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Sample records for direct dyes effluent

  1. Exploring the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. ATM to degrade textile dye Direct Blue GLL, mixture of dyes and textile effluent and production of polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid using waste biomass generated after dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Joshi, Swati M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of textile effluent using microorganisms has been studied extensively, but disposal of generated biomass after dye degradation is a serious problem. Among all tested microorganisms, isolated Sphingobacterium sp. ATM effectively decolorized (100%) the dye Direct Blue GLL (DBGLL) and simultaneously it produced (64%) polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid (PHD). The organism decolorized DBGLL at 300 mg l(-1) concentration within 24 h of dye addition and gave optimum production of PHD. The organism also decolorized three combinations of mixture of dyes. The organism decolorized textile effluent too when it was combined with medium. The organism produced a maximum of 66% and 61% PHD while decolorizing mixture of dyes and textile effluent respectively. Molasses was found to be more significant within all carbon sources used. The activity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase was found to be higher after 24 h of addition of DBGLL. The enzymes responsible for dye degradation, viz. veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol) reductase, riboflavin reductase, and azo reductase were found to be induced during decolorization process of DBGLL and mixture of dyes. There was significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). FTIR analysis of samples before and after decolorization of dye confirmed the biotransformation of DBGLL. PMID:20591565

  2. Biosorption of synthetic dyes (Direct Red 89 and Reactive Green 12) as an ecological refining step in textile effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Guendouz, Samira; Khellaf, Nabila; Zerdaoui, Mostefa; Ouchefoun, Moussa

    2013-06-01

    With the use of cost-effective natural materials, biosorption is considered as an ecological tool that is applied worldwide for the remediation of pollution. In this study, we proposed Lemna gibba biomass (LGB), a lignocellulosic sorbent material, for the removal of two textile dyes, Direct Red 89 (DR-89) and Reactive Green 12 (RG-12). These azo dyes commonly used in dying operations of natural and synthetic fibres are the most important pollutants produced in textile industry effluents. For this purpose, batch biosorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of LGB on dye treatment by evaluating the effect of contact time, biomass dosage, and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that the bioremoval efficiency of 5 mg L(-1) DR-89 and RG-12 reached approximately 100 % after 20 min of the exposure time; however, the maximum biosorption of 50 mg L(-1) DR-89 and 15 mg L(-1) RG-12 was determined to be about 60 and 47 %, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy used to explain the sorption mechanism showed that the functional groups of carboxylic acid and hydroxyl played a major role in the retention of these pollutants on the biomass surface. The modelling results using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Elovich, and Dubini Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms demonstrated that the DR-89 biosorption process was better described with the Langmuir theory (R (2) =0.992) while the RG-12 biosorption process fitted well by the D-R isotherm equation (R (2) =0.988). The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 20.0 and 115.5 mg g(-1) for DR-89 and RG-12, respectively, showing a higher ability of duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the green dye. The thermodynamic study showed that the dye biosorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The efficacy of using duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the two dyes was limited to concentrations ≤50 mg L(-1), indicating that L. gibba biomass may be suitable in the refining step

  3. In situ electrocatalytic oxidation of acid violet 12 dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Mohan, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2006-08-21

    Electrochemical treatment of organic pollutants is a promising treatment technique for substances which are recalcitrant to biodegradation. Experiments were carried out to treat acid violet 12 dye house effluent using electrochemical technique for removal color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating conditions. Ruthenium/lead/tin oxide coated titanium and stainless steel were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The influence of effluent initial concentration, pH, supporting electrolyte and the electrode material on rate of degradation has been critically examined. The results indicate that the electrochemical method can be used to treat dye house effluents. PMID:16730894

  4. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Carvallho, Marilda N; da Silva, Karolyne S; Sales, Deivson C S; Freire, Eleonora M P L; Sobrinho, Maurício A M; Ghislandi, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface. PMID:27148721

  8. Pre-ozonation coupled with UV/H2O2 process for the decolorization and mineralization of cotton dyeing effluent and synthesized C.I. Direct Black 22 wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin

    2005-05-20

    The decolorization and mineralization of cotton dyeing effluent containing C.I. Acid Black 22 as well as synthesized C.I. Acid Black 22 wastewater by means of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/H2O2, O3 and pre-ozonation coupled with UV/H2O2 processes, were evaluated in this study. It was observed that the UV/H2O2 process took longer retention time than ozonation for color removal of dye bath effluent. Reversely, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal showed different phenomena that ozonation and UV/H2O2 process obtained 33 and 90% of removal efficiency for 160 min of retention time, respectively. Additionally, laboratory synthesized dye wastewater was substantially more efficient in the decolorization process than dye bath effluent. Therefore, in this work, pre-ozonation coupled with UV/H2O2 process was employed to enhance the reduction of both color and TOC in dye bath effluent at the same time. At the same time, the retention time demand was reduced to less than 115 min for 90% removal of TOC and color by this combined process. PMID:15885413

  9. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye Effluents Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mariselvam, R.; Ranjitsingh, A. J. A.; Mosae Selvakumar, P.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as PH, temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process. PMID:27382364

  12. Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

    2005-04-15

    Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

  13. Phytoremediation of textile effluent and mixture of structurally different dyes by Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Akhil N; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-04-01

    Plants of Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc. performed decolorization of structurally different dyes to varying extent because of induction of different set of enzymes in response to specific dyes. Differential pattern of enzyme induction with respect to time was obtained for lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase during the decolorization of dye mixture, whose combined action resulted in greater and faster decolorization of dyes. HPLC, FTIR and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis confirmed degradation of dyes from textile effluent and mixture. HPTLC demonstrated progressive decolorization of dye mixture along with preferential degradation of the dyes. G. pulchella showed reduction in American Dye Manufacturer's Institute from 405 to 21 and 418 to 22, in case of textile effluent and mixture of dyes respectively. The non-toxic nature of the metabolites of degraded textile dye effluent and mixture of dyes was revealed by phytotoxicity studies. PMID:22261370

  14. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  15. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  16. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment. PMID:26887225

  18. Box behnken design based optimization of solar induced photo catalytic decolourization of textile dye effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhu, Harinarayan Janardhana; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Swaminathan, G.

    2013-03-01

    Box-Behnken design was employed for the decolourization of synthetic dye bath effluent using solar induced photo catalytic degradation with mixed semi conductor catalysts. Four independent variables namely concentration of dye effluent, catalyst loading, pH and irradiation time was chosen as process variables. The optimum concentrations of dye effluent, catalyst dosage, pH, and irradiation time were found to be 60 mg L-1, 200 mg L-1, 7 and 100 min, respectively, for maximum decolourization of dye effluent (91.24%). Predicted values were found to be in good agreement with experimental values and as a result reflected the precision and the applicability of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) (R2=0.9785 and Adj R2= 0.9569).

  19. Impact of dyeing industry effluent on germination and growth of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Piyush; Hali, Rajesh; Sharma, Neeru

    2012-11-01

    Dye industry effluent was analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and its impact on germination and growth behaviour of Pea (Pisum sativum). The 100% effluent showed high pH (10.3) and TDS (1088 mg l(-1)). The germination parameters included percent germination, delay index, speed of germination, peak value and germination period while growth parameters comprised of root and shoot length, root and shootweight, root-shoot ratio and number of stipules. The study showed the maximum values of positive germination parameters viz. speed of germination (7.85), peak value (3.28), germination index (123.87) and all growth parameters at 20% effluent concentration while the values of negative germination parameters viz. delay index (-0.14) and percent inhibition (-8.34) were found to be minimum at 20% effluent concentration. The study demonstrated that at lower concentrations the dyeing industry effluent caused a positive impact on germination and growth of Pisum sativum. PMID:23741804

  20. Effect of indigo dye effluent on the growth, biomass production and phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorococcales).

    PubMed

    Chia, Mathias A; Musa, Rilwan I

    2014-03-01

    The effect of indigo dye effluent on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The microalga was exposed to different concentrations of the effluent obtained by diluting the dye effluent from 100 to 175 times in bold basal medium (BBM). The growth rate of the microalga decreased as indigo dye effluent concentration increased (p <0.05). The EC50 was found to be 166 dilution factor of the effluent. Chlorophyll a, cell density and dry weight production as biomarkers were negatively affected by high indigo dye effluent concentration, their levels were higher at low effluent concentrations (p <0.05). Changes in coenobia size significantly correlated with the dye effluent concentration. A shift from large to small coenobia with increasing indigo dye effluent concentration was obtained. We conclude that even at low concentrations; effluents from textile industrial processes that use indigo dye are capable of significantly reducing the growth and biomass production, in addition to altering the morphological characteristics of the freshwater microalga S. quadricauda. The systematic reduction in the number of cells per coenobium observed in this study further confirms that environmental stress affects coenobium structure in the genus Scenedesmus, which means it can be considered an important biomarker for toxicity testing. PMID:24676177

  1. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

  2. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon. PMID:16765044

  3. Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: Current scenario and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation has emerged as a green, passive, solar energy driven and cost effective approach for environmental cleanup when compared to physico-chemical and even other biological methods. Textile dyes and effluents are condemned as one of the worst polluters of our precious water bodies and soils. They are well known mutagenic, carcinogenic, allergic and cytotoxic agents posing threats to all life forms. Plant based treatment of textile dyes is relatively new and hitherto has remained an unexplored area of research. Use of macrophytes like Phragmites australis and Rheum rhabarbarum have shown efficient removal of Acid Orange 7 and sulfonated anthraquinones, respectively. Common garden and ornamental plants namely Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora, Zinnia angustifolia, Petunia grandiflora, Glandularia pulchella, many ferns and aquatic plants have also been advocated for their dye degradation potential. Plant tissue cultures like suspension cells of Blumea malcolmii and Nopalea cochenillifera, hairy roots of Brassica juncea and Tagetes patula and whole plants of several other species have confirmed their role in dye degradation. Plants' oxidoreductases such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, riboflavin reductase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase are known as key biodegrading enzymes which break the complex structures of dyes. Schematic metabolic pathways of degradation of different dyes and their environmental fates have also been proposed. Degradation products of dyes and their fates of metabolism have been reported to be validated by UV-vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy and several other analytical tools. Constructed wetlands and various pilots scale reactors were developed independently using the plants of P. australis, Portulaca grandiflora, G. pulchella

  4. Improved biodegradation of textile dye effluent by coculture.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2015-04-01

    The present study demonstrates the de-colorization and degradation of textile effluent by coculture consisting of three bacterial species isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment with an aim to reduce the treatment time. The isolates were identified as Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia vermicola by 16S rRNA analysis. Their secondary structure was predicted and GC content of the sequence was found to be 54.39, 52.10, and 52.53%. The co-culture showed a prominent increase in the degradation activity due to the action of oxidoreductase enzymatic mechanism of laccase, NADH-DCIP reductase and azoreductase activity. The biodegradability index of 0.75 was achieved with 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction in 16 h and 78 and 85% reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) and total solids was observed. Bioaccumulation of metals was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The effective decolorization was confirmed from the results of UV-vis spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometer analyzes. The possible degradation pathway was obtained from the analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis and the metabolites such as 2-amino naphthalene and N-phenyl-1.3,5 triazine were observed. The toxic nature of the effluent was analyzed using phyto-toxicity, cell-death assay and geno-toxicity tests. PMID:25594688

  5. Biodecolorization of Textile Dye Effluent by Biosorption on Fungal Biomass Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbout, Rana; Taha, Samir

    Colored industrial effluents have become a vital source of water pollution, and because water is the most important natural source; its treatment is a responsibility. Usually colored wastewater is treated by physical and chemical processes. But these technologies are ineffective in removing dyes, expensive and not adaptable to a wide range of colored water. Biosorption was identified as the preferred technique for bleaching colored wastewater by giving the best results. This treatment was based on the use of dead fungal biomass as new material for treating industrial colored effluents by biosorption. We studied the ability of biosorption of methylene blue (MB) by Aspergillus fumigatus and optimize the conditions for better absorption. Biosorption reaches 68% at 120 min. Similarly, the biosorbed amount increases up to 65% with pH from 4 to 6, and it's similar and around 90% for pH from 7 to 13. At ambient temperature 20-22 °C, the percentage of biosorption of methylene blue was optimal. The kinetic of biosorption is directly related to the surface of biosorbent when the particle size is also an important factor affecting the ability of biosorption. Also the biosorption of methylene blue increases with the dose of biosorbent due to an augmentation of the adsorption surface. In this study, for an initial concentration of 12 mg/L of MB (biosorbent/solution ratio=2g/L) buffered to alkaline pH, and a contact time of 120 min, biosorption takes place at an ambient temperature and reaches 93.5% under these conditions.

  6. Removal of methylene blue from dye effluent using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder (ACLP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman bin Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Aminu, Nasiru; Salihi, Ibrahim Umar

    2015-07-01

    Methylene blue (MB), a common environmental pollutant discharged from dye effluents were removed from synthetic effluents in this study using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder. Effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial Methylene blue concentration, adsorbent weight and contact time were examined on methylene blue removal whereas stirring speed was constant at 100 rpm. Results show that low pH (3-4) had more Methylene blue removal than high pH. Methylene blue removal decreased when initial concentration was increased but increased when adsorbent weight was increased. Removal of Methylene blue by Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder was rapid and significantly above 80% in all initial concentrations examined. At optimum conditions of pH 3, 20 minutes contact time and adsorbent weight of 60 mg for Methylene blue initial concentration of 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L, Methylene blue removal of 84.7%, 83.9% and 81.2% were obtained respectively. Results suggest that Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder could be potential adsorbents for Methylene blue removal from dye effluents.

  7. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Significant reduction in toxicity, BOD, and COD of textile dyes and textile industry effluent by a novel bacterium Pseudomonas sp. LBC1.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kim, Seon-Won; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-03-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence analysis and biochemical characteristics were confirmed that the isolated bacterium is Pseudomonas sp. LBC1. The commonly used textile dye, Direct Brown MR has been used to study the fate of biodegradation. Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 showed 90% decolorization of Direct Brown MR (100 mg/L) and textile industry effluent with significant reduction in COD and BOD. The optimum condition for decolorization was 7.0 pH and 40°C. Significant increase in a activity of extracellular laccase suggested their possible involvement in decolorization of Direct Brown MR. Biodegradation metabolites viz. 3,6-dihydroxy benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-7-aminonaphthol-3-sulfonic acid, and p-dihydroperoxybenzene were identified on the basis of mass spectra and using the 1.10 beta Shimadzu NIST GC-MS library. The Direct Brown MR and textile industry effluent were toxic to Sorghum bicolor and Vigna radiata plants as compared to metabolites obtained after decolorization. The Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 could be useful strain for decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes as well as textile industry effluent. PMID:22354382

  9. Aerobic decolorization and detoxification of a disperse dye in textile effluent by a new isolate of Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Pourbabaee, A A; Malekzadeh, F; Sarbolouki, M N; Najafi, F

    2006-03-01

    A number of aerobic species capable of decolorizing some of the dyes in a textile mill effluent were isolated. One of the isolates was able to decolorize Terasil black dye under aerobic conditions in the presence of an exogenous carbon source after 5 days. Glucose or starch (%1 ea) are essential for decolorization but the process proceeds faster in the presence of 0.5% yeast extract. Results of the BOD(5) show that the untreated effluent samples have a low BOD value, whereas treated samples show an initial increase in BOD up to 15 days followed by a decrease after 20 days. FT-IR and GC-MS data also reveal that the initial components in the untreated effluent disappear after 20 days of treatment, confirming biodegradation of the dye. Phytotoxicity tests on the untreated effluent samples using the seeds of Lens orientalis, Triticum aestivum, and Triticum boeoticum indicate that the first one is the most sensitive while the last one is the most resistant. On the other hand the treated effluent allows 90% germination in Triticum boeoticum seeds and 100% germination in the other two. PMID:16411245

  10. SonoFenton degradation of an azo dye, Direct Red.

    PubMed

    Harichandran, G; Prasad, S

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of a reactive azo dye, Direct Red 81 (DR81), by Fenton process and in conjunction with sonolysis (SonoFenton) was studied. The synergistic effect of Fenton process and sonolysis enhanced the degradation of Direct Red 81 in aqueous solutions and the reaction followed the mechanism of hydroxyl radical (HO) oxidation. The influence of the initial substrate concentration, pH and catalyst loading on the rate of decolorisation were studied. The dye decolorisation followed apparent first order kinetics. The optimum conditions for decolorisation were pH=3.0, [Fe(2+)]=0.2 g/l, [H2O2]=5.1×10(-3) mol/l and ultrasonic frequency=120 kHz, 60 W. These conditions yielded 99% decolorisation of DR81 within 75 min. The sonolytic degradation products of DR81 were identified using Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). The presence of CO3(2-), HCO3(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-) ions in the dye solution did not have a considerable effect on the decolorisation efficiency. This study demonstrates that Fenton and SonoFenton methods can effectively decolorize DR81 dye in waste water. The dye concentration used in this study is higher compared to earlier studies illustrating the effective mineralization by the SonoFenton process. The mechanism of dye degradation is also proposed. PMID:26584996

  11. PREDICTING THE PRECIPITATION OF ACID AND DIRECT DYES IN NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple screening test was used to determine whether acid and direct dyes precipitate at calcium concentrations typical of hard waters in the Southeastern Piedmont region of the United States. f 52 dyes tested, only three direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Black 22, and Direct...

  12. An improved method for removal of azo dye orange II from textile effluent using albumin as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Tadashi; Jara, Alícia M T; Batista, Anabelle C L; Franco, Luciana O; Barbosa Lima, Marcos A; Benachour, Mohand; Alves da Silva, Carlos A; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are generally resistant to biodegradation due to their complex structures. Acid orange II is one of the most widely used dyes in the textile industry. The influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in different concentrations, pH, and time of contact on Orange II was investigated using kinetics and adsorption-isotherm experiments. The results showed that the maximum colour removed from dye/albumin was 99.50% and that a stable dye-protein complex had been formed at pH 3.5 and in a proportion of 1:3 (v/v), respectively. The synthetic effluent did not show toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and showed a CL₅₀ equal to 97 µg/mL to azo dye orange II. Additionally, the methodology was effective in removing the maximum of orange II using BSA by adsorption at pH 3.5 which mainly attracted ions to the azo dye during the adsorption process. This suggests that this form of treatment is economical and easy to use which potentially could lead to bovine serum albumin being used as a sorbent for azo dyes. PMID:23201641

  13. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  15. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

  16. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Remazol Red and textile effluent by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS.

    PubMed

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Gandhi, Soniya S; Purankar, Madhavi V; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Oh, Sang Eun; Saratale, Ganesh D

    2013-06-01

    A novel bacterium was isolated from the soil of Ichalkaranji textile industrial area. Through 16S rRNA sequence matching and morphological observation it was identified as Lysinibacillus sp. RGS. This strain has ability to decolorize various industrial dyes among which, it showed complete decolorization and degradation of toxic sulfonated azo dye C.I. Remazol Red (at 30°C, pH 7.0, under static condition) with higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction (92%) within 6 h of incubation. Various parameters like agitation, pH, temperature and initial dye concentrations were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS. Induction in oxidoreductive enzymes presumably indicates involvement of these enzymes in the decolorization/degradation process. Analytical studies of the extracted metabolites confirmed the significant degradation of Remazol Red into various metabolites. The phytotoxicity assay (with respect to plants Phaseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare) revealed that the degradation of Remazol Red produced nontoxic metabolites. Finally Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was applied to decolorize mixture of dyes and actual industrial effluent showing 87% and 72% decolorization (in terms of decrease in ADMI value) with 69% and 62% COD reduction within 48 h and 96 h, respectively. The foregoing result increases the applicability of the strain for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants. PMID:23321576

  17. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated toxic diazo dye C.I. Direct Red 81 by Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Madhuri M; Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Pathade, Girish R

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66 strain shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes among which, it showed complete decolorization and degradation of toxic, sulfonated recalcitrant diazo dye Direct Red 81 (50 mg/L) within 1.5 h of incubation under static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for decolorization was 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. Significant induction in the activity of intracellular oxidoreductive enzymes suggested its involvement in the decolorization of Direct Red 81. The biodegradation of Direct Red 81 was monitored by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products were characterized by GC-MS and possible pathway of the degradation of the dye was proposed. The phytotoxicity assay (with respect to plants Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo) revealed that the degradation of Direct Red 81 produced nontoxic metabolites. Finally E. faecalis was employed to decolorize actual industrial effluent showing decolorization (in terms of ADMI value) with moderate COD and BOD reduction. Moreover the result increases the applicability of the strain for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants. PMID:25649265

  18. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  19. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.

    PubMed

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  20. Decolorization and degradation of xenobiotic azo dye Reactive Yellow-84A and textile effluent by Galactomyces geotrichum.

    PubMed

    Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kurade, Mayur B; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kabra, Akhil N; Kim, Pil Joo; Waghmode, Tatoba R

    2014-08-01

    Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 exhibited 86% decolorization of azo dye Reactive Yellow-84A (50mgL(-1)) within 30h at 30°C and pH 7.0 under static condition. Examination of azoreductase, laccase and tyrosinase enzyme activities confirmed their prominent role in Reactive Yellow-84A degradation. Considerable reduction of COD (73%) and TOC (62%) during degradation of the dye was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were further analyzed by HPLC, FTIR, GC-MS and HPTLC. The degradation products were identified as 4(5-hydroxy, 4-amino cyclopentane) sulfobenzene and 4(5-hydroxy cyclopentane) sulfobenzene by GC-MS. In addition, when G. geotrichum was applied to decolorize textile effluent, it showed 85% of true color removal (ADMI removal) within 72h, along with a significant reduction in TOC and COD. Phytotoxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of degraded Reactive Yellow-84A as compared to original dye. PMID:24630455

  1. Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

    2013-06-15

    Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

  2. Adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Prola, Lizie D T; Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; de Souza, Felipe E; Gally, Caline R; Lima, Eder C; Adebayo, Matthew A; Dias, Silvio L P; Calvete, Tatiana

    2013-11-30

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and powder activated carbon (PAC) were used as adsorbents for adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye (DB-53) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbents were investigated. At pH 2.0, optimum adsorption of the dye was achieved by both adsorbents. Equilibrium contact times of 3 and 4 h were achieved by MWCNT and PAC adsorbents, respectively. The general order kinetic model provided the best fit of the experimental data compared to pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic adsorption models. For DB-53 dye, the equilibrium data (298-323 K) were best fitted to the Sips isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, with the values of 409.4 and 135.2 mg g(-1) for MWCNT and PAC, respectively. Studies of adsorption/desorption were conducted and the results showed that DB-53 loaded MWCNT could be regenerated (97.85%) using a mixture 50% acetone + 50% of 3 mol L(-1) NaOH. Simulated dye house effluents were used to evaluate the application of the adsorbents for effluent treatment (removal of 99.87% and 97.00% for MWCNT and PAC, respectively, were recorded). PMID:24076517

  3. Exploiting the efficacy of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes, textile effluent and bioreactor studies.

    PubMed

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Dong S

    2015-01-01

    Complete decolorization and detoxification of Reactive Orange 4 within 5 h (pH 6.6, at 30°C) by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was observed. Significant reduction in TOC (93%) and COD (90%) was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were identified as naphthalene moieties by various analytical techniques (HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS). Supplementation of agricultural waste extract considered as better option to make the process cost effective. Oxido-reductive enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation mechanism. Finally Loofa immobilized Lysinibacillus sp. cells in a fixed-bed bioreactor showed significant decolorization with reduction in TOC (51 and 64%) and COD (54 and 66%) for synthetic and textile effluent at 30 and 35 mL h(-1) feeding rate, respectively. The degraded metabolites showed non-toxic nature revealed by phytotoxicity and photosynthetic pigments content study for Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo. In addition nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microbes were less affected in treated wastewater and thus the treated effluent can be used for the irrigation purpose. This work could be useful for the development of efficient and ecofriendly technologies to reduce dye content in the wastewater to permissible levels at affordable cost. PMID:25560264

  4. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe3O4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe3O4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of corresponding

  5. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

  6. Chlorination strategies for direct groundwater recharge of tertiary effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.; Wang, L.; Johnson, P.C.; Houston, S.; Houston, W.N.; Brown, P.

    1998-07-01

    Chlorination for the control of biological activity during direct recharge of tertiary effluent was studied in bench-scale simulated aquifers. Both free chlorine and chloramine were studied at darcy velocities of 360 cm/d to 720 cm/d. A free chlorine residual of 5 mg/L or above inhibited biological activity in the 1.2 m of soil that was studied. A free chlorine residual concentration of 2 mg/L prevented biological activity in the first 0.9 m of exposed soil and significant biological clogging was observed in soil greater than 0.9 m from the injection point. A 2 mg/L residual concentration of chloramine resulted in biological clogging over the 0.9 m of soil adjacent to the injection point. No chlorine addition resulted in clogging adjacent to the injection point indicating that the chloramine inhibited biological activity and allowed biological activity to occur over a greater distance from the injection point. Dissolved oxygen levels decreased to zero in aquifers where significant biological activity was observed and trihalomethane concentrations decreased in these aquifers. Free chlorine appears to effectively control biological clogging adjacent to the injection point while permitting biological activity to develop after the chlorine has decayed.

  7. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-06-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L-1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L-1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h-l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  8. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-01-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  9. Degradation of disperse dye from textile effluent by free and immobilized Cucurbita pepo peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucherit, N.; Abouseoud, M.; Adour, L.

    2012-06-01

    Disperse dyes constitute the largest group of dyes used in local textile industry. This work evaluates the potential of the Cucurbita peroxidase(C-peroxidase) extracted from courgette in the decolourization of disperse dye in free and immobilized form. The optimal conditions for immobilization of C-peroxidase in Ca-alginate were identified. The immobilization was optimized at 2%(w/v) of sodium alginate and 0.2 M of calcium chloride. After optimization of treatment parameters, the results indicate that at pH 2, dye concentration: 80 mg/L(for FCP) and 180 mg/L(for ICP), H2O2 dose: 0,02M (for FCP) and 0,12M(for ICP), the decolourization by free and immobilized C-peroxidase were 72.02% and 69.71 % respectively. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed after the degradation were also predicted using UV-vis spectroscopy analysis.

  10. Decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes from textile effluent using horseradish peroxidase: optimization and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Stefanović, Andrea B; Žuža, Milena G; Čičkarić, Dragana Z; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  11. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  12. Phytoremediation of sulfonated Remazol Red dye and textile effluents by Alternanthera philoxeroides: An anatomical, enzymatic and pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Rane, Niraj R; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Patil, Tejas S; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-10-15

    Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. a macrophyte was found to degrade a highly sulfonated textile dye Remazol Red (RR) completely within 72 h at a concentration of 70 mg L(-1). An induction in the activities of azoreductase and riboflavin reductase was observed in root and stem tissues; while the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase and DCIP reductase were induced in leaf tissues. Some enzymes namely tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase displayed an increase in their activity in all the tissues in response of 72 h exposure to Remazol Red. There was a marginal reduction in contents of chlorophyll a (20%), chlorophyll b (5%) and carotenoids (16%) in the leaves when compared to control plants. A detailed anatomical study of the stem during uptake and treatment revealed a stepwise mechanism of dye degradation. UV-vis spectrophotometric and high performance thin layer chromatographic analyses confirmed the removal of parent dye from solution. Based on the enzymes activities and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis of degradation products, a possible pathway of phytotransformation of RR was proposed which revealed the formation of 4-(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ol, naphthalene-1-ol and 3-(ethylsulfonyl)phenol. Toxicity study on Devario aequipinnatus fishes showed that the anatomy of gills of fishes exposed to A. philoxeroides treated RR was largely protected. The plants were further explored for rhizofiltration experiments in a pilot scale reactor. A. philoxeroides could decolorize textile industry effluent of varying pH within 96 h of treatment which was evident from the significant reductions in the values of American dye manufacturers' institute color, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolved and total suspended solids. PMID:26164661

  13. Production of polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid by using waste biomass of Sphingobacterium sp. ATM generated after degradation of textile dye Direct Red 5B.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jadhav, Mital U; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2010-04-01

    The degradation of textile effluent using microorganisms has been studied extensively, but disposal of generated biomass after dye degradation is a serious problem. The isolated Sphingobacterium sp. ATM was found to decolorize dye Direct Red 5B (DR5B) and simultaneously it produced polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid (PHD). The organism decolorized DR5B at 500mgl(-1) concentration within 24h of dye addition and gave optimum production of PHD. The medium contains carbon source as a molasses which was found to be more significant within all carbon sources used. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates obtained revealed the compound as a polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The activity of PHA synthase was found more at 24h after dye addition. The enzymes responsible for dye degradation include veratrol oxidase, laccase, DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol) reductase, riboflavin reductase and azo reductase was found to be induced during decolorization process. The FTIR analysis of samples before and after decolorization of dye confirmed the biotransformation of DR5B. The GC-MS analysis of product obtained led to the identification of two metabolites after biotransformation of dye as p-amino benzenesulfonic acid and naphthalene-1-ol. PMID:20031399

  14. Direct and indirect photolysis of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christopher C; Tan, David T; Arnold, William A

    2011-01-01

    The photolysis of two antibacterial compounds, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, was studied in wastewater effluent. The rate of loss of sulfamethoxazole was enhanced in wastewater effluent due to indirect photolysis reactions, specifically reactions with hydroxyl radicals and triplet excited state effluent organic matter. Photolysis in the presence of natural organic matter, however, did not lead to enhanced degradation of sulfamethoxazole. Trimethoprim was also found to be susceptible to indirect photolysis in wastewater effluents, with hydroxyl radical and triplet excited effluent organic matter being the responsible species. Deoxygenation of solutions led to more rapid direct photolysis of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, indicating that direct photolysis proceeds through a triplet excited state, which was verified by demonstrating that trimethoprim is a singlet oxygen sensitizer. In the wastewater effluents tested, photolysis could be apportioned into direct photolysis (48% for sulfamethoxazole, 18% for trimethoprim), reaction with hydroxyl radicals (36% and 62%, respectively) and reaction with triplet excited effluent organic matter (16% and 20%, respectively). These results indicate that allowing photolysis in wastewater stabilization ponds or wastewater treatment wetlands may lead to enhanced pharmaceutical removal prior to discharge and that effluent organic matter has different photoreactivity than natural organic matter. PMID:21044793

  15. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  16. Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Plumb, Jason J.; Bell, Joanne; Stuckey, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S and 23S rRNA-targeted probes together with construction of an archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library was used to characterize the microbial populations of an anaerobic baffled reactor successfully treating industrial dye waste. Wastewater produced during the manufacture of food dyes containing several different azo and other dye compounds was decolorized and degraded under sulfidogenic and methanogenic conditions. Use of molecular methods to describe microbial populations showed that a diverse group of Bacteria and Archaea was involved in this treatment process. FISH enumeration showed that members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria and bacteria in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides phylum, together with sulfate-reducing bacteria, were prominent members of a mixed bacterial population. A combination of FISH probing and analysis of 98 archaeal 16S rDNA clone inserts revealed that together with the bacterial population, a methanogenic population dominated by Methanosaeta species and containing species of Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum and a relatively unstudied methanogen, Methanomethylovorans hollandica, contributed to successful anaerobic treatment of the industrial waste. We suggest that sulfate reducers, or more accurately sulfidogenic bacteria, together with M. hollandica contribute considerably to the treatment process through metabolism of dye-associated sulfonate groups and subsequent conversion of sulfur compounds to carbon dioxide and methane. PMID:11425746

  17. Microflora involved in textile dye waste removal.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahim, Wafaa M; Moawad, Hassan; Khalafallah, M

    2003-01-01

    Textile dyes are heavily used in factories for coloring different cloth materials. This work was designed to identify microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes, either by biodegradation or by biosorption. We expected to isolate microorganisms adapted to high dye concentrations from sites near textile industry complex. An experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of the isolates in removing textile dyes. The tested dyes were used as carbon and nitrogen sources for isolation of soil and/or water microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes wastes from factories effluent. The results indicated the low efficiency of both bacteria and actinomycetes in clean-up the effluent from the waste dyes in 10-21 days. On the other hand six fungal isolates were obtained by plating factory effluent on Martin's medium and media containing dyes as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth. These isolates fell in two genera, Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Results of these studies revealed the potential capacity of these fungi to decolorize the tested dyes in comparatively short time (2-24 hours) indicating strong efficiency of dye bioremediation by the fungal isolates. Since the process involved is mostly fast interaction between the fungal mycelium and the dye in the media, the possible mechanism could be based on a biosorption of such chemicals on the intact fungal biomass, rather than direct biodegradation of the compounds. PMID:12761767

  18. Removal of acid and direct dye by epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine: flocculation performance and floc aggregation properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Fang; Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhong-Lian

    2012-06-01

    A cationic organic flocculant epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of acid and direct dye. The study aims at investigating the flocculation performance of EPI-DMA for the model dye, and corresponding floc aggregation properties, which were determined by jar test and photometric dispersion analysis, respectively. The interactions between cationic flocculant and anionic dye were investigated through spectra analysis. The results showed that EPI-DMA effectively decolorized the tested acid and direct dye. The viscosity and cationicity of EPI-DMA had different influence on the removal of different dye. Chemical interaction was observed between quaternary ammonium of EPI-DMA and sulfonic group of dye. The flocculation dynamic process showed that flocs with better aggregation and sedimentation properties were produced by EPI-DMA with higher viscosity and cationicity for acid dye. Contrarily, flocs with the best aggregation and sedimentation properties were produced by EPI-DMA with the lowest viscosity and cationicity for direct dye. PMID:22209132

  19. Removal of direct dyes by coagulation: the performance of preformed polymeric aluminum species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Li, Guohong; Wang, Dongsheng; Feng, Chenghong; Tang, Hongxiao

    2007-05-01

    Removal of three direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Red 28, and Direct Blue 86) by coagulation with three different Al based coagulants was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the coagulation features of polymeric aluminum coagulants in treatment of dye-polluted waters and the emphasis was placed on the roles of preformed Al species, particularly Al(13). The performance of Al(13) in coagulation of dyes was observed through jar tests by comparing traditional Al salt, polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and purified Al(13). The results showed that under most cases Al(13) had significantly higher efficiency in removal of direct dyes than traditional Al salt and commercial PACl with the exception of Direct Red 28 removal under high pH range. The coagulation of direct dyes could be greatly affected by pH. Reducing pH was favorable for preformed Al species in a broad pH range. For traditional Al coagulant, efficient dye removal only occurred in a relatively narrow pH range of near 6.0. The outstanding coagulation behavior of Al(13) could be ascribed to its high charge neutralization ability, relative stability and potential self-assembly tendency. PMID:17070993

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color, reduction of heavy metals, and toxicity from textile dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, J P; Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Phugare, S S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-01-01

    A microbial consortium DAS consisting three bacterial sp. originally obtained from dye contaminated sites of Solapur, India was selected because it was capable of decolorizing textile effluent and dye faster than the individual bacteria under static conditions. Identification of the isolates by 16S rRNA techniques revealed the isolates to be Pseudomonas species. The concerted metabolic activity of these isolates led to complete decolorization of textile effluent as well as Reactive Orange 16 (100 mg l(-1)) within 48-h at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. Studies involving Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye were carried with the bacterial consortium DAS to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation. Induction of the laccase and reductase enzyme during RO16 decolorization indicated their role in biodegradation. The biodegradation of RO16 was monitored by using IR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity studies carried out before and after decolorization of the textile effluent revealed the nontoxic nature of the biotreated sample. PMID:19720521

  1. Biodegradation of direct blue 129 diazo dye by Spirodela polyrrhiza: An artificial neural networks modeling.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Moradi, Z; Vafaei, F

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza was examined for direct blue 129 (DB129) azo dye. The dye removal efficiency was optimized under the variable conditions of the operational parameters including removal time, initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and amount of plant. The study reflected the significantly enhanced dye removal efficiency of S. polyrrhiza by increasing the temperature, initial dye concentration and amount of plant. Intriguingly, artificial neural network (ANN) predicted the removal time as the most dominant parameter on DB129 removal efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of dye treatment on some physiologic indices of S. polyrrhiza including growth rate, photosynthetic pigments content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were studied. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content and in multiplication of fronds after exposure to dye solution. In contrast, malondialdehyde content as well as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities significantly increased that was probably due to the ability of plant to overcome oxidative stress. As a result of DB129 biodegradation, a number of intermediate compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Accordingly, the probable degradation pathway of DB129 in S. polyrrhiza was postulated. PMID:26540563

  2. FATE OF DYES IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS. PART 3: THE ROLE OF SUSPENDEDSEDIMENTS IN ADSORPTION AND REACTION OF ACID AND DIRECT DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of nine acid and five direct dyes was examined in suspensions of lake and river sediments. even of the dyes demonstrated variable kinetics of loss from water. n most cases, there was an initial drop in water concentration due to sorption. ransformation kinetics of CI...

  3. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Azbar, N; Yonar, T; Kestioglu, K

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, O3/H2O2/UV, Fe2+/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3.18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color and COD removal for the textile effluent used in this study was 50% and 60%, respectively. Although O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs methods studied in this paper was found to give the best result (99% removal for COD and 96% removal for color), use of Fe2+/H2O2 seems to show a satisfactory COD and color removal performance and to be economically more viable choice for the acetate and polyester fiber dyeing effluent on the basis of 90% removal. PMID:14720544

  4. Advanced treatment of textile dyeing secondary effluent using magnetic anion exchange resin and its effect on organic fouling in subsequent RO membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Li; Shi, Jialu; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Strict regulations are forcing dyeing factory to upgrade existing waste treatment system. In this study, advanced treatment of dyeing secondary effluent by magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP) was investigated and compared with ultrafiltration (UF); NDMP as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) was also studied. NDMP resin (20 mL/L) gave higher removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (83.9%) and colority (94.9%) than UF with a cut-off of 10 kDa (only 48.6% and 44.1%, respectively), showing that NDMP treatment was effective to meet the stringent discharge limit of DOC and colority. Besides, NDMP resin (20 mL/L) as a pretreatment of RO increased the permeate flux by 12.5% and reduced irreversible membrane fouling by 6.6%, but UF pretreatment did not mitigate RO membrane fouling. The results of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra and resin fractions showed that NDMP had more efficient removal than UF for transphilic acid and hydrophilic fraction, such as protein-like organic matters and soluble microbial products, which contributed to a significant proportion of RO membrane fouling. In sum, NDMP resin treatment not only gave effective removal of DOC and colority of dyeing secondary effluent, but exhibited some improvement for RO membrane flux and irreversible fouling. PMID:25463217

  5. Direct dye binding--a quantitative assay for solid-phase immobilized protein.

    PubMed

    Bonde, M; Pontoppidan, H; Pepper, D S

    1992-01-01

    A direct dye-binding procedure was established for the quantification of protein after its immobilization on a solid phase, using IgG and BSA as model proteins. The assay, which in the range 0-5 mg protein/ml gel correlates well with indirect protein determination by A280 as well as determination of protein hydrolyzed from the gel, is based on a modified Bradford dye-binding assay. As the protein coupled to the gel binds the dye, a decrease in A465 of the supernatant is measured. Three solid supports commonly used for protein immobilization (Sepharose, Sephadex, Sephacryl) were found to be compatible with the dye-binding assay while nonspecific dye binding was found to HEMA gels. Protein was coupled to Sephacryl S-1000 using three different activation methods (aldehyde, hydrazine, and adipic acid dihydrazide). Artifactual dye-binding was not observed using any of the three different "linkers." The assay is easily carried out and represents a useful tool, e.g., when optimizing procedures for protein immobilization. PMID:1595895

  6. Characterization of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products in hospital effluent and waste water influent/effluent by direct-injection LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago S; Murphy, Mark; Mendola, Nicholas; Wong, Virginia; Carlson, Doreen; Waring, Linda

    2015-06-15

    Two USEPA Regional Laboratories developed direct-injection LC/MS/MS methods to measure Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in water matrices. Combined, the laboratories were prepared to analyze 185 PPCPs (with 74 overlapping) belonging to more than 20 therapeutical categories with reporting limits at low part-per-trillion. In partnership with Suffolk County in NY, the laboratories conducted PPCP analysis on 72 samples belonging to 4 Water Systems (WS). Samples were collected at different stages of the WS (hospital effluents, WWTP influents/effluents) to assess PPCP relevance in hospital discharges, impact on WWTP performance and potential ecological risk posed by analytes not eliminated during treatment. Major findings include: a) acceptable accuracy between the two laboratories for most overlapping PPCPs with better agreement for higher concentrations; b) the measurement of PPCPs throughout all investigated WS with total PPCP concentrations ranging between 324 and 965 μg L(-1) for hospital effluent, 259 and 573 μg L(-1) for WWTP influent and 19 and 118 μg L(-1) for WWTP effluent; c) the variable contribution of hospital effluents to the PPCP loads into the WWTP influents (contribution ranging between 1% (WS-2) and 59% (WS-3); d) the PPCP load reduction after treatment for all WS reaching more than 95% for WS using activated sludge processes (WS-2 and WS-4), with inflow above 6500 m(3) d(-1), and having a lower percentage of hospital effluent in the WWTP influent; e) the relevance of four therapeutical categories for the PPCP load in WWTP effluents (analgesics, antidiabetics, antiepileptics and psychoanaleptics); and f) the risk quotients calculated using screening-level Predicted Non Effect Concentration indicate that WWTP effluents contain 33 PPCPs with potential medium to high ecological risk. To our knowledge no other monitoring investigation published in the scientific literature uses direct-injection methods to cover as many PPCPs and

  7. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. . Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon.

  8. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-05-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon.

  9. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem. PMID:26818015

  10. Study of excitation transfer in laser dye mixtures by direct measurement of fluorescence lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.; Dienes, A.

    1973-01-01

    By directly measuring the donor fluorescence lifetime as a function of acceptor concentration in the laser dye mixture Rhodamine 6G-Cresyl violet, we found that the Stern-Volmer relation is obeyed, from which the rate of excitation transfer is determined. The experimental results indicate that the dominant mechanism responsible for the efficient excitation transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole-dipole interaction.

  11. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  12. Self-sustainable Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain NCIM 2738 based photobioreactor for removal of Direct Red-31 dye along with other industrial pollutants to improve the water-quality.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surbhi; Singh, Rachana; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Nigam, Subhasha

    2016-04-01

    The genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of diazo dyes from industrial effluents pose a serious environmental threat by contaminating aquatic ecosystem and consequently impact human health. The potential of a diazo dye resistant, self-sustainable photosynthetic green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 provides a viable green technology for an efficient biodegradation of diazo dye Direct Red-31 (DR-31) and overall improvement of water quality. Herein, we for the first time report the degradation of DR-31 using C. pyrenoidosa. Batch experiments were performed to optimize the effect of initial pH, contact time and toxicity-range of DR-31 in order to achieve the optimal conditions for maximum decolourization in continuous cyclic photobioreactor. In batch culture, C. pyrenoidosa exhibited 96% decolourization with 40mgL(-1) dye at pH3. The equilibrium was attained within 30min and the maximum uptake of 30.53mgg(-1) algal biomass was observed during this period. This was found to be fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The FT-IR spectra showed a change from -N=N- to N-H suggesting the possible involvement of the azoreductase enzyme. The application of C. pyrenoidosa not only degraded the DR-31 but also improved the quality of water by reducing COD (82.73%), BOD (56.44%), sulphate (54.54%), phosphate (19.88%), and TDS (84.18%) which was further enhanced in continuous cyclic bioreactor treatment. The results clearly showed that C. pyrenoidosa provides an efficient, self-sustainable green technology for decolourization of DR-31 and improved the water quality. PMID:26826964

  13. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  14. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  15. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  16. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  17. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  18. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  19. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  20. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  1. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  2. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  3. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  4. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  5. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  6. Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

    PubMed Central

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0. PMID:23685703

  7. Direct imaging of ER calcium with targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED).

    PubMed

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca(2+) indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca(2+) indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca(2+) indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca(2+) indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca(2+) complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0. PMID:23685703

  8. Novelties of combustion synthesized titania ultrafiltration membrane in efficient removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous effluent.

    PubMed

    Doke, Suresh M; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, titania nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion and used to make ultrafiltration membrane. Characteristics of titania membranes such as textural evaluation, surface morphology, pure water permeability and protein rejection were investigated. Titania membrane sintered at 450 °C showed pure water permeability 11 × 10−2 L h−1 m−2 kPa−1 and 76% protein rejection. The membrane presented good water flux and retention properties with regards to protein and methylene blue dye. Ultrafiltration process was operated at lower pressure (100 kPa) and showed 99% removal of methylene blue using adsorptive micellar flocculation at sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration below its critical micellar concentration. Ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. The method of making titania membrane and its use are new. These studies can be extended to other dyes and pollutants. PMID:25461945

  9. Direct labeling and visualization of blood vessels with lipophilic carbocyanine dye DiI.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Song, Ying; Zhao, Lian; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Laties, Alan M; Wen, Rong

    2008-01-01

    We describe a protocol to rapidly and reliably visualize blood vessels in experimental animals. Blood vessels are directly labeled by cardiac perfusion using a specially formulated aqueous solution containing 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), a lipophilic carbocyanine dye, which incorporates into endothelial cell membranes upon contact. By lateral diffusion, DiI also stains membrane structures, including angiogenic sprouts and pseudopodial processes that are not in direct contact. Tissues can be immediately examined by conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy. High-quality serial optical sections using confocal microscopy are obtainable from thick tissue sections, especially at low magnification, for three-dimensional reconstruction. It takes less than 1 h to stain the vasculature in a whole animal. Compared with alternative techniques to visualize blood vessels, including space-occupying materials such as India ink or fluorescent dye-conjugated dextran, the corrosion casting technique, endothelial cell-specific markers and lectins, the present method simplifies the visualization of blood vessels and data analysis. PMID:18846097

  10. Selective fluorescence functionalization of dye-doped polymerized structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Duocastella, Martí; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated with Direct Laser Writing (DLW) lithography. Well-defined fluorescent pixels (area = 0.24 μm2) were written inside a polymer matrix with the help of a femtosecond pulsed laser (multiphoton absorption) via a thermally-induced di-aggregation of a fluorescent dye. Moreover, we have accomplished a fine control of the fluorescence intensity which can increase the storage capacity of ODS systems fabricated with this approach.The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated

  11. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  12. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  13. Biosafety and containment plan & design for direct sampling of operating effluent decontamination tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) uses an effluent decontamination system (EDS) that serves as an enhancement, or extra barrier for biocontainment. Wastewater effluent from (A)BSL-3E and (A)BSL-2E laboratories is collected in tanks for thermal inactivation (180°F for 30 minut...

  14. Direct precipitation on demand at large Scandinavian WWTPs reduces the effluent phosphorus load.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Ann; Nivert, Glen; Heinonen, Mari

    2012-01-01

    On demand use of direct precipitation of wastewater has been successfully implemented at several large Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a cost-efficient method of treating wastewater bypassing secondary treatment. During wet weather situations or when the capacity of secondary treatment is reduced excess wastewater can be treated through efficient direct precipitation. This increases the total capacity of the WWTP to remove phosphorus during these periods. This treatment strategy allows the WWTPs to meet stringent effluent phosphorus limits without extending secondary treatment of the main plant, despite high wet weather flows. The gain in terms of reduced phosphorus emissions varies depending on local conditions such as climate, collection system and secondary treatment capacity. It also varies from year to year depending on the weather and reductions of capacity due to planned refurbishing or unplanned breakdown of equipment. Operating chemical precipitation on demand has proved to contain challenges to operation and organisation of the WWTP. These challenges include logistics of start-up, training of staff and maintaining the system between occasions of operation. Sufficient up-stream storage capacity, reliable weather forecasts and good contracts with suppliers of chemicals are keys of success. PMID:22643403

  15. Direct Blue Dye Degradation Using Titanium Nanostructures Under Energy-Efficient UV-LED Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Tayade, Rajesh J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) morphology on the photocatalytic activity under irradiation of ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Different TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized using hydrothermal (nanotubes and nanospheres) and solvothermal (nanoflowers) methods. The morphology, phase composition, bandgap, and chemical properties of the synthesized different TiO2 nanostructures were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The surface area of the nanotubes was larger than that of the nanospheres and nanoflowers by four- and three-fold, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of direct blue-15 dye under UV-LED irradiation in a slurry-type reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoflowers was higher than that of TiO2 nanotubes or nanospheres, suggesting that nanoflowers can serve as efficient photocatalysts for dye degradation.

  16. Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.

    2010-09-01

    Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

  17. Direct contact membrane distillation for the concentration of saline dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Kezia, Kezia; Lee, Judy; Weeks, Mike; Kentish, Sandra

    2015-09-15

    The ability of direct contact membrane distillation to concentrate the waste effluent from salty whey, a by-product from the cheese making industry has been investigated. The effect of trace protein in the feed, cross-flow velocity and feed acidity were the factors examined. Flat Sheet PTFE membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.05, 0.22 and 0.45 μm were utilised. A decline in feed flux in the presence of trace protein in the feed was observed, but liquid penetration through the membrane could still be prevented by utilization of a membrane of smaller pore size, to achieve a final total solids concentration of ±30% w/w with water recovery from 37 to 83 %. The pressure-drop across the channel length was also predicted accounting for the feed spacer. To increase the channel length up to 1 m will require operation using the smallest pore size of 0.05 μm, unless very low cross-flow velocities are used. The fouling of the membrane is primarily governed by precipitation of a calcium phosphate salt. However, operation at low pH does not improve the flux or the final salt concentration significantly. PMID:26057264

  18. Femtosecond insights into direct electron injection in dye anchored ZnO QDs following charge transfer excitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Kumar, Sunil; Ghosh, Subrata; Pal, Suman Kalyan

    2016-07-27

    The role of the charge transfer (CT) state in interfacial electron transfer in dye-sensitized semiconductor nanocrystals is still poorly understood. To address this problem, femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is used as a probe to investigate the electron injection across a newly synthesized coumarin dye (8-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2 benzo[h]chromene-3-carbonitrile, coded BC5) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs). Steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements reveal that BC5 dye interacts strongly with ZnO QDs in the ground state forming a CT complex. The BC5-ZnO QD complex absorbs more towards red compared to only the dye and QDs, and emits fluorescence due to radiative recombination of photogenerated charges. The formation of charges following the excitation of the CT complex has been demonstrated by observing the signature of dye radical cations and electrons in the conduction band (CB) of the QDs in the TA spectra. The TA signals of these charges grow sharply as a result of ultrafast direct electron injection into the QD. We have monitored the complete dynamics of photogenerated charges by measuring the TA signals of the charges up to a couple of nanoseconds. The injected electrons that are free or shallowly trapped recombine with a time constant of 625 fs, whereas deeply trapped electrons disappear slowly (526 ps) via radiative recombination. Furthermore, theoretical studies based on ab initio calculations have been carried out to complement the experimental findings. PMID:27412034

  19. Bleaching-induced evolution of directional emission from dye-loaded opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khunsin, W.; Romanov, S. G.; Bardosova, M.; Whitehead, D.; Pemble, M.; Povey, I. M.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of angular-dependent photoluminescence from thin-film colloidal photonic crystals assembled from silica spheres encapsulating Rhodamine 6G dye has been investigated as a function of the time of their exposure to the incident laser irradiation. Resulting diagrams showing this angular dependence in emission reveal 3 types of behaviour which can be explained in terms of the spatial configuration of the light sourced inside the colloidal crystal due to inhomogeneous bleaching of dye emission, the ballistic propagation of photons in well-ordered crystals, and self-absorption of the emission by non-excited dye molecules.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of direct red-23 dye with ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish; Kumar, Rajesh; Hwang, Sang Woon; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    This work reports a facile and large-scale synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by simple self-propagating solution combustion method using dextrose as fuel and their effective use as a photocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation of Direct Red-23 (DR-23) dye in an immersion well type photo-reactor. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical tools using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) attached with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-Vis. spectroscopy measurements. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles are pure, well-crystalline and possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase. Almost complete photo-degradation of the DR-23 was observed in 110 min. under UV irradiation in presence of ZnO nanoparticle photocatalyst. This study reveals that simply prepared ZnO nanomaterials are effective photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of various toxic chemicals and pollutants. PMID:25924385

  1. Electrochemical wastewater treatment directly powered by photovoltaic panels: electrooxidation of a dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, but to enhance their green characteristics it seems interesting to use a green electric energy such as that provided by photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are actually under active research to decrease the economic cost of solar kW. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using an electrooxidation system directly powered by a photovoltaic array for the treatment of a wastewater. The experimental system used was an industrial electrochemical filter press reactor and a 40-module PV array. The influence on the degradation of a dye-containing solution (Remazol RB 133) of different experimental parameters such as the PV array and electrochemical reactor configurations has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the electrical configuration of the PV array has a strong influence on the optimal use of the electric energy generated. The optimum PV array configuration changes with the intensity of the solar irradiation, the conductivity of the solution, and the concentration of pollutant in the wastewater. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EO-PV system operation conditions to the wastewater treatment is proposed. PMID:20540540

  2. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites. PMID:27115482

  3. Ecological impact and recovery of a Mediterranean river after receiving the effluent from a textile dyeing industry.

    PubMed

    Colin, Nicole; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Flor-Arnau, Núria; Mora, Josep; Fortuño, Pau; Vieira, Cristiana; Prat, Narcís; Cambra, Jaume; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    The textile industry is one of the largest sectors globally, representing up to 20% of industrial water pollution. However, there is limited insight into how fluvial ecosystems respond and recover from this impact. From summer 2012 to spring 2013, we examined water quality and ecological status upstream and 1.5km downstream the input of a textile industry wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Ripoll River, NE Spain. The ecological status was determined via diversity measures and 10 biotic indices based on diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish. Our results showed that the WWTP severely deteriorated water quality and biological communities at the discharge site, but that they improved at 1.5km downstream. Severity also varied across taxa and seasons, being fish the most affected taxa and spring the season with the best ecological status. The strong correlation amongst water quality variables and many biotic indices across taxa indicated that this is a chronic pollution event affecting multiple trophic levels. Thus, this study suggests that there is an urgent need to invest in wastewater treatment in this industry to preserve the ecological integrity of Ripoll River and especially its fish fauna. Likewise, it illustrates the diagnostic power of biotic indices based on diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish, as driven by the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:27344397

  4. Removal of direct dyes from aqueous solution by oxidized starch cross-linked chitosan/silica hybrid membrane.

    PubMed

    He, Xuemei; Du, Mei; Li, Hui; Zhou, Tianchi

    2016-01-01

    In this research, chitosan/oxidized starch/silica (CS/OSR/Silica) hybrid membrane was prepared by using oxidized starch and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as cross-linking agents. The characterizations of the hybrid membrane were investigated by using attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and swelling measurement. The CS/OSR/Silica hybrid membrane exhibited the improved thermal stability and low degree of swelling in water. The adsorption properties of the CS/OSR/Silica hybrid membrane were studied by using two direct dyes (Blue 71 and Red 31). The results indicated the adsorption capacity of the CS/OSR/Silica hybrid membrane was found optimal at pH 9.82 and temperature 60°C for Blue 71 and Red 31. The adsorption kinetic data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model and the adsorption behavior of the two dyes on the hybrid membrane fitted well with the Freundlich model. The CS/OSR/Silica hybrid membrane can be used as an appropriate biosorbent for removal of direct dyes from colored wastewater. PMID:26546868

  5. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  6. Estimation and modeling of direct rapid sand filtration for total fecal coliform removal from secondary clarifier effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yu, Jingjing; Liu, Zhigang; Ma, Tian

    2012-01-01

    The filtration of fecal coliform from a secondary clarifier effluent was investigated using direct rapid sand filters as tertiary wastewater treatment on a pilot scale. The effect of the flocculation dose, flow loading rate, and grain size on fecal coliform removal was determined. Direct rapid sand filters can remove 0.6-1.5 log-units of fecal coliform, depending on the loading rate and grain size distribution. Meanwhile, the flocculation dose has little effect on coliform removal, and increasing the loading rate and/or grain size decreases the bacteria removal efficiency. A model was then developed for the removal process. Bacteria elimination and inactivation both in the water phase and the sand bed can be described by first-order kinetics. Removal was successfully simulated at different loading rates and grain size distributions and compared with the data obtained using pilot-scale filters. PMID:22508124

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe...

  11. Directional Emission from Metal-Dielectric-Metal Structures: Effect of Mixed Metal Layers, Dye Location and Dielectric Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Badugu, Ramachandram; Ray, Krishanu; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) structures provide directional emission close to the surface normal, which offers opportunities for new design formats in fluorescence based applications. The directional emission arises due to near-field coupling of fluorophores with the optical modes present in the MDM substrate. Reflectivity simulations and dispersion diagrams provide a basic understanding of the mode profiles and the factors that affect the coupling efficiency and the spatial distribution of the coupled emission. This work reveals that the composition of the metal layers, the location of the dye in the MDM substrate and the dielectric thickness are important parameters that can be chosen to tune the color of the emission wavelength, the angle of observation, the angular divergence of the emission and the polarization of the emitted light. These features are valuable for displays and optical signage. PMID:25844110

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  13. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  14. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  16. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  18. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment. PMID:26267709

  19. A label-free impedimetric immunosensor for direct determination of the textile dye Disperse Orange 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; da Rocha, Carolina Gomes; Wang, Shengfu; Ferreira, Antonio Aparecido Pupim; Yamanaka, Hideko

    2015-09-01

    A strategy for a label-free impedimetric immunosensor is described for detection of the textile dye Disperse Orange 1 (DO1). The compounds 1,12-diaminododecane (DADD) and then 1,7-diaminoheptane (DAH) were firstly successively grafted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface by electro-oxidation of one amino group, while the other terminal amino group was modified with the antibody anti-DO1. The construction process of the immunosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The electron transfer resistance (Rct) exhibited an effective response to the affinity between the immobilized antibody and the antigen in solution. The linear range for the target compound was from 5.0 nmol L(-1) to 0.5 μmol L(-1) (R=0.9980), and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.56 nmol L(-1). The proposed impedimetric immunosensor has the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and sensitivity. PMID:26003710

  20. Study of the temporal nutrient dynamic of a temporary Mediterranean river receiving direct sewage effluents.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Arthur; Boutron, Olivier; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Salles, Christian; Rodier, Claire; Marchand, Pierre; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2010-05-01

    Arid and semiarid areas where the temporary rivers and streams occur, account for one third of the earth's surface land area. However, little is known regarding their hydrologic and biogeochemical behaviour. In the European Community, all water resources have to be monitored following the requirements outlined in the Water Framework Directive (WFD-2000/60/EC). The temporary rivers provide a significant challenge in developing appropriate sampling strategy for their monitoring. The objective of this work is to characterize the nutrient dynamic on the Vène River for different hydrological conditions. To this aim, a strategic sampling was realized on this river. We selected key locations located upstream and downstream the most important point- and/or diffuse-pollution sources. 23 sampling stations were chosen: 13 sites are located in the main river and 10 sites concern direct inputs (including two sewage inputs). The spatial sampling realized all along the river was conducted on a one-day survey campaign for different hydrological conditions (including periods of very low flow and high flow). At each station, grab water samples were collected and were analysed for the different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forms. Additionally, automatic samplers coupled to three stream-gauges installed along the river permitted to collect water samples during flood events. The first results were obtained for two one-day survey campaigns which occurred in June and September 2009 at, respectively, the beginning and the end of the dry period. During these periods, the karstic spring was dry and the two wastewater inputs contributed to a great share of the flow discharge (up to 80 %). Concerning the water quality, a similar trend was observed for the evolution of N and P concentrations all along the river course, i.e., an increase was observed just after each sewage inputs (up to 2400 µg/l for ammonium and up to 4900 µg/l for total phosphorus), followed by a drop of concentrations

  1. Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m2 g-1, homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm3 g-1. The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I3- to I-. As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions.

  2. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory. PMID:21644165

  3. Reduction of COD and color of dyeing effluent from a cotton textile mill by adsorption onto bamboo-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A A; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from bamboo waste by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The activated carbon was evaluated for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reduction of a real textile mill effluent. A maximum reduction in color and COD of 91.84% and 75.21%, respectively was achieved. As a result, the standard B discharge limit of color and COD under the Malaysian Environmental Quality act 1974 was met. The Freundlich isotherm model was found best to describe the obtained equilibrium adsorption data at 30 degrees C. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume and the average pore diameter were 988.23 m(2)/g, 0.69 cm(3)/g and 2.82 nm, respectively. Various functional groups on the prepared bamboo activated carbon (BAC) were determined from the FTIR results. PMID:19740605

  4. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents. PMID:27228082

  5. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

  6. The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-08-01

    Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

  7. EVALUATION OF NEW 2,2-DIMETHYL-5,5-DIPROPOXYBENZIDINE- AND 3,3-DIPROPOXYBENZIDINE-BASED DIRECT DYE ANALOGS FOR MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY BY USE OF THE SALMONELLA/MAMMALIAN MUTAGENICITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of new metallized and unmetallized direct dyes based on benzidine analogs, 2,2'dimethyl-5,5'-dipropoxybenzidine and 3,3'-dipropoxybenzidine, were evaluated for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. All of the dyes examined were judged non-mutagen...

  8. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    PubMed

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

  9. Sensitization of ruthenium nitrosyls to visible light via direct coordination of the dye resorufin: trackable NO donors for light-triggered NO delivery to cellular targets.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael J; Fry, Nicole L; Marlow, Rebecca; Hinck, Lindsay; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2008-07-01

    Three nitrosyl-dye conjugates, namely, [(Me 2bpb)Ru(NO)(Resf)] ( 1-Resf), [(Me 2bQb)Ru(NO)(Resf)] ( 2-Resf), and [((OMe) 2bQb)Ru(NO)(Resf)] ( 3-Resf) have been synthesized via direct replacement of the chloride ligand of the parent {Ru-NO} (6) nitrosyls of the type [(R 2byb)Ru(NO)(L)] with the anionic tricyclic dye resorufin (Resf). The structures of 1-Resf- 3-Resf have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The dye is coordinated to the ruthenium centers of these conjugates via the phenolato-O atom and is trans to NO. Systematic red shift of the d pi(Ru) --> pi*(NO) transition of the parent nitrosyls [(R 2byb)Ru(NO)(L)] due to changes in R and y in the equatorial tetradentate ligand R 2byb (2-) results in its eventual merge with the intense absorption band of the dye around 500 nm in 3-Resf. Unlike the UV-sensitive parent [(R 2byb)Ru(NO)(L)] nitrosyls, these dye-sensitized nitrosyls rapidly release NO when exposed to visible light (lambda >/= 465 nm). Comparison of the photochemical parameters reveals that direct coordination of the light-harvesting chromophore to the ruthenium center in the present nitrosyls results in a significantly greater extent of sensitization to visible light compared to nitrosyls with appended chromophore (linked via alkyl chains). 1-Resf has been employed as a "trackable" NO donor to promote NO-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells under the control of light. The results of this work demonstrate that (a) the d pi(Ru) --> pi*(NO) transition (photoband) of {Ru-NO} (6) nitrosyls can be tuned into visible range via careful alteration of the ligand frame(s) and (b) such nitrosyls can be significantly sensitized to visible light by directly ligating a light-harvesting chromophore to the ruthenium center. The potential of these photosensitive nitrosyl-dye conjugates as (i) biological tools to study the effects of NO in cellular environments and (ii) "trackable" NO donors in photodynamic therapy of malignancies (such as

  10. Electrolysis within anaerobic bioreactors stimulates breakdown of toxic products from azo dye treatment.

    PubMed

    Gavazza, Sávia; Guzman, Juan J L; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-04-01

    Azo dyes are the most widely used coloring agents in the textile industry, but are difficult to treat. When textile effluents are discharged into waterways, azo dyes and their degradation products are known to be environmentally toxic. An electrochemical system consisting of a graphite-plate anode and a stainless-steel mesh cathode was placed into a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor to evaluate the removal of an azo dye (Direct Black 22) from synthetic textile wastewater. At applied potentials of 2.5 and 3.0 V when water electrolysis occurs, no improvement in azo dye removal efficiency was observed compared to the control reactor (an integrated system with electrodes but without an applied potential). However, applying such electric potentials produces oxygen via electrolysis and promoted the aerobic degradation of aromatic amines, which are toxic, intermediate products of anaerobic azo dye degradation. The removal of these amines indicates a decrease in overall toxicity of the effluent from a single-stage anaerobic bioreactor, which warrants further optimization in anaerobic digestion. PMID:25750156

  11. Regioselective and Stepwise Syntheses of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes through Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions and Direct C-H Arylations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zeya; Jiao, Lijuan; Feng, Yuanmei; Yu, Changjiang; Chen, Na; Wei, Yun; Mu, Xiaolong; Hao, Erhong

    2016-08-01

    Regioselective and stepwise syntheses of a series of functionalized BODIPY dyes through palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and direct C-H arylations have been developed. In particular, this method allows the straightforward synthesis of 2,6-dibromo-3,5-diarylBODIPYs and 2-bromo-3-arylBODIPYs from polybrominated BODIPYs. The X-ray structure of intermediates 5a-c indicated that the palladium was first inserted into the C-Br bonds at 3,5-positions of brominated BODIPYs. The resulting 2,6-dibromo-substituted BODIPYs are potential long wavelength photosensitizers which are not easily accessible using previous methods. PMID:27362954

  12. Degradation of Azo Dyes by Trametes villosa Laccase over Long Periods of Oxidative Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zille, Andrea; Górnacka, Barbara; Rehorek, Astrid; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Trametes villosa laccase was used for direct azo dye degradation, and the reaction products that accumulated after 72 h of incubation were analyzed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed the formation of phenolic compounds during the dye oxidation process as well as a large amount of polymerized products that retain azo group integrity. The amino-phenol reactions were also investigated by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance and LC-MS analysis, and the polymerization character of laccase was shown. This study highlights the fact that laccases polymerize the reaction products obtained during long-term batch decolorization processes with azo dyes. These polymerized products provide unacceptable color levels in effluents, limiting the application of laccases as bioremediation agents. PMID:16269701

  13. Catalytic surface radical in dye-decolorizing peroxidase: a computational, spectroscopic and site-directed mutagenesis study

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Dolores; Pogni, Rebecca; Cañellas, Marina; Lucas, Fátima; Guallar, Victor; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Sáez-Jiménez, Verónica; Coscolín, Cristina; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, Angel T.

    2014-01-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) of Auricularia auricula-judae has been expressed in Escherichia coli as a representative of a new DyP family, and subjected to mutagenic, spectroscopic, crystallographic and computational studies. The crystal structure of DyP shows a buried haem cofactor, and surface tryptophan and tyrosine residues potentially involved in long-range electron transfer from bulky dyes. Simulations using PELE (Protein Energy Landscape Exploration) software provided several binding-energy optima for the anthraquinone-type RB19 (Reactive Blue 19) near the above aromatic residues and the haem access-channel. Subsequent QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) calculations showed a higher tendency of Trp-377 than other exposed haem-neighbouring residues to harbour a catalytic protein radical, and identified the electron-transfer pathway. The existence of such a radical in H2O2-activated DyP was shown by low-temperature EPR, being identified as a mixed tryptophanyl/tyrosyl radical in multifrequency experiments. The signal was dominated by the Trp-377 neutral radical contribution, which disappeared in the W377S variant, and included a tyrosyl contribution assigned to Tyr-337 after analysing the W377S spectra. Kinetics of substrate oxidation by DyP suggests the existence of high- and low-turnover sites. The high-turnover site for oxidation of RB19 (kcat> 200 s−1) and other DyP substrates was assigned to Trp-377 since it was absent from the W377S variant. The low-turnover site/s (RB19 kcat ~20 s−1) could correspond to the haem access-channel, since activity was decreased when the haem channel was occluded by the G169L mutation. If a tyrosine residue is also involved, it will be different from Tyr-337 since all activities are largely unaffected in the Y337S variant. PMID:25495127

  14. Photoeffects of textile dye wastewaters: Sensitization of singlet oxygen formation, oxidation of phenols and toxicity to bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Elovitz, M.S. . Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering); Colverson, P. . Life Science Dept.)

    1994-01-01

    An effluent sample from a municipal wastewater treatment plant that receives a heavy loading from two textile dyeing facilities was tested for a variety of photoeffects. Solar irradiation of solutions containing the effluent produced evidence for sensitized formation of transient oxidants, primarily singlet oxygen; dye-sensitized photooxidation of several phenols; and photoinhibition of Escherichia coli.

  15. Aromatic amine degradation in a UASB/CSTR sequential system treating Congo Red dye.

    PubMed

    Işik, Mustafa; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this study an anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor)/aerobic (completely stirred tank reactor) sequential system was used to treat a synthetic wastewater with minerals and co-substrate together with 100-4000 mg L(-1) of Congo Red dye (Direct red 28) (CR), which is a banned azo dye in Turkey. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the decolorization and the COD removal efficiency was investigated at constant 100 mg L(-1) Congo Red concentration. 77% of COD and 95% of color was removed at a HRT of 0.486 days and a maximum organic loading rate of 6.656 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) in the anaerobic/aerobic stage. In the continuous operations, 88% of COD, 99% of color and 91% of total aromatic amine (TAA) were removed at a HRT of 3.60 days and at a CR concentration of 4000 mg L(-1). This corresponds to an organic loading rate of 1.81 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and a CR dye loading rate of 46.37 g dye m(-3) h(-1), respectively, in the whole system. The TAA produced under anaerobic conditions was ultimately removed in the aerobic stage, resulting in very low aromatic amine recoveries (5-18%) in the last one. Therefore the aerobic effluents exhibited higher IC50 and specific methanogenic activities (SMA) compared to anaerobic and dye containing samples, indicating the reduced toxicity. PMID:14524683

  16. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  17. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

  18. Redox-Active Sites in Auricularia auricula-judae Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase and Several Directed Variants: A Multifrequency EPR Study.

    PubMed

    Baratto, Maria Camilla; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Linde, Dolores; Sáez-Jiménez, Verónica; Sorace, Lorenzo; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Basosi, Riccardo; Pogni, Rebecca

    2015-10-29

    Peroxide-activated Auricularia auricula-judae dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) forms a mixed Trp377 and Tyr337 radical, the former being responsible for oxidation of the typical DyP substrates (Linde et al. Biochem. J., 2015, 466, 253-262); however, a pure tryptophanyl radical EPR signal is detected at pH 7 (where the enzyme is inactive), in contrast with the mixed signal observed at pH for optimum activity, pH 3. On the contrary, the presence of a second tyrosine radical (at Tyr147) is deduced by a multifrequency EPR study of a variety of simple and double-directed variants (including substitution of the above and other tryptophan and tyrosine residues) at different freezing times after their activation by H2O2 (at pH 3). This points out that subsidiary long-range electron-transfer pathways enter into operation when the main pathway(s) is removed by directed mutagenesis, with catalytic efficiencies progressively decreasing. Finally, self-reduction of the Trp377 neutral radical is observed when reaction time (before freezing) is increased in the absence of reducing substrates (from 10 to 60 s). Interestingly, the tryptophanyl radical is stable in the Y147S/Y337S variant, indicating that these two tyrosine residues are involved in the self-reduction reaction. PMID:26120933

  19. Toxicology of dyes used in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the health hazards of dyes used in the textile industry. Safety measures for dye handling, storage, and application are discussed. Toxicology of vapor and dust from dyes is examined, and suggestions for safe, effective ventilation are made. Studies concerning mutations and cancers caused by dyes are briefly cited, and the scarcity of research in this area is noted. The trend toward increased regulations to control the health and environmental impact of dyes is examined. Effluent treatment of dyes is discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 70 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~ 420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of Direct Red 23 dye using UV/TiO2: Effect of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M R; Ghavami, M

    2008-05-30

    In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of Direct Red 23 (Scarlet F-4BS) was investigated in UV/TiO2 system. The effect of catalyst loading and pH on the reaction rate was ascertained and optimum conditions for maximum degradation were determined. The results obtained showed that acidic pH is proper for the photocatalytic removal of Direct Red 23. In addition, the effects of several cations (Cu2+, Al3+, Cr3+, and Sn4+) and anions (BiO3(-), SO4(2-), and CN(-)) and C2H5OH were examined in this photocatalytic process. On the order hand, three types of catalysts (Fe2O3, SnO2, and ZnO) were compared with TiO2. After 90 min reaction, the relative decomposition order established was UV/TiO2>UV/SnO2>UV/Fe2O3>UV/ZnO. PMID:18006230

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-15

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12. PMID:26967513

  4. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  5. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  6. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

  7. Study of the release of a microencapsulated acid dye in polyamide dyeing using mixed cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Isabel S C; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Rocha Gomes, Jaime I N; Real Oliveira, M Elisabete C D

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to increase the retarding effect of the acid dye Telon(®) Blue RR (C.I. Acid Blue 62; DyStar, Frankfurt, Germany) release on polyamide fibres dyeing by encapsulation of the dye in liposomes as an alternative to synthetic auxiliaries, in order to reduce effluent pollution. The retarding effect achieved with the use of mixed cationic liposomes of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB)/soybean lecithin (containing a 10% molar fraction of DODAB) was better in comparison with either pure soybean lecithin liposomes or synthetic auxiliaries. The retarding effect of liposomes on the dye release was analysed through changes in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the acid dye at different conditions. The effect of temperature (in the range of 25 °C - 70 °C) on the spectroscopic behaviour of the dye in the absence and in presence of polyamide was also studied, in order to simulate the dyeing conditions. Exhaustion curves obtained in dyeing experiments showed that, below 45 °C, the retarding effect of the mixed liposomes (lecithin/DODAB (9:1)) was similar to that of the auxiliaries, but better than the one of pure lecithin liposomes. At higher temperatures (above 45 °C), the system lecithin/DODAB presents a better performance, achieving a higher final exhaustion level when compared with the commercial leveling agent without losing the smoothing effect of lecithin. PMID:20550462

  8. Enhanced degradation of eletrooxidized textile effluent by petroleum degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC No.1201) at compressed gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Manikandan; Annamalai, Sivasankar; Umarkatha, Sayera Banu; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2015-03-01

    The textile dyeing industry produces large volumes of wastewater during dyeing processes where the major step includes the color removal and COD removal. In the present study, the combined electrooxidation process and a novel biological degradation at high compressed gas pressure were studied. The removal of color in the real textile dye effluent was achieved by electrooxidation with Titanium Substrate Insoluble anode and titanium as cathode through generation of hypochlorite. The hypochlorite produced during the electrooxidation was removed by exposing the solution to direct sunlight. The impact of compressed atmospheric condition on the degradation of organics by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC No.1201, GenBank Acc. No KC545414) was studied. The compressed gas pressure condition increases the level of dissolved gas in the liquid phase and exerts the pressure on the growing cells in the liquid phase. Interesting synchronization between the utilization of oxygen by active microbial cells and the dissolution of oxygen in the water from gas phase was observed which enhanced the bacterial degradation process. It should be mentioned here that the P. aeruginosa was grown without addition of nutrients. The compressed atmospheric pressure enhances the bacterial proliferation, EPS production and COD reduction in the electrooxidized effluent. FTIR and HPLC reveal the degradation of organics in the compressed pressure condition. PMID:25296897

  9. Electro-Fenton decolourisation of dyes in an airlift continuous reactor using iron alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    In this study, electro-Fenton dye degradation was performed in an airlift continuous reactor configuration by harnessing the catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an airlift reactor with a working volume of 1.5 L, air flow of 1.5 L/min and 115 g of Fe alginate gel beads. An electric field was applied by two graphite bars connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. In this study, Lissamine Green B and Reactive Black 5 were selected as model dyes. Fe alginate gel beads can be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process, as they are more efficient than the conventional electrochemical techniques. At optimal working conditions (3 V and pH 2), the continuous process was performed. For both dyes, the degree of decolourisation increases when the residence time augments. Taking into account hydrodynamic and kinetic behaviour, a model to describe the reactor profile was obtained, and the standard deviation between experimental and theoretical data was lower than 6%. The results indicate the suitability of the electro-Fenton technique to oxidise polluted effluents in the presence of Fe alginate gel beads. Moreover, the operation is possible in a continuous airlift reactor, due to the entrapment of iron in the alginate matrix. PMID:22851224

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  11. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    SciTech Connect

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. . Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  12. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

  13. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  14. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1986-01-01

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous tream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  15. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1984-06-13

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous stream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  17. Catalyzed degradation of azo dyes under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Ming; Wen, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Phase-pure layered perovskite La(4)Ni(3)O(10) powders were synthesized by a solution combustion approach. It is found that, in the presence of the La(4)Ni(3)O(10) powders, aqueous azo dyes can be degraded catalytically and efficiently under ambient conditions. Neither light nor additional reagents are needed in the catalytic reaction. The dye degradation procedure can be accelerated markedly by magnetic stirring. A systemic series of chemical and electrochemical experiments suggested that the dye degradation proceeds through electron transfers from the dye molecules to the catalyst and then to electron acceptors such as dissolved oxygen. The present catalytic degradation requires no additional reagents or external energy input, which hence provides a potentially low-cost alternative for the remediation of azo-dye effluents. PMID:21049925

  18. Salt-free reactive dyeing of cotton hosiery fabrics by exhaust application of cationic agent.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2016-11-01

    Reactive dyes are most preferred dyes for dyeing of cellulosic fibres as they are chemically bonded to the fibre which is being dyed and also inexpensive to apply. But the application of reactive dyes onto the cellulosic materials requires a very high concentration of salt since fibre and dyes are anionic in nature. Even with required amount of salt only 65-70% of reactive dyes are exhausted, remaining 25-30% of dyes are removed as a coloured effluent after dyeing. The present work aims to eliminate salt usage in the reactive dyeing of cellulosic material, especially in cotton hosiery fabrics dyeing industry. In this study, the cationization of cotton fabric was carried out by varying concentration of cationic agent from 20 to 60g/L by an exhaust method with the goal to achieve 100% dye utilization and fixation during the salt-free reactive dyeing process. All the dyes taken for the study showed excellent dye exhaustion, fixation and colour strength properties on the cotton fabrics. PMID:27516243

  19. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of coloured textile effluents using sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C B; Carliell, C M; Wheatley, A D

    2002-04-01

    Conventional biological wastewater treatment plants do not easily degrade the dyes and polyvinyl alcohols (PVOH) in textile effluents. Results are reported on the possible advantages of anaerobic/aerobic cometabolism in sequenced redox reactors. A six phase anaerobic/aerobic sequencing laboratory scale batch reactor was developed to treat a synthetic textile effluent. The wastewater included PVOH from desizing and an azo dye (Remazol Black). The reactor removed 66% of the applied total organic carbon (load F: M 0.15) compared to 76% from a control reactor without dye. Colour removal was 94% but dye metabolites caused reactor instability. Aromatic amines from the anaerobic breakdown of the azo dyes were not completely mineralised by the aerobic phase. Breakdown of PVOH by the reactor (20-30%) was not as good as previous reports with entirely aerobic cultures. The anaerobic cultures were able to tolerate the oxygen and methane continued to be produced but there was a deterioration in settlement. PMID:12092574

  20. Decoloration and degradation of some textile dyes by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    2002-11-01

    The textile industry has long been one of the largest water users and polluters. Wastewater released by textile industries contains toxic refractory dye stuff at high concentration. Most of the dyes in the textile industry are non-degradable, therefore, effective treatment of dye waste effluent has not been achieved by ordinary processes. Ionizing radiation has been considered a promising process for the treatment of textile dye waste effluents. In this study, the possibility of using gamma rays to degrade or decolorize reactive dyes in water was investigated. Two different reactive dyes (Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Black 5) in aqueous solutions were irradiated at doses of 0.1-15 kGy, at 2.87 and 0.14 kGy/h dose rates. The change of absorption spectra, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the degree of decoloration (percent reduction in optical density) were examined in the presence of air and H 2O 2. The absorption bands at 664, 640, 340, 260 nm and 596, 392, 312 nm for RB15 and RB5 decreased rapidly with increasing irradiation dose. The degree of decoloration of each dye solution with irradiation dose appeared to be 100 percent for the lower concentration (50 ppm) dye solutions. The complete decoloration was observed after 1 and 15 kGy doses for RB5 and RB15, respectively. pH of RB5 and RB15 solutions was decreased from 6.15 and 6.98 to 3.40 and 3.68 with the irradiation dose. The COD reduction for all the dye solutions was approximately 76-80% at 1 and 15 kGy for RB5 and RB15. The COD reduction and the change of pH for all the dye solutions were examined similar to each other.

  1. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment. PMID:12892505

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic decolorization and degradation of textile effluent using ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Sapkal, R T; Shinde, S S; Mahadik, M A; Mohite, V S; Waghmode, T R; Govindwar, S P; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2012-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass at substrate temperature of 400 °C and used as electrode in photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The untreated textile effluent was circulated through photoelectrocatalytic reactor under UVA illumination for the decolorization and degradation. Textile effluent was decolorized by 93% within 3h at room temperature with significant reduction in COD (69%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of samples before and after decolorization confirmed the degradation of dyes molecules from textile effluent into simpler oxidizable products. Phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in toxic nature of textile effluent after treatment. PMID:22727863

  3. Effect of textile auxiliaries on the biodegradation of dyehouse effluent in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Arslan Alaton, Idil; Insel, Güçlü; Eremektar, Gülen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos; Orhon, Derin

    2006-03-01

    The textile industry is confronted with serious environmental problems associated with its immense wastewater discharge, substantial pollution load, extremely high salinity, and alkaline, heavily coloured effluent. Particular sources of recalcitrance and toxicity in dyehouse effluent are two frequently used textile auxiliaries; i.e. dye carriers and biocidal finishing agents. The present experimental work reports the observation of scientific and practical significance related with the effect of two commercially important textile dye carriers and two biocidal finishing agents on biological activated sludge treatment at a textile preparation, dyeing and finishing plant in Istanbul. Respirometric measurements of the dyehouse effluent spiked with the selected textile chemicals were carried out for the assessment of the "readily biodegradable COD fraction" of the wastewater. The respirometric data obtained to visualize the effect of the selected textile auxiliaries on biomass activity was evaluated by an adopted activated sludge model. Results have indicated that the tested biocides did not exert any significant inhibitory effect on the treatment performance of the activated sludge reactor at the concentrations usually encountered in the final, total dyehouse effluent. The situation with the dye carriers was inherently different; one dye carrier appeared to be highly toxic and caused serious inhibition of the microbial respirometric activity, whereas the other dye carrier, also known as the more ecological alternative, i.e. the "Eco-Carrier", appeared to be biodegradable. Finally, the respirometric profile obtained for the Eco-Carrier was described by a simplified respirometric model. PMID:16098558

  4. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-11-01

    A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants. PMID:20407917

  5. Direct light-induced polymerization of cobalt-based redox shuttles: an ultrafast way towards stable dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bella, Federico; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2015-11-25

    The photopolymerization of Co(II)/Co(III) complexes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by means of a fast, inexpensive, in situ and inhibition-free process has been examined. We have succeeded in fabricating high-performance DSSCs able to retain a light-to-electricity power conversion efficiency exceeding 6.5% (8.5% at low intensity) after 1800 h of mixed (light on/off, temperature high/low) accelerated aging tests, thus revealing a possible way for the stabilization of these record-holding redox pairs. PMID:26364577

  6. Dye removal by surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Lua, Shun Kuang; Zhang, Lizhi; Wang, Rong; Dong, ZhiLi

    2014-09-15

    A novel surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalate (SEP) has been synthesized by using a simple ion-exchange reaction. The prepared SEP complex was found to self-assemble into nanospherical particles whose morphology and component were characterized by TEM and XPS. The SEP was further incorporated into polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to fabricate SEP incorporated composite membrane (SEP-M). Both the SEP and SEP-M exhibited excellent dye removal activities, which is for the first time reported as an intriguing property of the SEP. A regeneration scheme for SEP-M was successfully proposed without any loss of dye removal efficiency. Detailed mechanism studies were carried out to elucidate the nature of dye decolorization. Ion exchange was revealed to play a dominant role in the dye removal process. The current research not only renders a new example for the simple and direct synthesis of SEP but more importantly provides an efficient dye removal methodology. PMID:25194560

  7. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

  8. Microfluidic synthesis of dye-loaded polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene oxide) nanoparticles: Insights into flow-directed loading and in vitro release for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bains, Aman; Wulff, Jeremy E; Moffitt, Matthew G

    2016-08-01

    Using the fluorescent probe dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) as a surrogate for hydrophobic drugs, we investigate the effects of water content and on-chip flow rate on the multiscale structure, loading and release properties of DiI-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) nanoparticles produced in a gas-liquid segmented microfluidic device. We find a linear increase in PCL crystallinity within the nanoparticle cores with increasing flow rate, while mean nanoparticle sizes first decrease and then increase with flow rate coincident with the disappearance and reappearance of long filament nanoparticles. Loading efficiencies at the lower water content (cwc+10wt%) are generally higher (up to 94%) compared to loading efficiencies (up to 53%) at the higher water content (cwc+75wt%). In vitro release times range between ∼2 and 4days for nanoparticles produced at cwc+10wt% and >15days for nanoparticles produced at cwc+75wt%. At the lower water content, slower release of DiI is found for nanoparticles produced at higher flow rate, while at high water content, release times first decrease and then increase with flow rate. Finally, we investigate the effects of the chemical and physical characteristics of the release medium on the kinetics of in vitro DiI release and nanoparticle degradation. This work demonstrates the general utility of dye-loaded nanoparticles as model systems for screening chemical and flow conditions for producing drug delivery formulations within microfluidic devices. PMID:27163840

  9. Decolorization and Detoxification of Textile Dyes with a Laccase from Trametes hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Abadulla, Elias; Tzanov, Tzanko; Costa, Silgia; Robra, Karl-Heinz; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Gübitz, Georg M.

    2000-01-01

    Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (ΔE*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes. PMID:10919791

  10. A simple 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and curry powders.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    A method using simple extraction and 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and various mixed curry powder formulations. The method offers resolution (Rf) of turmeric pigments, namely, curcumin (0.77), demethoxycurcumin (0.69), bis(demethoxy)curcumin (0.61), and the synthetic dye metanil yellow (0.05) by the first-directional mobile phase, chloroform-methanol (9 + 1, v/v). The resolution (Rf) of sudan I (0.30) and sudan IV (0.23) was achieved by the second-directional mobile phase, toluene-hexane-acetic acid (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v). Natural pigments of both turmeric and chili showed no interference in the detection and quantification of synthetic colors. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for curcumin, metanil yellow, sudan I, and sudan IV were 17.39, 42.90, 15.45, and 7.01 and 52.71,130.0, 46.80, and 21.24 ng/spot, respectively. Analysis of a few market samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (1.5-4.6 mg/g), sudan I (4.8-12.1 mg/g), and sudan IV (0.9-2.0 mg/g) in loose turmeric and chili samples, whereas the curcumin content in turmeric and mixed curry powder samples ranged from 6.5 to 36.4 and from 0.3 to 1.9 mg/g, respectively. The method is relatively simple, offers reasonable sensitivity, and can be used to screen a large number of samples. PMID:19202799

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India

    PubMed Central

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M.; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J.; Kothari, Charmy R.; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K.; Faldu, Priti R.; Shekar, M. Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J.; Patel, Priyank A.; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India.

    PubMed

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J; Kothari, Charmy R; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K; Faldu, Priti R; Shekar, M Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J; Patel, Priyank A; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kothari, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  13. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  14. Decolourisation of simulated reactive dyebath effluents by electrochemical oxidation assisted by UV light.

    PubMed

    López-Grimau, V; Gutiérrez, M C

    2006-01-01

    This study is focused on the optimisation of the electrochemical decolourisation of textile effluents containing reactive dyes with the aim of making feasible-technically and economically-this method at industrial scale. Coloured waters were treated in continuous at low current density, to reduce the electrical consumption. Ti/PtO(x) electrodes were used to oxidize simulated dyebaths prepared with an azo/dichlorotriazine reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Orange 4). The decolourisation yield was dependent on the dyeing electrolyte (NaCl or Na(2)SO(4)). Dyeing effluents which contained from 0.5 to 20 gl(-1) of NaCl reached a high decolourisation yield, depending on the current density, immediately after the electrochemical process. These results were improved when the effluents were stored for several hours under solar light. After the electrochemical treatment the effluents were stored in a tank and exposed under different lighting conditions: UV light, solar light and darkness. The evolution of the decolourisation versus the time of storage was reported and kinetic constants were calculated. The time of storage was significantly reduced by the application of UV light. A dye mineralization study was also carried out on a concentrated dyebath. A TOC removal of 81% was obtained when high current density was applied for a prolonged treatment with recirculation. This treatment required a high electrical consumption. PMID:15893798

  15. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  16. Degradation of various dyes using Laccase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Dhaarani, S; Priya, A K; Rajan, T Vel; Kartic, D Navamani

    2012-10-01

    Disposal of untreated dyeing effluent in water bodies, from textile industries, cause serious environmental and health hazards. The chemical structures of dye molecules are designed to resist fading on exposure to light or chemical attack, and they prove to be quite resistant towards microbial degradation. Therefore, current conventional biological processes may not be able to meet wastewater discharge criteria and reuse. An enzymatic treatment undergoes oxidative cleavage avoiding formation of toxic amines. Laccase is a multi-copper containing protein that catalyzes the oxidation of a wide range of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. UV visible spectral analysis of various synthetic dyes was performed in the study and wavelengths of maximum absorbance determined. Laccase enzyme was obtained from the fungi Pleorotus ostreatus. The enzyme showed high efficiency against Malachite Green, Basic Red and Acid Majanta with decolorization capacities of 97%, 94% and 94% respectively. Further, these dyes can be used for optimization of degradation parameters and analysis of degradation products. PMID:25151712

  17. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  18. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  19. Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2006-08-01

    Toxic effluents containing azo dyes are discharged from various industries and they adversely affect water resources, soil fertility, aquatic organisms and ecosystem integrity. They pose toxicity (lethal effect, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) to aquatic organisms (fish, algae, bacteria, etc.) as well as animals. They are not readily degradable under natural conditions and are typically not removed from waste water by conventional waste water treatment systems. Benzidine based dyes have long been recognized as a human urinary bladder carcinogen and tumorigenic in a variety of laboratory animals. Several microorganisms have been found to decolourize, transform and even to completely mineralize azo dyes. A mixed culture of two Pseudomonas strains efficiently degraded mixture of 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and phenol/cresols. Azoreductases of different microorganisms are useful for the development of biodegradation systems as they catalyze reductive cleavage of azo groups (-N=N-) under mild conditions. In this review, toxic impacts of dyeing factory effluents on plants, fishes, and environment, and plausible bioremediation strategies for removal of azo dyes have been discussed. PMID:16924831

  20. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  1. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance. PMID:27518595

  2. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  3. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  4. Novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages by direct sulfurizing metal-organic frameworks for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaodan; Xie, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its excellent electrocatalytic properties, cobalt disulfide (CoS2) is regarded as a promising counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hindered by its relatively poor electrical conductivity and chemical instability, it remains a challenge to apply it into high-performance DSSCs. In this work, we have developed novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages as a CE in DSSCs, using ZIF-67 (zeolitic imidazolate framework 67, Co(mim)2, mim = 2-methylimidolate) as a template. The CoS2 samples sulfurized for different time lengths are prepared through a facile solution process. It is found that the sulfurization time can be optimized to maximize the DSSC efficiency and the DSSC based on the CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages sulfurized for 4 hours exhibits the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.20%, higher than those of DSSCs consisting of other CoS2 CEs and Pt-based DSSC (7.88%). The significantly improved DSSC PCE is contributed by the synergic effect of inner CoS2 nanoparticles and an amorphous carbon matrix, leading to a CE with high catalytic activity, good electrical conductivity and excellent durability. This study demonstrates that the CE based on inexpensive CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages is a prospective substitute to expensive platinum and provides a new approach for commercializing high-efficiency DSSCs.

  5. Novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages by direct sulfurizing metal-organic frameworks for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaodan; Xie, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its excellent electrocatalytic properties, cobalt disulfide (CoS2) is regarded as a promising counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hindered by its relatively poor electrical conductivity and chemical instability, it remains a challenge to apply it into high-performance DSSCs. In this work, we have developed novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages as a CE in DSSCs, using ZIF-67 (zeolitic imidazolate framework 67, Co(mim)2, mim = 2-methylimidolate) as a template. The CoS2 samples sulfurized for different time lengths are prepared through a facile solution process. It is found that the sulfurization time can be optimized to maximize the DSSC efficiency and the DSSC based on the CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages sulfurized for 4 hours exhibits the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.20%, higher than those of DSSCs consisting of other CoS2 CEs and Pt-based DSSC (7.88%). The significantly improved DSSC PCE is contributed by the synergic effect of inner CoS2 nanoparticles and an amorphous carbon matrix, leading to a CE with high catalytic activity, good electrical conductivity and excellent durability. This study demonstrates that the CE based on inexpensive CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages is a prospective substitute to expensive platinum and provides a new approach for commercializing high-efficiency DSSCs. PMID:27240927

  6. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  7. 40 CFR 467.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... B Direct Chill Casting Contact Cooling Water Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent... application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With...

  8. 40 CFR 467.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... B Direct Chill Casting Contact Cooling Water Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent... application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With...

  9. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  10. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  11. Deterministically Polarized Fluorescence from Single Dye Molecules Aligned in Liquid Crystal Host

    SciTech Connect

    Lukishova, S.G.; Schmid, A.W.; Knox, R.; Freivald, P.; Boyd, R. W.; Stroud, Jr., C. R.; Marshall, K.L.

    2005-09-30

    We demonstrated for the first time to our konwledge deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules. Planar aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts provide deterministic alignment of single dye molecules in a preferred direction.

  12. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure. PMID:26745322

  13. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:27131304

  14. Long-term natural remediation process in textile dye-polluted river sediment driven by bacterial community changes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsukasa; Adachi, Yusuke; Yamanashi, Yu; Shimada, Yosuke

    2016-09-01

    The textile and dyeing industries are major sources of environmental water pollution all over the world. The textile wastewater effluents discharged into rivers often appear dark red-purple in color due to azo dyes, which can be transformed into carcinogenic aromatic amines. The chemicals used in dyeing are not readily degraded in nature and thus precipitate in river sediment. However, little is known about how dyeing chemicals affect river sediment and river water or how long they persist because they are difficult to monitor. To assess undetectable dyes and byproducts in river sediments, we evaluated the potential of river sediment bacteria to degrade dyes and aromatic amines. We describe the natural remediation of river sediment long-contaminated by textile dyeing effluent. After cessation of wastewater discharge, the dye-degradation potential decreased, and the aromatic amine-degradation potential increased initially and then declined over time. The changes in degradation potential were consistent with changes in the sediment bacterial community. The transition occurred on the order of years. Our data strongly suggest that dyes remained in the river sediment and that aromatic amines were produced even in transparent- and no longer colored-river water, but these chemicals were degraded by the changing sediment bacteria. Time-course monitoring of the degradation activities of key bacteria thus enables assessment of the fate of dye pollutants in river sediments. PMID:27232990

  15. Biodecolorization of recalcitrant dye as the sole sourceof nutrition using Curvularia clavata NZ2 and decolorization ability of its crude enzymes.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Lam, Chi Yong; Lim, Chi Kim; Yahya, Adibah; Bay, Hui Han; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Noor, Zainura Zainon

    2015-08-01

    Extensive use of recalcitrant azo dyes in textile and paper industries poses a direct threat to the environment due to the carcinogenicity of their degradation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Curvularia clavata NZ2 in decolorization of azo dyes. The ability of the fungus to decolorize azo dyes can be evaluated as an important outcome as existing effluent treatment is unable to remove the dyes effectively. C. clavata has the ability to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Acid Orange 7 (AO7), and Congo Red azo dyes, utilizing these as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the extracted RB5's metabolites along with desorption tests confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation and not merely by adsorption. Enzyme activities of extracellular enzymes such as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were also detected during the decolorization process. Toxicity expressed as inhibition of germination was reduced significantly in fungal-treated azo dye solution when compared with the control. The cultivation of C. clavata under sequential batch system also recorded a decolorization efficiency of above 90%. The crude enzyme secreted by C. clavata also showed excellent ability to decolorize RB5 solutions with concentrations of 100 ppm (88-92%) and 1000 ppm (70-77%) without redox mediator. This proved that extracellular enzymes produced by C. clavata played a major role in decolorization of RB5. PMID:25850745

  16. 1995 and 1996 Upper Three Runs Dye Study Data Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of dye tracer studies conducted on Upper Three Runs. The revised STREAM code was used to analyze these studies and derive a stream velocity and a dispersion coefficient for use in aqueous transport models. These models will be used to facilitate the establishment of aqueous effluent limits and provide contaminant transport information to emergency management in the event of a release.

  17. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to a method for treating and recycling the effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor and more specifically to a method for treating and recycling the effluent by expanding the effluent without extensive cooling. Supercritical water oxidation is the oxidation of fuel, generally waste material, in a body of water under conditions above the thermodynamic critical point of water. The current state of the art in supercritical water oxidation plant effluent treatment is to cool the reactor effluent through heat exchangers or direct quench, separate the cooled liquid into a gas/vapor stream and a liquid/solid stream, expand the separated effluent, and perform additional purification on gaseous, liquid, brine and solid effluent. If acid gases are present, corrosion is likely to occur in the coolers. During expansion, part of the condensed water will revaporize. Vaporization can damage the valves due to cavitation and erosion. The present invention expands the effluent stream without condensing the stream. Radionuclides and suspended solids are more efficiently separated in the vapor phase. By preventing condensation, the acids are kept in the much less corrosive gaseous phase thereby limiting the damage to treatment equipment. The present invention also reduces the external energy consumption, by utilizing the expansion step to also cool the effluent.

  18. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  19. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  20. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  1. Benthic macroinvertebrate susceptibility to trout farm effluents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lenn; Boardman, Gregory; Voshell, Reese

    2009-02-01

    The direct effects of a Virginia trout farm on benthic macroinvertebrates were examined using multiple approaches. Static laboratory tests with the amphipod, Hyallela azteca, were conducted with exposures to water taken from a spring and from effluent both above and below a sedimentation basin. Onsite mesocosms were constructed to expose previously colonized artificial substrates to the same treatments as the laboratory tests. Flat-headed mayflies also were collected from a nearby stream and transported to the mesocosms for a 10-d exposure. There was no significant difference between treatments in the laboratory tests after 20 d, but after 28 d the control was significantly lower than the above-sedimentation basin treatment in one test. In the multispecies field tests, a clear decrease in total invertebrate and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) abundance was seen in the effluent treatments compared to spring water treatments. There was, however, a slight improvement in survival in treatment below the sedimentation basin. Only total invertebrate abundance after 21 d produced statistically significant differences. A significant difference was detected between the effluent and the spring treatments in the flat-headed mayfly field test. We suggest that in this study, the effluent alone does not explain the lack of taxa richness in the receiving stream. The main cause of mortality from trout effluents appears to be solids accumulating upon the organisms. Well operated and designed sedimentation basins are expected to, in part, reduce any effects on macroinvertebrates. PMID:19323285

  2. Concepts, tools, and strategies for effluent testing: An international survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole effluent testing (also called Direct Toxicity Assessment) remains a critical long-term assessment tool for aquatic environmental protection. Use of animal alternative approaches for wastewater testing is expected to increase as more regulatory authorities routinely require ...

  3. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  4. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  5. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach to the design of simple, chemical systems for investigating the nature of homeopathic medicines has led to the development of an experimental protocol in which solvatochromic dyes are used as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions. Electronic spectroscopy has been used to follow changes in the absorbance of this class of dyes across the visible spectrum in the presence of homeopathic potencies. Evidence is presented using six different solvatochromic dyes in three different solvent systems. In all cases homeopathic potencies produce consistent and reproducible changes in the spectra of the dyes. Results suggest that potencies influence the supramolecular chemistry of solvatochromic dyes, enhancing either dye aggregation or disaggregation, depending upon dye structure. Comparable dyes lacking the intramolecular charge transfer feature of solvatochromic dyes are unaffected by homeopathic potencies, suggesting potencies require the oscillating dipole of solvatochromic dyes for effective interaction. The implications of the results presented, both for an eventual understanding of the nature of homeopathic medicines and their mode of action, together with future directions for research in this area, are discussed. PMID:26827998

  6. SYNTHESIS AND MUTAGENICITY OF DIRECT DYES FROM 4,4'-DIAMINO-PARA-TERPHENYL AND 4,4'-DIAMINO-PARA-QUATERPHENYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    DBPs in drinking water can be controlled by the type of treatment and by knowing and controlling major sources of DBP toxicant precursors and toxicants that "evade" treatment processes. Efforts are being directed at one category at a time. The initial precursor categories to be c...

  7. Spatial Trends of Pharmaceuticals in an Urbanized Estuary: Influence of Wastewater Effluents in Narragansett Bay, RI, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For years, pharmaceuticals have been routinely detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents and freshwater systems. Wastewater effluent serves as a primary source of pharmaceutical compounds to natural waters. Many marine and estuarine systems receive inputs either directly...

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Wanyonyi, Wycliffe Chisutia; Onyari, John Mmari; Shiundu, Paul Mwanza

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using dried roots, stems, and leaves of Eichhornia crassipes biomass obtained from Lake Victoria was studied. Batch experimental results revealed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, E. crassipes particle size and aqueous solution temperature. The isotherm data fitted Freundlich mathematical models with maximum dye adsorption of 35.37 mg g(-1). Roots adsorbed over 99 % of the MB in <5 min. Sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. Results provide evidence that E. crassipes is an effective and inexpensive biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents. PMID:23839152

  9. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions. PMID:23852534

  10. Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zidan, Naglaa M

    2010-03-15

    The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated azo-dyes with time of electro-Fenton's reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance measurements, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the electro-Fenton's oxidation system is efficient for treatment of such types of reactive dyes. Oxidation of each of the investigated azo-dyes by electro-generated Fenton's reagent up to complete decolorization and approximately 90-95% mineralization was achieved. Moreover, the optimized electro-Fenton's oxidation was successfully applied for complete decolorization and approximately 85-90% mineralization of both azo-dyes in real industrial wastewater samples collected from textile dyeing house at El-Mahalla El-Kobra, Egypt. PMID:19926217

  11. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  12. In situ direct growth of single crystalline metal (Co, Ni) selenium nanosheets on metal fibers as counter electrodes toward low-cost, high-performance fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Yin, Hexing; Zhou, Yong; Dai, Hui; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Highly crystalline metal (Co, Ni) selenium (Co0.85Se or Ni0.85Se) nanosheets were in situ grown on metal (Co, Ni) fibers (M-M0.85Se). Both M-M0.85Se (Co-Co0.85Se and Ni-Ni0.85Se) fibers prove to function as excellent, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) in fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) with high power conversion efficiency (Co-Co0.85Se 6.55% and Ni-Ni0.85Se 7.07%), comparable or even superior to a Pt fiber CE (6.54%). The good performance of the present Pt-free CE-based solar cell was believed to originate from: (1) the intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of the single-crystalline M-M0.85Se (2) the enough void space among M0.85Se nanosheets that allows easier redox ion diffusion; (3) the two-dimensional morphology that provides a large contact area between the CE catalytic material and electrolyte; (4) in situ direct growth of the M0.85Se on metal fibers that renders good electrical contact between the active material and the electron collector.Highly crystalline metal (Co, Ni) selenium (Co0.85Se or Ni0.85Se) nanosheets were in situ grown on metal (Co, Ni) fibers (M-M0.85Se). Both M-M0.85Se (Co-Co0.85Se and Ni-Ni0.85Se) fibers prove to function as excellent, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) in fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) with high power conversion efficiency (Co-Co0.85Se 6.55% and Ni-Ni0.85Se 7.07%), comparable or even superior to a Pt fiber CE (6.54%). The good performance of the present Pt-free CE-based solar cell was believed to originate from: (1) the intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of the single-crystalline M-M0.85Se (2) the enough void space among M0.85Se nanosheets that allows easier redox ion diffusion; (3) the two-dimensional morphology that provides a large contact area between the CE catalytic material and electrolyte; (4) in situ direct growth of the M0.85Se on metal fibers that renders good electrical contact between the active material and the electron collector. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  13. Dye Indicators for Acidic or Basic Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, A.; Schuler, F.

    1984-01-01

    Application of pH-sensitive dye solution serves as test for acidic or basic contamination of critical bonding surface. Aqueous solution of 0.1 percent Direct Red No. 28 capable of indicating acid activating solution down to 10 parts per million on hardware and tooling. Dye did not cause detectable contamination of surface.

  14. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  15. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    environmental processes has been developed. Based on past 3 decades of research on microbial dye detoxification, the current state of knowledge has been analyzed, environmental relevance of these studies was ascertained, research gaps in microbe-mediated azo dye detoxification have been identified and a research framework emphasizing a better understanding of complex interactions between dye-microbe and environmental processes has been proposed. It provides directions for undertaking environmentally sound microbial dye detoxification research. PMID:27155475

  16. Bioremoval of the azo dye Congo Red by the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Montes-Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2015-07-01

    Discharge of dye-containing wastewater by the textile industry can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and human health. Bioremoval is an alternative to industrial processes for detoxifying water contaminated with dyes. In this work, active and inactive biomass of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was assayed for the ability to remove Congo Red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. Through biosorption and biodegradation processes, Chlorella vulgaris was able to remove 83 and 58 % of dye at concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity at equilibrium was 200 mg g(-1). The Langmuir model best described the experimental equilibrium data. The acute toxicity test (48 h) with two species of cladocerans indicated that the toxicity of the dye in the effluent was significantly decreased compared to the initial concentrations in the influent. Daphnia magna was the species less sensitive to dye (EC50 = 17.0 mg L(-1)), followed by Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50 = 3.32 mg L(-1)). These results show that Chlorella vulgaris significantly reduced the dye concentration and toxicity. Therefore, this method may be a viable option for the treatment of this type of effluent. PMID:25772869

  17. Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

    2010-04-01

    Textile dye effluents pose environmental hazards because of color and toxicity. Bioremediation of these has been widely attempted. However, their widely differing characteristics and high salt contents have required application of different microorganisms and high dilutions. We report here decolorization and detoxification of two raw textile effluents, with extreme variations in their pH and dye composition, used at 20-90% concentrations by each of the four marine-derived fungi. Textile effluent A (TEA) contained an azo dye and had a pH of 8.9 and textile effluent B (TEB) with a pH of 2.5 contained a mixture of eight reactive dyes. The fungi isolated from mangroves and identified by 18S and ITS sequencing corresponded to two ascomycetes and two basidiomycetes. Each of these fungi decolorized TEA by 30-60% and TEB by 33-80% used at 20-90% concentrations and salinity of 15 ppt within 6 days. This was accompanied by two to threefold reduction in toxicity as measured by LC(50) values against Artemia larvae and 70-80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total phenolics. Mass spectrometric scan of effluents after fungal treatment revealed degradation of most of the components. The ascomycetes appeared to remove color primarily by adsorption, whereas laccase played a major role in decolorization by basidiomycetes. A process consisting of a combination of sorption by fungal biomass of an ascomycete and biodegradation by laccase from a basidiomycete was used in two separate steps or simultaneously for bioremediation of these two effluents. PMID:19763847

  18. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    PubMed

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated. PMID:27367659

  19. Comprehensive review and compilation of treatment for azo dyes using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Hamidin, Nasrul

    2013-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent an emerging technology that focuses on power generation and effluent treatment. This review compiles articles related to MFCs using azo dye as the substrate. The significance of the general components in MFCs and systems of MFCs treating azo dye is depicted in this review. In addition, degradation of azo dyes such as Congo red, methyl orange, active brilliant red X-3B, amaranth, reactive blue 221, and acid orange 7 in MFCs are summarized. Further exploration and operational modification are suggested to address the challenges of complete removal of azo dye with maximum power generation in an MFC. In addition, a sequential treatment system with MFCs is suggested for complete mineralization of azo dye. PMID:23581242

  20. Solubility of disperse and mordant dyes in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Guzel, B.; Akgerman, A.

    1999-01-01

    Waterless dyeing is the new approach in textile dyeing in order to reduce or eliminate effluent waste, and supercritical carbon dioxide is an alternate solvent being considered. The research focus has therefore been on determination on dyestuff solubilities in supercritical carbon dioxide. The authors have determined the solubilities of two disperse dyes (C.I. Disperse Yellow 7, C. I. Disperse Oranges 11) and three mordant dyes (C.I. Mordant Brown, C.I. Mordant Yellow 12, and C.I. Mordant Red 11) at 323--343 K and pressures in the range 132--195 bar. Mordant Brown had the highest solubility in the range (1.2--5.1) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mole fraction whereas Mordant yellow 12 had the lowest solubility in the range (1.7--5.1) {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mole fraction. The disperse dyes and Mordant Red had solubilities of the order 10{sup {minus}6} mole fraction.

  1. Relationship of Cotton Fiber Calcium and Magnesium Contents on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton from a single bale was processed into knit fabrics and prepared for dyeing. Following scouring, fabrics were soaked in either a metal sequestering solution or a water solution, bleached and dyed using 5 dye shades from both reatice and direct dye classes. Results indicate that removal of re...

  2. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Tad H.

    1987-05-01

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

  3. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mohammad Fadhil; Zablouk, Mumtaz Abdulahad; Abid-Alameer, Abeer Muhssen

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  4. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  5. AZO DYES ARE MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY DETECTED IN THE CRISTAIS RIVER WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if compounds from a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a Drinking Water T...

  6. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AZO DYES TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRISTAIS RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    To verify if compounds within the discharge of a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a ...

  7. Toxicity of textile dyes and their degradation by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).

    PubMed

    Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli; Forgiarini, Eliane; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto

    2007-08-25

    The enzyme peroxidase is known for its capacity to remove phenolic compounds and aromatic amines from aqueous solutions and also to decolorize textile effluents. This study evaluates the potential of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the decolorization of textile dyes and effluents. Some factors such as pH and the amount of H(2)O(2) and the enzyme were evaluated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme performance. For the dyes tested, the results indicated that the decolorization of the dye Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133% was approximately 59%, and 94% for the Lanaset Blue 2R; for the textile effluent, the decolorization was 52%. The tests for toxicity towards Daphnia magna showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. However, the toxicity of the textile effluent showed no change towards Artemia salina after the enzyme treatment. This study verifies the viability of the use of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in the biodegradation of textile dyes. PMID:17628340

  8. In situ direct growth of single crystalline metal (Co, Ni) selenium nanosheets on metal fibers as counter electrodes toward low-cost, high-performance fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Yin, Hexing; Zhou, Yong; Dai, Hui; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

    2016-01-28

    Highly crystalline metal (Co, Ni) selenium (Co0.85Se or Ni0.85Se) nanosheets were in situ grown on metal (Co, Ni) fibers (M-M0.85Se). Both M-M0.85Se (Co-Co0.85Se and Ni-Ni0.85Se) fibers prove to function as excellent, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) in fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) with high power conversion efficiency (Co-Co0.85Se 6.55% and Ni-Ni0.85Se 7.07%), comparable or even superior to a Pt fiber CE (6.54%). The good performance of the present Pt-free CE-based solar cell was believed to originate from: (1) the intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of the single-crystalline M-M0.85Se; (2) the enough void space among M0.85Se nanosheets that allows easier redox ion diffusion; (3) the two-dimensional morphology that provides a large contact area between the CE catalytic material and electrolyte; (4) in situ direct growth of the M0.85Se on metal fibers that renders good electrical contact between the active material and the electron collector. PMID:26752737

  9. Efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells with all-nano-electrodes: NiCo2S4 mesoporous nanosheet counter electrodes directly converted from NiCo2O4 photocathodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful growth of NiCo2S4 nanosheet films converted from NiCo2O4 nanosheet films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by a low-temperature solution process. Low-cost NiCo2S4 and NiCo2O4 nanosheet films were directly used for replacing conventional Pt and NiO as counter electrodes and photocathodes, respectively, to construct all-nano p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) with high performance. Compared to Pt, NiCo2S4 showed higher catalytic activity towards the I-/I3- redox in electrolyte, resulting in an improved photocurrent density up to 2.989 mA/cm2, which is the highest value in reported p-DSSCs. Present p-DSSCs demonstrated a cell efficiency of 0.248 % that is also comparable with typical NiO-based p-DSSCs. PMID:25489277

  10. Developmental validation of the GlobalFiler(®) Express PCR Amplification Kit: A 6-dye multiplex assay for the direct amplification of reference samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Gopinath, Siddhita; Lagacé, Robert E; Norona, Wilma; Hennessy, Lori K; Short, Marc L; Mulero, Julio J

    2015-11-01

    In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group made a recommendation to expand the CODIS core loci from the "required" 13 loci to 20 plus three additional "highly recommended" loci. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit was designed to incorporate all 20 required and 3 highly recommended loci along with a novel male-specific Y insertion/deletion marker. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit allows simultaneous amplification of the following loci: D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, Yindel, AMEL, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, DYS391, D2S441, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D22S1045, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, SE33, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, and D2S1338. The kit enables direct amplification from blood and buccal samples stored on paper or swab and the chemistry features an optimized PCR protocol that yields time to results in less than an hour. Developmental validation testing followed SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrated the quality and robustness of the GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit over a number of variables. The validation results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex kit is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing. PMID:26226223

  11. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  12. Silage effluent management: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  13. Rapid degradation of azo dye Direct Black BN by magnetic MgFe2O4-SiC under microwave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jia; Yang, Shaogui; Li, Na; Meng, Lingjun; Wang, Fei; He, Huan; Sun, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    A novel microwave (MW) catalyst, MgFe2O4 loaded on SiC (MgFe2O4-SiC), was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method, and pure MgFe2O4 was used as reference. The MgFe2O4 and MgFe2O4-SiC catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption analyzer (BET specific surface area), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electromagnetic parameters of the prepared catalysts were measured by vector network analyzer. The reflection loss (RL) based on the electromagnetic parameters calculated in Matlab showed MgFe2O4-SiC attained the maximum absorbing value of 13.32 dB at 2.57 GHz, which reached extremely high RL value at low frequency range, revealing the excellent MW absorption property of MgFe2O4-SiC. MW-induced degradation of Direct Black BN (DB BN) over as-synthesized MgFe2O4-SiC indicated that degradation efficiency of DB BN (20 mg L-1) in 5 min reached 96.5%, the corresponding TOC removal was 65%, and the toxicity of DB BN after degradation by MgFe2O4-SiC obviously decreased. The good stability and applicability of MgFe2O4-SiC on the degradation process were also discovered. Moreover, the ionic chromatogram during degradation of DB BN demonstrated that the C-S, C-N and azo bonds in the DB BN molecule were destroyed gradually. MW-induced rad OH and holes could be responsible for the efficient removal involved in the system. These findings make MgFe2O4-SiC become an excellent MW absorbent as well as an effective MW catalyst with rapid degradation of DB BN. Therefore, it may be promising for MgFe2O4-SiC under MW radiation to deal with various dyestuffs and other toxic organic pollutants.

  14. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS. PMID:21524793

  15. Potential environmental toxicity from hemodialysis effluent.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Keite; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Correia, Cláudia Hack Gumz; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the toxicity of certain potentially toxic compounds on various aquatic organisms allows to assess the impact that these pollutants on the aquatic biota. One source of pollution is the wastewater from hemodialysis. The process of sewage treatment is inefficient in inhibition and removal of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics in this wastewater. In many countries, such as Brazil, during emergencies, sewage and effluents from hospitals are often dumped directly into waterways without any previous treatment. The objective of this study was to characterize the effluents generated by hemodialysis and to assess the degree of acute and chronic environmental toxicity. The effluents of hemodialysis showed high concentrations of nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, ammonia, and total nitrogen, as well as elevated conductivity, turbidity, salinity, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, exceeding the thresholds defined in the CONAMA Resolution 430. The samples showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate Euglena gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), compactness, upward movement, and alignment, with mean EC50 values of recalculate as 76.90 percent (±4.68 percent) of the undiluted effluents. In tests with Daphnia magna, the acute toxicity EC50 was 86.91 percent (±0.39 percent) and a NOEC value of 72.97 percent and a LEOC value 94.66 percent. PMID:24580820

  16. Lidar measurements of Mount St. Helens effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Lidar measurements of the worldwide movement of stratospheric aerosols produced by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are described. Ground-based and airborne measurements show that the layers below 20 km produced by this eruption moved in an easterly direction while those above 20 km moved in a westerly direction. The effluent at jet stream altitudes of 10 to 12 km circled the globe in about 16 days and the effluent at 23 km (the highest altitude recorded) circled the globe in about 56 days. Mass calculations, using backscatter-to-mass conversion models, indicate that approximately half a million metric tons of new stratospheric material were produced by this eruption. Even though this represents a 200% increase in Northern Hemispheric aerosol, no significant long-term atmospheric temperature change should occur.

  17. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  18. Recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  19. The Enzymatic Decolorization of Textile Dyes by the Immobilized Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Arabaci, Gulnur; Usluoglu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents. PMID:24587743

  20. The enzymatic decolorization of textile dyes by the immobilized polyphenol oxidase from quince leaves.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Gulnur; Usluoglu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents. PMID:24587743

  1. Using SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS Analysis to Assess Disperse Dyes in Environmental Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Pilon dos Santos, Glauco; Vendemiatti, Josiane; Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin

    2015-09-01

    We have optimized an SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method and used it to monitor disperse azo dyes in environmental aquatic samples. Calibration curves constructed for nine disperse dyes-Red 1, Violet 93, Blue 373, Orange 1, Orange 3, Orange 25, Yellow 3, Yellow 7 and Red 13-in aqueous solution presented good linearity between 2.0 and 100.0 ng mL(-1). The method provided limits of detection and quantification around 2.0 and 8.0 ng L(-1), respectively. For dyes at concentrations of 25.0 ng mL(-1), the intra- and interday analyses afforded relative standard deviation lower than 6 and 13%, respectively. The recovery values obtained for each target analyte in Milli-Q water, receiving waters and treated water samples spiked with the nine studied dyes at concentrations of 8.0, 25.0 and 50.0 ng L(-1) (n = 3) gave average recoveries greater than 70%, with RSD <20%. Statistical evaluation aided method validation. The validated method proved to be useful for analysis of organic extracts from effluents and receiving water samples after an SPE extraction step. More specifically, the method enabled detection of the dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 at concentrations ranging from 84 to 3452 ng L(-1) in the treated effluent (TE), affluent and points collected upstream and downstream of the drinking water treatment plant of a textile dye industry in Brazil. PMID:25637135

  2. Removal of COD and color from hydrolyzed textile azo dye by combined ozonation and biological treatment.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson; Bonilla, Karin Angela Santos; de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson

    2010-07-15

    The application of ozonation has been increasing in recent years, the main disadvantage of this type of treatment being related to the by-products, which can have toxic and carcinogenic properties, and therefore should be studied further. In this study, the combined treatment of ozonation and subsequent biological degradation with a biofilm, to reduce the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD), was investigated. The experimental part of the study consisted of two phases. The first phase was the ozonation process, the results obtained demonstrated that the ozonation of Remazol Black B dye at pH values of 3-11, was effective, partially oxidizing and completely decolorizing the effluent, even at relatively high concentrations of the dye (500 mg/L). Color removal efficiencies greater than 96% were obtained in all cases. The degradation kinetics of ozone is a pseudo-first-order reaction with respect to the dye concentration. It was possible to verify that the ozonation process as a pre-treatment increases the dye degradation efficiency. For the biological treatment, an increase in ozonization time increased the dye concentration reduction in hydrolyzed dye synthetic effluent. The toxicological results of the tests with Daphnia Magna showed that there is an increase in toxicity after ozonization and a decrease after submitting the ozonized synthetic wastewater to biological treatment with a biofilm. PMID:20227826

  3. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method. PMID:25498635

  4. Isomerization controlled photopolymerization: effect of dye photophysics on photoinitiation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ley, C; Ibrahim, A; Allonas, X

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of free radical polymerization by photoinitiating systems based on two Astrazon orange cyanine dyes was shown to be directly related to the isomerization process of the dye in the excited states. The impact of resin viscosity on photopolymerization reactions was measured and related to the overall radical quantum yields. The quantum yields were calculated according to the photocyclic behaviour of the initiating systems based on the Astrazon orange dyes. These dyes are characterized by a viscosity dependent photophysics, which leads to an isomerization-diffusion-controlled photopolymerization. Besides this demonstration, Astrazon orange dyes appeared to be very good candidates for free radical photopolymerization in the visible, presenting high absorption coefficient, low cost and good sensitivity. PMID:27443964

  5. Biochemical response to exposure to six textile dyes in early developmental stages of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Güngördü, Abbas; Birhanli, Ayse; Ozmen, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the toxic effect of a lethal concentration of six different commercially used textile dyes on the 46th stage of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The tadpoles were exposed to Astrazon Red FBL, Astrazon Blue FGRL, Remazol Red RR, Remazol Turquoise Blue G-A, Cibacron Red FN-3G, and Cibacron Blue FN-R for 168 h in static test conditions, and thus, 168-h median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) of each dye were determined to be 0.35, 0.13, 112, 7, 359, and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, to evaluate the sublethal effects of each dye, tadpoles were exposed to different concentrations of dyes (with respect to 168-h LC(50)s) for 24 h. The alteration of selected enzyme activities was tested. For this aim, glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed. After dye exposure, the GST induction or inhibition and LDH induction indicated some possible mechanisms of oxidative stress and deterioration in aerobic respiration processes induced by the tested dyes. Findings of the study suggest that selected biomarker enzymes are useful in understanding the toxic mechanisms of these dyes in X. laevis tadpoles as early warning indicators. Therefore, these selected biomarkers may evaluate the effect of environmental factors, such as textile dye effluents and other industrial pollutants, on amphibians in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22802115

  6. Decolourisation of Synthetic Dyes by Endophytic Fungal Flora Isolated from Senduduk Plant (Melastoma malabathricum)

    PubMed Central

    Ngieng, Ngui Sing

    2013-01-01

    A total of twenty endophytic fungi successfully isolated from Melastoma malabathricum (Senduduk) were examined for their ability to decolourise azo dyes: Congo red, Orange G, and Methyl red and an anthraquinone dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R. Initial screening on the glucose minimal media agar plates amended with 200 mg L−1 of each respective dye showed that only isolate MS8 was able to decolourise all of the four dyes. The isolate decolourised completely both the RBBR and Orange G in the agar medium within 8 days. Further quantitative analysis of the dye decolourisation by isolate MS8 in aqueous minimal medium showed that isolate MS8 was able to decolourise all the tested dyes at varying levels. Dye decolourisation by the isolate MS8 was determined to be 97% for RBBR, 33% for Orange G, 48% for Congo red, and 56% for Methyl red, respectively, within a period of 16 days. Molecular identification of the fungal isolate MS8 using primer ITS1 and ITS4 showed that isolate MS8 shared 99% sequence similarity with Marasmius cladophyllus, a Basidiomycete. The ability to decolourise different types of dyes by isolate MS8 thus suggested a possible application of this fungus in the decolourisation of dyestuff effluents. PMID:25937973

  7. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange. PMID:27082258

  8. Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan; Ramesh, Srikrishnaperumal Thanga

    2013-04-01

    Several industries are using dyes as coloring agents. The effluents from these industries are increasingly becoming an environmental problem. The removal of dyes from aqueous solution has a great potential in the field of environmental engineering. This paper reviews the classification, characteristics, and problems of dyes in detail. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods used for dye removal are also analyzed. Among these methods, Fenton process-based advanced oxidation processes are an emerging prospect in the field of dye removal. Fenton processes have been classified and represented as "Fenton circle". This paper analyzes the recent studies on Fenton processes. The studies include analyzing different configurations of reactors used for dye removal, its efficiency, and the effects of various operating parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration, and temperature of Fenton processes. From the present study, it can be conclude that Fenton processes are very effective and environmentally friendly methods for dye removal. PMID:23338990

  9. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  10. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  11. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  12. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  14. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. PMID:26686478

  15. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  16. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  18. Utilization of geothermal effluents to create waterfowl wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczynski, V.W.; Wert, M.A.; LaBar, D.J.

    1981-10-01

    A generic research study was performed to determine the feasibility of using spent geothermal fluids to create waterfowl wetlands. Aspects studied included water quality, biology, ecology, toxicology, ground-water hydrology, geology and soils, wastewater treatment, economic, socioeconomic, and legal constraints. Results indicate that some geothermal effluents can be used directly with no treatment to create waterfowl wetlands. Many geothermal effluents can be used to create wetlands with relatively minimal pretreatment; this category is economically more attractive than injection. The wetlands themselves will effectively further cleanse the effluents for possible cascading resource use (such as irrigation water or surface water enhancement). Finally, some effluents require extensive pretreatment before wetland use. Economics in the latter category favor injection.

  19. Effect of pH on the control release of microencapsulated dye in lecithin liposomes. II.

    PubMed

    Baptista, A L F; Coutinho, P J G; Real Oliveira, M E C D; Gomes, J I N Rocha

    2003-05-01

    The objective of our work has been the microencapsulation of dyes with lecithin from soybean, with the formation of liposomes, as a substitute for synthetic auxiliaries so as to improve the quality of the effluent. Current scenarios promote the disintegration and leakage of the liposomes, such as, changes in temperature, pH, and the use of surfactants. Since dyeing process is a mix of all these parameters, we pretended to study each one separately. Changes in pH at constant temperature induce a release of dye similar with changes in temperature. In acid conditions, we found a very fast initial dye release which doesn't occur in basic conditions. Using carboxyfluorescein, as a pH fluorescence probe, we concluded that the liposome membrane doesn't protect the liposome interior from changes on the external pH. PMID:12855107

  20. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  1. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  2. Vegetable Dyeing of Wool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Pearl

    1976-01-01

    In keeping with the Bicentennial celebration, many art teachers will find themselves "looking back" to crafts of the American past. Dyeing is certainly one that was used extensively and here a professor in a Fine Arts Department details how the process takes place. (Author/RK)

  3. Phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss., an ornamental plant to degrade a disperse, disulfonated triphenylmethane textile dye Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Kamble, Apurva A; Mulla, Asma Y; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-02-01

    Phytoremediation provides an ecofriendly alternative for the treatment of pollutants like textile dyes. The purpose of this study was to explore phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. by using its wild as well as tissue-cultured plantlets to decolorize Brilliant Blue G (BBG) dye, a sample of dye mixture and a real textile effluent. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora were obtained by seed culture method. The decolorization experiments were carried out using wild as well as tissue-cultured plants independently. The enzymatic analysis of the plant roots was performed before and after decolorization of BBG. Metabolites formed after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytotoxicity studies were performed. Characterization of dye mixture and textile effluent was also studied. The wild and tissue-cultured plants of P. grandiflora showed the decolorized BBG up to 86 %. Significant increase in the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase, NADH-2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, and tyrosinase was found in the roots of the plants. Three metabolites of BBG were identified as 3-{[ethyl(phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic acid, 3-{[methyl (phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic amino acid, and sodium-3-[(cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylideneamino)methyl]benzenesulfonate. Textile effluent sample and a synthetic mixture of dyes were also decolorized by P. grandiflora. Phytotoxicity test revealed the nontoxic nature of metabolites. P. grandiflora showed the potential to decolorize and degrade BBG to nontoxic metabolites. The plant has efficiently treated a sample of dye mixture and textile effluent. PMID:22529004

  4. Filtration device for active effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-12-31

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter.

  5. Simultaneous decolorization of reactive Orange M2R dye and reduction of chromate by Lysinibacillus sp. KMK-A.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Tapase, Savita R; Markad, Vijaykumar L; Kodam, Kisan M

    2013-11-15

    Azo dyes constitute the largest and diverse group of dyes, widely used in number of industries that are contributing toward organic and inorganic load of effluent treatment. In the present study, Lysinibacillus sp. KMK-A was able to effectively decolorize Orange M2R dye up to 2000 mg l(-1) (Vmax of 19.6 mg l(-1) h(-1) and Km of 439 mg l(-1)) and reduce Cr(VI) up to 250 mg l(-1) (Vmax of 3.6 mg l(-1) h(-1) and Km 28.3 mg l(-1)). It also has an ability of simultaneous decolorization of Orange M2R dye (200-1000 mg l(-1)) with reduction of Cr(VI) (50-200 mg l(-1)). Significant reduction in total organic carbon content, chemical and biological oxygen demand along with spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis confirmed the biotransformation of Orange M2R. Involvement of enzymes namely azoreductase and chromate reductase was observed during biotransformation. The phyto and geno toxicity studies demonstrated that metabolites of dye degradation were non-toxic. Higher tolerance with simultaneous decolorization and detoxification of azo dyes in presence of Cr(VI) makes Lysinibacillus sp. KMK-A, a potential candidate for eco-friendly remediation of metal contaminated dye effluents. PMID:24095998

  6. Electrokinetic remediation of inorganic and organic pollutants in textile effluent contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Sivasankar; Santhanam, Manikandan; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu; Curras, Marta Pazos

    2014-12-01

    The discharge from the dyeing industries constitutes unfixed dyes, inorganic salts, heavy metal complexes etc., which spoil the surrounding areas of industrial sites. The present article reports the use of direct current electrokinetic technique for the treatment of textile contaminated soil. Impressed direct current voltage of 20 V facilitates the dye/metal ions movement in the naturally available dye contaminated soil towards the opposite electrode by electromigration. IrO2–RuO2–TiO2/Ti was used as anode and Ti used as cathode. UV–Visible spectrum reveals that higher dye intensity was nearer to the anode. Ni, Cr and Pb migration towards the cathode and migration of Cu, SO42− and Cl− towards anode were noticed. Chemical oxygen demand in soil significantly decreased upon employing electrokinetic. This technology may be exploited for faster and eco-friendly removal of dye in soil environment. PMID:25461934

  7. Treatment of textile dye wastewaters using ferrous sulphate in a chemical coagulation/flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation/flocculation treatment using FeSO4 x 7H2O as a coagulant is evaluated in this work for the removal of organic compounds and colour from synthetic effluents simulating the cotton, acrylic and polyester dyeing wastewaters. The coagulant dose, temperature, pH, stirring speed and stirring time that maximized the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour for each effluent are determined for the coagulation process. The effect of the stirring speed, stirring time and the dose of flocculant (Magnafloc 155 or Superfloc C-573) on the flocculation stage is also evaluated for effluents pretreated by coagulation at the optimal conditions previously determined. The obtained results showed that the optimal operating conditions are different for each effluent, and the process (coagulation/flocculation) as a whole was efficient in terms of colour removal (-91% for cotton, -94% for acrylic effluents; polyester effluent is practically colourless). However, the DOC removal observed is not significant (33% for polyester, -45% for cotton and -28% for acrylic effluents). On the other hand, the remaining dissolved iron content is appropriate for further integrating the treatment with an iron-catalysed Fenton process, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals in the overall treatment. PMID:23837323

  8. Remediation of textile dye waste water using a white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta through solid-state fermentation (SSF).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tim; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2008-12-01

    A strict screening strategy for microorganism selection was followed employing a number of white-rot fungi for the bioremediation of textile effluent, which was generated from one Ireland-based American textile industry. Finally, one fungus Bjerkandera adusta has been investigated in depth for its ability to simultaneously degrade and enrich the nutritional quality of highly coloured textile effluent-adsorbed barley husks through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Certain important parameters such as media requirements, moisture content, protein/biomass production and enzyme activities were examined in detail. A previously optimised method of dye desorption was employed to measure the extent of dye remediation through effluent decolorisation achieved as a result of fungal activity in SSF. B. adusta was capable of decolourising a considerable concentration of the synthetic dye effluent (up to 53%) with a moisture content of 80-85%. Protein enrichment of the fermented mass was achieved to the extent of 229 g/kg dry weight initial substrate used. Lignin peroxidase and laccase were found to be the two main enzymes produced during SSF of the dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic waste residue. PMID:18496771

  9. Thiocyanation of BODIPY dyes and their conversion to thioalkylated derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Lucas Cunha Dias; de Melo, Shaiani Maria Gil; Boodts, Stijn; Verbelen, Bram; Dehaen, Wim; da Silva Emery, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    A high-yielding method for the direct thiocyanation of BODIPY dyes is described. In 1,3-dimethyl BODIPYs, the thiocyanato group adds at position 2, whereas the insertion occurs at position 5 in 3-amino BODIPYs. The transformation of the thiocyanato group enables the synthesis of thioalkylated BODIPYs. 2-Thioalkylated BODIPYs and 3-thiocyanato-5-piperidino BODIPYs exhibit interesting spectroscopical features. Hence, the described synthetic methodology can be used for the photophysical tuning of BODIPY dyes. PMID:25946645

  10. Evaluation of in vitro efficacy for decolorization and degradation of commercial azo dye RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 isolated from dye contaminated industrial landfill.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Hilor; Soni, Dhaval; Chauhan, Kishor

    2014-06-01

    Reactive Black-B (RB-B) - one of the multi-sulphonated reactive azo dye - is being used extensively in textile as well as paper industries. Reactive azo dyes comprise of a significant group of synthetic compounds categorized as xenobiotics and its abatement from the environment still remains a challenge. In the present study, a newly isolated indigenous bacterial strain Morganella sp. HK-1 was exploited for its ability to decolorize and degrade RB-B dye. The isolate completely degraded RB-B (20 g L(-1)) within 24h under static conditions. Furthermore, the visible and FTIR spectral analysis established the bio-degradation of RB-B. The degraded metabolites of RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 were identified by GC-MS analysis as disodium 3,4,6-triamino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, 4-aminophenylsulfonylethyl hydrogen sulfate, naphthalene-1-ol, aniline and benzene. Based on this information, a putative pathway of degradation of RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 has been proposed. This study is the first report on elucidation of mechanism of bacterial degradation of RB-B dye. Furthermore, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and aquatic acute toxicity studies of the parent dye and the bio-degraded dye products revealed drastic reduction in the toxicity of metabolites as compared to the parent dye. This implies that the biotreatment of the dye is of non-toxic nature. This study thus indicates the effectiveness of Morganella sp. HK-1 for the treatment of textile effluents containing sulphonated azo dyes. PMID:24480425

  11. Microscopic observation of dye molecules for solar cells on a titania surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiya, Shogo; Yamashita, Shunsuke; Kimoto, Koji

    2016-04-01

    The lateral distribution and coverage of Ru-based dye molecules, which are used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), were directly examined on a titania surface using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The clean surface of a free-standing titania nanosheet was first confirmed with atomic resolution, and then, the nanosheet was used as a substrate. A single dye molecule on the titania nanosheet was visualized for the first time. The quantitative STEM images revealed an inhomogeneous dye-molecule distribution at the early stage of its absorption, i.e., the aggregation of the dye molecules. The majority of the titania surface was not covered by dye molecules, suggesting that optimization of the dye molecule distribution could yield further improvement of the DSC conversion efficiencies.

  12. Microscopic observation of dye molecules for solar cells on a titania surface

    PubMed Central

    Koshiya, Shogo; Yamashita, Shunsuke; Kimoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The lateral distribution and coverage of Ru-based dye molecules, which are used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), were directly examined on a titania surface using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The clean surface of a free-standing titania nanosheet was first confirmed with atomic resolution, and then, the nanosheet was used as a substrate. A single dye molecule on the titania nanosheet was visualized for the first time. The quantitative STEM images revealed an inhomogeneous dye-molecule distribution at the early stage of its absorption, i.e., the aggregation of the dye molecules. The majority of the titania surface was not covered by dye molecules, suggesting that optimization of the dye molecule distribution could yield further improvement of the DSC conversion efficiencies. PMID:27087005

  13. Microscopic observation of dye molecules for solar cells on a titania surface.

    PubMed

    Koshiya, Shogo; Yamashita, Shunsuke; Kimoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The lateral distribution and coverage of Ru-based dye molecules, which are used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), were directly examined on a titania surface using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The clean surface of a free-standing titania nanosheet was first confirmed with atomic resolution, and then, the nanosheet was used as a substrate. A single dye molecule on the titania nanosheet was visualized for the first time. The quantitative STEM images revealed an inhomogeneous dye-molecule distribution at the early stage of its absorption, i.e., the aggregation of the dye molecules. The majority of the titania surface was not covered by dye molecules, suggesting that optimization of the dye molecule distribution could yield further improvement of the DSC conversion efficiencies. PMID:27087005

  14. Probing horseradish peroxidase catalyzed degradation of azo dye from tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Sadhanandam; Anumary, Ayyappan; Ashokkumar, Meiyazhagan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis based effluent treatment has outclassed the presently favored physico-chemical treatments due to nil sludge production and monetary savings. Azo dyes are commonly employed in the leather industry and pose a great threat to the environment. Here, we show the degradation of C. I. Acid blue 113 using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) assisted with H2O2 as a co-substrate. It was observed that 0.08 U HRP can degrade 3 mL of 30 mg/L dye up to 80% within 45 min with the assistance of 14 μL of H2O2 at pH 6.6 and 30°C. The feasibility of using the immobilized HRP for dye degradation was also examined and the results show up to 76% dye degradation under similar conditions to that of free HRP with the exception of longer contact time of 240 min. Recycling studies reveal that the immobilized HRP can be recycled up to 3 times for dye degradation. Kinetics drawn for the free HRP catalyzed reaction marked a lower K m and higher V max values, which denotes a proper and faster affinity of the enzyme towards the dye, when compared to the immobilized HRP. The applicability of HRP for treating the actual tannery dye-house wastewater was also demonstrated. PMID:23961406

  15. Adsorption of reactive blue BF-5G dye by soybean hulls: kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Honorio, Jacqueline Ferandin; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Gonçalves, Gilberto da Cunha; de Campos, Élvio Antonio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry is known for the high use of chemicals, such as dyes, and large volumes of effluent that contaminate waters, a fact that has encouraged research and improved treatment techniques. In this study, we used unprocessed soybean hulls for the removal of reactive blue BF-5G dye. The point of zero charge of soybean hulls was 6.76. Regarding the speed of agitation in the adsorption process, the resistance to mass transfer that occurs in the boundary layer was eliminated at 100 rpm. Kinetics showed an experimental amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium of 57.473 mg g(-1) obtained under the following conditions: dye initial concentration = 400 mg L(-1); diameter of particle = 0.725 mm; dosage = 6 g L(-1); pH 2; 100 rpm; temperature = 30 °C; and duration of 24 hours. The pseudo-second order best showed the dye removal kinetics. The adsorption isotherms performed at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) showed little variation in the concentration range assessed, being properly adjusted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of dye adsorption was 72.427 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. Since soybean hull is a low-cost industrial byproduct, it proved to be a potential adsorbent for the removal of the textile dye assessed. PMID:26942540

  16. Effect of Keystone mine effluent on colonization of stream benthos

    SciTech Connect

    Peckarsky, B.L.; Cook, K.Z.

    1981-12-15

    Colonization cages were filled with organism-free, standardized, stone substrate and placed in the stream bed above and below the effluent from an inactive lead and zinc mine in western Colorado. A significantly higher proportion of the total individuals colonizing cages from an upstream direction were dead below the effluent compared with the controls above the effluent. The percent ''mortality'' of the mayfly, Baetis bicaudatus, the dominant species in Coal Creek, was also consistently higher below the effluent. Total numbers of live insects colonizing cages were generally higher above the effluent; but results were not as consistent as ''mortality'' data. A diversity index (H'), species richness, and equitability (J') of the samples were not reliable indices of responses to stress by the benthic community. Given cages with contaminated substrate in uncontaminted water, the community recovered remarkably quickly. Colonizing populations were indistinguishable from those of control cages with uncontaminated substrate within 9 days. We conclude that the substrate habitat below the mine effluent is unsuitable for most benthic invertebrates and that the colonization technique that allows determination of percent mortality is more consistent and reliable than conventional measures of diversity for assessing the response of benthic invertebrates to stress. If water quality can be restored to a pristine state, the benthos may rapidly recover from the effects of previous acid mine drainage stress.

  17. Measurement and removal of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Dorn, P.B.; Means, J.C.; Jenkins, K.D.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Public concern regarding the presence of persistent, bioconcentratable compounds in fish and shellfish has led the petroleum industry to investigate methods for the measurement of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents. Research has focused on developing methods to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons directly in the effluent and in bivalves exposed to refinery effluents in the field and in the laboratory. Results from a multi-refinery study in the San Francisco Bay Area using selective ion monitoring GC/MS-MS indicated that alkylated and non-substituted 2--3 ring PAHs are rarely present in refinery effluents at concentrations greater than 100 ng/L. Higher MW PAHs were rarely detected. PAHs did not substantially bioconcentrate in bivalves exposed in the laboratory to refinery effluent and reference sea water. Total PAHs were generally less than 50 {mu}g/g in the effluent-exposed bivalves. A comparison of the waste water treatment facilities at each refinery suggest that biological treatment already required by existing regulations is sufficient to reduce PAH concentrations to these low levels.

  18. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling. PMID:11487111

  19. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 μm inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 μm inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  20. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  1. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  2. Evaluation of Chemical Fluorescent Dyes as a Protein Conjugation Partner for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab) fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph) and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac). These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye∶protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green), Cy3 (red), and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red). PMID:25184362

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  4. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River.

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Chlorinated Saline and Freshwater Wastewater Effluents to Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengting; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Richardson, Susan D

    2015-12-15

    Toilet flushing with seawater results in saline wastewater, which may contain approximately 33-50% seawater. Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially brominated and iodinated DBPs, have recently been found in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents. With the occurrence of brominated and iodinated DBPs, the adverse effects of chlorinated saline wastewater effluents to marine ecology have been uncertain. By evaluating the developmental effects in the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii directly exposed to chlorinated saline/freshwater wastewater effluents, we found surprisingly that chlorinated saline wastewater effluents were less toxic than a chlorinated freshwater wastewater effluent. This was also witnessed by the marine alga Tetraselmis marina. The toxicity of a chlorinated wastewater effluent to the marine species was dominated by its relatively low salinity compared to the salinity in seawater. The organic matter content in a chlorinated wastewater effluent might be partially responsible for the toxicity. The adverse effects of halogenated DBPs on the marine species were observed pronouncedly only in the "concentrated" chlorinated wastewater effluents. pH and ammonia content in a wastewater effluent caused no adverse effects on the marine species. The results suggest that using seawater to replace freshwater for toilet flushing might mitigate the "direct" acute detrimental effect of wastewater to the marine organisms. PMID:26505276

  6. Influence of dye content on the conduction band edge of titania in the steam-treated dye-dispersing titania electrodes.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Rudi Agus; Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Fujii, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    The titania and dye-dispersing titania electrodes were prepared by a nitric acid-catalyzed sol-gel process. The dye-dispersing titania contains the dye molecules dispersed on the surface of the individual nanosized titania particles. The photo-cyclic voltammetry (Photo-CV) and photoelectric measurements of the dye-dispersing titania electrodes were conducted to clarify the factors changing the conduction band edge of the titania and the open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of the electrodes. The remaining nitrate ions caused a negative shift of conduction band edge of the titania of the dye-dispersing titania. The conduction band edge of the titania was shifted in a negative direction in the electrode containing a greater amount of the dye. These results are due to the adsorption of nitrate ions and the dye-titania complex formation on the titania particle surface. The effect of the dye-titania complex formation on the shift in the titania conduction band edge was greater than that of the adsorption of nitrate ions due to strong interaction between the dye and titania through the carboxylate and quinone-like groups of the dye. The shift in the titania conduction band edge corresponded to the change in the Voc value. PMID:24893823

  7. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  8. Application of integrated ozone biological aerated filters and membrane filtration in water reuse of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    He, Yaozhong; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jinling; Yan, Jinli; Ge, Qilong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Jian, Lei

    2013-04-01

    A combined process including integrated ozone-BAFs (ozone biological aerated filters) and membrane filtration was first applied for recycling textile effluents in a cotton textile mill with capacity of 5000 m(3)/d. Influent COD (chemical oxygen demand) in the range of 82-120 mg/L, BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) of 12.6-23.1 mg/L, suspended solids (SSs) of 38-52 mg/L and color of 32-64° were observed during operation. Outflows with COD≤45 mg/L, BOD5≤7.6 mg/L, SS≤15 mg/L, color≤8° were obtained after being decontaminated by ozone-BAF with ozone dosage of 20-25 mg/L. Besides, the average removal rates of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and UV254 were 100% and 73.4% respectively. Permeate water produced by RO (reverse osmosis) could be reused in dyeing and finishing processes, while the RO concentrates could be discharged directly under local regulations with COD≤100 mg/L, BOD5≤21 mg/L, SS≤52 mg/L, color≤32°. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality, and solve the problem of RO concentrate disposal. PMID:23422307

  9. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

  10. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  11. Dye adsorption of cotton fabric grafted with PPI dendrimers: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Salimpour Abkenar, Samera; Malek, Reza Mohammad Ali; Mazaheri, Firouzmehr

    2015-11-01

    In this research, the cotton fabrics grafted with two generations of the poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were applied to adsorb textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Direct Red 80 (anionic dye), Disperse Yellow 42 (nonionic dye) and Basic Blue 9 (cationic dye) were selected as model dyes. The effect of various experimental parameters such as initial concentration of dyes, charge of dyes molecule, salt and pH was investigated on the adsorption process. Furthermore, kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption process on the grafted samples were studied. It was found that maximum adsorption of anionic and disperse dyes took place at around pH 3, while cationic dye could be adsorbed at around pH 11. The Langmuir equation was able to describe the mechanism of dyes adsorption. In addition, the second-order equation was found to be fit with the kinetics data. Interestingly, it seems that the dye adsorption of the grafted fabrics is strongly pH dependent. PMID:26292774

  12. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  13. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  14. Remediation of textile effluents by membrane based treatment techniques: a state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Jhilly; Sikder, Jaya; Chakraborty, Sudip; Curcio, Stefano; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The textile industries hold an important position in the global industrial arena because of their undeniable contributions to basic human needs satisfaction and to the world economy. These industries are however major consumers of water, dyes and other toxic chemicals. The effluents generated from each processing step comprise substantial quantities of unutilized resources. The effluents if discharged without prior treatment become potential sources of pollution due to their several deleterious effects on the environment. The treatment of heterogeneous textile effluents therefore demands the application of environmentally benign technology with appreciable quality water reclamation potential. These features can be observed in various innovative membrane based techniques. The present review paper thus elucidates the contributions of membrane technology towards textile effluent treatment and unexhausted raw materials recovery. The reuse possibilities of water recovered through membrane based techniques, such as ultrafiltration and nanofiltration in primary dye houses or auxiliary rinse vats have also been explored. Advantages and bottlenecks, such as membrane fouling associated with each of these techniques have also been highlighted. Additionally, several pragmatic models simulating transport mechanism across membranes have been documented. Finally, various accounts dealing with techno-economic evaluation of these membrane based textile wastewater treatment processes have been provided. PMID:25261752

  15. Merocyanine dyes with improved photostability.

    PubMed

    Toutchkine, Alexei; Nguyen, Dan-Vinh; Hahn, Klaus M

    2007-07-19

    Merocyanine dyes have proven valuable for live cell fluorescence imaging applications, but many structures have been limited by rapid photobleaching. We show that photostability is substantially enhanced for merocyanines having a cyano group at a specific position in the central polymethine chain. Evidence is presented that this is due to reduction in reactivity of the dyes with singlet oxygen. These results point toward cyano-substitution as a general strategy for improving dye performance in imaging applications. PMID:17583344

  16. Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

  17. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes. PMID:25849115

  18. Dye laser amplifier including an improved window configuration for its dye beam

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, R.W.; Davin, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    A dye laser amplifier in which a continuously replenished supply of dye is excited with a first light beam in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam passing therethrough is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a cell though which a continuous stream of the dye is caused to pass, and means for directing the first beam into the cell while the second beam is directed into and through the same cell. There is also disclosed herein a specific improvement to this amplifier which resides in the use of a pair of particularly configured windows through which the second beam passes along fixed paths as the second beam enters and exits the dye cell. Each of these windows has a relatively thick main section which is substantially larger in dimensions transverse to its beam path than the cross section of the second beam itself, whereby to add structural integrity to the overall window. At the same time, the latter includes a second section which is disposed entirely within the confines of the main section and through which the second beam is intended to pass in its entirety. This second section is made substantially thinner than the main section in order to reduce optical distortion as the second beam passes therethrough. 4 figs.

  19. Dye laser amplifier including an improved window configuration for its dye beam

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Davin, James M.

    1992-01-01

    A dye laser amplifier in which a continuously replenished supply of dye is excited with a first light beam in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam passing therethrough is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a cell though which a continuous stream of the dye is caused to pass, and means for directing the first beam into the cell while the second beam is directed into and through the same cell. There is also disclosed herein a specific improvement to this amplifier which resides in the use of a pair of particularly configured windows through which the second beam passes along fixed paths as the second beam enters and exits the dye cell. Each of these windows has a relatively thick main section which is substantially larger in dimensions transverse to its beam path than the cross section of the second beam itself, whereby to add structural integrity to the overall window. At the same time, the latter includes a second section which is disposed entirely within the confines of the main section and through which the second beam is intended to pass in its entirety. This second section is made substantially thinner than the main section in order to reduce optical distortion as the second beam passes therethrough.

  20. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  1. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  2. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  3. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.

    1983-01-01

    A flash lamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as an amplifier stage was developed. The desired output laser pulses are of nanosecond duration, tunable in center frequency, and of good optical quality. Its usefulness as a laser oscillator is emphasized, because it constitutes a compact, relatively efficient source of tunable dye laser light.

  4. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater. PMID:27533873

  6. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  7. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  8. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  9. Effect of temperature and surfactant on the control release of microencapsulated dye in lecithin liposomes. I.

    PubMed

    Baptista, A L F; Coutinho, P J G; Real Oliveira, M E C D; Gomes, J I N Rocha

    2003-05-01

    The objective of our work has been the microencapsulation of dyes with lecithin from soybean, with the formation of liposomes, as a substitute for synthetic auxiliaries so as to improve the quality of the effluent. Current scenarios promote the disintegration and leakage of the liposomes, such as, changes in temperature, pH and the use of surfactants. Since dyeing process is a mix of all these parameters, we pretended to study each one separately. Rhodamine 6G fluorescence is known to be concentration quenched through the formation of non-fluorescent dimmers and, additionally, through the energy transfer from rhodamine monomer to these dimmers (Baptista ALF, Coutinho PJG, Real Oliveira MECD, Gomes JINR. Proceedings of 13th International Symposium of Surfactants, SIS 2000, Gainesville, USA, 2000). The temperature, the surfactant and pH induce a release of the encapsulated dye resulting in rhodamine dilution and consequently alterations in the dimerization/binding equilibrium. The experimental spectra indicate that rhodamine binds almost completely to liposomes. The decomposition of the rhodamine fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the percentage of released dye during a simulated dyeing process, and allowed us to conclude that the dimerization process occurs mainly at the inner interfaces. The amount of dye released induced by temperature changes was greater in the presence of surfactant. PMID:12855106

  10. 40 CFR 467.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... solids 60.60 28.82 pH (1) (1) 1 With the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. Subpart C Direct Chill... application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  11. 40 CFR 467.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....0 to 10.0 at all times. Subpart B Direct Chill Casting Contact Cooling Water Pollutant or pollutant... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...

  12. 40 CFR 467.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... solids 60.60 28.82 pH (1) (1) 1 With the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. Subpart C Direct Chill... application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 467.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....0 to 10.0 at all times. Subpart B Direct Chill Casting Contact Cooling Water Pollutant or pollutant... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...

  14. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:27486044

  15. Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ► Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ► Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ► Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ► NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

  16. Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

  17. Closed-cycle textile dyeing: full-scale hyperfiltration demonstration (design)

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Hyperfiltration (HF) is a membrane separation technique that has been used successfully in desalination of natural water. Because energy, process chemicals and water are discharged from industrial processes in large quantities, the application of various types of membranes to recover through recycle has been studied in a series of government sponsored research projects. The results of the research led to the current project of joining a full scale dynamic membrane HF system with an operating dye range into an integrated production unit. The dye range is a multi-purpose unit having a variety of effluents from preparation and dyeing of textile fabric. This report describes the design and construction of the hyperfiltration equipment; presents and evaluates data from one year of operation; gives costs for equipment, installation and operation, and credits for savings due to recycle; and describes the primary objectives of an 18 month project continuation.

  18. Spectral shifting by dyes to enhance algae growth.

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Quinn, M F; Fekri, M; Murad, M; Ahmed, S A

    1984-11-01

    The photosynthetic growth action spectrum of a green alga at three bands of visible light (blue, orange, and red) at fixed quanta input and under light-limiting conditions was measured in a batch cultivation system. Quantum efficiencies (biomass dry weight increment per quanta absorbed) were better in the yellow-red region than in the blue region. Results served as a basis for the design and optimization of a dye system that would shift the energy of solar radiation to the required wavelength range by absorbing ultraviolet to blue radiation and emitting in the yellow-red, thus enhancing algae growth. Direct incorporation of dyes into the growth medium, although theoretically expected to enhance growth, in fact resulted in dye decomposition, toxicity to algae and consequently in growth inhibition. Indirect application of dyes in a double tubular reactor (algae inside and dye solution outside) demonstrated growth enhancement for certain dyes with high quantum yields and stability, which had suitable absorption/emission spectra for artificial light sources used. The maximum indirect growth enhancement was obtained using rhodamine 6G at a concentration of 3x10(-5)M with tungsten filament lamp sources. PMID:18551655

  19. Utilization of carbon nanotubes for the removal of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Jangra, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting increasing research interest as promising adsorbents for harmful cations, anions, and other organic and inorganic impurities present in natural sources of water. This study examined the feasibility of removing Rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions using multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The effects of dye concentration, pH and contact time on adsorption of direct dye by CNTs were also evaluated. The study used the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption. Additionally, pseudo second-order model was adopted to evaluate experimental data and thereby elucidate the kinetic adsorption process. The adsorption percentage of dye increased as contact time increased. Conversely, the adsorption percentage of dye decreased as dye concentration increased. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. The capacity of CNTs to adsorb Rhodamine B was 65-90% at different pH values. PMID:24738392

  20. Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters. PMID:20167478

  1. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment. PMID:25277708

  2. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-11-27

    During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

  3. Green chemical approach towards the synthesis of SnO2 NPs in argument with photocatalytic degradation of diazo dye and its kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Haritha, E; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Madhavi, G; Elango, G; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan

    2016-09-01

    There are variety of effluents are dumped or directly discarded into atmosphere due to drastic industrialization which leads to damages in living organisms. To prevent many type of environmental defects our research group focused to synthesis material which degrades toxic substance like dyes with the help of ecofriendly synthesis. We have synthesized Tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using aqueous extract of Catunaregam spinosa (C. spinosa) root barks. Bio-inspired synthesized SnO2 NPs were monitored by analytical characterization which inferred that SnO2 NPs resulted in shape of spherical, with size average of 47±2nm. Further bio-green synthesized SnO2 NPs were subjected to degrade toxic Congo red dye, which results in higher percentage of degradation with the K value of 0.9212 which obeys pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. This report said to be novel due to null report on SnO2 NPs synthesized from C. spinosa root bark aqueous extract which also stated to be simplest, cheaper and non-toxic while compare to other methods. Further to identify the metabolites which is present in the aqueous extract were identified through Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry with methanol as a solvent results that 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one contains higher area percentage of 67.47 with the retention time (RT) of 18.660. PMID:27450298

  4. Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

    2012-07-01

    Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L⁻¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  7. Aerobic degradation of a mixture of azo dyes in a packed bed reactor having bacteria-coated laterite pebbles.

    PubMed

    Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Abraham, T Emilia

    2003-01-01

    A microbial consortium capable of aerobic degradation of a mixture of azo dyes consisting of two isolated strains (RRL,TVM) and one known strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 1194) was immobilized on laterite stones. The amount of bacterial biomass attached to the laterite stones was 8.64 g per 100 g of the stone on a dry weight basis. The packed bed reactor was filled with these stones and had a total capacity of 850 mL and a void volume of 210 mL. The feed consisted of an equal mixture of seven azo dyes both in water as well as in a simulated textile effluent, at a pH of 9.0 and a salinity of 900 mg/L. The dye concentrations of influent were 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL. The residence time was varied between 0.78 and 6.23 h. It was found that at the lowest residence time 23.55, 45.73, and 79.95 microg of dye was degraded per hour at an initial dye concentration of 25, 50, and 100 microg, respectively. The pH was reduced from 9.0 to 7.0. Simulated textile effluent containing 50 microg/mL dye was degraded by 61.7%. Analysis of degradation products by TLC and HPLC showed that the dye mixture was degraded to nontoxic smaller molecules. The bacteria-coated pebbles were stable, there was no washout even after 2 months, and the reactor was found to be suitable for the aerobic degradation of azo dyes. PMID:12675610

  8. Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h. PMID:12396133

  9. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  10. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  11. Dye laser in ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, K S; Wei, Y H; Zhang, M H; Shi, X H; Shi, H Y

    1982-01-01

    From September 1978 to May 1980, dye lasers have been used in the treatment of 56 cases of eye disease (60 eyes), including among others peripheral retinal breaks, macular breaks, prebreak stage degeneration, congenital iris residual membrane, incomplete surgical iridectomy, secondary glaucoma iris bombé, closed-angle glaucoma, vireous hemorrhage, periphlebitis retinae, Coats disease, thrombosis of central and branch retinal vein. Most of the results are satisfactory. Dye laser irradiation has the advantage in iridotomy. Only one pulse can perforate the iris and no serious complication has been encountered. There is a definite therapeutic effect in treatment of vitreous hemorrhage by dye laser. PMID:7109813

  12. Super vasomol hair dye poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen A S; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T K

    2012-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management. PMID:22736909

  13. Effects of complex effluents from the River Raisin on zooplankton grazing in Lake Erie

    SciTech Connect

    McNaught, D.C.; Bridgham, S.D.; Meadows, C.

    1988-01-01

    Functional ecosystem tests should reflect the hazards of toxic chemicals, as well as stimulation by nutrients, by measuring a single flux of phytoplankton to the dominant members of the community. The flux of phytoplankton and detritus to zooplankton is reflected by the filtering rates of individual organisms, expressed as millilitres per animal per hour. The authors used common particle counting techniques to measure such fluxes in the waters of Lake Erie. They then examined the impact of complex effluents on the filtering rates. These effluent effects are scored as inhibition or stimulation of filtering by the dominant herbivores in the Lake Erie ecosystem. In the River Raisin, a tributary to Lake Erie, specific effluents usually inhibited grazing by the herbivores Daphnia. Diaptomus, and Cyclops, although one effluent was stimulatory. These results were directionally consistent and probably depended on the characteristics (especially the concentrations of metals) of the effluents.

  14. A novel ammonia-assisted method for the direct synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature and their catalytic activity during the rapid degradation of azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansournia, Mohammadreza; Azizi, Fatemeh; Rakhshan, Narges

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we prepared trimanganese tetroxide nanoparticles from MnCl2 solution in an ammonia atmosphere using a new surfactant-free method at room temperature. We analyzed and characterized the effects of different processing conditions, such as the concentrations of manganese and the ammonia source, as well as the reaction time, on the structure, purity, and morphology of the products using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The XRD and FTIR analyses confirmed that the prepared products comprised single phase Mn3O4. At room temperature, the paramagnetic characteristics were also verified by vibrating sample magnetometry. Furthermore, we tested the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles during the degradation of methyl orange and Congo red, which are organic pollutants. Our experiments demonstrated the rapid color removal and reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (>70% and >50% within 10 min, respectively) using aqueous solutions of azo dyes.

  15. Bichromatic emission in a ring dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Sohrab Afzal, R.; Rabinovich, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study of a high-Q Rhodamine 6G ring dye laser has been performed, and bichromatic emission (BE) with wavelength spacings as large as 110 A when the laser operated bidirectionally has been measured. The BE vanished at all excitations when the laser was forced into unidirectional operation using a Faraday isolator. However, when a weak reflected beam was allowed to make a single pass in the direction opposite to that allowed by the Faraday device, BE is recovered at the higher pump powers.

  16. The sublethal effects of petroleum refinery effluents: Mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Parrott, J.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S.

    1995-12-31

    Canada uses a single biological parameter which is based on the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to survive a 24 hour exposure to assess and regulate the toxicity of refinery effluents. The acute toxicity of Canadian refinery effluents is generally well controlled. Long term exposures to sublethal toxicants, which are not covered by the current regulations, could have adverse ecological effects. Since PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, can occur in refinery effluents, the authors tested the hypothesis that refinery effluents can induce mixed-function oxygenase measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) activity in fish. Two end of pipe effluent samples were collected from each of four Ontario refineries. All effluents induced EROD activity in young trout in a dose dependent manner. The EROD parameter has potential as a bioindicator of exposure to refinery effluents. The samples were also tested for toxicity to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and to a fish cell line (Ictalurus nebulosus). Fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by six out of eight samples, and larval survival was affected by one sample. The in vitro data were less consistent: weak toxicity was detected in some samples but the dose response relationship was poor. Direct acting mutagens were detected in two effluents using the Ames Fluctuation assay.

  17. Degradation of sulphonated azo dye Red HE7B by Bacillus sp. and elucidation of degradative pathways.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jyoti Kumar; Paul, Sangeeta; Dureja, Prem; Annapurna, K; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Gopal, Madhuban

    2014-08-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading the sulfonated azo dye Red HE7B were isolated from textile mill effluent contaminated soil. The most efficient isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. Azo1 and the isolate could successfully decolorize up to 89% of the dye. The decolorized cultural extract analyzed by HPLC confirmed degradation. Enzymatic analysis showed twofold and fourfold increase in the activity of azoreductase and laccase enzymes, respectively, indicating involvement of both reductive and oxidative enzymes in biodegradation of Red HE7B. Degraded products which were identified by GC/MS analysis included various metabolites like 8-nitroso 1-naphthol, 2-diazonium naphthalene. Mono azo dye intermediate was initially generated from the parent molecule. This mono azo dye was further degraded by the organism, into additional products, depending on the site of cleavage of R-N=N-R molecule. Based on the degradation products identified, three different pathways have been proposed. The mechanism of degradation in two of these pathways is different from that of the previously reported pathway for azo dye degradation. This is the first report of a microbial isolate following multiple pathways for azo dye degradation. Azo dye Red HE7B was observed to be phytotoxic, leading to decrease in root development, shoot length and seedling fresh weight. However, after biotreatment the resulting degradation products were non-phytotoxic. PMID:24682261

  18. Response surface-optimized removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from its aqueous solutions using polyethyleneimine enhanced ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, J; Singh, M; Sikder, J; Padarthi, V; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S

    2015-11-01

    Retention of toxic dyes with molecular weights lower than the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the ultrafiltration membranes can be improved through selective binding of the target dyes to a water-soluble polymer, followed by ultrafiltration of the macromolecular complexes formed. This method, often referred to as polymer enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF), was investigated in the present study, using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the chelating agent. Model azo dye Reactive Red 120 was selected as the poorly biodegradable, target contaminant, because of its frequent recalcitrant presence in colored effluents, and its eventual ecotoxicological impacts on the environment. The effects of the governing process factors, namely, cross flow rate, transmembrane pressure polymer to dye ratio and pH, on target dye rejection efficiency were meticulously examined. Additionally, each parameter level was statistically optimized using central composite design (CCD) from the response surface methodology (RSM) toolkit, with an objective to maximize performance efficiency. The results revealed high dye retention efficiency over 99%, accompanied with reasonable permeate flux over 100L/m(2)h under optimal process conditions. The estimated results were elucidated graphically through response surface (RS) plots and validated experimentally. The analyses clearly established PEUF as a novel, reasonably efficient and economical route for recalcitrant dye treatment. PMID:25575914

  19. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  20. Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in Bioreactor Effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowe, Candice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine microbial communities of simulated wastewater effluent from hollow fiber membrane bioreactors collected from the Space Life Science Laboratory and Texas Technical University. Microbes were characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction where a total count of bacteria and fungi were determined. The primers that were used to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi were targeted for 16S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye and a melting curve analysis was performed to identify unique melt profiles resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the community. Results from both the total bacteria and total fungi count assays showed that distinct populations were present in isolates from these bioreactors. This was exhibited by variation in the number of peaks observed on the melting curve analysis graph. Further analysis of these results using species-specific primers will shed light on exactly which microbes are present in these effluents. Information gained from this study will enable the design of a system that can efficiently monitor microbes that play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in wastewater on the International Space Station to assist in the design of a sustainable system capable of converting this nutrient.

  1. Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

    2013-12-01

    The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils. PMID:23999142

  2. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  3. Dye lasing arrangement including an optical assembly for altering the cross-section of its pumping beam and method

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Sweatt, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An optical assembly is disclosed herein along with a method of operation for use in a dye lasing arrangement, for example a dye laser oscillator or a dye amplifier, in which a continuous stream of dye is caused to flow through a given zone in a cooperating dye chamber while the zone is being illuminated by light from a pumping beam which is directed into the given zone. This in turn causes the dye therein to lase and thereby produce a new dye beam in the case of a dye laser oscillator or amplify a dye beam in the case of a dye amplifier. The optical assembly so disclosed is designed to alter the pump beam such that the beam enters the dye chamber with a different cross-sectional configuration, preferably one having a more uniform intensity profile, than its initially produced cross-sectional configuration. To this end, the assembly includes a network of optical components which first act on the beam while the latter retains its initially produced cross-sectional configuration for separating it into a plurality of predetermined segments and then recombines the separated components in a predetermined way which causes the recombined beam to have the different cross-sectional configuration.

  4. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  5. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  6. 16SrRNA sequencing of Dye decolorizing bacteria isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Avnish; Asthana, Monika; Gupta, Poonam; Yadav, Shweta; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Km Neeraj; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Dye׳s residues in textile effluents are hazardous for humans and animals health. Such pollutants can be degraded into non-harmful molecules using biological approaches that are considered cheaper and ecologically safer. Isolated 15 bacterial cultures from soil that could be used in biological system were showed decolorization capacity for Acid Green dye (33.9% to 94.0%) using thin layer chromatography and broth culture method. The most promising cultures (AMC3) to decolorize Acid green Dye (94.6%) was re-coded as NSDSUAM for submitting at IMTECH, Chandigarh for sequencing. The 16SrRNA sequencing suggested that it can be a variant of Pseudomonas geniculata (99.85% identical similarity) with difference of 2 base pairs to reference strain Pseudomonas geniculata ATCC 19374(T). Thus present study proposed dye decolorizing efficiency of the isolated strain of Pseudomonas geniculata that was previously unnoticed. The sequence is deposited in NCBI GenBank with the accession number KP238100. PMID:25780272

  7. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC. PMID:16084372

  8. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

  9. Molecular design rule of phthalocyanine dyes for highly efficient near-IR performance in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mutsumi; Nomoto, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ikeuchi, Takuro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Takuro N; Furube, Akihiko; Masaki, Naruhiko; Griffith, Matthew J; Mori, Shogo

    2013-06-01

    A series of zinc-phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS16-18) with different adsorption sites have been designed and synthesized in order to investigate the dependence of adsorption-site structures on the solar-cell performances in zinc-phthalocyanine based dye-sensitized solar cells. The change of adsorption site affected the electron injection efficiency from the photoexcited dye into the nanocrystalline TiO2 semiconductor, as monitored by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The zinc-phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS18, possessing one carboxylic acid directly attached to the ZnPc ring and six 2,6-diisopropylphenoxy units, showed a record power conversion efficiency value of 5.9 % when used as a light-harvesting dye on a TiO2 electrode under one simulated solar condition. PMID:23576330

  10. Color, organic matter and sulfate removal from textile effluents by anaerobic and aerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, F M; Kato, M T; Florêncio, L; Gavazza, S

    2014-07-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-submerged aerated biofilter (SAB) system was evaluated to remove color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from real textile effluent. The system was operated for 335 days in three phases (P-1, P-2, P-3) with total hydraulic retention time varying from 21 h to 14 h. The results showed that high sulfate levels (>300 mg SO4(2-)/L) impaired the dye reduction. The best color removal efficiencies of 30% and 96% for the UASB and the reactor system, respectively, were obtained in P-1; the SAB higher efficiency was associated with adsorption. The best COD removal efficiency of 71% for the reactor system was obtained in P-2. Precipitation of some material composed mostly of sulfur (98%) and some metals occurred in the UASB. However, the precipitated sulfur was again oxidized in the SAB. The system also showed an effective toxicity reduction in tests (Daphnia magna) with the treated effluent. PMID:24813565

  11. Chitosan beads immobilized manganese peroxidase catalytic potential for detoxification and decolorization of textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-08-01

    Textile industry has led to severe environmental pollution and is posing a serious threat to the ecosystems. Immobilized biocatalysts have gained importance as potential bio-remediating agent. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was immobilized onto glutaraldehyde activated chitosan beads by crosslinking and employed for the degradation and detoxification of dyes in textile effluents. The efficiency of chitosan-immobilized MnP (CI-MnP) was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, water quality improvement and toxicity reduction. Maximum color removal of 97.31% was recorded and up to 82.40%, 78.30% and 91.7% reductions in COD, TOC, and BOD were achieved, respectively. The cytotoxicity of bio-treated effluents reduced significantly and 38.46%, 43.47% and 41.83% Allium cepa root length, root count and mitotic index were increased, respectively, whereas brine shrimp nauplii death reduced up to 63.64%. Mutagenicity (Ames test) reduced up to 73.44% and 75.43% for TA98 and TA100 strains, respectively. The CI-MnP retained 60% activity after 10 repeated decolorization batches. The CI-MnP showed excellent efficiency for the bioremediation of textile effluents and can be used for the remediation of toxic agents in wastewater. The monitoring of processed wastewater using bioassays is suggested to evaluate bio-efficiency of treatment method for safe disposal of effluents into water bodies. PMID:27130652

  12. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  13. Integration of photocatalysis and biological treatment for azo dye removal--application to AR183.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Derradji; Fourcade, Florence; Brosillon, Stephan; Nacef, Saci; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2011-04-01

    The feasibility of coupling photocatalysis with biological treatment to treat effluents containing azo dyes was examined in this work. With this aim, the degradation of Acid Red 183 was investigated. The very low biodegradability of AR183 was confirmed beforehand by measuring the biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Photocatalysis experiments were carried out in a closed-loop step photoreactor. The reactor walls were covered by TiO2 catalyst coated on non-woven paper, and the effluent flowed over the photocatalyst as a thin falling film. The removal of the dye was 82.7% after 4 h, and a quasi-complete decolorization (98.5%) was obtained for 10 h of irradiation (initial concentration 100 mg L(-1)). The decrease in concentration followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, with a constant k of 0.47 h(-1). Mineralization and oxidation yields were 80% and 75%, respectively, after 10 h of pretreatment. Therefore, even if target compound oxidation occurs (COD removal), indicating a modification to the chemical structure, the concomitant high mineralization was not in favour of subsequent microbial growth. The BOD5 measurement confirmed the non-biodegradability of the irradiated solution, which remained toxic since the EC50 decreased from 35 to 3 mg L(-1). The proposed integrated process appeared, therefore, to be not relevant for the treatment of AR183. However, this result should be confirmed for other azo dyes. PMID:21877531

  14. The stability of textile azo dyes in soil and their impact on microbial phospholipid fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Shaharoona, Baby; Crowley, David E; Khalid, Azeem; Hussain, Sabir; Arshad, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the stability of structurally different azo dyes in soil and their impact on the microbial community composition by analyzing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Sterile and non-sterile soils were amended with three azo dyes, including: Direct Red 81, Reactive Black 5 and Acid Yellow 19 at 160mgkg(-1) soil. The results showed that the azo dyes were quite stable and that large amounts of these dyes ranging from 17.3% to 87.5% were recoverable from the sterile and non-sterile soils after 14 days. The maximum amount of dye was recovered in the case of Direct Red 81. PLFA analysis showed that the azo dyes had a significant effect on microbial community structure. PLFA concentrations representing Gram-negative bacteria in dye-amended soil were substantially less as compared to the PLFA concentration of Gram-positive bacteria. Acid Yellow 19 dye had almost similar effects on the PLFA concentrations representing bacteria and fungi. In contrast, Reactive Black 5 had a greater negative effect on fungal PLFA than that on bacterial PLFA, while the opposite was observed in the case of Direct Red 81. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the stability of textile azo dyes in soil and their effects on soil microbial community composition. PMID:26074308

  15. Conformation of nanoconfined DNA as a function of ATP, AMP, CTP, Mg2+, and dye binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    DNA molecules stretch in nanochannels with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, thereby allowing analysis by observation of a fluorescent dye. The length and configuration of DNA can be directly observed, and the effect of different DNA-binding proteins on DNA configuration can be studied. Recently, we reported on the ability of T4 ligase to transiently manipulate DNA as a function of ATP and magnesium exposure. In this process we have extensively probed the interactions of dyes and enzyme co-factors with DNA under nanoconfinement. We find negligible effects if DNA is visualized using groove-binding dyes such as DAPI. However, if an intercalating dye (YOYO-1) is used, we find a significant shortening of the DNA in the presence of ATP that we attribute to an interaction of dye and ATP (as well as AMP and CTP). We did not record a noticeable effect due to Mg2+.

  16. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

  18. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  19. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  20. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  1. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  2. Investigating the relationship between toxicity and organic sum-parameters in kraft mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Raptis, Catherine E; Juraske, Ronnie; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Elaborate toxicity diagnostics, such as toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effects-directed analysis (EDA) have helped in identifying the causative agents of effluent wastewater toxicity. However, simpler means of relating ecotoxicological effects to effluent composition could be useful for effluent management practices when there is no scope for more complex procedures. The aim of this work was to investigate and isolate the relationship between biological responses and commonly measured organic sum-parameters, such as chemical- and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD, respectively) in kraft mill effluents. In a top-down approach, the whole effluent toxicity (WET) of effluent samples was first determined from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays. The theoretical toxicity that could be attributed to the metal content was then estimated, via a combination of equilibrium chemical speciation- and metal toxicity modelling. By assuming concentration addition, the metal toxicity was subtracted from the WET, isolating the toxicity thought to be caused by the organics. Strong and significant correlations between the 'corrected' toxicity and organic sum-parameters were found for both species. The growth of P. subcapitata was negatively associated with increasing COD concentrations, whereas reproduction of C. dubia was negatively associated with increasing BOD concentrations. The linear relationships, along with robust estimations of their uncertainty bounds, can provide valuable, albeit rough, guidance for kraft mill effluent management practices. PMID:25213683

  3. Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wuzhou; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-02-01

    We presented a tunable optofluidic dye laser with integrated elastomeric air-gap etalon controlled by air pressure. The chip was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via replica molding. It comprises a liquid waveguide and microscale air-gap mirrors providing the feedback. The lasing wavelength is chosen by the interference between two parallel PDMS-air interfaces inside the internal tunable air-gap etalon, of which pneumatic tuning can be realized by inflating the air-gap etalon with compressed air. This dye laser exhibits a pumping threshold of 1.6 μJ/pulse, a lasing linewidth of 3 nm, and a tuning range of 14 nm.

  4. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye in water solutions in the presence of MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Da Dalt, S.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► MWCNTs/TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained to degrade organic dyes in water. ► MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites were analyzed by photocatalysis and structural characterization. ► The photocatalytic shows efficient method for the degradation of dyes from aqueous effluents. - Abstract: The textile and dyestuff industries are the primary sources of the release of synthetic dyes into the environment and usually there are major pollutants in dye wastewaters. Because of their toxicity and slow degradation, these dyes are categorized as environmentally hazardous materials. In this context, carbon nanotubes/TiO{sub 2} (CNTs/TiO{sub 2}) composites were prepared using multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), titanium (IV) propoxide and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25{sup ®}) as titanium oxide sources, to degrade the methyl orange dye in solution through photocatalyst activity using UV irradiation. The composites were prepared by solution processing followed by thermal treatment at 400, 500 and 600 °C. The heterojunction between nanotubes and TiO{sub 2} was confirmed by XRD, specific surface area. The coating morphology was observed with SEM and TEM.

  6. Design and characterisation of bodipy sensitizers for dye-sensitized NiO solar cells.

    PubMed

    Summers, Gareth H; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Black, Fiona A; Davies, E Stephen; Gibson, Elizabeth A; Pullerits, Tönu; Wood, Christopher J; Zidek, Karel

    2016-01-14

    A series of photosensitizers for NiO-based dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. Three model compounds containing a triphenylamine donor appended to a boron dipyrromethene (bodipy) chromophore have been successfully prepared and characterised using emission spectroscopy, electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry, to ultimately direct the design of dyes with more complex structures. Carboxylic acid anchoring groups and thiophene spacers were appended to the model compounds to provide five dyes which were adsorbed onto NiO and integrated into dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar cells incorporating the simple Bodipy-CO₂H dye were surprisingly promising relative to the more complex dye 4. Cell performances were improved with dyes which had increased electronic communication between the donor and acceptor, achieved by incorporating a less hindered bodipy moiety. Further increases in performances were obtained from dyes which contained a thiophene spacer. Thus, the best performance was obtained for 7 which generated a very promising photocurrent density of 5.87 mA cm(-2) and an IPCE of 53%. Spectroelectrochemistry combined with time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the identity and lifetime of excited state species. Short-lived (ps) transients were recorded for 4, 5 and 7 which are consistent with previous studies. Despite a longer lived (25 ns) charge-separated state for 6/NiO, there was no increase in the photocurrent generated by the corresponding solar cell. PMID:26660278

  7. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  8. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  9. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  10. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  11. Hair dye toxicity--a review.

    PubMed

    Marzulli, F N; Green, S; Maibach, H I

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews local and systemic effects which relate to hair dye formulation and hair dye ingredient tests and experiences in man and animals. Mutagenic and carcinogenic aspects are discussed. In a very limited way, safety and hazards of using hair dyes are interpreted for consumers. PMID:363966

  12. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  13. PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

  14. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES...

  15. Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Ee Sin, Andeline Lim; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

    2015-01-01

    Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70 ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70 ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001 M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150 ml/min and 0.2 M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition. PMID:25514128

  16. Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Law, Matt; Greene, Lori E; Johnson, Justin C; Saykally, Richard; Yang, Peidong

    2005-06-01

    Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport, a slow mechanism that can limit device efficiency, especially at longer wavelengths. Here we introduce a version of the dye-sensitized cell in which the traditional nanoparticle film is replaced by a dense array of oriented, crystalline ZnO nanowires. The nanowire anode is synthesized by mild aqueous chemistry and features a surface area up to one-fifth as large as a nanoparticle cell. The direct electrical pathways provided by the nanowires ensure the rapid collection of carriers generated throughout the device, and a full Sun efficiency of 1.5% is demonstrated, limited primarily by the surface area of the nanowire array. PMID:15895100

  17. nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO3) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency ( η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively.

  18. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Rashid; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  19. Enhancing the decolorizing and degradation ability of bacterial consortium isolated from textile effluent affected area and its application on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Rashid; Sharif, Faiza; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  20. Dyeing mechanism and optimization of polyamide 6,6 functionalized with double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fernando Ribeiro; Zille, Andrea; Souto, Antonio Pedro

    2014-02-01

    The physico-chemical improvements occasioned by DBD plasma discharge in dyeing process of polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fibers were investigated. The SEM, fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, surface energy, FTIR, XPS and pH of aqueous extracts confirm the high polar functionalization of PA66 fibers due to plasma incorporation of oxygen atoms from atmospheric air. DBD plasma-generated reactive species preferentially break the CN bonds, and not the aliphatic C-C chain of PA66. Formation of low-molecular weight acidic molecules that act as dye "carrier" and creation of micro-channels onto PA66 surface seems to favor dye diffusion into the fiber cores. Plasma treatment allows high level of direct dye diffusion and fixation in PA66 fibers at lower temperatures and shorter dyeing times than traditional dyeing methods.

  1. Highly Fluorescent dye-nanoclay Hybrid Materials Made from Different Dye Classes.

    PubMed

    Grabolle, Markus; Starke, Marian; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2016-04-12

    Nanoclays like laponites, which are commercially avaible in large quantities for a very moderate price, provide a facile solubilization strategy for hydrophobic dyes without the need for chemical functionalization and can act as a carrier for a high number of dye molecules. This does not require reactive dyes, amplifies fluorescence signals from individual emitters due to the high number of dyes molecules per laponite disk, and renders hydrophobic emitters applicable in aqueous environments. Aiming at the rational design of bright dye-loaded nanoclays as a new class of fluorescent reporters for bioanalysis and material sciences and the identification of dye structure-property relationships, we screened a series of commercial fluorescent dyes, differing in dye class, charge, and character of the optical transitions involved, and studied the changes of their optical properties caused by clay adsorption at different dye loading concentrations. Upon the basis of our dye loading density-dependent absorption and fluorescence measurements with S2105 and Lumogen F Yellow 083, we could identify two promising dye-nanoclay hybrid materials that reveal high fluorescence quantum yields of the nanoclay-adsorbed dyes of at least 0.20 and low dye self-quenching even at high dye-loading densities of up to 50 dye molecules per laponite platelet. PMID:27007448

  2. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  3. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  4. The use of a natural coagulant (Opuntia ficus-indica) in the removal for organic materials of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Ambrosio, Elizangela; de Almeida, Cibele Andrade; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoli; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Garcia, Juliana Carla

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the activity of the coagulant extracted from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) in the process of coagulation/flocculation of textile effluents. Preliminary tests of a kaolinite suspension achieved maximum turbidity removal of 95 % using an NaCl extraction solution. Optimization assays were conducted with actual effluents using the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken experimental design. The responses of the variables FeCl3, dosage, cactus dosage, and pH in the removal of COD and turbidity from both effluents were investigated. The optimum conditions determined for jeans washing laundry effluent were the following: FeCl3 160 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 2.60 mg L(-1), and pH 5.0. For the fabric dyeing effluent, the optimum conditions were the following: FeCl3 640 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 160 mg L(-1), and pH 6.0. Investigation of the effects of the storage time and temperature of the cactus O. ficus-indica showed that coagulation efficiency was not significantly affected for storage at room temperature for up to 4 days. PMID:24788840

  5. Toxicity assessment from electro-coagulation treated-textile dye wastewaters by bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palácio, Soraya M; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Borba, Fernando H; Silva, Fernando G

    2009-12-15

    In this study the pollutant removal from a textile dyeing wastewater has been investigated by using the electro-coagulation technique with iron electrodes. In order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables, a 3(3) full factorial experimental design was applied. The electro-coagulation (EC) process response was evaluated on the basis of COD removal and decolourization values. The electrolysis time and density current were statistically significant for the COD removal and decolourization. Based on the lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the lowest toxicity level was achieved in 5 min of electrolysis time. Due to the remaining high toxicity level above 30 min of electrolysis time, the EC process is not adequate to be used in a single effluent treatment, suggesting that this electrochemical process of up to 5 min could be used as part of a complete effluent treatment system. PMID:19640647

  6. Field assessments in conjunction with whole effluent toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    La Point, T.W.; Waller, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are widely used to assess potential effects of wastewater discharges on aquatic life. This paper represents a summary of chapters in a 1996 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry-sponsored workshop and a literature review concerning linkages between WET testing and associated field biomonitoring. Most published studies thus far focus primarily on benthic macroinvertebrates and on effluent-dominated stream systems in which effluents demonstrate little or no significant acute toxicity. Fewer studies examine WET test predictability in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetlands, estuaries, large rivers) or deal with instream biota such as fish and primary producers. Published results indicate that standards for the usual WET freshwater test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, may not always protect most of the species inhabiting a receiving stream. Although WET tests are useful in predicting aquatic individual responses, they are not meant to directly measure natural population or community responses. Further, they do not address bioconcentration or bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds; do not assess eutrophication effects in receiving systems; and lastly, do not reflect genotoxic effects or function to test for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Consequently, a more direct evaluation of ecosystem health, using bioassessment techniques, may be needed to properly evaluate aquatic systems affected by wastewater discharges.

  7. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  8. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  9. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    PubMed

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. PMID:15488936

  10. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process. PMID:24910184

  11. Outfall siting with dye-buoy remote sensing of coastal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Welch, C. S.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A dye-buoy remote sensing technique has been applied to estuarine siting problems that involve fine-scale circulation. Small hard cakes of sodium fluorescein and polyvinyl alcohol, in anchored buoys and low-windage current followers, dissolve to produce dye marks resolvable in 1:60,000 scale color and color infrared imagery. Lagrangian current vectors are determined from sequential photo coverage. Careful buoy placement reveals surface currents and submergence near fronts and convergence zones. The technique has been used in siting two sewage outfalls in Hampton Roads, Virginia: In case one, the outfall region during flood tide gathered floating materials in a convergence zone, which then acted as a secondary source during ebb; for better dispersion during ebb, the proposed outfall site was moved further offshore. In case two, flow during late flood was found to divide, with one half passing over shellfish beds; the proposed outfall site was consequently moved to keep effluent in the other half.

  12. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    PubMed

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. PMID:20452721

  13. Light-harvesting effect in photoelectric conversion with dye multilayers on a semiconductor electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Kawasaki, M.; Kasatani, K.; Higuchi Y.; Azuma, T.; Nishiyama, Y.

    1988-02-11

    A light-harvesting effect in the sensitized photocurrent of dye-containing multilayers on an Sb-doped SnO/sub 2/ optically transparent semiconductor electrode was studied. 2,8-Bis(dimethylamino)-10-dodecylacridinium bromide (BDA) was included as an antenna dye in the outer monolayer separated from the semiconductor surface with fatty acid monolayer(s), and dioctadecylthiacarbocyanine iodide (DTC) as a reaction center dye was incorporated in the monolayer in direct contact with the semiconductor. A remarkable enhancement of the photocurrent was observed as a result of efficient energy transfer from BDA to DTC.

  14. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation...

  15. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation...

  16. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation...

  17. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation...

  18. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. pH-Insensitive FRET voltage dyes.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael P; Wu, Nyan-Tsz; Ao, Hong

    2007-08-01

    Many high-throughput ion channel assays require the use of voltage-sensitive dyes to detect channel activity in the presence of test compounds. Dye systems employing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 2 membrane-bound dyes are advantageous in combining high sensitivity, relatively fast response, and ratiometric output. The most widely used FRET voltage dye system employs a coumarin fluorescence donor whose excitation spectrum is pH dependent. The authors have validated a new class of voltage-sensitive FRET donors based on a pyrene moiety. These dyes are significantly brighter than CC2-DMPE and are not pH sensitive in the physiological range. With the new dye system, the authors demonstrate a new high-throughput assay for the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family. They also introduce a novel method for absolute calibration of voltage-sensitive dyes, simultaneously determining the resting membrane potential of a cell. PMID:17517905

  1. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  3. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF KRAFT BLEACHING EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of color and organic contaminants by adsorption on activated carbon from the effluent of a kraft pulp bleaching plant was investigated in a pilot plant. The caustic bleach effluent, which contains 80% of the color from pulp bleaching, was decolorized successfully when...

  4. Aquatic toxicity of dyes before and after photo-Fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    de Luna, Luis A V; da Silva, Thiago H G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Kummrow, Fábio; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2014-07-15

    This study evaluated the ecotoxicity of five dyes to freshwater organisms before and during their photo-Fenton degradation. EC50 (48h) of the five tested dyes ranged from of 6.9 to >1000mgL(-1) for Daphnia similis. In the chronic tests IC50 (72h) varied from 65 to >100mgL(-1) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and IC50 (8 days) from 0.5 to 410mgL(-1) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests revealed that although the applied treatment was effective for decolorization of the dye, the partial mineralization may be responsible for the presence of degradation products which can be either more toxic than the original dye, as is the case of Vat Green 3 and Reactive Black 5, lead to initially toxic products which may be further degraded to non toxic products (acid Orange 7 and Food Red 17), or generate non toxic products as in the case of Food Yellow 3. The results highlighted the importance of assessing both acute and chronic toxicity tests of treated sample before effluent discharge. PMID:24910910

  5. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phaerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Spadaro, J.T.; Gold, M.H.; Renganathan, V. )

    1992-08-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rat basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically [sup 14]C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4[prime]-acetamidophenylaso)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4[prime]-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] 2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil.

  6. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, J T; Gold, M H; Renganathan, V

    1992-08-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically 14C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4'-acetamidophenylazo)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4'-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-14C]phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-14C]2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil. PMID:1514787

  7. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Spadaro, J T; Gold, M H; Renganathan, V

    1992-01-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically 14C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4'-acetamidophenylazo)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4'-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-14C]phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-14C]2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil. PMID:1514787

  8. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  9. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  10. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  11. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  12. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  13. 40 CFR 426.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 426.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  15. 40 CFR 426.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 426.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 426.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  18. 40 CFR 426.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 426.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  1. 40 CFR 426.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  2. 40 CFR 426.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  3. 40 CFR 426.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  4. 40 CFR 426.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  6. 40 CFR 426.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  7. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  8. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  9. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  10. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  11. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  12. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  13. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  15. 40 CFR 426.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 426.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  17. 40 CFR 426.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  18. 40 CFR 426.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  20. 40 CFR 426.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  1. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  2. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  3. 40 CFR 426.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  4. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 426.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  6. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  7. 40 CFR 426.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  8. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  9. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  10. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  12. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  13. 40 CFR 426.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  14. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  15. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 426.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  18. 40 CFR 426.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  20. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  1. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  2. 40 CFR 426.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  3. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  4. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  6. 40 CFR 426.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  7. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  8. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  9. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  10. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 426.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  12. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  13. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  15. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  16. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  17. 40 CFR 458.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Channel Process Subcategory § 458.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  18. 40 CFR 458.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 458.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 458.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Thermal Process Subcategory § 458.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...