis (p=0.01) and papillomatosis (p=0.04). Forty-nine independent variables (clinical and histopathologic) were involved in the second regression analysis. The model correctly classified 85.2% of the lesions and showed a Hosmer-Lemeshow adjustment of p=0.696 and a Nagelkerke’s coefficient of determination of 60.2%. The explanatory variables statistically significant atp≤0.05 were: age younger than 35 years (p=0.001), multiple lesions (p=0.031), hyperorthokeratosis (p=0.019), focal intracellular edema (p=0.002), and the presence of 1 to more than 5 cells with degenerative changes in their nucleus (p=0.048). Conclusions: Toki’s criteria are not adequate to make a diagnosis of lesions by HPV in the mouth, but the logistic regression analysis showed clinical and histopathologic variables which optimize the

  11. Genetic determinants of fibro-osseous lesions in aged inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Sundberg, Beth A; Cates, Justin M; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2016-02-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions in mice are progressive aging changes in which the bone marrow is replaced to various degrees by fibrovascular stroma and bony trabeculae in a wide variety of bones. The frequency and severity varied greatly among 28 different inbred mouse stains, predominantly affecting females, ranging from 0% for 10 strains to 100% for KK/HlJ and NZW/LacJ female mice. Few lesions were observed in male mice and for 23 of the strains, no lesions were observed in males for any of the cohorts. There were no significant correlations between strain-specific severities of fibro-osseous lesions and ovarian (r=0.11; P=0.57) or endometrial (r=0.03; P=0.89) cyst formation frequency or abnormalities in parathyroid glands. Frequency of fibro-osseous lesions was most strongly associated (P<10(-6)) with genome variations on chromosome (Chr) 8 at 90.6 and 90.8Mb (rs33108071, rs33500669; P=5.0·10(-10), 1.3·10(-6)), Chr 15 at 23.6 and 23.8Mb (rs32087871, rs45770368; P=7.3·10(-7), 2.7·10(-6)), and Chr 19 at 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6Mb (rs311004232, rs30524929, rs30448815; P=2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6)) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The relatively large number of candidate genes identified in the GWAS analyses suggests that this may be an extremely complex polygenic disease. These results indicate that fibro-osseous lesions are surprisingly common in many inbred strains of laboratory mice as they age. While this presents little problem in most studies that utilize young animals, it may complicate aging studies, particularly those focused on bone. PMID:26589134

  12. Effect of cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity on lung respiratory lesions and liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...

  13. ED50 determination of corneal lesions produced by 1318-nm laser radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzenberger, Bryan K.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Wild, Steven P.; Pletcher, Kenneth B.; Roach, William P.

    2001-05-01

    High-energy use of 1318 nm laser systems is becoming more prevalent in military and industrial settings. Threshold, ED50, exposure data and mechanism of laser-tissue interaction need to be determined for this wavelength using appropriate animal models that allow for extrapolation to control human exposures. Threshold, ED50, exposure data at 1318 nm for retinal and corneal injury have previously been undertaken and reported for rhesus monkeys. Using comparable methods, we examine exposure data at 1318 nm to determine the ED50 and laser-tissue interaction in the rabbit model to evaluate cornea. We present preliminary data for the ED50 threshold on the cornea from exposure to 1318 nm single laser pulses. Delivery of laser energy is accomplished using an Nd:YAG system producing 1318 nm light in the 0.5 millisecond time exposure regime and in the range of 0 to 500 mJ. Results from this work will aid in the establishment of safety standards for near infrared laser systems.

  14. A novel method for automatic determination of different stages of multiple sclerosis lesions in brain MR FLAIR images.

    PubMed

    Khayati, Rasoul; Vafadust, Mansur; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Nabavi, S Massood

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in order to exactly quantify involved voxels. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for automatic detection of different stages of MS lesions in the brain magnetic resonance (MR) images, in fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) studies. In the proposed method, firstly, MS lesion voxels are segmented in FLAIR images based on adaptive mixtures method (AMM) and Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Then, signal intensity of each lesion voxel is modeled as a linear combination of signals related to the normal and also abnormal parts, in the voxel. By applying an optimal threshold, voxels with new intensities are primarily classified into two stages: previously destructed (chronic) and on going destruction (acute) lesions. Finally, the acute lesions, according to their activities, are classified, by another optimal threshold, into two new stages, early and recent acute. Evaluation of the proposed method was performed by manual segmentation of chronic and enhanced (early) acute lesions in gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted (Gad-E-T1-w) images by studying T1-weighted (T1-w) and T2-weighted (T2-w) images, using similarity criteria. The results showed a good correlation between the lesions segmented by the proposed method and by experts manually. Thus, the suggested method is useful to reduce the need for paramagnetic materials in contrast enhanced MR imaging which is a routine procedure for separation of acute and chronic lesions. PMID:18055174

  15. Can we prevent ischemic-type biliary lesions in donation after circulatory determination of death liver transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hessheimer, Amelia J; Cárdenas, Andrés; García-Valdecasas, Juan C; Fondevila, Constantino

    2016-07-01

    The pool of livers for transplantation consists of an increasingly greater proportion of marginal grafts, in particular those arising through donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD). However, a primary factor limiting the use of marginal livers, and, thereby, the applicability of liver transplantation in general, is concern over the subsequent development of ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL). ITBL is a devastating complication of liver transplantation; in its most severe forms, recipients suffer frequent infectious complications that require repeated invasive biliary procedures and ultimately result in either retransplantation or death. In the present review article, we discuss our current understanding of ITBL pathogenesis as it pertains to DCD, in particular. We discuss the most relevant theories regarding its development and provide a comprehensive overview of the most promising strategies we have available today to prevent the appearance of ITBL, strategies that may, furthermore, allow us to transplant a greater proportion of marginal livers in the future. Liver Transplantation 22 1025-1033 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082839

  16. Determination of human DNA polymerase utilization for the repair of a model ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand break lesion in a defined vector substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, T. A.; Russell, P. S.; Kohli, M.; Dar, M. E.; Neumann, R. D.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase and DNA ligase utilization for the repair of a major class of ionizing radiation-induced DNA lesion [DNA single-strand breaks containing 3'-phosphoglycolate (3'-PG)] was examined using a novel, chemically defined vector substrate containing a single, site-specific 3'-PG single-strand break lesion. In addition, the major human AP endonuclease, HAP1 (also known as APE1, APEX, Ref-1), was tested to determine if it was involved in initiating repair of 3'-PG-containing single-strand break lesions. DNA polymerase beta was found to be the primary polymerase responsible for nucleotide incorporation at the lesion site following excision of the 3'-PG blocking group. However, DNA polymerase delta/straightepsilon was also capable of nucleotide incorporation at the lesion site following 3'-PG excision. In addition, repair reactions catalyzed by DNA polymerase beta were found to be most effective in the presence of DNA ligase III, while those catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta/straightepsilon appeared to be more effective in the presence of DNA ligase I. Also, it was demonstrated that the repair initiating 3'-PG excision reaction was not dependent upon HAP1 activity, as judged by inhibition of HAP1 with neutralizing HAP1-specific polyclonal antibody.

  17. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in genital lesions from two temporally distinct populations determined by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S M; Brooke, P K; Van Eyck, S L; Noell, H; Frable, W J

    1993-05-01

    We examined 341 paraffin-embedded cervical tissues for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by in situ hybridization. The genital lesions examined represented tissue biopsies from two temporally distinct populations (1964 to 1965 and 1988 to 1989). Biotinylated probes to 14 different HPV types were used in our analysis: HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, and 56. The number of HPV DNA-positive specimens and the distributions of HPV types were similar for these two populations. Human papillomavirus DNA sequences were detected in approximately 50% of the tissues from each time period. Of the low-grade lesions (condyloma/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 [CIN 1]) 52% (1964 to 1965) and 35% (1988 to 1989) were positive for HPV DNA by in situ hybridization. Among the high-grade lesions (CIN 2/CIN 3), 41% (1964 to 1965) and 67% (1988 to 1989) had detectable HPV sequences. Approximately 15% of the tissues with minimal histopathologic changes also contained HPV DNA. Human papillomavirus types 16 and/or 18 were the most common viral types in lesions from both time periods, followed by types 31/33/35; 6/11, 51/52; and 42/43/44, 45/46. Types 16 and/or 18 were strongly associated with high-grade lesions. Five percent of the HPV-positive lesions demonstrated evidence of multiple infections. Our results indicate that HPV DNA sequences can be detected readily by in situ hybridization in archival materials, even those prepared more than 25 years ago. In addition, analysis of HPV type distributions demonstrates that recently isolated HPV types (42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, and 56) were equally represented in tissues from both time periods. PMID:8387959

  18. A unified approach to combine temperature estimation and elastography for thermal lesion determination in focused ultrasound thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Li, Meng-Lin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Shi; Huang, Sheng-Min; Bai, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Sonogram-based temperature estimation and elastography have both shown promise as methods of monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments to induce thermal ablation in tissue. However, each method has important limitations. Temperature estimates based on echo delays become invalid when the relationship between sound speed and temperature is nonlinear, and are further complicated by thermal expansion and other changes in tissue. Elastography can track thermal lesion formation over a wider range of elasticity, but with low specificity and high noise. Furthermore, this method is poor at small lesion detection. This study proposes integrating the two estimates to improve the quality of monitoring FUS-induced thermal lesions. Our unified computational kernel is tested on three types of phantoms. Experiments with type I and type II phantoms were conducted to calibrate the thermal mapping and elastography methods, respectively. The optimal settings were then used in experiments with the type III phantom, which contains ex vivo swine liver tissue. Three different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (I(spta); 35, 133 and 240 W cm(-2)) were delivered with a sonication time of 60 s. The new procedure can closely monitor heating while identifying the dimensions of the thermal lesion, and is significantly better at the latter task than either approach alone. This work may help improve the current clinical practice, which employs sonograms to guide the FUS-induced thermal ablation procedure. PMID:21149945

  19. A unified approach to combine temperature estimation and elastography for thermal lesion determination in focused ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Li, Meng-Lin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Shi; Huang, Sheng-Min; Bai, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Sonogram-based temperature estimation and elastography have both shown promise as methods of monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments to induce thermal ablation in tissue. However, each method has important limitations. Temperature estimates based on echo delays become invalid when the relationship between sound speed and temperature is nonlinear, and are further complicated by thermal expansion and other changes in tissue. Elastography can track thermal lesion formation over a wider range of elasticity, but with low specificity and high noise. Furthermore, this method is poor at small lesion detection. This study proposes integrating the two estimates to improve the quality of monitoring FUS-induced thermal lesions. Our unified computational kernel is tested on three types of phantoms. Experiments with type I and type II phantoms were conducted to calibrate the thermal mapping and elastography methods, respectively. The optimal settings were then used in experiments with the type III phantom, which contains ex vivo swine liver tissue. Three different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (Ispta; 35, 133 and 240 W cm-2) were delivered with a sonication time of 60 s. The new procedure can closely monitor heating while identifying the dimensions of the thermal lesion, and is significantly better at the latter task than either approach alone. This work may help improve the current clinical practice, which employs sonograms to guide the FUS-induced thermal ablation procedure.

  20. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  1. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  2. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  3. Determination of apurinic/apyrimidinic lesions in DNA with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth P; Sobrino, Justin A; Payton, Julie; Mason, Lavinnia B; Turesky, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    A new method has been developed to accurately measure apurinic and apyrimidinic (AP) DNA damage sites, which are lesions in DNA formed by loss of a nucleobase from oxidative stress or carcinogen adducts. If AP sites are left unrepaired (or if improperly repaired), these sites can lead to DNA mutations that may ultimately result in the formation of cancer. Hence, detection of AP sites may provide a useful indicator of exposure and susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and oxidative stress. AP detection is currently accomplished by immunodetection methods using an aldehyde reactive probe [Nakamura, J., Walker, V. E., Upton, P. B., Chiang, S.-Y., Kow, Y. W., and Swenberg, J. A. (1998) Cancer Res. 58, 222-225; Atamna, H., Cheung, I., and Ames, B. N. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 686-691]; however, these approaches lack the specificity required for unequivocal identification of the AP site. Therefore, we have developed an accurate method based on mass spectrometry detection of AP sites from AP DNA that have been prelabeled with O-4-nitrobenzylhydroxylamine (NBHA). Once labeled and once the excess labeling agent has been removed, enzymatic digestion of DNA to monomeric subunits can be accomplished, followed by isolation and detection with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Optimization and validation of the experimental procedures and detection limits have been established using a model DNA oligomer (11-mer) containing uracil. Enzymatic removal of uracil with uracil glycosylase generates well-defined AP sites in both single- and double-stranded DNA. The addition of NBHA labels the AP site in the oligomer, creating a labeled 11-mer. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the negative ionization mode was used to monitor and confirm binding of NBHA to the AP oligomer. The NBHA-tagged oligomer underwent endo- and exonuclease digestion to the 5'-deoxyribose monophosphate (5'-dRp) level, thereby releasing

  4. [Determination of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP in the smear samples taken from the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases].

    PubMed

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Ertuğ, Sema; Çalışkan, Serçin Özlem; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The forms of the disease caused by Leishmania species in Turkey as well as in Aegean region are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL, respectively), and the agent of CL is commonly L.tropica. However, L.infantum was also reported as being CL agent recently. Direct microscopic examination, serological tests and culture are the conventional methods used for the diagnosis of CL. Since the specificities of these methods are high their sensitivities are variable and identification at species level is not possible. Recently, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods enabled the rapid and reliable diagnosis and species identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method both for the detection and identification of Leishmania species simultaneously in CL patients. A total of 30 smear samples that were positive for Leishmania amastigotes with microscopic examination, obtained from CL-suspected cases admitted to Adnan Menderes University Medical School Hospital, Parasitology Laboratory (located at Aydin, in the Aegean region of Turkey) between 2012-2014 period were included in the study. Ten samples taken from the skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 5) and Candida albicans (n= 5) were also included as negative controls. DNA extractions from the smears were performed by the use of a commercial kit (Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Tissue® Kit, Germany). DNA isolation was also performed from L.major, L.infantum and L.tropica promastigotes that were grown in culture as positive controls. In PCR method LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting to ITS (internal transcribed spacer)-1 region were used. In RFLP method, the amplified PCR products were cleaved by BsuRI (HaeIII) restriction enzyme for the species identification. As a result, restriction profiles of all samples (n= 30) were in accordance with L.tropica restriction profile. No band was observed in the

  5. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  6. Open and Endovascular Treatment of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II D Aortoiliac Occlusive Lesions: What Determines the Rate of Restenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Qing-Le; Zhang, Yong-Bao; Jiao, Yang; Krokidis, Miltiadis E; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open surgery is the preferred approach for the treatment of type D lesions according to the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II guideline, but endovascular solutions also appear to be a valid option in selected patients. The study aimed to identify the risk factors of restenosis after open and endovascular reconstruction of symptomatic TASC II D aortoiliac occlusive lesions (AIOLs). Methods: Fifty-six patients (82 limbs) who underwent open repair and endovascular treatment (ET) for symptomatic TASC ΙΙ D AIOLs between March 2005 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline characteristics, preoperative and postoperative imaging, and operation procedure reports were reviewed and analyzed. Restenosis after revascularization was assessed by duplex ultrasound or computed tomography angiogram. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Log-rank test, and multivariate Cox regression were used to evaluate the relevance between risk factors and patency. Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 42.8 ± 23.5 months (ranging from 3 to 90 months). Primary patency rates at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year were 93.6%, 89.3%, 87.0%, and 70.3%, respectively. Restenosis after revascularization occurred in 11 limbs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Log-rank test revealed that diabetes, Rutherford classification ≥5th and concurrent femoropopliteal TASC II type C/D lesions were significantly related to the duration of primary patency. According to the result of Cox regression, diabetes and femoropopliteal TASC ΙΙ type C/D lesions were identified as the risk factors for restenosis after revascularization. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that diabetes and femoropopliteal TASC ΙΙ type C/D lesions are risk factors associated with restenosis after open and ET of TASC II D AIOLs. PMID:26608983

  7. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  8. [Focal liver lesion, incidental finding].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C

    2012-10-01

    The differential diagnosis of incidentally found Focal Liver Lesions (FLL) is complex. Screening procedures so far are only defined for patients with liver cirrhosis. Characterization of a FLL begins as soon as it is detected. Taking patients history and thorough clinical examination are essential. An imaging procedure that is used to detect liver masses should also allow the examiner to determine whether the lesion is benign or malignant. Conventional B-mode US and colour Doppler imaging are effective at detecting and characterizing typical liver cysts and calcifications. Laboratory data, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and imaging guided liver biopsy are complementary methods.Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) is a well established diagnostic imaging technique for a variety of indications and applications. One of the most important applications is in the liver where it is frequently a first-line technique for the detection and diagnosis (characterization) of focal liver lesions (FLL). In this setting the accurate differentiation of benign from malignant lesions is critical to ensure the patient undergoes the appropriate therapeutic option. This has been documented in recently published guidelines, in particular in terms of the enhancement patterns of the most common FLL hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia hepatocellular adenoma and their differentiation from malignant lesions. In this article the role of CEUS in the characterization of incidentally found FLL is described. PMID:23033169

  9. Calcified Cystic Lesion of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Meng, Zhi-Xin; Hong, Jian-Guo; Zhi, Xu-Ting

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesion is a relatively uncommon condition with an estimated prevalence of 2 % in the general population. In the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of pancreatic cystic lesions because of the widespread use of high-resolution imaging, as well as the aging of the population. Pancreatic cystic lesions cover a wide spectrum of pathology and can range from obviously benign to borderline malignant potential lesions to overt malignancy. Though the presence of mural nodules, septa-like structures, or calcification on imaging examination contributes to the differential diagnosis, preoperatively determining the biological nature of these cystic lesions is sometimes challenging. In this paper, we report a rare case of pancreatic cystic lesion with an egg-shell like calcification. Complete resection was performed and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of calcified pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:26992398

  10. [Surprising white lesions].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; van der Waal, I

    2011-09-01

    A 46-year-old man appeared with white lesions of the oral cavity. A previously taken biopsy revealed no classifying diagnosis and treatment with mouth rinse produced no improvement. A new biopsy was taken, on which the pathologist performed additional tests. This resulted in the diagnosis 'syphilis'. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and the oral white lesions disappeared. Although nowadays syphilis is rare, special attention is required when noticing these kinds of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:21957637

  11. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  12. Distribution, size and shape of colorectal adenomas as determined by a colonoscopist with a high lesion detection rate: Influence of age, sex and colonoscopy indication

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Johannes L; Okcu, Murat; Preisegger, Karl H

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing attention is focused on polyp-related features that may contribute to the operator-dependent nature of colonoscopy. Few data on polyps are available from high-yield colonoscopies, which may serve as a benchmark for quality control. Objectives Describe regional distribution, histology, size and shape of polyps, and the influence of patient age and gender, in colonoscopies performed by a colonoscopist with high lesion detection rate. Methods Analysis of 698 consecutive patients with diagnostic, screening or surveillance colonoscopies. Results In 704 colonoscopies, 1908 polyps were removed (360 were protruded and 1548 flat; 1313 were hyperplastic, 562 adenomas, 5 serrated adenomas and 8 mixed). There were 232 adenomas in female patients and 343 in male patients; 39% of the adenomas were protruded and 61% were flat. The peak adenoma detection rate (ADR) was 51% in patients beyond age 79 years. Men older than 49 years had a higher ADR than women. In men and women, respectively: 40% and 32% of adenomas were in the right colon, 31% and 22% were in the transverse colon, and 30% and 47% were in the left colon. Beyond age 59 years, the majority of adenomas were in the proximal colon. Conclusions An excess of adenomas in the proximal colon started at age 60 and this was more pronounced in men than in women. In all colonic regions, the majority of adenomas had a shape that was flat and smaller than 6 mm. PMID:27403311

  13. Noninfectious penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Joel M H; Sea, Jason; Thompson, Ian M; Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-15

    Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions. Noninfectious lesions may be classified as inflammatory and papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, angiokeratomas, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), or as neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis. Psoriasis presents as red or salmon-colored plaques with overlying scales, often with systemic lesions. Lichen sclerosus presents as a phimotic, hypopigmented prepuce or glans penis with a cellophane-like texture. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, red or blue papules, whereas lichen nitidus usually produces asymptomatic pinhead-sized, hypopigmented papules. The lesions of lichen planus are pruritic, violaceous, polygonal papules that are typically systemic. Carcinoma in situ should be suspected if the patient has velvety red or keratotic plaques of the glans penis or prepuce, whereas invasive squamous cell carcinoma presents as a painless lump, ulcer, or fungating irregular mass. Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded. The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery. PMID:20082512

  14. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  15. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, James; Galea, Samuel; Galea, Joseph; Schembri, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man on warfarin for aortic valve replacement presented with recurrent episodes of melaena. An initial oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was normal, as were red cell scanning and colonoscopy. It was a third OGD that revealed the cause of the melaena—a vascular lesion in the duodenum, at the junction between D1 and D2. An extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion was diagnosed, and the lesion was injected with epinephrine and tattooed. Over the following months, episodes of bleeding recurred despite further attempts at injection. Percutaneous radiologically assisted embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery, and eventually duodenotomy and oversuturing of the lesion were performed to no avail. The patient has undergone over 10 endoscopies, and has received over 70 units of packed red cells to date, since his initial presentation 6 years ago. Attempts to stop the bleeding permanently have been difficult, highlighting the complexity of managing such a lesion. PMID:25216921

  16. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  17. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  18. Retinal lesions in septicemia.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, M; Barnea, Y; Geyer, O; Siegman-Igra, Y

    1993-12-15

    We explored the association between septicemia and specific retinal lesions in a prospective controlled study. Hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, or Roth's spots were found in 24 of 101 septicemic patients (24%), compared to four of 99 age- and gender-matched control patients (4%) (P = .0002). There was no significant association between types of organisms or focus of infection and the presence of specific lesions. Histologic examination of affected eyes disclosed cytoid bodies in the nerve fiber layer without inflammation. A definite association between septicemia and retinal lesions was found and indicates the need for routine ophthalmoscopy in septicemic patients. PMID:8250076

  19. Characterizing lesions in corals from American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of coral disease has suffered from an absence of systematic approaches that are commonly used to determine causes of diseases in animals. There is a critical need to develop a standardized and portable nomenclature for coral lesions in the field and to incorporate more commonly available biomedical tools in coral disease surveys to determine the potential causes of lesions in corals. We characterized lesions in corals from American Samoa based on gross and microscopic morphology and classified them as discoloration, growth anomalies, or tissue loss. The most common microscopic finding in corals manifesting discoloration was the depletion of zooxanthellae, followed by necrosis, sometimes associated with invasive algae or fungi. The most common microscopic lesion in corals manifesting tissue loss was cell necrosis often associated with algae, fungi, or protozoa. Corals with growth anomaly had microscopic evidence of hyperplasia of gastrovascular canals, followed by necrosis associated with algae or metazoa (polychaete worms). Several species of apparently normal corals also had microscopic changes, including the presence of bacterial aggregates or crustacea in tissues. A single type of gross lesion (e.g., discoloration) could have different microscopic manifestations. This phenomenon underlines the importance of using microscopy to provide a more systematic description of coral lesions and to detect potential pathogens associated with these lesions.

  20. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  1. Talar Dome Lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... be helpful in reducing the pain and inflammation. Physical therapy . Range-of-motion and strengthening exercises are beneficial once the lesion is adequately healed. Physical therapy may also include techniques to reduce pain and ...

  2. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  3. Evaluation of Parotid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Edward C; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; St John, Maie A

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis of a parotid lesion is broad, and the otolaryngologist must consider inflammatory, neoplastic, autoimmune, traumatic, infectious, or congenital causes. A comprehensive history and physical examination, in conjunction with judicious use of radiographic imaging (MRI, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine studies), laboratory studies, and pathologic analysis (fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, incisional biopsy), facilitates making an accurate diagnosis. This article reviews the key history and physical elements and adjunctive diagnostic tools available for working up parotid lesions. PMID:26902978

  4. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

  5. Petrous Apex Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Ronald G.; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Mann, Wolf J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in treating 69 patients over the past 6 years with pathologic processes involving the petrous apex. These included 25 (36%) primary petrous apex lesions, 40 (58%) lesions that involved the petrous apex by direct invasion from an adjacent region, and four (6%) lesions that were the result of metastatic spread from a distant site. Although lesions of the petrous apex are uncommon, they may present significant morbidity to the patient. The symptoms elicited by these lesions are usually vague and nonlocalizing in the early stages but may progress to include multiple cranial neuropathies. Successful results are contingent on early diagnosis, which requires a high index of suspicion and use of appropriate imaging modalities. Thorough preoperative assessment with use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and carotid arteriography is essential to plan the surgical approach. We present this collection of patients in order to aid in the further preoperative characterization of the differences in primary and secondary lesions of the petrous apex. PMID:17170919

  6. Colorectal Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most of subepithelial lesion (SEL) being identified was accidentally discovered as small bulging lesion covered with normal mucosa from endoscopic screening. The type of treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor, it would be crucial to perform an accurate differential diagnosis. Since the differentiation of SEL relied on the indirect findings observed from the mucosal surface using an endoscopy only in the past, it was able to confirm the presence of lesion only but difficult to identify complex detailed nature of the lesion. However, after the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was introduced, it became possible to identify extrinsic compression, and size of intramural tumors, internal properties and contour so that it gets possible to have differential diagnosis of lesions and prediction on the lesion whether it is malignant or benign. In addition, the use of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and EUS-guided core biopsy made it possible to make histological differential diagnosis. This study intended to investigate endoscopic and EUS findings, histological diagnosis, treatment regimen and impression of colorectal SELs. PMID:26240803

  7. Criteria Based on the Index of Physical Work by Unitary Distance and Multifractal Analysis of the Slow Movement of the Forefinger to Determinate Neurological Lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, J. A.; Muñoz Diosdado, A.; Reyes López, P.; Delgado Lezama, R.; Gálvez Coyt, G.; del Río Correa, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    Previously, we reported that in a sample of 14 healthy persons the analysis of the slow movement of the forefinger against a predetermined force presented a behavior that qualitatively is present in all subjects and it is characterized by three parameters: 1) a positive pulsating phase pattern of velocity; 2) pulses of low amplitude are more frequent; 3) a spectral pattern with a frequencies distributed in a wide interval. Now we report the value of physical work developed by the forefinger by unitary distance. We determine the fractal dimension of the velocity time series using the Higuchi method, and the multifractal analysis of the movement pattern. On the other hand, applying these methods to a person with nervous system pathology we find that its movement pattern is clearly different compared with that of a normal person.

  8. Imaging of skull base lesions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Hillary R; Curtin, Hugh D

    2016-01-01

    Skull base imaging requires a thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy of this region, including the numerous fissures and foramina and the major neurovascular structures that traverse them. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play complementary roles in imaging of the skull base. MR is the preferred modality for evaluation of the soft tissues, the cranial nerves, and the medullary spaces of bone, while CT is preferred for demonstrating thin cortical bone structure. The anatomic location and origin of a lesion as well as the specific CT and MR findings can often narrow the differential diagnosis to a short list of possibilities. However, the primary role of the imaging specialist in evaluating the skull base is usually to define the extent of the lesion and determine its relationship to vital neurovascular structures. Technologic advances in imaging and radiation therapy, as well as surgical technique, have allowed for more aggressive approaches and improved outcomes, further emphasizing the importance of precise preoperative mapping of skull base lesions via imaging. Tumors arising from and affecting the cranial nerves at the skull base are considered here. PMID:27432686

  9. [Infected lesions of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Vitale, Mario; Zeppa, Pio; Esposito, Isabella; Esposito, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic foot lesions are the result of a complex set of factors including peripheral neuropathy, trauma, joint deformities and perfusion abnormalities. The foot becomes vulnerable and insensitive to minor injuries caused by excessive pressure, mechanically or minimum thermal insults that can determine the primum movens of a foot ulcer. Due to the trauma, the subcutaneous tissues are exposed to bacterial colonization. Therefore, the wound can develop an infection. So, the first step in the treatment of the lesion is the evaluation of tissue damage, in order to guide therapy and prognosis. Wagner's classification, used by over 25 years, is still one of the best known systems of lesion classification; however, it is giving way to the most recent Texas's classification. However, in both systems infection have a minority role. Therefore, the Infectious Diseases Society of America has developed a classification system that divides infections in mild, moderate and severe. The purpose of this classification is to recognize the severe patients because they require immediate hospitalization, parenteral antibiotic therapy and specific instrumental examinations. PMID:22982693

  10. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  11. Automated White Matter Total Lesion Volume Segmentation in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maldjian, J.A.; Whitlow, C.T.; Saha, B.N.; Kota, G.; Vandergriff, C.; Davenport, E.M.; Divers, J.; Freedman, B.I.; Bowden, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose WM lesion segmentation is often performed with the use of subjective rating scales because manual methods are laborious and tedious; however, automated methods are now available. We compared the performance of total lesion volume grading computed by use of an automated WM lesion segmentation algorithm with that of subjective rating scales and expert manual segmentation in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Structural T1 and FLAIR MR imaging data from 50 subjects with diabetes (age, 67.7 ± 7.2 years) and 50 nondiabetic sibling pairs (age, 67.5 ± 9.4 years) were evaluated in an institutional review board–approved study. WM lesion segmentation maps and total lesion volume were generated for each subject by means of the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) Lesion Segmentation Toolbox. Subjective WM lesion grade was determined by means of a 0–9 rating scale by 2 readers. Ground-truth total lesion volume was determined by means of manual segmentation by experienced readers. Correlation analyses compared manual segmentation total lesion volume with automated and subjective evaluation methods. Results Correlation between average lesion segmentation and ground-truth total lesion volume was 0.84. Maximum correlation between the Lesion Segmentation Toolbox and ground-truth total lesion volume (ρ = 0.87) occurred at the segmentation threshold of k = 0.25, whereas maximum correlation between subjective lesion segmentation and the Lesion Segmentation Toolbox (ρ = 0.73) occurred at k = 0.15. The difference between the 2 correlation estimates with ground-truth was not statistically significant. The lower segmentation threshold (0.15 versus 0.25) suggests that subjective raters overestimate WM lesion burden. Conclusions We validate the Lesion Segmentation Toolbox for determining total lesion volume in diabetes-enriched populations and compare it with a common subjective WM lesion rating scale. The Lesion Segmentation

  12. Multiple lesion track structure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1992-01-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions.

  13. Accurate GM atrophy quantification in MS using lesion-filling with co-registered 2D lesion masks☆

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, V.; Ran, N.C.G.; Barkhof, F.; Chard, D.T.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis (MS), brain atrophy quantification is affected by white matter lesions. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling, replace lesion voxels with white matter intensities; however, they require precise lesion identification on 3DT1-images. Aim To determine whether 2DT2 lesion masks co-registered to 3DT1 images, yield grey and white matter volumes comparable to precise lesion masks. Methods 2DT2 lesion masks were linearly co-registered to 20 3DT1-images of MS patients, with nearest-neighbor (NNI), and tri-linear interpolation. As gold-standard, lesion masks were manually outlined on 3DT1-images. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling were applied with each lesion mask. Grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were quantified with FSL-FAST, and deep gray matter (DGM) volumes using FSL-FIRST. Volumes were compared between lesion mask types using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results Lesion-filling with gold-standard lesion masks compared to native images reduced GM overestimation by 1.93 mL (p < .001) for LEAP, and 1.21 mL (p = .002) for FSL-lesion_filling. Similar effects were achieved with NNI lesion masks from 2DT2. Global WM underestimation was not significantly influenced. GM and WM volumes from NNI, did not differ significantly from gold-standard. GM segmentation differed between lesion masks in the lesion area, and also elsewhere. Using the gold-standard, FSL-FAST quantified as GM on average 0.4% of the lesion area with LEAP and 24.5% with FSL-lesion_filling. Lesion-filling did not influence DGM volumes from FSL-FIRST. Discussion These results demonstrate that for global GM volumetry, precise lesion masks on 3DT1 images can be replaced by co-registered 2DT2 lesion masks. This makes lesion-filling a feasible method for GM atrophy measurements in MS. PMID:24567908

  14. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  15. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe Dos Santos; Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa de; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-03-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  16. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation. PMID:24718110

  17. Demyelinative chiamal lesions.

    PubMed

    Spector, R H; Glaser, J S; Schatz, N J

    1980-12-01

    To clarify the clinical syndrome of demyelinative chiasmal involvement, six case histories were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. This entitity is characterized by especial predilection for women in the third to fifth decades; visual deficites of a chiasmal pattern that may be modest to marked, with a generallly good prognosis for functional recovery; and other signs and symptoms, not necessarily severe, of scattered lesions of the neuraxis. Neuroradiological studies, especially laminography of the sellar area and computerized tomography, must be employed to rule out a suprasellar mass lesion. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroid therapy is moot, but it seems reasonable to use such agents during acute stages, especially where vision is severely reduced on both sides. PMID:7447764

  18. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  19. Phantom experiments to improve parathyroid lesion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Kenneth J.; Tronco, Gene G.; Tomas, Maria B.; Kunjummen, Biju D.; Siripun, Lisa; Rini, Josephine N.; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2007-12-15

    This investigation tested the hypothesis that visual analysis of iteratively reconstructed tomograms by ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) provides the highest accuracy for localizing parathyroid lesions using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT data. From an Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review of 531 patients evaluated for parathyroid localization, image characteristics were determined for 85 {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT studies originally read as equivocal (EQ). Seventy-two plexiglas phantoms using cylindrical simulated lesions were acquired for a clinically realistic range of counts (mean simulated lesion counts of 75{+-}50 counts/pixel) and target-to-background (T:B) ratios (range=2.0 to 8.0) to determine an optimal filter for OSEM. Two experienced nuclear physicians graded simulated lesions, blinded to whether chambers contained radioactivity or plain water, and two observers used the same scale to read all phantom and clinical SPECT studies, blinded to pathology findings and clinical information. For phantom data and all clinical data, T:B analyses were not statistically different for OSEM versus FB, but visual readings were significantly more accurate than T:B (88{+-}6% versus 68{+-}6%, p=0.001) for OSEM processing, and OSEM was significantly more accurate than FB for visual readings (88{+-}6% versus 58{+-}6%, p<0.0001). These data suggest that visual analysis of iteratively reconstructed MIBI tomograms should be incorporated into imaging protocols performed to localize parathyroid lesions.

  20. Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

    PubMed Central

    Shulik, Oleg; Cavanagh, Yana; Grossman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Pancreatic abscess Symptoms: Jaundice • fatigue • anorexia • subjective weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration • biliary stenting • endoscopic cholangiopancreatography Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare coexistance of disease or pathology Background: Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual. Case Report: A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient’s symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU. Conclusions: EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this

  1. Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

    PubMed

    Shulik, Oleg; Cavanagh, Yana; Grossman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU. CONCLUSIONS EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this practice may be associated with an inherently significant risk of misdiagnosis and subsequent unnecessary surgery, as illustrated by this case. Malignancy was initially suspected in our patient and surgical resection was recommended. Endoscopic measures were only pursued to complete staging. We propose that EUS-guided biopsy may be a crucial diagnostic step in the management algorithm

  2. Improving diagnosis of atraumatic splenic lesions, part I: nonneoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zina J; Oh, Sarah K; Chernyak, Victoria; Flusberg, Milana; Rozenblit, Alla M; Kaul, Bindu; Stein, Marjorie W; Mazzariol, Fernanda S

    2016-01-01

    Focal atraumatic splenic lesions often pose a diagnostic challenge on cross-sectional imaging. They can be categorized based on etiology as nonneoplastic (reviewed in Part I), benign neoplastic, and malignant neoplastic lesions. Lesions can also be characterized based on prevalence as common, uncommon, and rare. Familiarity with pertinent clinical parameters, etiology, pathology, prevalence, and ancillary features such as splenomegaly, concomitant hepatic involvement, and extrasplenic findings, in addition to knowledge of imaging spectra of these lesions, can improve diagnostic confidence. Since the nonneoplastic lesions are usually easily recognized, it is critical that the radiologist identifies them avoiding unnecessary work up. PMID:27317223

  3. [Proliferative mucosal lesions in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Ursache, Maria; Grădinaru, Irina; Vlădoiu, Ruxandra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study consisted into the identification of the hyperplasic modifications on the oral mucosa related to the etiological factors implicated into the etiopathogenity. We surveyed 228 patients aged between 65-84 years, with partial or total edentation, with removable dentures. The diagnostic was based on a complex clinical examination and complementary tests. The clinical manifestation forms were very different, determined by local factors, especially prosthetic one. The registration of these lesions demonstrates the main role of the dentist on the prophylactic activity of registration of these lesions and reduction of the etiologic factors. PMID:15688766

  4. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses. PMID:27261346

  5. [Multifocal Vitelliform Retinal Lesion].

    PubMed

    Streicher, T; Špirková, J; Ilavská, M

    2015-06-01

    The authors present retrospective follow up of patient with bilateral multifocal vitelliform retinal lesion during the 18 years period. At this time, spontaneous improvement of objective picture on retina and subjective visual troubles was observed. It is probable, that this case is a part of the same symptom complex as a variant of Best´s hereditary disease. This conclusion was based on initial stadium of phenotypical expressivity and additional evaluations. The course and outcomes of visual functions were different. The hereditary transmission was not confirmed. PMID:26201364

  6. COMMON LESIONS OF THE URETHRA IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Burkland, Carl E.

    1952-01-01

    Urethral disease in women and girls often is overlooked. As the urine may seem to be normal as determined by repeated urinalysis, the symptoms—urinary frequency and burning—may be attributed entirely to other pelvic disease or to functional disorder. Since erroneous diagnosis may lead to unnecessary procedures or to neglect of treatment with consequent development of severe disease in the kidneys or ureters, it is important to consider urethral lesions as a possible cause in any case of abdominal discomfort in women. The most common lesions of the urethra in women are urethritis, stricture, caruncle, inflammatory polyps and cysts, prolapse of the urethra, and diverticulum. In some cases diagnosis can be made simply on the basis of inspection and palpation. In others more extensive diagnostic procedures must be carried out in order that treatment may be definitive. The methods of treatment, varying with the nature of the lesion, are outlined herein. PMID:14905285

  7. Prevalence of tongue lesions in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan; Doni, Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tongue lesions are a health concern for the dental practitioners and the patients as they constitute a significant proportion of oral mucosal lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of various tongue lesions in the Indian population. Material and methods: 4926 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of various tongue lesions during the period from October, 2010 to September, 2012. The age of the patients ranged from 12-80 years with a mean age of 36.51 years. Results: The prevalence of tongue lesions was 12.07%. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated tongue affecting 28.0% of the subjects, followed by geographic tongue (16.4%), fissured tongue (14.9%) and depapillated tongue (11.5%). Males were more frequently affected than females. The most common systemic condition observed in the patients with tongue lesions was anaemia (189), followed by hypertension (47) and diabetes mellitus (38). Conclusion: The high prevalence necessitates adequate awareness of the various tongue lesions in the general population. The dental clinicians should also be knowledgeable about the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. Key words:Tongue lesions, prevalence, Indian population, coated tongue. PMID:24455067

  8. Prevalence of lip lesions in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lip lesions are a frequent cause of consultation in dentistry, as they comprise a significant proportion of the oral lesions. The aim of the present study was to identify the different lip lesions and determine their prevalence in an Indian population. Material and Methods: 5231 patients visiting a Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of different lip lesions during the period from October, 2011 to May, 2013. The statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 8-70 years with a mean age of 32.6 years. The prevalence of lip lesions was 18.8%. The most commonly diagnosed lesions were those due to infections, which affected 32.6% of the population, followed by mucocele (29.8%) and premalignant lesions and conditions which were observed in 20.6% of the population. Males were more commonly affected than females. Conclusions: The relatively high prevalence of the lip lesions suggests dental practitioners and health care workers to educate the patients and create more awareness regarding them. The dentists should have adequate knowledge about the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of the lip lesions. Key words: Lip, lesions, India, prevalence. PMID:25593659

  9. Producing Uniform Lesion Pattern in HIFU Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Kargl, Steven G.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a modality for treatment of solid tumors. The temperature at the focus can reach over 65° C denaturing cellular proteins resulting in coagulative necrosis. Typically, HIFU parameters are the same for each treated spot in most HIFU control systems. Because of thermal diffusion from nearby spots, the size of lesions will gradually become larger as the HIFU therapy progresses, which may cause insufficient treatment of initial spots, and over-treatment of later ones. It is found that the produced lesion pattern also depends on the scanning pathway. From the viewpoint of the physician creating uniform lesions and minimizing energy exposure are preferred in tumor ablation. An algorithm has been developed to adaptively determine the treatment parameters for every spot in a theoretical model in order to maintain similar lesion size throughout the HIFU therapy. In addition, the exposure energy needed using the traditional raster scanning is compared with those of two other scanning pathways, spiral scanning from the center to the outside and from the outside to the center. The theoretical prediction and proposed algorithm were further evaluated using transparent gel phantoms as a target. Digital images of the lesions were obtained, quantified, and then compared with each other. Altogether, dynamically changing treatment parameters can improve the efficacy and safety of HIFU ablation.

  10. [When and which treatment for scapho-lunate ligament lesions?].

    PubMed

    Papaloïzos, Michaël

    2014-07-01

    The lesions of the scapholunate ligament are some of the most frequently encountered in the wrist. Left untreated, the complete rupture of the ligament is followed by degenerative arthritis according to a well-defined pattern of progression through the wrist, eventually leading to multifocal arthrosis, a condition described as scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC wrist). The scapholunate lesions are classified in stages according to the degree of the lesion established by imaging studies or arthroscopy and to the chronicity of the lesion. Both together essentially determine the healing potential and the prognosis, which rapidly decrease after six weeks from the initial trauma, thus indicating the importance of recognizing the acute or subacute lesion and directing the patient to the hand surgeon early enough. The therapeutic options are notably reduced and often of palliative nature in case of chronic lesions with secondary changes in the wrist mechanics or cartilage damage. PMID:24972517

  11. Andersson lesion in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dhakad, Urmila; Das, Siddharth K

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged male patient developed acute back pain and a lumbar vertebral lesion following trivial physical trauma. The lesion was considered as tuberculous on vertebral x-rays and MRI. After biopsy of the lesion and spinal fixation, the patient was kept on empirical antituberculous treatment (ATT) to which he did not respond. On re-evaluation he was diagnosed to have an Andersson lesion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ATT was stopped and he was successfully managed by rest, steroids, methotrexate and sulfasalazine. A careful look at the patient's plain x-ray spine and awareness about the lesion can avoid misdiagnosis of this characteristic vertebral lesion found in AS. PMID:23559648

  12. Focal lesions in normal liver.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Richard C; Martin, Diego R; Balci, N Cem

    2005-10-01

    A variety of lesions occur in the normal liver. This review will describe the most common benign, malignant, and infectious lesions. Illustration will be made of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the most common of these. Due to the high accuracy for liver lesion detection and characterization, and the intrinsic safety of the modality, MR should be considered the primary imaging tool to investigate liver diseases. PMID:16174062

  13. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  14. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  15. Stress-induced cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1992-05-01

    The increasing occurrence of dental lesions at the cervical surfaces requires more knowledge of the causes of the process. Acidic and abrasive mechanisms have clearly been documented as causes but the stress theory by Lee and Eakle is still controversial. This report describes several incidences of possible stress-induced lesions according to the characteristics described by Lee and Eakle. The occurrences of subgingival lesions lend credence to the stress-induction theory by exclusion of other superimposing etiologic factors. With the current concepts, a perceptive approach to the treatment of cervical lesions can be executed. PMID:1527763

  16. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  17. Effect of the Spiroiminodihydantoin Lesion on Nucleosome Stability and Positioning.

    PubMed

    Norabuena, Erika M; Barnes Williams, Sara; Klureza, Margaret A; Goehring, Liana J; Gruessner, Brian; Radhakrishnan, Mala L; Jamieson, Elizabeth R; Núñez, Megan E

    2016-04-26

    DNA is constantly under attack by oxidants, generating a variety of potentially mutagenic covalently modified species, including oxidized guanine base products. One such product is spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), a chiral, propeller-shaped lesion that strongly destabilizes the DNA helix in its vicinity. Despite its unusual shape and thermodynamic effect on double-stranded DNA structure, DNA duplexes containing the Sp lesion form stable nucleosomes upon being incubated with histone octamers. Indeed, among six different combinations of lesion location and stereochemistry, only two duplexes display a diminished ability to form nucleosomes, and these only by ∼25%; the other four are statistically indistinguishable from the control. Nonetheless, kinetic factors also play a role: when the histone proteins have less time during assembly of the core particle to sample both lesion-containing and normal DNA strands, they are more likely to bind the Sp lesion DNA than during slower assembly processes that better approximate thermodynamic equilibrium. Using DNase I footprinting and molecular modeling, we discovered that the Sp lesion causes only a small perturbation (±1-2 bp) on the translational position of the DNA within the nucleosome. Each diastereomeric pair of lesions has the same effect on nucleosome positioning, but lesions placed at different locations behave differently, illustrating that the location of the lesion and not its shape serves as the primary determinant of the most stable DNA orientation. PMID:27074396

  18. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  19. Cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Ralph H.; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Summary In contrast to the relatively uniform pathology and the unyielding dismal outcome associated with infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, cystic lesions have a broad spectrum of gross and microscopic pathologies, and a range of clinical outcomes. The common cystic lesions of the pancreas are reviewed with emphasis on practical tips for distinguishing between the main entities. PMID:20953247

  20. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. PMID:21217952

  1. Hamartomatous tongue lesions in children.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Portia A; Ernst, Linda M; Elden, Lisa M; Kazahaya, Ken; Alawi, Faizan; Russo, Pierre A

    2007-08-01

    The incidence and spectrum of tongue lesions in children, in particular tongue hamartomas, is relatively unknown. We report a retrospective review of all tongue lesions seen at a major tertiary care children's hospital over an 18-year period with an emphasis on describing tongue hamartomas. A total of 135 tongue lesions were identified. Vascular/lymphatic lesions (36/135) were the most common followed by mucus extravasation phenomenon (22/135). Interestingly, hamartomatous lesions (18/135) were the third most common lesion category identified. Lingual hamartomas were predominantly submucosal in location and were classified histologically by tissue composition as follows: neurovascular (2/18), smooth muscle predominant (5/18), fat predominant (1/18), and smooth muscle and fat containing (10/18). All 5 smooth muscle predominant hamartomas also contained vasculature, and 1 case additionally contained salivary gland tissue. The single fat predominant hamartoma additionally contained vessels and salivary gland. The final 10 hamartomas contained varying amounts of both smooth muscle and fat, and also admixed combinations of vessels, nerves, and salivary glands. Two of these 10 cases additionally contained foci of choristomatous elements, including cutaneous adnexal structures and cartilage. Most patients with hamartomatous lesions were young, 2 years or less. Eight cases were congenital in origin. Females outnumbered males by 2:1. The majority of lesions (16/18) were dorsal in location, and 4 patients had a syndromic association, all oral-facial-digital syndrome. PMID:17667541

  2. Radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) of the nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Zgajnar, J; Hocevar, M; Frkovic-Grazio, S; Hertl, K; Schweiger, E; Besic, N

    2004-01-01

    Standard localization techniques of the nonpalpable breast lesions (guide wire, carbon, skin marking) have several disadvantages. Radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) was recently proposed as a better alternative resulting in wider surgical margins and lower average specimen weight. The aim of our study was to compare ROLL to our previously published series of the standard guidewire localization, performed at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana. ROLL was performed in 110 nonpalpable breast lesions. Human serum albumin macroaggregats, marked with 1.8-5.5 MBq 99mTc was injected in the nonpalpable lesion. During surgery the radioactive breast tissue was excised using hand held gamma probe. Nonpalpable breast lesions were excised in all 110 patients. The definitive histology revealed 32 invasive carcinomas, 19 DCIS, 5 LCIS in and 54 benign breast lesions. Mean specimen weight was 40 g which is less in comparison to 53 g of the guidewire series (p=0.002). Surgical margins were clear in 36/51 (70%) invasive breast cancer or DCIS patients and close or involved in 15/51 (30%) patients. Compared to the guidewire series, where 41/92 (44%) margins were clear and 51/92 (56%) were close or involved, the difference was statistically significant (p=0.005). ROLL proved to be superior to guidewire localization in our series, allowing excision of the nonpalpable breast lesion with wider surgical margins despite lower average specimen weight. PMID:15640944

  3. Quantitative analysis of colorectal mucosal lesions by autofluorescence endoscopy: discrimination of carcinomas from other lesions.

    PubMed

    Arita, Keiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Kawano, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shin; Maeyama, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Junya; Akagi, Yoshito; Watanabe, Yasutomo; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2011-07-01

    A newly developed autofluorescence (AF) imaging technique was applied during colonoscopy in a clinical setting. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the clinical feasibility of applying AF endoscopy for distinguishing colorectal lesions. A total of 54 colorectal mucosal lesions obtained from 43 patients who underwent both white-light and AF endoscopy and were treated by endoscopy or surgery were assessed. Of the lesions, 11 were hyperplastic polyps, 30 were adenomas and 13 were carcinomas. To quantify the AF intensity, a color-contrast index (CCI) was determined and evaluated in relation to the histology, size and shape of each lesion. CCI was significantly associated with the histology and size of the lesions, but not their shape. CCI increased as the malignant potential increased (in the order of hyperplastic polyps→adenomas→carcinomas), irrespective of the lesion size (r=0.797, p<0.0001 for size>8 mm; r=0.622, p=0.0045 for size>8 mm but >15 mm; r=0.644, p=0.0071 for size>15 mm). In each size group, CCI tended to be higher for carcinomas than for adenomas, and also higher for adenomas than for hyperplastic polyps. CCI allowed discrimination of adenomas/carcinomas from hyperplastic polyps with 95.3% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity (cut-off value, 14.5), and of colorectal carcinomas from adenomas with 84.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity (cut-off value, 28.0). These results suggest that the quantitative analysis of AF intensity using CCI is helpful to discriminate among different types of colorectal mucosal lesions, including carcinomas. PMID:21573495

  4. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  5. Dentition and lesion history.

    PubMed

    Eggertsson, H; Ferreira-Zandona, A

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a process that typically keeps recurring throughout life, and the consequences are too often seen as irreversible damage to the dentition. At various stages of life, different parts of the dentition are affected, and the effects continue to be seen in the dentition long after the events took place. They bear witness to previous occurrences of this process throughout the lifetime of an individual. This chapter reviews the linkage between the caries process and the dental caries lesion history of the human dentition. The prevalence and distribution of the caries burden are very variable and closely tied to cultural aspects. In the primary dentition, income and education have been found to be inversely associated with: (1) any early childhood caries and (2) the maxillary incisor caries pattern. A positive association between these caries patterns and minority ethnicity/race status was also identified. These patterns are different from those of the permanent dentition. Well-documented changes in caries prevalence have been observed throughout history, most closely tied to availability and amount of refined sugar consumed. Changes in caries rates are also well documented in the 20th century, mainly with the advent of fluoride in several forms, first as a steep decline and recently as being relatively unchanged. It is likely that there will be dramatic changes in the rates and distribution of dental caries in the future, due to changes in behavioural factors and therapeutic measures. The description drawn is based on the dental caries pattern experienced in modern western societies. PMID:19494678

  6. Enhanced consumption of salient solutions following pedunculopontine tegmental lesions

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, Duncan AA; Markovic, Tamara; Daniels, Derek; Clark, Stewart D

    2014-01-01

    Rats with lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) reliably overconsume high concentration sucrose solution. This effect is thought to be indicative of response-perseveration or loss of behavioral control in conditions of high excitement. While these theories have anatomical and behavioral support, they have never been explicitly tested. Here, we used a contact lickometer to examine the microstructure of drinking behavior to gain insight into the behavioral changes during overconsumption. Rats received either excitotoxic (ibotenic acid) damage to all PPTg neuronal subpopulations or selective depletion of the cholinergic neuronal sub-population (Dtx-UII lesions). We offered rats a variety of pleasant, neutral and aversive tastants to assess the generalizability and specificity of the overconsumption effect. Ibotenic lesioned rats consumed significantly more 20% sucrose than sham controls, and did so through licking significantly more times. However, the behavioral microstructure during overconsumption was unaffected by the lesion and showed no indications of response-perseveration. Furthermore, the overconsumption effect did not generalize to highly consumed saccharin. In contrast, while only consuming small amounts of quinine solution, ibotenic lesioned rats had significantly more licks and bursts for this tastant. Selective depletion of cholinergic PPTg neurons had no effect on consumption of any tastant. We then assessed whether it is the salience of the solution which determines overconsumption by ibotenic lesioned rats. While maintained on free-food, ibotenic lesioned rats had normal consumption of sucrose and hypertonic saline. After mild food deprivation ibotenic PPTg lesioned rats overconsumed 20% sucrose. Subsequently, after dietary induced sodium deficiency, lesioned rats consumed significantly more saline than controls. These results establish that it is the salience of the solution which is the determining factor leading to

  7. Native Chondrocyte Viability during Cartilage Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kumkum; McRury, Ian D.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Morgan, Roy E.; Augé, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early surgical intervention for articular cartilage disease is desirable before full-thickness lesions develop. As early intervention treatments are designed, native chondrocyte viability at the treatment site before intervention becomes an important parameter to consider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate native chondrocyte viability in a series of specimens demonstrating the progression of articular cartilage lesions to determine if the chondrocyte viability profile changes during the evolution of articular cartilage disease to the level of surface fibrillation. Design: Osteochondral specimens demonstrating various degrees of articular cartilage damage were obtained from patients undergoing knee total joint replacement. Three groups were created within a patient harvest based on visual and tactile cues commonly encountered during surgical intervention: group 1, visually and tactilely intact surfaces; group 2, visually intact, tactilely soft surfaces; and group 3, surface fibrillation. Confocal laser microscopy was performed following live/dead cell viability staining. Results: Groups 1 to 3 demonstrated viable chondrocytes in all specimens, even within the fibrillated portions of articular cartilage, with little to no evidence of dead chondrocytes. Chondrocyte viability profile in articular cartilage does not appear to change as disease lesion progresses from normal to surface fibrillation. Conclusions: Fibrillated partial-thickness articular cartilage lesions are a good therapeutic target for early intervention. These lesions retain a high profile of viable chondrocytes and are readily diagnosed by visual and tactile cues during surgery. Early intervention should be based on matrix failure rather than on more aggressive procedures that further corrupt the matrix and contribute to chondrocyte necrosis of contiguous untargeted cartilage. PMID:26069561

  8. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus. PMID:22946368

  9. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  10. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  11. Furcation lesion in a mandibular canine.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Dimitri Ribas; Sena, Larryson Goncalves; Santos, Maria Helena; Goncalves, Patricia Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes can complicate dental treatment. This report presents a rare case of a furcation lesion in a mandibular canine with two roots. A 39-year-old man in general good health sought dental care for severe pain in his maxillary anterior teeth. The clinical examination showed localized swelling in the vestibular mucosa close to the mandibular left canine. Radiographic examination revealed two distinct roots and vertical bone resorption in the canine's mesial surface. Periodontal evaluation led to a diagnosis of periodontal abscess associated with furcation lesion. Despite the occurrence in an atypical location, the site of periodontal furcation received conventional therapy for initial decontamination, including tissue debridement and a combination of polyvinylpyrrolidone irrigation and antibiotics. To improve access, the decontamination was completed with surgical techniques and scaling and root planing. Early diagnosis of this rare morphological change helped to determine appropriate, timely treatment planning and optimal patient recovery. PMID:21903558

  12. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  13. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  14. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  15. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

  16. Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G

    2015-01-01

    Auditory processing can be disrupted by brainstem lesions. It is estimated that approximately 57% of brainstem lesions are associated with auditory disorders. However diseases of the brainstem usually involve many structures, producing a plethora of other neurologic deficits, often relegating "auditory symptoms in the background." Lesions below or within the cochlear nuclei result in ipsilateral auditory-processing abnormalities detected in routine testing; disorders rostral to the cochlear nuclei may result in bilateral abnormalities or may be silent. Lesions in the superior olivary complex and trapezoid body show a mixture of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral abnormalities, whereas lesions of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate body do not affect peripheral auditory processing and result in predominantly subtle contralateral abnormalities that may be missed by routine auditory testing. In these cases psychophysical methods developed for the evaluation of central auditory function should be employed (e.g., dichotic listening, interaural time perception, sound localization). The extensive connections of the auditory brainstem nuclei not only are responsible for binaural interaction but also assure redundancy in the system. This redundancy may explain why small brainstem lesions are sometimes clinically silent. Any disorder of the brainstem (e.g., neoplasms, vascular disorders, infections, trauma, demyelinating disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, malformations) that involves the auditory pathways and/or centers may produce hearing abnormalities. PMID:25726288

  17. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Fatima; Khadilkar, Urmila N; Saha, Debarshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS) was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme) and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL) involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis. PMID:26664161

  18. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  19. DNA lesions: A thermodynamic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, G.E.; Breslauer, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    The studies described in this paper are part of an overall program project entitled {open_quotes}The Chemistry and Biology of Exocyclic DNA Adducts and Oxidative DNA Damage.{close_quotes}. Initially, all the project leaders discuss and agree on biologically interesting lesions to target for study. Then begins the process of developing the chemistry required to synthesize modified nucleosides that either correspond to or model the damage sites of interest. Such modified nucleotides then are incorporated into oligonucleotides that are hybridized to their complements, thereby forming lesion-containing duplex structures. In any given duplex, the identity of the lesion-opposing nucleoside on the complementary strand is systematically altered, thereby allowing us to evaluate the impact on duplex properties of the identity of the base opposite the lesion. For comparative purposes, the undamaged parent Watson-Crick duplex also is synthesized. Such families of DNA duplexes are then sent for independent physiochemical characterizations. Armed with an extensive body of biophysical data, one then searches for correlations between the physiochemical influences of the lesions on duplex properties and the biological consequences of each lesion. At this stage, our approach is highly empirical. Ultimately, we hope that our studies will reveal correlations between physiochemical properties and biological consequences such that we will develop predictive powers and gain insight into the mechanisms of recognition, repair, and mutagenesis.

  20. Endocarditis-associated brain lesions in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Karstrup, C C; Jensen, H E; Aalbæk, B; Leifsson, P S; Boye, M; Agerholm, J S

    2011-05-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized by focal microabscesses without observable bacteria. Chronic lesions were characterized by astrocytosis and focal accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes. An infarct was observed in one animal. Perivascular inflammation was seen in 14 cases, mostly as two or three lesions, while focal leptomeningitis was found in eight cases. EABLs are therefore common in slaughter pigs with LSVE. The number of lesions per animal is small, which may explain the limited attention paid to this sequela of LSVE. EABLs have rarely been reported in domestic animals and mostly in patients with neurological signs. The frequent occurrence of EABLs in slaughter pigs suggests that this pathology should be investigated in other animal species with LSVE. PMID:21168147

  1. A software system for the simulation of chest lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McEntee, Mark; Barrett, Saoirse; Evanoff, Michael; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    We report on the development of a novel software tool for the simulation of chest lesions. This software tool was developed for use in our study to attain optimal ambient lighting conditions for chest radiology. This study involved 61 consultant radiologists from the American Board of Radiology. Because of its success, we intend to use the same tool for future studies. The software has two main functions: the simulation of lesions and retrieval of information for ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) and JAFROC (Jack-Knife Free Response ROC) analysis. The simulation layer operates by randomly selecting an image from a bank of reportedly normal chest x-rays. A random location is then generated for each lesion, which is checked against a reference lung-map. If the location is within the lung fields, as derived from the lung-map, a lesion is superimposed. Lesions are also randomly selected from a bank of manually created chest lesion images. A blending algorithm determines which are the best intensity levels for the lesion to sit naturally within the chest x-ray. The same software was used to run a study for all 61 radiologists. A sequence of images is displayed in random order. Half of these images had simulated lesions, ranging from subtle to obvious, and half of the images were normal. The operator then selects locations where he/she thinks lesions exist and grades the lesion accordingly. We have found that this software was very effective in this study and intend to use the same principles for future studies.

  2. Identifying predictive morphologic features of malignancy in eyelid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christina; Johnson, Davin; Pang, Renee; Kratky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine features of eyelid lesions most predictive of malignancy, and to design a key to assist general practitioners in the triaging of such lesions. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Department of Ophthalmology at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ont. Participants A total of 199 consecutive periocular lesions requiring biopsy or excision were included. Main outcome measures First, potential features suggestive of malignancy for eyelid lesions were identified based on a survey sent to Canadian oculoplastic surgeons. The sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratios (ORs) of these features were then determined using 199 consecutive photographed eyelid lesions of patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology and underwent biopsy or excision. A triage key was then created based on the features with the highest ORs, and it was pilot-tested by a group of medical students. Results Of the 199 lesions included, 161 (80.9%) were benign and 38 (19.1%) were malignant. The 3 features with the highest ORs in predicting malignancy were infiltration (OR = 18.2, P < .01), ulceration (OR = 14.7, P < .01), and loss of eyelashes (OR = 6.0, P < .01). The acronym LUI (loss of eyelashes, ulceration, infiltration) was created to assist in memory recall. After watching a video describing the LUI triage key, the mean total score of a group of medical students for correctly identifying malignant lesions increased from 46% to 70% (P < .001). Conclusion Differentiating benign from malignant eyelid lesions can be difficult even for experienced physicians. The LUI triage key provides physicians with an evidence-based, easy-to-remember system for assisting in the triaging of these lesions. PMID:25756148

  3. Segmentation and classification of dermatological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Certain skin diseases are chronic, inflammatory and without cure. However, there are many treatment options that can clear them for a period of time. Measuring their severity and assessing their extent, is a fundamental issue to determine the efficacy of the treatment under test. Two of the most important parameters of severity assessment are Erythema (redness) and Scaliness. Physicians classify these parameters into several grades by visual grading method. In this paper a color image segmentation and classification algorithm is developed to obtain an assessment of erythema and scaliness of dermatological lesions. Color digital photographs taken under an acquisition protocol form the database. Difference between green band and blue band of images in RGB color space shows two modes (healthy skin and lesion) with clear separation. Otsu's method is applied to this difference in order to isolate the lesion. After the skin disease is segmented, some color and texture features are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into the five grades of erythema and the five grades of scaliness. The method has been tested with 31 images with a success percentage of 83.87 % when the images are classified in erythema, and 77.42 % for scaliness classification.

  4. Porcine deltacoronavirus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Sarver, Craig; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3' untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus. PMID:26475155

  5. Cystic lesion around the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Goto, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuichi; Shimaoka, Yasunori; Yamanaka, Issei; Sairyo, Koichi; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2015-10-18

    This article presents a narrative review of cystic lesions around the hip and primarily consists of 5 sections: Radiological examination, prevalence, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment. Cystic lesions around the hip are usually asymptomatic but may be observed incidentally on imaging examinations, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Some cysts may enlarge because of various pathological factors, such as trauma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or total hip arthroplasty (THA), and may become symptomatic because of compression of surrounding structures, including the femoral, obturator, or sciatic nerves, external iliac or common femoral artery, femoral or external iliac vein, sigmoid colon, cecum, small bowel, ureters, and bladder. Treatment for symptomatic cystic lesions around the hip joint includes rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, needle aspiration, and surgical excision. Furthermore, when these cysts are associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and THA, primary or revision THA surgery will be necessary concurrent with cyst excision. Knowledge of the characteristic clinical appearance of cystic masses around the hip will be useful for determining specific diagnoses and treatments. PMID:26495246

  6. Cystic lesion around the hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Goto, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuichi; Shimaoka, Yasunori; Yamanaka, Issei; Sairyo, Koichi; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a narrative review of cystic lesions around the hip and primarily consists of 5 sections: Radiological examination, prevalence, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment. Cystic lesions around the hip are usually asymptomatic but may be observed incidentally on imaging examinations, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Some cysts may enlarge because of various pathological factors, such as trauma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or total hip arthroplasty (THA), and may become symptomatic because of compression of surrounding structures, including the femoral, obturator, or sciatic nerves, external iliac or common femoral artery, femoral or external iliac vein, sigmoid colon, cecum, small bowel, ureters, and bladder. Treatment for symptomatic cystic lesions around the hip joint includes rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, needle aspiration, and surgical excision. Furthermore, when these cysts are associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and THA, primary or revision THA surgery will be necessary concurrent with cyst excision. Knowledge of the characteristic clinical appearance of cystic masses around the hip will be useful for determining specific diagnoses and treatments. PMID:26495246

  7. Differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions in fish.

    PubMed Central

    Law, M

    2001-01-01

    Tissues such as skin and muscle have a limited repertoire of morphological response to injury. The two most important phenomena that determine the outcome of cell injury appear to be a) critical cell membrane damage, with associated fluid and ionic imbalances; and b) inability of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, to restart ATP synthesis. In fish, skin ulcers can have many different etiologies, including infectious agents, toxins, physical causes, immunologic causes, and nutritional and metabolic perturbations. This article is concerned primarily with the possible pathways of disease involved in ulcerative lesions of fish. In particular, the high prevalence of ulcerative lesions in Atlantic menhaden found along the mid-Atlantic coast, especially in North Carolina estuarine waters, has received much recent attention. These ulcerative lesions are likely to be initiated by a series of factors that lead ultimately to a breach of the normal barrier function of the skin. Bioassays that attempt to define the role of individual etiologic agents such as fungi (oomycetes) or putative Pfiesteria toxin(s) should recognize this multiplicity of factors and should include appropriate quality control measures for water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrogenous wastes, etc.) as well as bacterial and other contaminants that may confound bioassay results and their interpretation. Consideration of these factors along with the whole animal in the context of its environment can only advance the science, perhaps provide clues to the causative pathways of skin ulcers in fish, and give us keener insight into the health of the aquatic environment. PMID:11677175

  8. Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Staal, Joes; Suttorp-Schulten, Maria S A; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2005-05-01

    The robust detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs is a critical step in the development of automated screening systems for diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a novel red lesion detection method is presented based on a hybrid approach, combining prior works by Spencer et al. (1996) and Frame et al. (1998) with two important new contributions. The first contribution is a new red lesion candidate detection system based on pixel classification. Using this technique, vasculature and red lesions are separated from the background of the image. After removal of the connected vasculature the remaining objects are considered possible red lesions. Second, an extensive number of new features are added to those proposed by Spencer-Frame. The detected candidate objects are classified using all features and a k-nearest neighbor classifier. An extensive evaluation was performed on a test set composed of images representative of those normally found in a screening set. When determining whether an image contains red lesions the system achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 87%. The method is compared with several different automatic systems and is shown to outperform them all. Performance is close to that of a human expert examining the images for the presence of red lesions. PMID:15889546

  9. Ocular Lesions in the Inmates of Leprosy Rehabilitation Centre

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S. C.; Raju, B. D.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed eye examination of 145 inmates of a leprosy rehabilitation centre was done to determine the prevalence of ocular involvement. Age, gender of patients, type and duration of leprosy, systemic disabilities were noted. The mean age of patients was 45.8 years (range 19-70 years); 72.4% were males; 55.2% were suffering from paucibacillary leprosy. The mean duration of leprosy was 18.2 years in multibacillary type and 13.1 years in paucibacillary type. Ocular lesions related to leprosy were seen in 85.5% of patients; more often in multibacillary leprosy (92.3%). Corneal changes (80.7%) were the most frequently observed lesions followed by eye lid lesions (48.2%). Potentially sight threatening lesions such as lagophthalmos (23.4%), cornealanaesthesia (43.4%), and iridocyclitis (8.9%) were seen in both types of leprosy. Nine out of 26 (34.6%) patients with history of erythema nodosum leprosum reaction showed eye changes related to this reaction. Blindness in one eye due to lesions related to leprosy was seen in 2.7% of eyes. Age related cataract was the most common cause of blindness in patients of leprosy. The prevalence of ocular lesions was found to be high in the inmates of leprosy rehabilitation centre, and they were seen more frequently in patients with longer duration of the disease. Potentially sight threatening lesions were more often associated with systemic disabilities in these patients. PMID:23674993

  10. Imaging natural occlusal caries lesions with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Shane M.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively measure the severity of demineralization in the important occlusal surfaces. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of PS-OCT and OCT methods for the measurement of the depth of natural occlusal carious lesions. Teeth were screened for potential occlusal lesions using near infrared imaging (NIR). A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of the area of interest on the occlusal surface. The teeth were serial sectioned to 200 μm thickness and examined with polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Transverse Microradiography (TMR) for comparison. The lesion depth measured nondestructively with PS-OCT was compared to the lesion depth measured with PLM and TMR to assess the performance of these methods and determine if polarization sensitivity is required. The lesion depth measured using OCT correlated well with the lesion depths measured with TMR and PLM. Although polarization sensitivity provided better contrast it was not necessary to have polarization sensitivity to identify deep occlusal lesions.

  11. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    PubMed

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  12. Evaluation of retinal laser lesion healing by perimetric electroretinography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1996-04-01

    Eight Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in one eye 6 years previously were evaluated by a stimulation and electrophysiologic recording technique to produce maps of retinal function. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses from a neodymium-YAG laser produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, `white dot' lesions (localized circumscribed retinal blanching) and `red dot' lesions (contained retinal hemorrhage) in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. The multifocal (perimetric) electroretinogram was recorded from specialized contact lenses through hospital grade amplifiers. Initial analyses gave field maps that demonstrated apparent relative loss of function in some lesion sites. However, these losses were variable and occasionally patchy (i.e. disconnected areas of low signal). Repeated examinations of the same retinal areas showed high variability, even with 15 minute acquisition times and no apparent gaze drift. Apparent losses did not appear to correlate with visible retinal changes at the lesion site. Further research is needed to determine the biological substrate for this variability in response topography.

  13. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  14. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  15. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  16. Measuring longitudinal myelin water fraction in new multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wendy S.; Monohan, Elizabeth; Pandya, Sneha; Raj, Ashish; Vartanian, Timothy; Nguyen, Thanh D.; Hurtado Rúa, Sandra M.; Gauthier, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the potential of myelin repair strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS) requires an understanding of myelin dynamics during lesion evolution. The objective of this study is to longitudinally measure myelin water fraction (MWF), an MRI biomarker of myelin, in new MS lesions and to identify factors that influence their subsequent myelin content. Methods Twenty-three MS patients were scanned with whole-brain Fast Acquisition with Spiral Trajectory and T2prep (FAST-T2) MWF mapping at baseline and median follow-up of 6 months. Eleven healthy controls (HC) confirmed the reproducibility of FAST-T2 in white matter regions of interests (ROIs) similar to a lesion size. A random-effect-model was implemented to determine the association between baseline clinical and lesion variables and the subsequent MWF. Results ROI-based measurements in HCs were highly correlated between scans [mean r = 0.893 (.764–.967)]. In MS patients, 38 gadolinium enhancing (Gd+) and 25 new non-enhancing (Gd−) T2 hyperintense lesions (5.7 months, ±3.8) were identified. Significant improvement in MWF was seen in Gd+ lesions (0.035 ± 0.029, p < 0.001) as compared to Gd− lesions (0.006 ± 0.017, p = 0.065). In the model, a higher baseline MWF (p < 0.001) and the presence of Gd (p < 0.001) were associated with higher subsequent MWF. Conclusions FAST T2 provides a clinically feasible method to quantify MWF in new MS lesions. The observed influence of baseline MWF, which represents a combined effect of both resolving edema and myelin change within acute lesions, suggests that the extent of initial inflammation impacts final myelin recovery. PMID:26594620

  17. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions. PMID:24993884

  18. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  19. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  20. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  1. Can Small Lesions Induce Language Reorganization as Large Lesions Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestu, Fernando; Saldana, Cristobal; Amo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Fernandez, Alberto; Fernandez, Santiago; Mata, Pedro; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Ortiz, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Shift of the cortical mechanisms of language from the usually dominant left to the non-dominant right hemisphere has been demonstrated in the presence of large brain lesions. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in a patient with a cavernoma over the anterolateral superior temporal gyrus associated with epilepsy. Language mapping was performed by…

  2. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  3. Apraxia in deep cerebral lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, E; Coletti, A; Orlando, G; Tredici, G

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 50 patients with cerebrovascular lesions (demonstrated with CT scan), seven patients had lesions located in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. All these seven patients were apractic. Ideomotor apraxia was present in all patients; five also had constructional apraxia, and one had bucco-facial apraxia. None of the patients had utilisation apraxia. These observations indicated that apraxia is not only a "high cerebral (cortical) function", but may depend also on the integrity of subcortical circuits and structures. PMID:6619888

  4. Localized lesions in secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nasser Rashid; Raza, Naeem

    2008-05-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. PMID:18541087

  5. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  6. BLACK LESIONS OF THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S. William

    1958-01-01

    Benign melanocytic lesions include lentigo, ephelid (freckle), pigmented nevus, sacral spot, blue nevus, and combined nevus and blue nevus. Malignant melanocytic lesions are melanomas, which arise from melanocytes at the epidermodermal junction, or, rarely, from blue nevi. They usually originate in brown plaques known as lentigo maligna, in pigmented nevi, or in normal skin. Melanoma is diagnosed clinically in less than 50 per cent of instances. Biopsy is therefore of great importance, since practically all melanoma can be cured by adequate early resection. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:13511215

  7. Near-IR multi-modal imaging of natural occlusal lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dustin; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2009-02-01

    Reflectance and transillumination imaging show demineralization with high contrast in the near-IR. The objective of this study is to use lesion size and contrast acquired in reflectance and transillumination near-infrared imaging modes to estimate the severity of natural occlusal caries lesions. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) light can be used to effectively image artificial carious lesions. However, its efficacy on natural lesions requires further exploration. Fifty extracted teeth with varying amounts of occlusal decay were examined using a NIR imaging system operating at 1310-nm. Image analysis software was used to calculate contrast values between sound and carious tooth structure. After imaging, teeth were histologically sampled at 1-mm intervals in order to determine lesion depth. Lesion contrast in transillumination mode significantly increased with lesion depth (p<0.001), while lesion contrast in reflectance mode did not increase. The lesion area demonstrated a significant increase with lesion severity in both imaging modes. These results suggest that lesion contrast and area can be used to estimate lesion severity in NIR images.

  8. Progressive Injury in Chronic Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Is Gender-Specific: A DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Klistorner, Alexander; Wang, Chenyu; Yiannikas, Con; Graham, Stuart L.; Parratt, John; Barnett, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the longitudinal integrity of white matter tracts in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) as determined by changes in diffusivity indices of lesional and non-lesional white matter in the optic radiation over 12 months. Methods The optic radiation (OR) was identified in sixty RRMS patients using probabilistic tractography. MS lesions were segmented on FLAIR T2 images and a lesion mask was intersected with the co-registered OR. Lesions within the OR were identified in 39 patients. Voxel-based analysis of axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) within OR lesions and non-lesional normal appearing white matter (NAWM) was performed at baseline and 12 months in 34 patients (five patients excluded due to new OR lesions). Results Both RD and AD demonstrated much higher values within the lesions compared with non-lesional NAWM. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase of lesional AD and RD during the follow-up period. This increase, however, was driven almost entirely by the male cohort, in which a significantly greater change in both AD (M-2.7%, F-0.9%) and RD (M-4.6%, F-0.7%) was observed during the follow-up period. Non-lesional NAWM also demonstrated an increase in both AD and RD, albeit on a much lesser scale (1.0% and 0.6% respectively). In contradistinction to lesions, the diffusivity change in non-lesional NAWM was similar between sexes. Conclusions The evolution of AD and RD in chronic MS lesions over 12 months suggests ongoing inflammatory demyelinating activity accompanied by axonal loss. In addition, our findings are consistent with the recently observed trend of more rapid clinical progression in males and establish a potential in vivo biomarker of gender dichotomy by demonstrating a significantly faster rate of microstructural change in the chronic lesions of male patients with MS. PMID:26901540

  9. The Impact of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis on German Dermatologist Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Pigmented Lesions with Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Richard R.; Hauschild, Axel; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis on German dermatologist biopsy decisions of atypical pigmented skin lesions. Design: Participants were shown high-resolution clinical images of 12 atypical pigmented skin lesions previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images and high-resolution dermoscopy images and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information. Setting/participants: Forty-one dermatologists at a skin cancer conference in Germany in September 2014. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, percent biopsying all melanomas, and overall biopsy rates. Results: Sensitivity for the detection of melanoma following clinical evaluation was 64 percent. After receipt of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information, sensitivity decreased nonsignificantly to 62 percent. Specificity with clinical evaluation was 57 percent and increased to 73 percent using multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Overall biopsy accuracy increased from 60 percent with clinical evaluation to 68 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. The percentage of low-grade dysplastic nevi chosen for biopsy decreased from 43 percent after clinical evaluation to 27 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Finally, the overall percentage of lesions biopsied decreased from 52 percent with clinical evaluation to 42 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis can be used reliably to detect melanoma as well as clinical evaluation. Dermatologists can confidently use multispectral digital skin lesion analysis to significantly improve specificity and reduce their overall number of biopsies while increasing overall diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26557216

  10. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  11. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  12. Cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of benign or malignant cystic lesions can be observed in the pancreas. Pancreatic cystic lesions are classified under pathology terms into simple retention cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasm is a frequent type of cystic neoplasm and has a malignant potential. Serous cystadenoma follows in frequency and is usually benign. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are the most commonly resected cystic pancreatic neoplasms characterized by dilated segments of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches, the wall of which is covered by mucus secreting cells. These neoplasms can occupy the pancreatic head or any part of the organ. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is rare, has a low tendency for malignancy, and is usually located in the pancreatic body or tail. Endoscopic ultrasound with the use of fine-needle aspiration and cytology permits discrimination of those lesions. In this review, the main characteristics of those lesions are presented, as well as recommendations regarding their follow up and management according to recent guidelines. PMID:27065727

  13. Cystic lesions of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K

    2016-01-01

    Different types of benign or malignant cystic lesions can be observed in the pancreas. Pancreatic cystic lesions are classified under pathology terms into simple retention cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasm is a frequent type of cystic neoplasm and has a malignant potential. Serous cystadenoma follows in frequency and is usually benign. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are the most commonly resected cystic pancreatic neoplasms characterized by dilated segments of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches, the wall of which is covered by mucus secreting cells. These neoplasms can occupy the pancreatic head or any part of the organ. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is rare, has a low tendency for malignancy, and is usually located in the pancreatic body or tail. Endoscopic ultrasound with the use of fine-needle aspiration and cytology permits discrimination of those lesions. In this review, the main characteristics of those lesions are presented, as well as recommendations regarding their follow up and management according to recent guidelines. PMID:27065727

  14. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases. PMID:26675058

  15. Neuromuscular lesions in restrained rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mendlowski, B

    1975-01-01

    Ten of 16 rabbits restrained 6 h daily for 35 days developed focal to diffuse degeneration of the sciatic nerves. Very small necrotic areas also were found in the skeletal muscles of seven of 16 rabbits, but the muscle lesions did not correlate with the nerve changes. PMID:180647

  16. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  17. Molecular imaging of cerebrovascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Jabbour, Pascal; Magnotta, Vincent; Hasan, David

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular lesions. Two agents have emerged as promising possibilities for imaging cerebrovascular lesions. These agents are ferumoxytol and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-specific paramagnetic magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent. Ferumoxytol is an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell that is used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker as it is cleared by macrophages. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI allows noninvasive assessment of the inflammatory status of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations and, possibly, may differentiate "unstable" lesions that require early intervention from "stable" lesions that can be safely observed. Several pilot studies have also suggested that MPO-specific paramagnetic MR contrast agent, di-5-hydroxytryptamide of gadopentetate dimeglumine, may allow imaging of inflammation in the wall of saccular aneurysms in animal models. However, studies in human subjects have yet to be performed. In this paper, we review current data regarding ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI and MPO-specific paramagnetic MR contrast agent and discuss current and future applications. PMID:24323714

  18. SLAP lesions: a treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Tompkins, Marc; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Tears of the superior labrum involving the biceps anchor are a common entity, especially in athletes, and may highly impair shoulder function. If conservative treatment fails, successful arthroscopic repair of symptomatic SLAP lesions has been described in the literature particularly for young athletes. However, the results in throwing athletes are less successful with a significant amount of patients who will not regain their pre-injury level of performance. The clinical results of SLAP repairs in middle-aged and older patients are mixed, with worse results and higher revision rates as compared to younger patients. In this population, tenotomy or tenodesis of the biceps tendon is a viable alternative to SLAP repairs in order to improve clinical outcomes. The present article introduces a treatment algorithm for SLAP lesions based upon the recent literature as well as the authors' clinical experience. The type of lesion, age of patient, concomitant lesions, and functional requirements, as well as sport activity level of the patient, need to be considered. Moreover, normal variations and degenerative changes in the SLAP complex have to be distinguished from "true" SLAP lesions in order to improve results and avoid overtreatment. The suggestion for a treatment algorithm includes: type I: conservative treatment or arthroscopic debridement, type II: SLAP repair or biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, type III: resection of the instable bucket-handle tear, type IV: SLAP repair (biceps tenotomy/tenodesis if >50 % of biceps tendon is affected), type V: Bankart repair and SLAP repair, type VI: resection of the flap and SLAP repair, and type VII: refixation of the anterosuperior labrum and SLAP repair. PMID:26818554

  19. Management of precancerous lesions prior to conception and during pregnancy: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tseng, J-Y; Bastu, E; Gungor-Ugurlucan, F

    2012-11-01

    Special considerations aiming at preserving reproductive function have to be implemented when treating young patients with precancerous lesions of the lower genital tract. These high-grade lesions may progress into invasive cancer if left untreated. Currently, there are limited data on the impact of vulvar and vaginal precancerous lesions on fertility and its management during pregnancy. However, management and outcomes for cervical lesions have been extensively reported. The main approach for vulvar and vaginal lesions are maintaining anatomical function and cosmetics; whereas, treatment options for cervical precancerous lesions range from observation, cryotherapy or the more aggressive conisation. Gestational age is the most important factor in determining expectant management or surgical intervention. This narrative review draws attention to the relevant aspects of precancerous lesions of the lower genital tract, the potential effects and management prior to conception and during pregnancy. PMID:22966861

  20. The local immune response in ulcerative lesions of Buruli disease

    PubMed Central

    Kiszewski, A E; Becerril, E; Aguilar, L D; Kader, I T A; Myers, W; Portaels, F; Hernàndez Pando, R

    2006-01-01

    Buruli disease (BU) is a progressive necrotic and ulcerative disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU is considered the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. Three clinical stages of the cutaneous lesions have been described in BU: pre-ulcerative, ulcerative and healed lesions. In this study we used immunohistochemistry and automated morphometry to determine the percentage of macrophages and of CD4/CD8 lymphocytes and their expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Expression of these cytokines was correlated with the inflammatory response evaluated by histopathology. All the studied BU ulcerative cases showed extensive necrosis and chronic inflammation. The most important feature was the presence or absence of granulomas co-existing with a mixed pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. When granulomas were present significantly higher expression of IFN-γ was seen, whereas in ulcerative lesions without granulomas there was increased expression of IL-10 and significantly higher bacillary counts. These features correlated with the chronicity of the lesions; longer-lasting lesions showed granulomas. Thus, granulomas were absent from relatively early ulcerative lesions, which contained more bacilli and little IFN-γ, suggesting that at this stage of the disease strong suppression of the protective cellular immune response facilitates proliferation of bacilli. PMID:16487243

  1. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    PubMed

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age. PMID:10791785

  2. Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossiello, Luigi; Palla, Marco; Aiello, Francesco Saviero; Baroni, Adone; Satriano, Rocco Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a 7-year history of gradually enlarging plaques on his face and trunk. The first lesions had developed on both sides of the forehead and the left cheekbone (Figure 1). Four years later similar lesions appeared on his neck and back. He presented a histologic report of a biopsy specimen from a facial plaque performed 5 years earlier that was diagnostic for granuloma faciale. He had different treatments such as topical steroids and cryotherapy without improvement. The appearance of new lesions on his trunk and the gradual enlarging of the old lesions convinced the patient to seek further treatment. Physical examination revealed dusky, violaceous plaques and papules, 0.5 to 2 cm, well-circumscribed, slightly elevated, and located on the face and trunk, with mild pruritus (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Laboratory investigations, including complete blood cell count, VDRL test, antinuclear antibody test, biochemical parameters, and chest x-ray, did not reveal any abnormalities. A skin biopsy taken from the upper part of the back showed similar features to the facial lesion, detected 5 years before, revealing a dense, polymorphous infiltrate involving mid and deep dermis and displaying a diffuse and perivascular pattern (Figure 3A). A narrow grenz zone of normal collagen was consistently observed between dermal infiltrate and epidermis as well as around the pilosebaceous follicles (Figure 3A). The infiltrate mainly consisted of eosinophils and lymphocytes, but neutrophils (often displaying leukocytoclasis), macrophages, and plasma cells were also present (Figures 3B, 3C). Some mast cells were also identified by staining with toluidine blue (Figure 3D). Perivascular infiltrates were often seen, sometimes penetrating vessel walls and in association with leukocytoclasis. Hyalinization of vessel walls, extravasation of red blood cells around capillaries, and nuclear dust were also noted. The epidermis did not show any remarkable change except for

  3. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  4. Brain lesions affect penile reflexes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, E P; Arjomand, J; Breedlove, S M

    1993-03-01

    Electrolytic lesions of several potential brain afferents to the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) affect the display of penile reflexes. Ablation of the median and pontine raphe areas significantly potentiates the expression of cups and flips. Animals with a bilateral lesion of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus have a shorter latency to the first erection but otherwise display normal reflex behavior. Although bilateral destruction of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) completely eliminated penile reflex activity, it also caused significant motor impairment thus clouding conclusions concerning the normal role of the LVN in penile reflex behavior. These and other results support the hypothesis that these brain regions which project to the SNB region normally modulate spinal reflex behavior of the rat penis. PMID:8440513

  5. Are parenchymal AVMs congenital lesions?

    PubMed

    Morales-Valero, Saul F; Bortolotti, Carlo; Sturiale, Carmelo; Sturiale, Carmelo L; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    A long-held dogma in neurosurgery is that parenchymal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital. However, there is no strong evidence supporting this theory. An increasing number of documented cases of de novo formation of parenchymal AVMs cast doubt on their congenital nature and suggest that indeed the majority of these lesions may form after birth. Further evidence suggesting the postnatal development of parenchymal AVMs comes from the exceedingly rare diagnosis of these lesions in utero despite the widespread availability of high-resolution imaging modalities such as ultrasound and fetal MRI. The exact mechanism of AVM formation has yet to be elucidated, but most likely involves genetic susceptibility and environmental triggering factors. In this review, the authors report 2 cases of de novo AVM formation and analyze the evidence suggesting that they represent an acquired condition. PMID:25175439

  6. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings. PMID:18671000

  7. Lymphoproliferative lesions of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Cerroni, L

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most difficult areas in dermatopathology, and biopsies are often taken to rule out a cutaneous lymphoma in patients with “unclear” or “therapy‐resistant” skin lesions. Histopathological features alone often enable a given case to be classified to a diagnostic group (eg, epidermotropic lymphomas), but seldom allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Performing several biopsies from morphologically different lesions is suggested, especially in patients with suspicion of mycosis fungoides. Immunohistochemistry is often crucial for proper classification of the cases, but in some instances is not helpful (eg, early lesions of mycosis fungoides). Although molecular techniques provide new, powerful tools for diagnosing cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, results of molecular methods should always be interpreted with the clinicopathological features, keeping in mind the possibility of false positivity and false negativity. In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made only on careful correlation of the clinical with the histopathological, immunophenotypical and molecular features. PMID:16873563

  8. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  9. [Vesiculobullous lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, F K; Vissink, A; Raghoebar, G M; van der Waal, I

    2001-06-01

    In general practice, the dentist can be confronted with a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa. In many cases the lesion can be classified as recurrent herpes labialis, but many other causes can induce a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa and perioral skin as well. This article gives an overview of the various vesiculous and bullous lesions of the oral mucous membranes. Special attention is given to the possible causes and their treatment. PMID:11441714

  10. [Imaging spinal cord cystic lesions in adults].

    PubMed

    Kremer, S; Bierry, G; Abu Eid, M; Bogorin, A; Koob, M; Zöllner, G; Dietemann, J L

    2007-05-01

    Intrarachidian cystic lesions are frequent, with highly varied causes. They can be classified according to their location into intramedullary cystic lesions and extramedullary cystic lesions. In these two categories, they can then be regrouped according to the tissue from which they develop. MRI is the first-choice examination for the study of the intracanal contents and the differential diagnosis between the various lesions. PMID:17541357

  11. B3-lesions of the breast and cancer risk - an analysis of mammography screening patients

    PubMed Central

    HOFFMANN, OLIVER; STAMATIS, GESINA ATHINA; BITTNER, ANN-KATHRIN; ARNOLD, GEORG; SCHNABEL, ROLF; KRÜGER, KARLGEORG; KIMMIG, RAINER; HEUBNER, MARTIN

    2016-01-01

    The use of mammography screening, followed by needle core biopsy (NCB), is associated with an increasing amount of invasive procedures. A considerable amount of specimens must be classified as lesions with uncertain malignant potential (B3-lesion). In these cases, an open biopsy is indicated for further diagnosis. We evaluated patients with B3-lesions to determine the risk of malignancy corresponding to the histopathological NCB results and the type of radiological lesion identified. A total of 95 patients participating in the German mammography screening program with a B3-lesion following NCB (104 B3-lesions in total) were included in our analysis. We analyzed the correlation between the initial histopathological findings from the NCB specimen and cancer risk. We further analyzed the correlations of malignant results with the type of mammographic lesion. In 23 cases (22%), histopathological examination following excision revealed a malignant lesion, including invasive and in situ carcinoma. The positive predictive value of the subgroups of B3-lesions ranged between 0.11 and 0.31; the B3-lesion associated with the highest cancer risk was the atypical ductal hyperplasia; however, no significant difference was observed between the B3-lesion subgroups (P=0.309) regarding the risk of malignancy. Comparing the different types of mammographic findings, such as radiological mass or microcalcifications, there was no significant difference in the risk for malignancy (P=0.379). The different types of B3-lesions did not exhibit differences in the risk for malignancy, and the morphological type of mammographic lesion does not appear to be correlated with cancer risk; therefore, our results underline the need for open biopsy in patients with B3-lesions following NCB. PMID:27123266

  12. Skin lesions: mirror images of oral lesion infections.

    PubMed

    Phanuphak, N

    2006-01-01

    Skin lesions can be the presenting signs for HIV disease and are among the most prevalent manifestations throughout the course of HIV disease. Correlation of skin diseases and HIV disease staging has long been recognized and used to guide medical management in resource-limited settings. The purpose of this paper is to give a review of common skin infections presented in HIV-infected patients. Common skin infections presenting in HIV-infected patients include viral, fungal, mycobacterial, and bacterial infections, along with skin infestation. Key diagnostic points correlate with certain HIV disease staging for many skin diseases. These can help facilitate appropriate diagnosis and referral by health care personnel when treating HIV-infected patients who have skin lesions. Knowledge of common skin manifestations found in HIV-infected patients is essential for all health care personnel who work in the HIV field. Most skin infections presenting in HIV-infected patients can be treated effectively if the correct diagnosis and appropriate referral are made promptly. PMID:16672553

  13. Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions in Multislice Myelin Water Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Faizy, Tobias Djamsched; Thaler, Christian; Kumar, Dushyant; Sedlacik, Jan; Broocks, Gabriel; Grosser, Malte; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Heesen, Christoph; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess neuroprotection and remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), we applied a more robust myelin water imaging (MWI) processing technique, including spatial priors into image reconstruction, which allows for lower SNR, less averages and shorter acquisition times. We sought to evaluate this technique in MS-patients and healthy controls (HC). Materials and Methods Seventeen MS-patients and 14 age-matched HCs received a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination including MWI (8 slices, 12 minutes acquisition time), T2w and T1mprage pre and post gadolinium (GD) administration. Black holes (BH), contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) and T2 lesions were marked and registered to MWI. Additionally, regions of interest (ROI) were defined in the frontal, parietal and occipital normal appearing white matter (NAWM)/white matter (WM), the corticospinal tract (CST), the splenium (SCC) and genu (GCC) of the corpus callosum in patients and HCs. Mean values of myelin water fraction (MWF) were determined for each ROI. Results Significant differences (p≤0.05) of the MWF were found in all three different MS-lesion types (BH, CEL, T2 lesions), compared to the WM of HCs. The mean MWF values among the different lesion types were significantly differing from each other. Comparing MS-patients vs. HCs, we found a significant (p≤0.05) difference of the MWF in all measured ROIs except of GCC and SCC. The mean reduction of MWF in the NAWM of MS-patients compared to HCs was 37%. No age, sex, disability score and disease duration dependency was found for the NAWM MWF. Conclusion MWF measures were in line with previous studies and lesions were clearly visible in MWI. MWI allows for quantitative assessment of NAWM and lesions in MS, which could be used as an additional sensitive imaging endpoint for larger MS studies. Measurements of the MWF also differ between patients and healthy controls. PMID:26990645

  14. In-vitro Photoacoustic Visualization of Myocardial Ablation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Nicholas; Biase, Luigi Di; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav; Bouchard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat atrial arrhythmia is limited by an inability to reliably assess lesion durability and transmurality. Objective Determine feasibility of photoacoustic characterization of myocardial ablation lesions in vitro. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of combined ultrasound (US) and spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging to visualize RF ablation lesions in 3-D based on unique differences in the optical absorption spectra between normal and ablated myocardial tissue. Methods Tissue samples were excised from the ventricles of fresh porcine hearts. Lesions were generated using an RF catheter ablation system using 20 - 30 W of power applied for 40 - 60 s. Ablated samples were imaged in the NIR regime (740-780 nm) using a combined PA/US imaging system. Measured PA spectra were correlated to the absorption spectra of deoxy-hemoglobin and ablated tissue to produce a tissue characterization map (TCM) identifying 3-D lesion location and extent. Tissue samples were stained and photographed for gross pathology. TCM and gross pathology images were co-registered to assess TCM accuracy. Results The TCM reliably characterized ablated and non-ablated tissue up to depths of 3 mm. The TCM also assessed lesion position and extent with sub-millimeter accuracy in multiple dimensions. Segmented TCMs achieved greater than 69% agreement with gross pathology. Conclusion These results suggest that sPA imaging has the potential to accurately assess RF ablation lesion size and position with sub-millimeter precision and may be well suited to guide trans-catheter RF atrial ablation in clinical practice. PMID:24080065

  15. Hyperspectral imaging of melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Gaudi, Sudeep; Meyer, Rebecca; Ranka, Jayshree; Granahan, James C; Israel, Steven A; Yachik, Theodore R; Jukic, Drazen M

    2014-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) allows the identification of objects through the analysis of their unique spectral signatures. Although first developed many years ago for use in terrestrial remote sensing, this technology has more recently been studied for application in the medical field. With preliminary data favoring a role for HSI in distinguishing normal and lesional skin tissues, we sought to investigate the potential use of HSI as a diagnostic aid in the classification of atypical Spitzoid neoplasms, a group of lesions that often leave dermatopathologists bewildered. One hundred and two hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue samples were divided into 1 of 4 diagnostic categories (Spitz nevus, Spitz nevus with unusual features, atypical Spitzoid neoplasm, and Spitzoid malignant melanoma) and 1 of 2 control groups (benign melanocytic nevus and malignant melanoma). A region of interest was selected from the dermal component of each sample, thereby maximizing the examination of melanocytes. Tissue samples were examined at ×400 magnification using a spectroscopy system interfaced with a light microscope. The absorbance patterns of wavelengths from 385 to 880 nm were measured and then analyzed within and among groups. All tissue groups demonstrated 3 common absorbance spectra at 496, 533, and 838 nm. Each sample group contained at least one absorption point that was unique to that group. The Spitzoid malignant melanoma category had the highest number of total and unique absorption points for any sample group. The data were then clustered into 12 representative spectral classes. Although each of the sample groups contained all 12 spectral vectors, they did so in differing proportions. These preliminary results reveal differences in the spectral signatures of the Spitzoid lesions examined in this study. Further investigation into a role for HSI in classifying atypical Spitzoid neoplasms is encouraged. PMID:24247577

  16. The use of ultrasonic spectroscopy to characterize calcified lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, J. A.; Gammell, P. M.; Hestenes, J. D.; Chin, H. P.; Blankenhorn, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative basis is developed for the medical application of ultrasonic spectroscopy, particularly in the characterization of calcified lesions associated with atherosclerotic conditions. A theory of the field radiation patterns of disk and ring sources is presented which can be used to predict minima in the reflection spectra of a target as a function of frequency and angle relative to the acoustic axis. The theory is then tested experimentally for objects of known geometry by the use of a time delay spectroscopy system using a swept frequency technique, and results are obtained which demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Finally, the theory is verified in the determination of lesion diameter and orientation from spectra received from calcified lesions on in vitro arterial specimens as a function of angle.

  17. Computer-aided tracking of MS lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Deborah; Gurwitz Kletenik, Devorah; Koshy, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions are known to change over time. The location, size and shape characteristics of lesions are often used to diagnose and to track disease progression. We have improved our lesion-browsing tool that allows users to automatically locate successive significant lesions in a MRI stack. In addition, an automatic alignment feature was implemented to facilitate comparisons across stacks. A lesion stack is formed that can be browsed independently or in tandem with the image windows. Lesions of interest can then be measured, rendered and rotated. Multiple windows allow the viewer to compare the size and shape of lesions from the MRI images of the same patient taken at different time intervals.

  18. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Govindaswamy, Priya; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward; Abramoff, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  19. Diagnostic Imaging Dilemma of a Clival Lesion and Its Clinical Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yuh, Sung-Joo; Woulfe, John; Corsten, Martin J.; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Kassam, Amin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A retroclival lesion can represent a notochordal remnant–derived mass. The differential diagnoses includes benign lesions such as ecchordosis physaliphora (EP) and neuroenteric cyst or malignant ones such as chordomas. In the case of EP and chordoma, although both types arise from remnants of fetal notochord tissues, they represent two separate entities with different radiographic and biologic behaviors. Case Description We present a case of an incidental finding of a retroclival lesion. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the lesion match the neuroimaging profile of a benign lesion and are suggestive of an EP. There was no enhancement noted with the addition of gadolinium. Nonetheless, pathology determined the lesion to be a malignant chordoma. Conclusion The differential diagnosis of a retroclival lesion includes benign and malignant notochordal lesions. Here we present a case of a patient with an incidental finding of a retroclival lesion. Radiographic findings were suggestive of a benign lesion, possibly EP, yet the pathology revealed a chordoma. This report suggests that despite benign imaging, chordoma cannot be excluded and the implications for treatment can be significant. It is important to achieve the correct diagnosis because the prognostic and therapeutic implications are different. PMID:24967152

  20. Significance of retinal laser lesion location and subretinal hemorrhage in bridging choroidal neovascular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuschereba, Steven T.; Clarkson, Donna R.; Valo, Lynn M.; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: To determine funduscopic criteria that will help predict when bridging choroidal neovascular (CNV) complexes will develop after laser retinal trauma and to define early preventive treatment targets. Methods: Ten rhesus monkeys were used and retinal lesions were produced by Nd:YAG exposures (20ns, 1-2mJ, 1064nm, min. spot size) simulating human accidental laser trauma to the central fundus. Funduscopy and fluorescein/ICG angiography were conducted at day 1, 4, and 14, and at 2 and 4 months, and animals terminated for histologic evaluation. Predisposition for bridging fibrovascular complexes was evaluated for single lesions, two small lesions showing coalescing hemorrhages, and multiple lesions involved with large field subretinal and vitreous hemorrhages. Results: Elevated CNVs were present in all single lesions with confined subretinal hemorrhages. All lesion sets that showed initial and small coalescing subretinal hemorrhages formed bridging CNV scars. No bridging CNVs occurred in lesion sets involving a vitreous hemorrhage adjacent to a confined, but small subretinal hemorrhage. In large field subretinal hemorrhages involving multiple laser lesions, complex CNV formation occurred. Extensive secondary photoreceptor losses occurred in confined hemorrhage and CNV zones. Conclusion: Trauma presenting with evidence of coalescing and confined subretinal hemorrhages between two adjacent lesions has a high chance of forming choroidal neovascular bridge complexes between the involved lesions. CNV formation may be related to the long residence time, break down products, and clearance processes of extravasated blood. Removal of trapped blood and curtailing angiogenesis and cellular proliferation may be helpful treatment strategies.

  1. Epidemiologic survey in Swiss group-housed breeding rabbits: extent of lesions and potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Andrist, Claude A; van den Borne, Bart H P; Bigler, Lotti M; Buchwalder, Theres; Roth, Beatrice A

    2013-02-01

    In Switzerland, group-housing for breeding rabbit does is not explicitly required by law, but label programmes, as well as the general public and animal welfare groups, are advocating it. Although group-housing is of great benefit to the gregariously living rabbits, the establishment of a social hierarchy within the group might lead to stress and lesions. In the present epidemiological study, lesions were scored twice on 30% of the breeding does on all 28 commercial Swiss farms with group-housed breeding does. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire was filled out with all producers to determine risk factors potentially associated with lesions. Data were analysed using hierarchical proportional odds models. About 33% of the does examined had lesions, including wounds that were almost healed and small scratches. Severe lesions were counted on 9% of the animals. Differences between seasons in lesions score were identified, with the extent of lesions being higher in summer than in spring. Fewer lesions occurred on farms on which mastitis was more common. More lesions were found on farms where the does were isolated between littering and artificial insemination than on farms without isolation. According to the producers, most of the aggression occurred directly after the isolation phase when the does were regrouped again. We conclude that lesions in group-housed breeding does might be reduced by appropriate reproductive management. PMID:22901704

  2. Pathologic Heterogeneity Persists in Early Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Weigand, Stephen D; Popescu, Bogdan F G; Frischer, Josa M; Parisi, Joseph E; Guo, Yong; Lassmann, Hans; Brück, Wolfgang; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions demonstrate immunopathological heterogeneity in patterns of demyelination. Previous cross-sectional studies reported immunopatterns of demyelination were identical among multiple active demyelinating lesions from the same individual, but differed between individuals, leading to the hypothesis of intraindividual pathological homogeneity and interindividual heterogeneity. Other groups suggested a time-dependent heterogeneity of lesions. The objective of our present study was to analyze tissue samples collected longitudinally to determine whether patterns of demyelination persist over time within a given patient. Methods Archival tissue samples derived from patients with pathologically confirmed CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease who had undergone either diagnostic serial biopsy or biopsy followed by autopsy, were analyzed immunohistochemically. Inclusion criteria was the presence of early active demyelinating lesions - required for immunopattern classification - obtained from the same patient at two or more time points. Results Among 1321 surgical biopsies consistent with MS, 22 cases met study inclusion criteria. Twenty-one patients (95%) showed a persistence of immunopathological patterns in tissue sampled from different time points. This persistence was demonstrated for all major patterns of demyelination. A single patient showed features suggestive of both pattern II and pattern III on biopsy, but only pattern II among all active lesions examined at autopsy. Interpretation These findings continue to support the concept of patient-dependent immunopathological heterogeneity in early MS and suggest that the mechanisms and targets of tissue injury may differ among patient subgroups. These observations have potentially significant implications for individualized therapeutic approaches. PMID:24771535

  3. Endothelial Cell Integrin Laminin Receptor Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Raymond A.; Hinojoza, Julian R.; Maeda, Atsuko; Chen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Laminin, a major glycoprotein component of vessel basement membranes, is recognized by β1- and β3-integrins expressed on endothelial cells. To determine how endothelial cell integrins might function in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, integrin laminin receptors and laminin were analyzed in central nervous system samples from MS patients and controls by immunohistochemistry. In active MS lesions, endothelial cell VLA-6 and β1 subunits were decreased compared to controls whereas αv subunit and VLA-1 were increased. In chronic inactive lesions β1, VLA-6 and αv were the same as controls but VLA-1 remained increased. α3 subunit was constant in all samples. By immunoelectron microscopy VLA-1, VLA-6, β1, and laminin were distributed throughout endothelial cells; αv was adjacent to and on luminal surfaces; αv and VLA-1 were on intercellular junctions. These results indicate distinct regulation and functions of these integrins in different lesion stages. In active lesions decreased endothelial cell β1/VLA-6 could result in their detachment from laminin thereby facilitating leukocyte transvascular migration and blood-brain barrier breakdown. αv and VLA-1 on intercellular junctions may participate in re-establishing vessel integrity after leukocyte migration. Luminal surface αv also likely binds intraluminal ligands and cells. In chronic inactive plaques persistently elevated endothelial cell VLA-1 correlates with longstanding endothelial cell and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. PMID:9708801

  4. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in Vidisha

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in patients and to assess their clinicopathological attributes. 3030 subjects belonging to a semi-urban district of Vidisha in Central India were screened. Patients were examined with an overhead examination light and those who were identified with a questionable lesion underwent further investigations. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software. Findings 8.4 percent of the population studied had one or more oral lesions, associated with prosthetic use, trauma and tobacco consumption. With reference to the habit of tobacco use, 635(21%) were smokers, 1272(42%) tobacco chewers, 341(11%) smokers and chewers, while 1464(48%) neither smoked nor chewed. 256 patients were found to have significant mucosal lesions. Of these, 216 cases agreed to undergo scalpel biopsy confirmation. 88 had leukoplakia, 21 had oral submucous fibrosis, 9 showed smoker's melanosis, 6 patients had lichen planus, 17 had dysplasia, 2 patients had squamous cell carcinoma while there was 1 patient each with lichenoid reaction, angina bullosa hemorrhagica, allergic stomatitis and nutritional stomatitis. Conclusions The findings in this population reveal a high prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions and a rampant misuse of variety of addictive substances in the community. Close follow up and systematic evaluation is required in this population. There is an urgent need for awareness programs involving the community health workers, dentists and allied medical professionals. PMID:20181008

  5. Distribution of periacetabular osteolytic lesions varies according to component design.

    PubMed

    Stamenkov, Roumen B; Howie, Donald W; Neale, Susan D; McGee, Margaret A; Taylor, David J; Findlay, David M

    2010-09-01

    Using computed tomography, the volume, location, and number of osteolytic lesions were determined adjacent to 38 Harris-Galante 1 (HG-1) acetabular components fixed with screws and 19 porous-coated anatomic (PCA) acetabular components press-fitted without screws. The median implantation times were 16 and 15 years, respectively. The mean total lesion volumes were similar: 11.1 cm(3) (range, 0.7-49 cm(3)) and 9.8 cm(3) (range, 0.4-52 cm(3)), respectively, for hips with HG-1 and PCA components (P = .32). There was a significant difference in the proportion of rim-related, screw or screw hole-related, and combined lesions between the 2 component designs (P < .0001). HG-1 components had more screw and screw hole-related lesions, and PCA components had more rim-related lesions. Although there are concerns regarding screw and screw hole-associated osteolysis, these findings suggest that peripheral fixation may be well maintained in the long term with the use of multiple-hole acetabular components with screw fixation. PMID:19775854

  6. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  7. Acquired Focal Brain Lesions in Childhood: Effects on Development and Reorganization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilosi, A. M.; Cipriani, P.; Pecini, C.; Brizzolara, D.; Biagi, L.; Montanaro, D.; Tosetti, M.; Cioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we address brain-behaviour relationships in children with acquired aphasia, by reviewing some recent studies on the effects of focal brain lesions on language development. Timing of the lesion, in terms of its occurrence, before or after the onset of speech and language acquisition, may be a major factor determining language…

  8. Reversible Hippocampal Lesions Disrupt Water Maze Performance during Both Recent and Remote Memory Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional lesion methods have shown that damage to the rodent hippocampus can impair previously acquired spatial memory in tasks such as the water maze. In contrast, work with reversible lesion methods using a different spatial task has found remote memory to be spared. To determine whether the finding of spared remote spatial memory depends on…

  9. Detection of atherosclerotic lesions and intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target to lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing in...

  10. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  11. [Scapholunate lesions and instabilities--how to recognize and treat them?].

    PubMed

    Papaloïzos, Michaël

    2015-06-01

    The lesions of the scapholunate ligament are some of the most frequently encountered in the wrist. Left untreated, the complete rupture of the ligament is followed by degenerative arthritis according to a well-defined pattern of progression through the wrist, eventually leading to multifocal arthrosis, a condition described as scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC wrist). The scapholunate lesions are classified in stages according to the degree of the lesion established by imaging studies or arthroscopy and to the chronicity of the lesion. Both together essentially determine the healing potential and the prognosis, which rapidly decrease after six weeks from the initial trauma, thus indicating the importance of recognizing the acute or subacute lesion and directing the patient to the hand surgeon early enough. The therapeutic options are notably reduced and often of palliative nature in case of chronic lesions with secondary changes in the wrist mechanics or cartilage damage. PMID:26211287

  12. Comparison of SPECT/CT and MRI in Diagnosing Symptomatic Lesions in Ankle and Foot Pain Patients: Diagnostic Performance and Relation to Lesion Type

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seunggyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Yeon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Arya, Amitabh; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of SPECT/CT and MRI in patients with ankle and foot pain, with regard to the lesion types. Materials and Methods Fifty consecutive patients with ankle and foot pain, who underwent 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Symptomatic lesions were determined based on clinical examination and response to treatment. On MRI and SPECT/CT, detected lesions were classified as bone, ligament/tendon, and joint lesions. Uptake on SPECT/CT was assessed using a 4-grade system. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SPECT/CT and MRI were evaluated in all detected lesions and each lesion type. Diagnostic value of uptake grade was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and diagnostic performance was compared using Chi-square or McNemar tests. Results In overall lesions, the sensitivity, PPV and NPV of SPECT/CT for symptomatic lesions were 93%, 56%, 91%, and they were 98%, 48%, 95% for MRI. There was no significant difference between SPECT/CT and MRI. However, the specificity of SPECT/CT was significantly higher than that of MRI (48% versus 24%, P = 0.016). Uptake grade on SPECT/CT was significantly higher in symptomatic lesions (P < 0.001), and its area under curve on ROC analysis was 0.787. In the analysis of each lesion type, the specificity of SPECT/CT was poor in joint lesions compared with other lesion types and MRI (P < 0.001, respectively). MRI exhibited lower specificity than SPECT/CT in bone lesions (P = 0.004) and ligament/tendon lesions (P < 0.001). Conclusions SPECT/CT has MRI-comparable diagnostic performance for symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients. SPECT/CT and MRI exhibit different diagnostic specificity in different lesion types. SPECT/CT may be used as a complementary imaging method to MRI for enhancing diagnostic specificity. PMID:25668182

  13. Airflow, gas deposition, and lesion distribution in the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, K.T.; Monticello, T.M. )

    1990-04-01

    The nasal passages of laboratory animals and man are complex, and lesions induced in the delicate nasal lining by inhaled air pollutants vary considerably in location and nature. The distribution of nasal lesions is generally a consequence of regional deposition of the inhaled material, local tissue susceptibility, or a combination of these factors. Nasal uptake and regional deposition are are influenced by numerous factors including the physical and chemical properties of the inhaled material, such as water solubility and reactivity; airborne concentration and length of exposure; the presence of other air contaminants such as particulate matter; nasal metabolism, and blood and mucus flow. For certain highly water-soluble or reactive gases, nasal airflow patterns play a major role in determining lesion distribution. Studies of nasal airflow in rats and monkeys, using casting and molding techniques combined with a water-dye model, indicate that nasal airflow patterns are responsible for characteristic differences in the distribution of nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde in these species. Local tissue susceptibility is also a complex issue that may be a consequence of many factors, including physiologic and metabolic characteristics of the diverse cell populations that comprise each of the major epithelial types lining the airways. Identification of the principal factors that influence the distribution and nature of nasal lesions is important when attempting the difficult process of determining potential human risks using data derived from laboratory animals. Toxicologic pathologists can contribute to this process by carefully identifying the site and nature of nasal lesions induced by inhaled materials. 61 references.

  14. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions. PMID:20178635

  15. Culprit versus non-culprit lesion related adverse cardiac events in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruogu; Loh, Kelvin; Loo, Germaine; Tai, Bee-Choo; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2013-01-01

    Background In patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), the relative contribution of culprit versus non-culprit lesions to subsequent major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unknown. Elucidating this relationship will shed light on the contributions of OSA to the advancement of coronary artery disease. Methods In a cohort of 105 patients who underwent an overnight sleep study after AMI, 98 were diagnosed with OSA (Apnoea–Hypopnoea Index (AHI) ≥5). The clinical outcomes at 5-year follow-up were determined. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiac death, reinfarction and repeat revascularisation. A culprit lesion was defined as the lesion involved in the initial AMI, and a non-culprit lesion as any lesion in the entire coronary tree outside the culprit lesion. Results Eighteen patients (median AHI: 28.1) developed MACE, of whom 12 presented with reinfarction and 6 with repeat revascularisation for stable angina. There was no cardiac death. Based on repeated coronary angiography, the MACE was related to the culprit lesion in 4 patients and the non-culprit lesion in 12 patients. The lesion responsible for the MACE was indeterminate in 2 patients, as coronary angiography was declined. The median duration from index AMI to culprit lesion-related and non-culprit lesion-related MACE were 10.5 and 20 months, respectively. Conclusions The incidence of MACE among patients with OSA and AMI was 18.4%, and most of the events were related to non-culprit lesions rather than the culprit lesion during the initial AMI.

  16. Follow-up design of unexpected enhancing lesions on preoperative MRI of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joo-Yeon; Moon, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to analyze the characteristics and long-term follow-up results of unexpected enhancing lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of breast cancer patients. METHODS From August 2007 through February 2010, second-look ultrasound (SLUS) was recommended for 84 of 312 breast cancer patients having unexpected enhancing lesions on MRI. SLUS was performed for 85 unexpected enhancing lesions in 72 patients. We performed a retrospective review to determine the size, lesion type, enhancement kinetic curve, and location in relation to the index cancer. We obtained the pathologic outcome of the detected lesions and in case of a negative finding on SLUS, we performed follow-up examinations for at least two years. RESULTS Of 85 unexpected lesions, 72 (85%) were detected on SLUS. In total, 41 lesions (56.9%) were confirmed as malignant and 31 lesions (43.6%) as benign. Cancer rate was statistically higher in lesions having type III enhancement pattern, located at the same quadrant as the index cancer. However, no significant association was observed between the cancer rate and the lesion size and type. None of the 13 negative cases on SLUS developed cancer on follow-up. CONCLUSION In case of unexpected enhancing lesions on preoperative MRI of breast cancer patients, SLUS can be useful to find out the matched lesion. Lesions with type III enhancement pattern or those located at the same quadrant as the index cancer should be considered as a separate cancer. In the absence of any suspicious findings on SLUS, patient may be followed up with confidence. PMID:25430525

  17. Topographic congruence of calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis and other structural brain lesions with epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Erin K; Nagpal, Meera; Leon, Amanda; Mehta, Bijal; McMurtray, Aaron Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis (NCC) lesions are commonly detected in many individuals with refractory epilepsy. However, the relationship between these lesions and epilepsy is not fully determined. We sought to determine if calcified parenchymal NCC demonstrated topographic congruence with epileptiform activity in refractory epilepsy patients. Additional patients with other structural brain lesions were included for comparison. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of all patients treated at a community-based neurology clinic for refractory epilepsy during a 3-month period and with structural brain lesions detected by neuroimaging studies. Results: A total of 105 patients were included in the study, including 63 with calcified parenchymal NCC lesions and 42 with other structural brain lesions. No significant relationship was detected between hemispheric localization of calcified parenchymal NCC lesions and epileptiform activity. For those with other structural brain lesions, the hemispheric localization was significantly related to the side of epileptiform activity (Chi-square = 11.13, P = 0.025). In addition, logistic regression models showed that those with right-sided non-NCC lesions were more likely to have right-sided epileptiform activity (odds ratio = 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.16–16.31, P = 0.029), and those with left-sided non-NCC lesions were more likely to have left-sided epileptiform activity (odds ratio = 7.60, 95% CI = 1.89–30.49, P = 0.004). Conclusion: The lack of correlation between the side of calcified parenchymal NCC lesions and the side of the epileptiform activity suggests that these lesions may be incidental findings in many patients. PMID:26998434

  18. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Soro, Aurea; Guillen-Navarro, Miriam; Mira, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15) and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12) were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci detected confirms that they

  19. Dental infection simulating skin lesion.

    PubMed

    Abuabara, Allan; Schramm, Celso Alfredo; Zielak, João César; Baratto-Filho, Flares

    2012-01-01

    Orocutaneous fistulas or cutaneous sinus, a tract of dental origin, is an uncommon but well-documented condition that usually requires emergency treatment. Such condition may be misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists and may sometimes be confused with bone and skin tumor, osteomyelitis, congenital fistula, salivary gland fistula, pyogenic granuloma, infected cyst, deep mycotic infection, and other pathologies. A case of facial sinus tract that was initially misdiagnosed by a physician as a nonodontogenic lesion is presented. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy was the treatment of choice for this case. Facial cutaneous sinus tracts must be considered of dental origin. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment minimize patient discomfort and esthetic problems, reducing the possibility of further complications such as sepsis and osteomyelitis. PMID:22892779

  20. Trigeminal Neuralgia and Radiofrequency Lesioning

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal Neuralgia is a disorder that is characterized with electrical-type shocking pain in the face and jaw. This pain may either present as sharp unbearable pain unilateral or bilaterally. There is no definite etiology for this condition. There are various treatment methods that are currently being used to relieve the pain. One of the pharmacological treatments is Carbamazepine and the most prevalent surgical treatments include Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS), Microvascular Decompression (MVD) and Radiofrequency Lesioning (RFL). Although, MVD is the most used surgical method it is not an option for all the patients due to the intensity of the procedure. RFL is used when MVD is not suitable. In this paper we present the various options in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. PMID:26770820

  1. Gastric Mucosal Petechial Hemorrhages (Wischnewsky Lesions), Hypothermia, and Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kenneth Howard; Stoppacher, Robert

    2016-09-01

    For more than 100 years since their initial description, gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages have been discovered at autopsy in cases where environmental hypothermia was determined to be the cause of death. Although these lesions are frequently seen in deaths caused by environmental hypothermia, they can also be seen in cases where hypothermia is not implicated; however, this has been seldom described. We present a series of autopsy cases where hypothermia has been conclusively ruled out as a cause of death, in which Wischnewsky lesions are found. In all of these cases, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was determined to be the proximate cause of death, as confirmed through clinical history, laboratory analysis, and absence of other anatomic or toxicological findings. We provide a mechanism of Wischnewsky lesion formation and how that mechanism relates to both hypothermia and ketoacidosis. Our data show that gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages are not specific for hypothermia-related deaths, and are likely indicative of a state in which hypothermia and DKA have a common underlying pathophysiology, most likely a coagulopathy. Our data also illustrate that in autopsy cases where Wischnewsky lesions are found, DKA should be seriously considered as the underlying cause of death, particularly in the absence of indications of environmental hypothermia. PMID:27356011

  2. Cutaneous lesions in new born.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Kaur, Surjeet; Nagpal, Madhu; Dewan, S P

    2002-01-01

    Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94.8%) newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%), Mongolian spot in 301(60.2%), superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%), icterus in 128(25.6%), milia in 119(23.8%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107(21.4%), occipital alopecia in 94(18.8%), lanugo in 72(14.4%), peripheral cyanosis in 47(9.4%), breast hypertrophy in 29(5.8%) and miniature puberty in 28(5.6%) newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21%), followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20.6%) and acne neonatorum in 27(5.4%) newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13.8%), congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%), accessory tragi in 3(0.6%), spina bifida in 2(0.4%), hydrocephalus in 1(0.2%) and poliosis in 1(0.2%) newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10%) newborns. One (0.2%) case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen. PMID:17656992

  3. [Vascular lesions of the small intestine].

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2008-07-01

    Small-intestinal vascular lesions accounted for the bleeding source in a large percentage of the patients with mid-GI-bleeding. The progress of enteroscopy has been changing the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for them. There are 3 pathological conditions of vascular lesions. Angioectasia is characterized by venous/capillary lesions, Dieulafoy' s lesion is characterized by arterial lesions, and AVM is a condition in which arteries and veins are directly connected without capillary beds. We classified vascular lesions with consideration of the presence or absence of pulsatility. The presence or absence of arterial components provides important information in understanding the pathological conditions. This classification will be useful for selecting hemostatic procedure and outcome studies. PMID:18616125

  4. Malignancy and the benign lymphoepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Bernacki, E G; Rice, D H; Stebler, M E

    1975-02-01

    The benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands is now considered the histological hallmark of a variety of clinical and pathological disorders affecting salivary tissues. Malignancy arising in the lesion is uncommon, but may take origin in either the epithelial or lymphoreticular components. Lymphomas and pseudolymphomas associated with salivary gland lymphoepithelial lesions have been predominately extra-salivary and strongly correlated with Sjögren's syndrome. Epithelial malignancy has not been associated with autoimmunity and with few exceptions has been of the anaplastic type. This report presents two patients with intra-salivary lymphomas arising in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands and a patient with anaplastic carcinoma arising in the epithelial islands of the lesion. The fourth patient manifested pseudolymphomatous lymphoreticular hyperplasia in lung and submandibular gland and illustrates the possible multiple organ involvement that may occur in patients with benign lymphoepithelial lesion, even without clinical evidence of concommitant autoimmune disorders. PMID:1172885

  5. Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Strober, Brad; Matthews, Abigail G.; Collie, Damon; Vena, Donald; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant. Methods Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes. Results Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P < .01), with the sealant and restoration groups displaying a significantly higher reduction (P < .01) than did the dentifrice group. The dentifrice group’s mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation. Conclusions Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice

  6. Prediction of Drug Penetration in Tuberculosis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Sarathy, Jansy P; Zuccotto, Fabio; Hsinpin, Ho; Sandberg, Lars; Via, Laura E; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Masquelin, Thierry; Wyatt, Paul; Ray, Peter; Dartois, Véronique

    2016-08-12

    The penetration of antibiotics in necrotic tuberculosis lesions is heterogeneous and drug-specific, but the factors underlying such differential partitioning are unknown. We hypothesized that drug binding to macromolecules in necrotic foci (or caseum) prevents passive drug diffusion through avascular caseum, a critical site of infection. Using a caseum binding assay and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tuberculosis drugs, we showed that binding to caseum inversely correlates with passive diffusion into the necrotic core. We developed a high-throughput assay relying on rapid equilibrium dialysis and a caseum surrogate designed to mimic the composition of native caseum. A set of 279 compounds was profiled in this assay to generate a large data set and explore the physicochemical drivers of free diffusion into caseum. Principle component analysis and modeling of the data set delivered an in silico signature predictive of caseum binding, combining 69 molecular descriptors. Among the major positive drivers of binding were high lipophilicity and poor solubility. Determinants of molecular shape such as the number of rings, particularly aromatic rings, number of sp(2) carbon counts, and volume-to-surface ratio negatively correlated with the free fraction, indicating that low-molecular-weight nonflat compounds are more likely to exhibit low caseum binding properties and diffuse effectively through caseum. To provide simple guidance in the property-based design of new compounds, a rule of thumb was derived whereby the sum of the hydrophobicity (clogP) and aromatic ring count is proportional to caseum binding. These tools can be used to ensure desirable lesion partitioning and guide the selection of optimal regimens against tuberculosis. PMID:27626295

  7. Accuracy of lesion boundary tracking in navigated breast tumor excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Emily; Ungi, Tamas; Vaughan, Thomas; Pezeshki, Padina; Lasso, Andras; Gauvin, Gabrielle; Rudan, John; Engel, C. Jay; Morin, Evelyn; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: An electromagnetic navigation system for tumor excision in breast conserving surgery has recently been developed. Preoperatively, a hooked needle is positioned in the tumor and the tumor boundaries are defined in the needle coordinate system. The needle is tracked electromagnetically throughout the procedure to localize the tumor. However, the needle may move and the tissue may deform, leading to errors in maintaining a correct excision boundary. It is imperative to quantify these errors so the surgeon can choose an appropriate resection margin. METHODS: A commercial breast biopsy phantom with several inclusions was used. Location and shape of a lesion before and after mechanical deformation were determined using 3D ultrasound volumes. Tumor location and shape were estimated from initial contours and tracking data. The difference in estimated and actual location and shape of the lesion after deformation was quantified using the Hausdorff distance. Data collection and analysis were done using our 3D Slicer software application and PLUS toolkit. RESULTS: The deformation of the breast resulted in 3.72 mm (STD 0.67 mm) average boundary displacement for an isoelastic lesion and 3.88 mm (STD 0.43 mm) for a hyperelastic lesion. The difference between the actual and estimated tracked tumor boundary was 0.88 mm (STD 0.20 mm) for the isoelastic and 1.78 mm (STD 0.18 mm) for the hyperelastic lesion. CONCLUSION: The average lesion boundary tracking error was below 2mm, which is clinically acceptable. We suspect that stiffness of the phantom tissue affected the error measurements. Results will be validated in patient studies.

  8. [Tumor-like lesions of bone].

    PubMed

    Erlemann, R; Jundt, G

    2016-06-01

    Historically, tumor-like lesions of bone were defined as non-neoplastic bone lesions. Today, however, some of them are considered real neoplasms. They are among the most frequent bone lesions. They usually grow slowly, but occasionally they grow rapidly. Many of them can be diagnosed by plain films alone; in others, CT and MRI yield additional features for a correct diagnosis. Some lesions do not need treatment; others should be resected, and some may even recur. Non-ossifying fibroma, juvenile and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous and osteofibrous dysplasia and eosinophilic granuloma are presented. PMID:27216410

  9. A Model of Population and Subject (MOPS) Intensities with Application to Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Tomas-Fernandez, Xavier; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-01-01

    White matter (WM) lesions are thought to play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease burden. Recent work in the automated segmentation of white matter lesions from MRI has utilized a model in which lesions are outliers in the distribution of tissue signal intensities across the entire brain of each patient. However, the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection and segmentation with these approaches have been inadequate. In our analysis, we determined this is due to the substantial overlap between the whole brain signal intensity distribution of lesions and normal tissue. Inspired by the ability of experts to detect lesions based on their local signal intensity characteristics, we propose a new algorithm that achieves lesion and brain tissue segmentation through simultaneous estimation of a spatially global within-the-subject intensity distribution and a spatially local intensity distribution derived from a healthy reference population. We demonstrate that MS lesions can be segmented as outliers from this intensity model of population and subject (MOPS). We carried out extensive experiments with both synthetic and clinical data, and compared the performance of our new algorithm to those of state-of-the art techniques. We found this new approach leads to a substantial improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection and segmentation. PMID:25616008

  10. Frequency of different oral lesions in children and adolescents in Babol, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Siadati, Sepideh; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Sharbatdaran, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies regarding oral lesions of children and adolescents were reported in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of these lesions in patients from birth to 20 years old in Babol, Northern Iran. Methods: The slides of all cases of oral lesions in children and adolescents, between 1990 and 2012 were obtained from the pathology archives of Shahid Beheshti Hospital and School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences in Iran. The lesions were categorized as follows: cystic lesions, tumor/tumor-like lesions and inflammatory/reactive lesions. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: The 244 retrieved cases accounted for 27% of total oral biopsies (8956) were performed during this period. Male to female ratio was 0.8. Inflammatory / reactive category (61.9%), tumor/ tumor-like category (23%) and cystic category (15.2%) were in order of frequency. Mucocele was seen in 55 (35.8%) of 151 cases of inflammatory/ reactive, centeral giant cell granoloma (CGCG) in 15 (26.8%) of 56 tumor/ tumor like and radicular cyst in 14 (37.9%) of 37 cystic lesions. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that mucocele, CGCG and radicular cyst were frequent lesions in inflammatory / reactive, tumor / tumor like and cystic categories, respectively in our region. PMID:24294472

  11. Orofacial Pathologic Lesions in Children and Adolescents: A Clinicopathological Study in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ahmadi Sheshdeh, Zahra; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral and maxillofacial lesions vary regarding their clinical presentation in different populations. Until now, oral and maxillofacial lesions in Iranian children and adolescents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of biopsied oral lesions among children and adolescents in Southern Iran. Methods: All the patients referred to the pathology department of Shiraz Faculty of Dentistry from 1991-2009 were enrolled in this retrospective, case-series study. The information regarding the patients’ age, gender as well as the histopathologic type and anatomic location of the biopsied oral lesions in patients under 18 years was collected from patients’ medical documents and were analyzed by SPSS version 11. Findings : Out of 2984 patients, 576 (19.3 %) cases were children and adolescents under 18 years. The most prevalent category was soft tissue lesions (45.5 %). The most common lesion was peripheral giant cell granuloma (15.6%) followed by dentigerous cyst (14.2%) and pyogenic granuloma (11.3%). Gingiva was the most common affected site. Male to female ratio was 1.2. Conclusion: Our results revealed that near 20% of orofacial lesions occur in children and adolescents with rather equal male to female ratio. The majority of lesions were soft tissue diseases with a reactive nature. Unlike other studies we had higher rates of soft tissue lesions. These data can help dentists and surgeons for more accurate management of their patients. PMID:25562025

  12. Assessment and Management of Challenging BI-RADS Category 3 Mammographic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Aya Y; Birdwell, Robyn L; Chung, Chris SungWon; Frost, Elisabeth P; Giess, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 lesions are probably benign by definition and are recommended for short-interval follow-up after a diagnostic workup has been completed. Although the original lexicon-derived BI-RADS category 3 definition applied to lesions without prior imaging studies (when stability could not be determined), in clinical practice, many lesions with prior images may be assigned to BI-RADS category 3. Although the BI-RADS fifth edition specifically delineates lesions that are appropriate for categorization as probably benign, it also specifies that the interpreting radiologist may use his or her discretion and experience to justify a "watchful waiting" approach for lesions that do not meet established criteria. Examples of such lesions include evolving masses or calcifications suggestive of prior trauma and instances when stability cannot be ascertained because of image quality. Although interval change is an important feature of malignancy, many benign lesions also change over time; thus, use of prior imaging studies and ongoing imaging surveillance to demonstrate the evolution of a probably benign lesion is justified. Some examples of common pitfalls associated with inappropriate BI-RADS category 3 assessment include failure to use proper BI-RADS descriptors, failure to perform a complete diagnostic workup, and overreliance on negative ultrasonographic findings. When appropriately used, short-interval follow-up saves many patients from undergoing biopsy of benign lesions, without decreasing the rate of cancer detection. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27541437

  13. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  14. Prevalence and subjective knowledge of tongue lesions in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Sinha, Rupam; Pal, Sumona

    2016-01-01

    Aim The current study was designed to determine prevalence of various tongue lesions and their association with age, gender, systemic illness, deleterious habits, and distribution over the surfaces of tongue. It also explored the awareness and knowledge of subjects in relation to presence of tongue lesions, etiological factor, symptoms, and treatment received if any. Methods The present study was conducted on 1360 randomly selected dental outpatients from 1/10/2013 to 30/09/2014. Examination of tongue included surface changes, size, movements, and the presence of mucosal lesions. The subjects were asked about the knowledge, symptoms, and treatment obtained in case of awareness regarding the lesion. Results The prevalence of tongue lesions was found to be 13.75%. The most prevalent lesion was found to be coated tongue. The majority of the lesions were located on dorsum of tongue and not related with age, gender, habit, and systemic condition. A considerable number of subjects were aware of the changes on their tongue but negligible number sought any treatment. Conclusions The presence of tongue lesions in the study population was found be significant. Hence, general dental practitioners and health care providers should be educated about the diagnosis, etiology, investigations, and proper management of such tongue lesions. PMID:27195210

  15. VISUALIZATION OF HIFU-INDUCED LESION BOUNDARIES BY AXIAL-SHEAR STRAIN ELASTOGRAPHY: A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Thittai, Arun K.; Galaz, Belfor; Ophir, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a study that investigated the feasibility of reliably visualizing high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) lesion boundaries using axial-shear strain elastograms (ASSE). The HIFU-induced lesion cases used in the present work were selected from data acquired in a previous study. The samples consisted of excised canine livers with thermal lesions produced by an MR-compatible HIFU system (GE Medical System, Milwaukee, WI) and were cast in a gelatin block for elastographic experiment. Both single and multiple HIFU-lesion samples were investigated. For each of the single lesion sample, the lesion boundaries were determined independently from the axial strain elastogram (ASE) and ASSE at various iso-intensity contour thresholds (from −2dB to −6dB), and the area of the enclosed lesion was computed. For samples with multiple lesions, the corresponding ASSE was analyzed for identifying any unique axial-shear strain zones of interest. We further performed Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of simple two inclusion cases to verify if the in-vitro ASSE obtained were reasonable. The results show that the estimation of the lesion area using ASSE is less sensitive to iso-intensity threshold selection- making this method more robust compared to ASE-based method. For multiple lesion case, it was shown that ASSE enables high-contrast visualization of a ‘thin’ untreated region in between multiple fully-treated HIFU-lesions. This contrast visualization was also noticed in the FEM predictions. In summary, the results demonstrate that it is feasible to reliably visualize HIFU lesion boundaries using ASSE. PMID:21276656

  16. Hippocampal place cell instability after lesions of the head direction cell network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calton, Jeffrey L.; Stackman, Robert W.; Goodridge, Jeremy P.; Archey, William B.; Dudchenko, Paul A.; Taube, Jeffrey S.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of cells that encode spatial location (place cells) or head direction (HD cells) in the rat limbic system suggests that these cell types are important for spatial navigation. We sought to determine whether place fields of hippocampal CA1 place cells would be altered in animals receiving lesions of brain areas containing HD cells. Rats received bilateral lesions of anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADN), postsubiculum (PoS), or sham lesions, before place cell recording. Although place cells from lesioned animals did not differ from controls on many place-field characteristics, such as place-field size and infield firing rate, the signal was significantly degraded with respect to measures of outfield firing rate, spatial coherence, and information content. Surprisingly, place cells from lesioned animals were more likely modulated by the directional heading of the animal. Rotation of the landmark cue showed that place fields from PoS-lesioned animals were not controlled by the cue and shifted unpredictably between sessions. Although fields from ADN-lesioned animals tended to have less landmark control than fields from control animals, this impairment was mild compared with cells recorded from PoS-lesioned animals. Removal of the prominent visual cue also led to instability of place-field representations in PoS-lesioned, but not ADN-lesioned, animals. Together, these findings suggest that an intact HD system is not necessary for the maintenance of place fields, but lesions of brain areas that convey the HD signal can degrade this signal, and lesions of the PoS might lead to perceptual or mnemonic deficits, leading to place-field instability between sessions.

  17. Efficacy of endoport-guided endoscopic resection for deep-seated brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kwang-Wook; Shin, Hyung Jin; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kong, Doo-Sik

    2011-10-01

    Surgery for deep-seated brain lesions without causing significant trauma to the overlying cortex is difficult because brain retraction is required to approach these lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of endoport-guided endoscopic or microscopic removal for deep-seated lesions using the neuronavigation system. Between October 2008 and December 2009, 21 patients (17 men and 4 women; average age, 40.8 years) underwent endoport-guided endoscopic tumor removal. We adapted the transparent tubular conduit, so-called "endoport," to target the lesions under the guidance of neuronavigation. We then determined the efficacy and limitations of this technique with fully endoscopic removal, compared with standard approaches using a spatula retractor. Gross total resection of the lesions was achieved in 14 of 21 patients (66%), and partial removal occurred in four (19%) patients. However, there was failure to remove the lesion through the endoport in three patients (14.3%), requiring the use of blade spatula retractors. In reviewing the seven cases with either failure or partial removal, it was found that a large tumor size (≥ 3 cm) and calcified lesions were the major factors limiting the application of this technique. Endoport-guided endoscopic surgery facilitated an accurate and minimally invasive technique for removal of these deep-seated brain lesions. This procedure required a protracted learning curve although, when successful, this approach can minimize brain retraction and provide satisfactory visualization. PMID:21614427

  18. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians need technologies to improve the diagnosis of questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC’s) and determine if decay has penetrated to the underlying dentin. Assessing lesion depth from near-infrared (NIR) images holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel and stain to NIR light at λ=1300–1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, NIR reflectance measurements alone are limited in utility for approximating occlusal lesion depth >200-μm due to light attenuation from the lesion body. Previous studies sought to combine NIR reflectance and transillumination measurements taken at λ=1300-nm in order to estimate QOC depth and severity. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in lesion contrast and size measured from multispectral NIR reflectance and transillumination images of natural occlusal carious lesions with increasing lesion depth and severity in order to determine the optimal multimodal wavelength combinations for estimating QOC depth. Extracted teeth with varying amounts of natural occlusal decay were measured using a multispectral-multimodal NIR imaging system at prominent wavelengths within the λ=1300–1700-nm spectral region. Image analysis software was used to calculate lesion contrast and area values between sound and carious enamel regions. PMID:27006524

  19. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Clinicians need technologies to improve the diagnosis of questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC's) and determine if decay has penetrated to the underlying dentin. Assessing lesion depth from near-infrared (NIR) images holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel and stain to NIR light at λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, NIR reflectance measurements alone are limited in utility for approximating occlusal lesion depth >200-μm due to light attenuation from the lesion body. Previous studies sought to combine NIR reflectance and transillumination measurements taken at λ=1300-nm in order to estimate QOC depth and severity. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in lesion contrast and size measured from multispectral NIR reflectance and transillumination images of natural occlusal carious lesions with increasing lesion depth and severity in order to determine the optimal multimodal wavelength combinations for estimating QOC depth. Extracted teeth with varying amounts of natural occlusal decay were measured using a multispectral-multimodal NIR imaging system at prominent wavelengths within the λ=1300-1700-nm spectral region. Image analysis software was used to calculate lesion contrast and area values between sound and carious enamel regions.

  20. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted MRI at 3.0 T Differentiates Malignant Breast Lesions From Benign Lesions and Breast Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Giri, Dilip D.; Patil, Sujata; Gnanasigamani, Merlin; Nyman, C. Gregory; Deasy, Joseph O.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Thakur, Sunitha B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the differentiation of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 26 malignant and 14 benign breast lesions in 35 patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI at 3.0T and nine b-values (0–1000 s/mm2). ADC and IVIM parameters (perfusion fraction fp, pseudodiffusion coefficient Dp, and true diffusion coefficient Dd) were determined in lesions and FGT. For comparison, IVIM was also measured in 16 high-risk normal patients. A predictive model was constructed using linear discriminant analysis. Lesion discrimination based on ADC and IVIM parameters was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results In FGT of normal subjects, fp was 1.1 ± 1.1%. In malignant lesions, fp (6.4 ± 3.1%) was significantly higher than in benign lesions (3.1 ± 3.3%, P = 0.0025) or FGT (1.5 ± 1.2%, P < 0.001), and Dd ((1.29 ± 0.28) × 10−3 mm2/s) was lower than in benign lesions ((1.56 ± 0.28) × 10−3 mm2/s, P = 0.011) or FGT ((1.86 ± 0.34) × 10−3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). A combination of Dd and fp provided higher AUC for discrimination between malignant and benign lesions (0.84) or FGT (0.97) than ADC (0.72 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusion The IVIM parameters provide accurate identification of malignant lesions. PMID:24273096

  1. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected. PMID:1579669

  2. Evaluation of hepatic cystic lesions.

    PubMed

    Lantinga, Marten A; Gevers, Tom J G; Drenth, Joost P H

    2013-06-21

    Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and developed an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm to guide clinicians in characterising these lesions. Simple cysts are the most common cystic liver disease, and diagnosis is based on typical USG characteristics. Serodiagnostic tests and microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are invaluable in differentiating complicated cysts, echinococcosis and cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma when USG, CT and MRI show ambiguous findings. Therefore, serodiagnostic tests and CEUS reduce the need for invasive procedures. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as the presence of > 20 liver cysts and can present as two distinct genetic disorders: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD). Although genetic testing for ADPKD and PCLD is possible, it is rarely performed because it does not affect the therapeutic management of PLD. USG screening of the liver and both kidneys combined with extensive family history taking are the cornerstone of diagnostic decision making in PLD. In conclusion, an amalgamation of these recent advances results in a diagnostic algorithm that facilitates evidence-based clinical decision making. PMID:23801855

  3. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  4. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  5. Sentinel lesions of primary CNS lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, L; Fetell, M R; Sisti, M; Hochberg, F; Cohen, M; Louis, D N

    1996-01-01

    Some patients ultimately diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) have transient symptomatic contrast enhancing lesions. These "sentinel lesions" of PCNSL recede spontaneously or with corticosteroid treatment and present an important diagnostic dilemma because they show variable, but non-diagnostic histopathological features. Four previously healthy, immunocompetent patients aged 49 to 58 years had contrast enhancing intraparenchymal brain lesions. Before biopsy, three of the four were treated with corticosteroids. Initial biopsies showed demyelination with axonal sparing in two, non-specific inflammation in one, and normal brain in one. Infiltrating lymphocytes predominantly expressed T cell markers with rare B cells. All four patients recovered within two to four weeks after the initial biopsy and imaging studies showed resolution of the lesions. The CSF was normal in three of the four patients tested; oligoclonal bands were absent in both of the two tested. After seven to 11 months, each patient developed new symptomatic lesions in a different region of the brain, biopsy of which showed a B cell PCNSL. The mechanism of spontaneous involution of sentinel lesions is not understood, but may represent host immunity against the tumour. Sentinel lesions of PCNSL should be considered in patients with contrast enhancing focal parenchymal lesions that show non-specific or demyelinative histopathological changes. Close clinical and radiographic follow up is essential if PCNSL is to be diagnosed early in such patients. Images PMID:8558135

  6. Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kristi M; Wieser, Friedrich A; Wilder, Catera L; Sidell, Neil; Platt, Manu O

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue on organs within the peritoneal cavity, causing debilitating abdominal pain and infertility. Current treatments alleviate moderate pain symptoms associated with the disorder but exhibit limited ability to prevent new or recurring lesion establishment and growth. Retrograde menstruation has been implicated for introducing endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity, but molecular mechanisms underlying attachment and invasion are not fully understood. We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26482207

  7. Spectral lesion characterization on a photon-counting mammography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Klaus; Fredenberg, Erik; Homann, Hanno; Roessl, Ewald

    2014-03-01

    Spectral X-ray imaging allows to differentiate between two given tissue types, provided their spectral absorption characteristics differ measurably. In mammography, this method is used clinically to determine a decomposition of the breast into adipose and glandular tissue compartments, from which the glandular tissue fraction and, hence, the volumetric breast density (VBD) can be computed. Another potential application of this technique is the characterization of lesions by spectral mammography. In particular, round lesions are relatively easily detected by experienced radiologists, but are often difficult to characterize. Here, a method is described that aims at discriminating cystic from solid lesions directly on a spectral mammogram, obtained with a calibrated spectral mammography system and using a hypothesis-testing algorithm based on a maximum likelihood approach. The method includes a parametric model describing the lesion shape, compression height variations and breast composition. With the maximum likelihood algorithm, the model parameters are estimated separately under the cyst and solid hypothesis. The resulting ratio of the maximum likelihood values is used for the final tissue characterization. Initial results using simulations and phantom measurements are presented.

  8. Morphometric analysis of suprabasal cells in oral white lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, A H; el-Labban, N G; Lee, K W; Kramer, I R

    1989-01-01

    Surgical specimens from the cheek mucosa of 73 patients with white lesions were studied to determine various morphometric parameters that would help differentiate between the various types of oral mucosal white lesions that carry a risk of malignant change. Four cell types were represented: traumatic keratosis, leucoplakia, candidal leucoplakia and lichen planus, in addition to a control group of normal mucosa. The shape and size of the epithelial cells in two cell compartments, parabasal and spinous, were investigated by an interactive image analysis system (IBAS-1). The results showed an increase in the cell size in the parabasal cell compartment of all the white lesions compared with the normal mucosa. In the spinous cell compartment there was an increase in the cell size in lichen planus and traumatic keratosis; leucoplakia and candidal leucoplakia showed a slight decrease in cell size compared with the normal mucosa. Attempts to discriminate between the four groups of white lesions showed that these parameters can provide a high level of separation between lichen planus and the three other groups, but not between leucoplakia, candidal leucoplakia, and traumatic keratosis. PMID:2703543

  9. Atherosclerotic lesions of supra-aortic arteries in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Vidjak, Vinko; Hebrang, Andrija; Brkljacić, Boris; Brajsa, Mladen; Novacić, Karlo; Barada, Ante; Skopljanac, Andrija; Erdelez, Lidija; Crncević, Maja; Kucan, Damir; Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata; Vrhovski-Hebrang, Danijela; Roić, Goran

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence and localization of stenotic atherosclerotic lesions of supra-aortic arteries in diabetic patients according to age and sex. Angiograms obtained by digital subtraction angiography were analyzed in 150 diabetic patients (study group) and 150 non-diabetic patients (control group) with symptoms of cerebral ischemia. Diabetic patients were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of stenotic atherosclerotic lesions of the internal carotid artery. Lesions of the large supra-aortic arteries were significantly more common in the left than in the right side of the neck (p < 0.001), but the difference between the diabetic and the non-diabetic group did not reach statistical significance. Hemodynamic conditions were found to be more important than diabetes for the occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions in these arteries. Changes in the proximal segment of the left common carotid artery were the most common finding in diabetic patients, hence attention should be paid to this localization on control examinations. PMID:18041380

  10. Effects of scalding and dehairing of pig carcasses at abattoirs on the visibility of welfare-related lesions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G A; Boyle, L A; Teixeira, D L; van Staaveren, N; Hanlon, A; O'Connell, N E

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing abattoir-based measures to assist in determining the welfare status of pigs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate place on the slaughter line to conduct assessments of welfare-related lesions, namely apparent aggression-related skin lesions (hereafter referred to as 'skin lesions'), loin bruising and apparent tail biting damage. The study also lent itself to an assessment of the prevalence of these lesions, and the extent to which they were linked with production variables. Finishing pigs processed at two abattoirs on the Island of Ireland (n=1950 in abattoir A, and n=1939 in abattoir B) were used. Data were collected over 6 days in each abattoir in July 2014. Lesion scoring took place at two points on the slaughter line: (1) at exsanguination (slaughter stage 1 (SS1)), and (2) following scalding and dehairing of carcasses (slaughter stage 2 (SS2)). At both points, each carcass was assigned a skin and tail lesion score ranging from 0 (lesion absent) to 3 or 4 (severe lesions), respectively. Loin bruising was recorded as present or absent. Differences in the percentage of pigs with observable lesions of each type were compared between SS1 and SS2 using McNemar/McNemar-Bowker tests. The associations between each lesion type, and both cold carcass weight and condemnations, were examined at batch level using Pearson's correlations. Batch was defined as the group of animals with a particular farm identification code on a given day. The overall percentage of pigs with a visible skin lesion (i.e. score>0) decreased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). However, the percentage of pigs with a severe skin lesion increased numerically from SS1 to SS2. The percentage of pigs with a visible tail lesion and with loin bruising also increased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of carcasses that were partially condemned, and the percentage of pigs with skin lesions

  11. Radiological evaluation of post-tracheostomy lesions

    PubMed Central

    Macmillan, Alexander S.; James, A. Everette; Stitik, Frederick P.; Grillo, Hermes C.

    1971-01-01

    Post-tracheostomy lesions are becoming more commonplace and surgical techniques for definitive repair of these abnormalities are being developed. These lesions, in general, occur at two sites, the proximal lesions at the tracheostomy incision and the distal lesions 1·5 to 2·5 cm inferior in the area of the tracheostomy balloon cuff. Granuloma formation, stenosis, tracheomalacia, and perforation of the tracheal wall have been encountered in our experience. Clinical symptoms depend upon the type and location of the lesion as well as on the patient's awareness and physical activity. Radiological evaluation offers an accurate method to depict the anatomical and physiological alterations. This radiological assessment should begin with routine postero-anterior and lateral chest radiographs followed by fluoroscopy. Laminograms and special oblique views are often helpful. Contrast tracheograms using powdered tantalum allow good mucosal detail as well as excellent delineation of structural and physiological abnormalities. Images PMID:5144647

  12. Intraorbital Cystic Lesions: An Imaging Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Shivani; Sharma, Sanjay; Das, Chandan J; Dhamija, Ekta; Agrawal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Presence of a cyst or a cystic component in an intraorbital mass often narrows the list of differential diagnoses to specific entities. Such a lesion in the orbit may arise from structures within the orbit, globe, and lacrimal system or from neighboring paranasal sinuses or meninges. Common congenital and developmental lesions encountered within the orbit include dermoids and epidermoids, and infrequently coloboma. Parasitic cysts (cysticercus), orbital abscess, mucocele, and vascular lesions are the most common acquired pathologies giving rise to fluid-containing lesions within the orbit. The role of a radiologist is crucial in expediting the diagnosis of orbital lesions with the help of characteristic imaging features on ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. It also helps in identifying complications in others where formulation of an early and effective management strategy is vital for preserving vision. PMID:25908230

  13. Natural history of small index lesions suspicious for prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI: recommendations for interval imaging follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Türkbey, Barış; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Hoang, Anthony N.; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Stamatakis, Lambros; Truong, Hong; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Grant, Kinzya B.; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the natural history of small index lesions identified on multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) of the prostate by evaluating lesion-specific pathology and growth on serial MP-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective review of 153 patients who underwent a minimum of two MP-MRI sessions, on an institutional review board-approved protocol. Index lesion is defined as the lesion(s) with the highest cancer suspicion score based on initial MP-MRI of a patient, irrespective of size. Two study cohorts were identified: (1) patients with no index lesion or index lesion(s) ≤7 mm and (2) a subset with no index lesion or index lesion(s) ≤5 mm. Pathological analysis of the index lesions was performed following magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. Growth rate of the lesions was calculated based on MP-MRI follow-up. RESULTS Patients with small index lesions measuring ≤7 mm (n=42) or a subset with lesions ≤5 mm (n=20) demonstrated either benign findings (86.2% and 87.5%, respectively) or low grade Gleason 6 prostate cancer (13.8% and 12.5%, respectively) on lesion-specific targeted biopsies. These lesions demonstrated no significant change in size (P = 0.93 and P = 0.36) over a mean imaging period of 2.31±1.56 years and 2.40±1.77 years for ≤7 mm and ≤5 mm index lesion thresholds, respectively. These findings held true on subset analyses of patients who had a minimum of two-year interval follow-up with MP-MRI. CONCLUSION Small index lesions of the prostate are pathologically benign lesions or occasionally low-grade cancers. Slow growth rate of these small index lesions on serial MP-MRI suggests a surveillance interval of at least two years without significant change. PMID:24808435

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of papillary lesions of the breast on core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Albertini, Ann-Flore; Provan, Pamela J; Milliken, Jane S; Salisbury, Elizabeth L; Bilous, A Michael; Byth, Karen; Balleine, Rosemary L

    2010-07-01

    The management of asymptomatic intraductal papillary lesions of the breast diagnosed on core biopsy poses a challenge for patients and clinicians, as the distinction between common benign lesions and atypical or malignant varieties may be difficult without formal excision. The aim of this study was to determine whether a combination of histopathologic and biomarker features could be used to accurately identify benign papillary lesions on core biopsy. An inclusive group of 127 excised papillary lesions was characterized by detailed histopathologic review and immunohistochemical staining for the basal markers cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and P63 and the proliferation marker Ki67. Comparison of benign, atypical, and malignant lesions revealed that the combination of broad, sclerotic fibrovascular cores, and epithelial CK5/6 staining was most commonly seen in benign papillomas. Ki67 staining revealed striking intralesional heterogeneity, but there was no difference between the high scores of benign, atypical, or malignant lesions (P=0.173). In a non-overlapping set of 42 cases, a binary classifier specifying benign lesions on the basis of thick fibrovascular cores and epithelial CK5/6 staining on core biopsy gave an overall misclassification rate of 4/42 (10%) when compared with the final excision diagnosis. Misclassified cases included 2/27 lesions ultimately diagnosed as benign and 2/2 atypical papillomas. All malignant lesions (n=13) were correctly assigned. The combined assessment of fibrovascular core thickness and CK5/6 staining on core biopsy distinguished benign from malignant papillary lesions, but did not separate benign from atypical cases. This approach may form a useful addition to the clinicopathologic evaluation of papillary lesions of the breast. PMID:20473278

  15. Lesions to Primary Sensory and Posterior Parietal Cortices Impair Recovery from Hand Paresis after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Abela, Eugenio; Missimer, John; Wiest, Roland; Federspiel, Andrea; Hess, Christian; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Weder, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroanatomical determinants of motor skill recovery after stroke are still poorly understood. Although lesion load onto the corticospinal tract is known to affect recovery, less is known about the effect of lesions to cortical sensorimotor areas. Here, we test the hypothesis that lesions of somatosensory cortices interfere with the capacity to recover motor skills after stroke. Methods Standardized tests of motor skill and somatosensory functions were acquired longitudinally over nine months in 29 patients with stroke to the pre- and postcentral gyrus, including adjacent areas of the frontal, parietal and insular cortices. We derived the recovery trajectories of each patient for five motor subtest using least-squares curve fitting and objective model selection procedures for linear and exponential models. Patients were classified into subgroups based on their motor recovery models. Lesions were mapped onto diffusion weighted imaging scans and normalized into stereotaxic space using cost-function masking. To identify critical neuranatomical regions, voxel-wise subtractions were calculated between subgroup lesion maps. A probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlas was used to quantify of lesion extent and location. Results Twenty-three patients with moderate to severe initial deficits showed exponential recovery trajectories for motor subtests that relied on precise distal movements. Those that retained a chronic motor deficit had lesions that extended to the center of the somatosensory cortex (area 2) and the intraparietal sulcus (areas hIP1, hIP2). Impaired recovery outcome correlated with lesion extent on this areas and somatosensory performance. The rate of recovery, however, depended on the lesion load onto the primary motor cortex (areas 4a, 4p). Conclusions Our findings support a critical role of uni-and multimodal somatosensory cortices in motor skill recovery. Whereas lesions to these areas influence recovery outcome, lesions to the primary motor

  16. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of benign and malignant cutaneous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Troyanova, P. P.; Stoyanova, V. P.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2005-04-01

    The goals of this work were investigation of pigmented skin lesions by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from malignant and benign skin lesions after excitation with nitrogen laser at 337 nm, namely: benign nevi, dysplastic nevi, malignant melanoma (MM), keratopapilloma, base-cell papilloma and base-cell carcinoma, as well as from healthy skin areas near to the lesion that were used posteriori to reveal changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra. Initially lesions were classified by ABCD-dermatscopic method. All suspicious lesions were excised and were investigated histologically. Spectrum of healthy skin consists of one main maximum at 470-500 nm spectral region and secondary maxima at in the regions round 400 and 440 nm. In the cases of nevi and melanoma significant decrease of fluorescence intensity, which correlated with the type of pigment lesion was observed. This reduction of the signal is related to the accumulation of melanin in the lesions that re-absorb strongly the fluorescence from native skin fluorophores in whole visible spectral region. In cases of papilloma and base-cell carcinoma an intensity decrease was also observed, related to accumulation of pigments in these cutaneous lesions. An relative increase of the fluorescence peak at 440 nm were registered in the case of base-cell carcinoma, and appearance of green fluorescence, related to increase of keratin content in benign papilloma lesions were detected. The results, obtained in this investigation of the different pigment lesions could be used for better comprehension of the skin optical properties. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the human skin are very prominent for early diagnosis and differentiation of cutaneous diseases and gives a wide range of possibilities related to real-time determination of existing pathological condition.

  17. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CAUSES OF SKIN LESIONS IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) IN THE EASTERN USA, 1975-2013.

    PubMed

    Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Allison, Andrew B; Brown, Justin D

    2016-07-01

    Skin lesions of Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) are a common cause of concern to wildlife biologists and the general public and are a frequent reason for submission to diagnostic laboratories. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the causes, occurrence, and epidemiologic patterns of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys in the eastern US. Skin lesions were diagnosed in 30% (n=199) of the 660 Wild Turkey samples submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study diagnostic service from 1975 to 2013. Avian pox was the most frequent cause of skin lesions (66%, n=131), followed by bacterial dermatitis (22%, n=44), ectoparasitism-related dermatitis (3%, n=6), fungal dermatitis (2.5%, n=5), and neoplasia (2.0%, n=4). Although the gross appearance of skin lesions is often insufficient to determine the etiology, the anatomic distribution of lesions and temporal occurrence of certain diseases may offer insights into likely causes. Cases with lesions involving or restricted to the head and neck were much more likely to be caused by avian pox than other etiologies. Similarly, lesions restricted to the feet were more likely to be of bacterial origin. Skin lesions observed in the fall and winter were more likely to be caused by avian pox, whereas bacterial dermatitis was more frequently observed in the spring and summer. This retrospective study provides a summary of the causes of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys and serves as a useful reference to diagnosticians and biologists when evaluating Wild Turkeys with skin lesions. PMID:27195689

  18. Nondestructive assessment of the severity of occlusal caries lesions with near-infrared imaging at 1310 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Lee, Dustin; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-infrared (NIR) at 1310 nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation. The objective of this study is to determine whether the lesion contrast derived from NIR imaging in both transmission and reflectance can be used to estimate lesion severity. Two NIR imaging detector technologies are investigated: a new Ge-enhanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based NIR imaging camera, and an InGaAs focal plane array (FPA). Natural occlusal caries lesions are imaged with both cameras at 1310 nm, and the image contrast between sound and carious regions is calculated. After NIR imaging, teeth are sectioned and examined using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR) to determine lesion severity. Lesions are then classified into four categories according to lesion severity. Lesion contrast increases significantly with lesion severity for both cameras (p<0.05). The Ge-enhanced CMOS camera equipped with the larger array and smaller pixels yields higher contrast values compared with the smaller InGaAs FPA (p<0.01). Results demonstrate that NIR lesion contrast can be used to estimate lesion severity.

  19. Hepatic lesions segmentation in ultrasound nonlinear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissi, Adelaide A.; Cormier, Stephane; Pourcelot, Leandre; Tranquart, Francois

    2005-04-01

    Doppler has been used for many years for cardiovascular exploration in order to visualize the vessels walls and anatomical or functional diseases. The use of ultrasound contrast agents makes it possible to improve ultrasonic information. Nonlinear ultrasound imaging highlights the detection of these agents within an organ and hence is a powerful technique to image perfusion of an organ in real-time. The visualization of flow and perfusion provides important information for the diagnosis of various diseases as well as for the detection of tumors. However, the images are buried in noise, the speckle, inherent in the image formation. Furthermore at portal phase, there is often an absence of clear contrast between lesions and surrounding tissues because the organ is filled with agents. In this context, we propose a new method of automatic liver lesions segmentation in nonlinear imaging sequences for the quantification of perfusion. Our method of segmentation is divided into two stages. Initially, we developed an anisotropic diffusion step which raised the structural characteristics to eliminate the speckle. Then, a fuzzy competitive clustering process allowed us to delineate liver lesions. This method has been used to detect focal hepatic lesions (metastasis, nodular hyperplasia, adenoma). Compared to medical expert"s report obtained on 15 varied lesions, the automatic segmentation allows us to identify and delineate focal liver lesions during the portal phase which high accuracy. Our results show that this method improves markedly the recognition of focal hepatic lesions and opens the way for future precise quantification of contrast enhancement.

  20. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  1. Association of Malassezia species with psoriatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Singh, Pankaj; Handa, Sanjeev

    2014-08-01

    The aetiology of psoriasis remains elusive. Among multiple factors hypothesised, association of Malassezia spp. is supported by response to topical antifungals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of Malassezia spp. with psoriatic lesion. The subjects included 50 consecutive patients with psoriasis, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Samples were collected using scotch tape over one square inch area from the lesional and non-lesional sites. The isolated Malassezia spp. were identified by phenotypic methods and confirmed by ITS2 PCR-RFLP and sequencing of D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Psoriatic lesions were seen commonly on scalp (28%, 14), chest (22%, 11) and arms (16%, 8). Majority of cases presented with chronic plaque form (76%, 38; P < 0.05). From psoriatic lesions, most frequently isolated Malassezia species was M. furfur (70.6%, 24), followed by M. japonica (11.8%, 4) and M. globosa (8.8%, 3). From healthy individuals M. furfur, M. sympodialis, mixture of M. furfur and M. globosa was isolated in 73.3%, 10% and 16.7% (22, 3 and 5) of cases respectively. The average number of colonies isolated from scalp lesions of the patients was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than healthy areas. Although no strong association of Malassezia species was formed with psoriatic lesion in general, the fungi may play a role in exacerbation of scalp psoriasis. PMID:24655111

  2. PS-OCT of occlusal and interproximal caries lesions viewed from occlusal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel; Bush, Jeff; Bell, Steve

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural occlusal caries lesions with the relative mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. There was excellent agreement between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for occlusal lesions. Therefore, PS-OCT is ideally suited to image natural caries lesions in the important occlusal surfaces for the assessment of the lesion severity and activity. A secondary objective was to compare the performance of a new autocorrelator-based PS-OCT system employing a novel polarization-switching probe with our polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system, both operating at 1310-nm. The new PS-OCT system produced clean images with no artifacts and achieved high penetration depth. Yet a third objective was to determine if interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above) since interproximal lesions may only be accessible in vivo from buccal or lingual surfaces or from the occlusal surface. Simulated and natural interproximal caries lesions were imaged from the occlusal surfaces as long as there was no intervening dentin.

  3. Spinal focal lesion detection in multiple myeloma using multimodal image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a tumor disease in the bone marrow that affects the skeleton systemically, i.e. multiple lesions can occur in different sites in the skeleton. To quantify overall tumor mass for determining degree of disease and for analysis of therapy response, volumetry of all lesions is needed. Since the large amount of lesions in one patient impedes manual segmentation of all lesions, quantification of overall tumor volume is not possible until now. Therefore development of automatic lesion detection and segmentation methods is necessary. Since focal tumors in multiple myeloma show different characteristics in different modalities (changes in bone structure in CT images, hypointensity in T1 weighted MR images and hyperintensity in T2 weighted MR images), multimodal image analysis is necessary for the detection of focal tumors. In this paper a pattern recognition approach is presented that identifies focal lesions in lumbar vertebrae based on features from T1 and T2 weighted MR images. Image voxels within bone are classified using random forests based on plain intensities and intensity value derived features (maximum, minimum, mean, median) in a 5 x 5 neighborhood around a voxel from both T1 and T2 weighted MR images. A test data sample of lesions in 8 lumbar vertebrae from 4 multiple myeloma patients can be classified at an accuracy of 95% (using a leave-one-patient-out test). The approach provides a reasonable delineation of the example lesions. This is an important step towards automatic tumor volume quantification in multiple myeloma.

  4. The structure of an authentic spore photoproduct lesion in DNA suggests a basis for recognition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Isha; Jian, Yajun; Lian, Yajun; Li, Lei; Georgiadis, Millie M

    2014-03-01

    The spore photoproduct lesion (SP; 5-thymine-5,6-dihydrothymine) is the dominant photoproduct found in UV-irradiated spores of some bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. Upon spore germination, this lesion is repaired in a light-independent manner by a specific repair enzyme: the spore photoproduct lyase (SP lyase). In this work, a host-guest approach in which the N-terminal fragment of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV RT) serves as the host and DNA as the guest was used to determine the crystal structures of complexes including 16 bp oligonucleotides with and without the SP lesion at 2.14 and 1.72 Å resolution, respectively. In contrast to other types of thymine-thymine lesions, the SP lesion retains normal Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding to the adenine bases of the complementary strand, with shorter hydrogen bonds than found in the structure of the undamaged DNA. However, the lesion induces structural changes in the local conformation of what is otherwise B-form DNA. The region surrounding the lesion differs significantly in helical form from B-DNA, and the minor groove is widened by almost 3 Å compared with that of the undamaged DNA. Thus, these unusual structural features associated with SP lesions may provide a basis for recognition by the SP lyase. PMID:24598744

  5. How do radiographic techniques affect mass lesion detection performance in digital mammography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Dudley, Eric F.; Dance, David R.

    2004-05-01

    We investigated how the x-ray tube kV and mAs affected the detection of simulated lesions with diameters between 0.24 and 12 mm. Digital mammograms were acquired with and without mass lesions, permitting a difference image to be generated corresponding to the lesion alone. Isolated digital lesions were added at a reduced intensity to non-lesion images, and used in Four-Alternate Forced Choice (4-AFC) experiments to determine the lesion intensity that corresponded to an accuracy of 92% (I92%). Values of I92% were determined at x-ray tube output values ranging from 40 to 120 mAs, and x-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 32 kV. For mass lesions larger than ~0.8 mm, there was no significant change in detection peformance with changing mAs. Doubling of the x-ray tube output from 60 to 120 mAs resulted in an average change in I92% of only +3.8%, whereas the Rose model of lesion detection predicts a reduction in the experimental value of I92% of -29%. For the 0.24 mm lesion, however, reducing the x-ray beam mAs from 100 to 40 mAs reduced the average detection performance by ~60%. Contrast-detail curves for lesions with diameter >= 0.8 mm had a slope of ~+0.23, whereas the Rose model predicts a slope of -0.5. For lesions smaller than ~0.8 mm, contrast-detail slopes were all negative with the average gradient increasing with decreasing mAs value. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 24 to 32 kV at a constant display contrast resulted in a modest improvement in low contrast lesion detection performance of ~10%. Increasing the display window width from 2000 to 2500 reduced the average observer performance by ~6%. Our principal finding is that radiographic technique factors have little effect on detection performance for lesions larger than ~0.8 mm, but that the visibility of smaller lesions is affected by quantum mottle in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Rose model.

  6. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Ashouri, Anousheh; Kaufman, Galen

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17) received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Group 2 (n = 12) only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested. PMID:27096015

  7. Sampling probability distributions of lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, P.; Warren, L. M.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2015-03-01

    One approach to image perception studies in mammography using virtual clinical trials involves the insertion of simulated lesions into normal mammograms. To facilitate this, a method has been developed that allows for sampling of lesion positions across the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections in accordance with measured distributions of real lesion locations. 6825 mammograms from our mammography image database were segmented to find the breast outline. The outlines were averaged and smoothed to produce an average outline for each laterality and radiographic projection. Lesions in 3304 mammograms with malignant findings were mapped on to a standardised breast image corresponding to the average breast outline using piecewise affine transforms. A four dimensional probability distribution function was found from the lesion locations in the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections for calcification and noncalcification lesions. Lesion locations sampled from this probability distribution function were mapped on to individual mammograms using a piecewise affine transform which transforms the average outline to the outline of the breast in the mammogram. The four dimensional probability distribution function was validated by comparing it to the two dimensional distributions found by considering each radiographic projection and laterality independently. The correlation of the location of the lesions sampled from the four dimensional probability distribution function across radiographic projections was shown to match the correlation of the locations of the original mapped lesion locations. The current system has been implemented as a web-service on a server using the Python Django framework. The server performs the sampling, performs the mapping and returns the results in a javascript object notation format.

  8. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Ashouri, Anousheh; Kaufman, Galen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17) received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Group 2 (n = 12) only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested. PMID:27096015

  9. Differential diagnosis of primary petrous apex lesions.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, M A; Brackmann, D E

    1991-11-01

    Accurate preoperative diagnosis of petrous apex lesions is critical because the surgical approaches used for this region are different depending upon the specific disease process involved. While CT and MRI have each improved the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of petrous apex pathology, these imaging studies are most helpful when used in conjunction with one another. When systematically applied, the combination of CT with contrast and MRI (with and without gadolinium) permits accurate differential diagnosis of primary petrous apex lesions. This review presents the imaging approach employed at the House Ear Clinic for the differential diagnosis of primary lesions of the petrous apex. PMID:1805645

  10. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed. PMID:25523277

  11. Multiple sclerosis with caudate lesions on MRI.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, S; Ogasawara, N; Mine, H; Kawachi, Y

    2001-04-01

    A 31-year-old woman displayed sleepiness and impairment of recent memory. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. Although remission was achieved with corticosteroid therapy, she again displayed memory dysfunction and emotional disturbance one year later, at which time MRI disclosed new lesions in the right caudate nucleus and left frontal white matter. Corticosteroid therapy lead to improvement, and she suffered no recurrence on maintenance steroid therapy. These findings suggest that caudate lesions do occur in multiple sclerosis, the manifestations of which can be abulia and memory dysfunction, as in the present case. PMID:11334400

  12. The Horizon for Treating Cutaneous Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amit M.; Chou, Elizabeth L.; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians. PMID:22640429

  13. A quantitative analysis of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria; de França, Emmanuel Rodrigues; Magalhães, Marcelo; Lins, Ana Kelly; Brandão, Laura Costa; Magalhães, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of progressive macular hypomelanosis, although it has been suggested that Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role. While microbiological culture is commonly employed to identify Propionibacterium acnes, new identification methods have been under investigation, amongst them polymerase chain reaction. To determine the cut-off point for the number of genome copies of Propionibacterium acnes in the lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis as a positive marker, employing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and anaerobic culture, considered gold standard. An observational study with a comparison group, included 35 patients with dermatosis, attended at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil, between March and May 2008. Lesional skin was compared to non-lesional skin through positive testing with real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 12.0, was employed for the association analysis with the McNemar test, and the cut-off point with the ROC curve for maximum values. Propionibacterium acnes was most frequently encountered in lesional areas (p<0,025). The cut-off point of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional skin was 1,333 genome copies, with a sensitivity of 87,9% and a specificity of 100,0%. Since Propionibacterium acnes is a saprophyte, identifying the cut-off point may assist in determining its positivity in lesional skin in patients suffering with this dermatosis. PMID:24031649

  14. Cameron Lesions in Patients with Hiatal Hernias: Prevalence, Presentation, and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Darrell M.; Kushnir, Vladimir; Kalra, Gorav; Rosenstock, Aron; Alsakka, Mohammed A.; Patel, Amit; Sayuk, Gregory; Gyawali, C. Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims Cameron lesions, as defined by erosions and ulcerations at the diaphragmatic hiatus, are found in the setting of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with a hiatus hernia (HH). The study aim was to determine the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Cameron lesions. Patients and methods This is a retrospective cohort study evaluating consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy over a two year period. Endoscopy reports were systematically reviewed to determine presence or absence of Cameron lesions and hiatus hernia. Inpatient and outpatient records were reviewed to determine prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of medical treatment of Cameron lesions. Results Of 8260 upper endoscopic examinations, 1306 (20.2%) reported a HH. When categorized by size, 65.6% of HH were small (<3 cm), 23.0% moderate (3-4.9 cm) and 11.4% were large (≥5 cm). Of these, 43 patients (mean age 65.2 years, 49% female) had Cameron lesions, with a prevalence of 3.3% in the presence of HH. Prevalence was highest with large HH (12.8%). On univariate analysis, large HH, frequent NSAID use, GI bleeding (both occult and overt) and nadir hemoglobin level were significantly greater with Cameron lesions compared to HH without Cameron lesions (p≤0.03). Large HH size and NSAID use were identified as independent risk factors for Cameron lesions on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Cameron lesions are more prevalent in the setting of large HH and NSAID use, can be associated with GI bleeding, and can respond to medical management. PMID:24758713

  15. Quantifying the remineralization of artificial caries lesions using PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    New optical imaging methods are needed to determine whether caries lesions (tooth decay) are active and progressing or have become remineralized and arrested and are no longer progressing. The objective of this study was to use Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) to image the fluoride enhanced remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Artificial lesions were created by an acetate buffer on smooth enamel surfaces and were exposed for 20 days to a 2 ppm fluoride containing remineralization solution. PS-OCT images revealed the presence of a low scattering surface zone after the artificial lesions were remineralized. These samples displayed intact nondepolarizing surface zones when analyzed with Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). No statistical difference in lesion depth before and after remineralization was found with both PS-OCT and PLM. The remineralized lesions showed a significant decrease in the overall integrated reflectivity compared with the demineralized lesions. Digital Microradiography confirmed the increase in mineral volume of the remineralized surface zone. This study determined that PS-OCT can image the restoration of the surface zone enamel after fluoride-enhanced remineralization of artificial in vitro dental caries.

  16. Lesion Expansion in Experimental Demyelination Animal Models and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Große-Veldmann, René; Becker, Birte; Amor, Sandra; van der Valk, Paul; Beyer, Cordian; Kipp, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Gray matter pathology is an important aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and disease progression. In a recent study, we were able to demonstrate that the higher myelin content in the white matter parts of the brain is an important variable in the neuroinflammatory response during demyelinating events. Whether higher white matter myelination contributes to lesion development and progression is not known. Here, we compared lesion size of intra-cortical vs. white matter MS lesions. Furthermore, dynamics of lesion development was compared in the cuprizone and lysophosphatidylcholine models. We provide clear evidence that in the human brain, white matter lesions are significantly increased in size as compared to intra-cortical gray matter lesions. In addition, studies using the cuprizone mouse model revealed that the autonomous progression of white matter lesions is more severe compared to that in the gray matter. Focal demyelination revealed that the application of equal amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine results in more severe demyelination in the white compared to the gray matter. In summary, lesion progression is most intense in myelin-rich white matter regions, irrespective of the initial lesion trigger mechanism. A better understanding of myelin debris-triggered lesion expansion will pave the way for the development of new protective strategies in the future. PMID:26363796

  17. A rare infectious cause of severe neonatal skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Demeulemeester, Veronique; Voeten, Michiel; Jacquemyn, Yves; Mahieu, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a preterm infant of 28 weeks' gestation with unique cutaneous lesions characteristic of a congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 infection. The infant was prematurely delivered due to intractable labour. The mother had no history or clinical signs of genital infection before or during pregnancy. The infant's skin lesions were described as rough white-yellow plaques; a skin biopsy demonstrated calcified plaques and absent epidermis. HSV type 1 was later determined using PCR on the infant's skin biopsy and cerebral spinal fluid as well as the mother's vaginal swab and the placenta. Calcifications have already been described by Allee et al, alongside a diagnosis of HSV type 2. As is well known, the morbidity and mortality of congenital herpes infections are very high. PMID:26452409

  18. Multiparametric MRI for Localized Prostate Cancer: Lesion Detection and Staging

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Daniel J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiparametric MRI of the prostate combines high-resolution anatomic imaging with functional imaging of alterations in normal tissue caused by neoplastic transformation for the identification and characterization of in situ prostate cancer. Lesion detection relies on a systematic approach to the analysis of both anatomic and functional imaging using established criteria for the delineation of suspicious areas. Staging includes visual and functional analysis of the prostate “capsule” to determine if in situ disease is, in fact, organ-confined, as well as the evaluation of pelvic structures including lymph nodes and bones for the detection of metastasis. Although intertwined, the protocol can be optimized depending on whether lesion detection or staging is of the highest priority. PMID:25525600

  19. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Das, A L; Vaishampayan, S S; Vaidya, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory. PMID:16394461

  20. Atherectomy in complex infrainguinal lesions: a review.

    PubMed

    Engelberger, S; van den Berg, J C

    2015-02-01

    In the femoropopliteal segment, endovascular revascularization techniques have gained the role as a first line treatment strategy. Nitinol stent placement has improved the short- and mid-term primary patency rates in most lesion types and is therefore widely applied. Stenting has several shortcomings as in-stent restenosis, stent fractures and foreign material being left behind in the vessel. The concept of atherectomy is plaque debulking. This results in a potential reduction of inflation pressure requirements in angioplasty. Stent placement and consecutive in-stent restenosis may be avoided. In this non systematic literature review, the performance of different atherectomy techniques, such as direct atherectomy, orbital atherectomy, laser debulking and rotational atherectomy in the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions, including long lesions, moderately to heavily calcified lesions as well as occlusions and in-stent restenosis, has been analyzed. PMID:25399550

  1. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  5. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  6. Common Adult Skin and Soft Tissue Lesions.

    PubMed

    Trost, Jeffrey G; Applebaum, Danielle S; Orengo, Ida

    2016-08-01

    A strong foundational knowledge of dermatologic disease is crucial for a successful practice in plastic surgery. A plastic surgeon should be able to identify and appreciate common dermatologic diseases that may require medical and/or surgical evaluation and management. In this article, the authors describe epidermal/dermal, infectious, pigmented, and malignant cutaneous lesions that are commonly encountered in practice. Descriptions include the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and management options for each type of lesion. PMID:27478418

  7. Differential diagnosis of bovine teat lesions.

    PubMed

    Sieber, R L; Farnsworth, R J

    1984-07-01

    Teat lesions affect the dairyman by interfering with the milking process or by increasing the likelihood of intramammary infection. Lesions where the skin is broken are frequently infected. The viral, chemical, environmental, and equipment-induced lesions that lead to ulceration, hemorrhage, and scabbing are all associated with increased intramammary infection; however, this association does not necessarily hold true with the less severe conditions. The dry and flakey skin seen with certain teat dips, lime, or sunburn, the common teat-end callous condition, and the mild, temporary congestion or edema sometimes seen after machine milking usually do not lead to increased intramammary infection. When investigating a problem of increased intramammary infection, other factors should be discussed with the dairyman before suggesting that these conditions are the cause of the problem. Before making a diagnosis of machine-induced lesions, the milking equipment should be carefully inspected and tested. Although the equipment can and frequently does cause lesions, it rarely does so if it is properly set or maintained. Maintenance of inflations, pulsators, vacuum regulators, and vacuum pumps will frequently reveal the source of the problem. In most cases, an equipment malfunction must be quite severe to result in teat injury. Many teat-lesion problems are seasonal in occurrence. The problem will frequently subside in the spring only to reoccur in mid fall. In the midwestern United States, most teat-lesion problems occur from November to April. When investigating a teat-lesion complaint, a large proportion of the herd should be examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6089400

  8. Diffuse peritoneal deciduosis mimicking metastatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baroni Cruz, Dennis; Dhamer, Thricy; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich; Dupont, Roberta Finkler

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with an uneventful antenatal period underwent a caesarean section for breech presentation. At laparotomy, there were multiple yellowish elastic nodules distributed along the parietal peritoneal surface, totalling over 30 lesions and worrying the surgical team. The conclusive diagnosis of peritoneal deciduosis was supported by pathological analysis (histology and immunohistochemistry). The present case reports an uncommon presentation of diffuse peritoneal deciduosis mimicking metastatic lesions. PMID:24526201

  9. [Surgery of benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical treatment of benign vocal fold lesions can be indicated for clinical or functional reasons. The principles of phonosurgery have to be maintained in either case. The appropriate phonosurgical technique depends on the type of vocal fold lesion. Depending on the findings, phonosurgery aims to maintain or improve voice quality. The evaluation of clinical and functional results includes indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and voice analysis. PMID:27552826

  10. Evolution of early lesions in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, B; Mukherjee, A; Girdhar, A; Husain, S; Malaviya, G N; Girdhar, B K

    1993-09-01

    We observed 29 patients presenting with vague peripheral neurological symptoms for 6 months or more. During this period, 16 developed clinical leprosy, 3 developed borderline tuberculoid leprosy and the other 13 developed neuritic leprosy. Of these 13 cases 11 subsequently developed skin lesions similar to those seen in indeterminate and in borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Based on the above observations, an attempt has been made to explain the evolution of early lesions of leprosy. PMID:8231606