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Sample records for direct imaging di

  1. Direct imaging of exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, Anne-Marie

    2014-04-28

    Most of the exoplanets known today have been discovered by indirect techniques, based on the study of the host star radial velocity or photometric temporal variations. These detections allowed the study of the planet populations in the first 5-8 AU from the central stars and have provided precious information on the way planets form and evolve at such separations. Direct imaging on 8-10 m class telescopes allows the detection of giant planets at larger separations (currently typically more than 5-10 AU) complementing the indirect techniques. So far, only a few planets have been imaged around young stars, but each of them provides an opportunity for unique dedicated studies of their orbital, physical and atmospheric properties and sometimes also on the interaction with the 'second-generation', debris discs. These few detections already challenge formation theories. In this paper, I present the results of direct imaging surveys obtained so far, and what they already tell us about giant planet (GP) formation and evolution. Individual and emblematic cases are detailed; they illustrate what future instruments will routinely deliver for a much larger number of stars. I also point out the limitations of this approach, as well as the needs for further work in terms of planet formation modelling. I finally present the progress expected in direct imaging in the near future, thanks in particular to forthcoming planet imagers on 8-10 m class telescopes. PMID:24664924

  2. Direct Imaging of Faint Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, Riccardo

    The exoplanets around stars in the solar neighborhood are expected to be bright enough for us to characterize them with direct imaging; however, they are much fainter than their parent stars, and separated by very small angles, so conventional imaging techniques are totally inadequate, and new methods are needed. The direct imaging of exoplanets is extremely challenging. Jupiter is 109 times fainter than our Sun in reflected visible light. A direct imaging instrument for exoplanets must suppress (1) the bright star image and diffraction pattern and (2) the stellar scattered light from imperfections in the telescope. The main goal of high-contrast imaging is primarily to discover and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. High-contrast observations, in optical and infrared astronomy, are defined as any observation requiring a technique to reveal a low mass companion that is so close to the primary, brighter by a factor of at least 105, that optical effects hinder or prevent the collection of photons directly from the target of observation. To overcome this, astronomers combined large telescopes (to reduce the impact of diffraction), adaptive optics (to correct for phase errors induced by atmospheric turbulence), and sophisticated image processing.

  3. Doppler images of DI Piscium during 2004-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindborg, M.; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M. J.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: DI Psc (HD 217352) is a Li-rich, rapidly rotating single K giant. We set out to study the spot configuration and activity level by calculating surface temperature maps of the star. Methods: We apply the Doppler imaging method on high-resolution optical spectroscopy obtained during 2004-2006. Results: In July-August 2004, no clear spot structures were visible, but the spot coverage increased in July 2005, and cool spots emerged, especially at intermediate latitudes. Later on in September 2006, the spot coverage increased and cool spots were visible on both sides of the equator. However, the map of 2006 suffers from bad phase coverage, meaning it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the spot locations during that season. Conclusions: Compared with earlier Doppler maps of DI Psc and temperature maps obtained for other late-type stars with similar rotation rates, DI Psc seems to be in a low activity state especially during the observing season of July-August 2004. During the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons, the spot activity seen in the spectral line profiles and inferred from Doppler images increases, and the temperature contrast in our last map is more comparable to what was reported in an earlier study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the spot activity level of the star is variable over time. However, the present and previous Doppler images form too short a time series to draw conclusions about a possible activity cycle in DI Psc. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  4. MAPPING DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Veselin; Apai, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing number of directly imaged giant exoplanets, the current atmosphere models are often not capable of fully explaining the spectra and luminosity of the sources. A particularly challenging component of the atmosphere models is the formation and properties of condensate cloud layers, which fundamentally impact the energetics, opacity, and evolution of the planets. Here we present a suite of techniques that can be used to estimate the level of rotational modulations these planets may show. We propose that the time-resolved observations of such periodic photometric and spectroscopic variations of extrasolar planets due to their rotation can be used as a powerful tool to probe the heterogeneity of their optical surfaces. In this paper, we develop simulations to explore the capabilities of current and next-generation ground- and space-based instruments for this technique. We address and discuss the following questions: (1) what planet properties can be deduced from the light curve and/or spectra, and in particular can we determine rotation periods, spot coverage, spot colors, and spot spectra?; (2) what is the optimal configuration of instrument/wavelength/temporal sampling required for these measurements?; and (3) can principal component analysis be used to invert the light curve and deduce the surface map of the planet? Our simulations describe the expected spectral differences between homogeneous (clear or cloudy) and patchy atmospheres, outline the significance of the dominant absorption features of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, and provide a method to distinguish these two types of atmospheres. Assuming surfaces with and without clouds for most currently imaged planets the current models predict the largest variations in the J band. Simulated photometry from current and future instruments is used to estimate the level of detectable photometric variations. We conclude that future instruments will be able to recover not only the rotation periods

  5. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-01-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  6. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  7. Circular Data Images for Directional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morpet, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Directional data includes vectors, points on a unit sphere, axis orientation, angular direction, and circular or periodic data. The theoretical statistics for circular data (random points on a unit circle) or spherical data (random points on a unit sphere) are a recent development. An overview of existing graphical methods for the display of directional data is given. Cross-over occurs when periodic data are measured on a scale for the measurement of linear variables. For example, if angle is represented by a linear color gradient changing uniformly from dark blue at -180 degrees to bright red at +180 degrees, the color image will be discontinuous at +180 degrees and -180 degrees, which are the same location. The resultant color would depend on the direction of approach to the cross-over point. A new graphical method for imaging directional data is described, which affords high resolution without color discontinuity from "cross-over". It is called the circular data image. The circular data image uses a circular color scale in which colors repeat periodically. Some examples of the circular data image include direction of earth winds on a global scale, rocket motor internal flow, earth global magnetic field direction, and rocket motor nozzle vector direction vs. time.

  8. The structure of DNA by direct imaging

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Monica; Falqui, Andrea; Moretti, Manola; Limongi, Tania; Allione, Marco; Genovese, Alessandro; Lopatin, Sergei; Tirinato, Luca; Das, Gobind; Torre, Bruno; Giugni, Andrea; Gentile, Francesco; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The structure of DNA was determined in 1953 by x-ray fiber diffraction. Several attempts have been made to obtain a direct image of DNA with alternative techniques. The direct image is intended to allow a quantitative evaluation of all relevant characteristic lengths present in a molecule. A direct image of DNA, which is different from diffraction in the reciprocal space, is difficult to obtain for two main reasons: the intrinsic very low contrast of the elements that form the molecule and the difficulty of preparing the sample while preserving its pristine shape and size. We show that through a preparation procedure compatible with the DNA physiological conditions, a direct image of a single suspended DNA molecule can be obtained. In the image, all relevant lengths of A-form DNA are measurable. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope that operates at 80 keV with an ultimate resolution of 1.5 Å was used for this experiment. Direct imaging of a single molecule can be used as a method to address biological problems that require knowledge at the single-molecule level, given that the average information obtained by x-ray diffraction of crystals or fibers is not sufficient for detailed structure determination, or when crystals cannot be obtained from biological molecules or are not sufficient in understanding multiple protein configurations. PMID:26601243

  9. The structure of DNA by direct imaging.

    PubMed

    Marini, Monica; Falqui, Andrea; Moretti, Manola; Limongi, Tania; Allione, Marco; Genovese, Alessandro; Lopatin, Sergei; Tirinato, Luca; Das, Gobind; Torre, Bruno; Giugni, Andrea; Gentile, Francesco; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2015-08-01

    The structure of DNA was determined in 1953 by x-ray fiber diffraction. Several attempts have been made to obtain a direct image of DNA with alternative techniques. The direct image is intended to allow a quantitative evaluation of all relevant characteristic lengths present in a molecule. A direct image of DNA, which is different from diffraction in the reciprocal space, is difficult to obtain for two main reasons: the intrinsic very low contrast of the elements that form the molecule and the difficulty of preparing the sample while preserving its pristine shape and size. We show that through a preparation procedure compatible with the DNA physiological conditions, a direct image of a single suspended DNA molecule can be obtained. In the image, all relevant lengths of A-form DNA are measurable. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope that operates at 80 keV with an ultimate resolution of 1.5 Å was used for this experiment. Direct imaging of a single molecule can be used as a method to address biological problems that require knowledge at the single-molecule level, given that the average information obtained by x-ray diffraction of crystals or fibers is not sufficient for detailed structure determination, or when crystals cannot be obtained from biological molecules or are not sufficient in understanding multiple protein configurations. PMID:26601243

  10. Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images

    PubMed Central

    Le, Anh Vu; Jung, Seung-Won; Won, Chee Sun

    2014-01-01

    Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries. PMID:24971470

  11. Directional joint bilateral filter for depth images.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh Vu; Jung, Seung-Won; Won, Chee Sun

    2014-01-01

    Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries. PMID:24971470

  12. Direct labeling and visualization of blood vessels with lipophilic carbocyanine dye DiI.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Song, Ying; Zhao, Lian; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Laties, Alan M; Wen, Rong

    2008-01-01

    We describe a protocol to rapidly and reliably visualize blood vessels in experimental animals. Blood vessels are directly labeled by cardiac perfusion using a specially formulated aqueous solution containing 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), a lipophilic carbocyanine dye, which incorporates into endothelial cell membranes upon contact. By lateral diffusion, DiI also stains membrane structures, including angiogenic sprouts and pseudopodial processes that are not in direct contact. Tissues can be immediately examined by conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy. High-quality serial optical sections using confocal microscopy are obtainable from thick tissue sections, especially at low magnification, for three-dimensional reconstruction. It takes less than 1 h to stain the vasculature in a whole animal. Compared with alternative techniques to visualize blood vessels, including space-occupying materials such as India ink or fluorescent dye-conjugated dextran, the corrosion casting technique, endothelial cell-specific markers and lectins, the present method simplifies the visualization of blood vessels and data analysis. PMID:18846097

  13. [Direct and indirect mucosal wave imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska, Paulina; Szkiełkowska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    The vocal folds play a key role in the process of phonation. Cyclical movements of the vocal folds model a space called glottis, what leads to voice formation. The space contains surface between the vocal folds and the inner surface of the arytenoid cartilages. The best indicator of the vocal folds vibratory function is the mucosal wave. The presence and size of the mucosal wave is widely recognized as an indicator of tension and plasticity of vocal folds. It is also essential in the process of creating a proper, resonant voice. In the article, current knowledge of mucosal wave imaging techniques is given. Imaging can be carried out directly and indirectly. Among the direct methods, the following are distinguished: laryngostroboscopy, laryngovideostroboscopy, videokymography and high-speed digital imaging. Indirect methods include: electroglottography, photoglottography and ultrasonography. PMID:27137829

  14. Exoplanet Community Report on Direct Optical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Levine, M.; Exoplanet Forum Direct Optical Imaging Group

    2009-01-01

    Direct Optical Imaging is necessary to characterize exoplanets spectroscopically in most cases (non-transiting planets), and to address the habitability of terrestrial planets around sun like stars. The chapter studies the science objectives, observatory architectures, and needed technology developments as a function of mission scale. Possible architectures can be based on internal coronagraphs or external occulters. The Optical Imaging chapter details the association between Astrometry or RV and imaging in space, expanding on the ExoPTF recommendations for flagship and probe-scale missions. Indirect methods (astrometry or radial velocities) are necessary to obtain a direct measurement of the masses, orbital parameters, and planet "addresses". Careful Design Reference Mission (DRM) development over the next several years will articulate the tradeoffs in cost and performance between imaging missions with and without astrometric precursors. In the short term a probe-scale direct imaging mission can be combined with existing and future Radial Velocities and ground-based Astrometry for the characterization of mature giant planets, Neptunes, and super Earths. A probe scale will also detect and characterize exozodiacal disks, a problem ExoPTF identified as critical for future terrestrial planet imaging missions. This strategy is independent from a space astrometric mission both in terms of scientific goals and timing sequence. The chapter also identifies the critical technologies for the various imaging architectures, for which the maturity is linked to flight requirements ranging from probe-scale to flagship. The chapter provides a brief overview of each technology and its state-of the-art.

  15. Alternating direction method for balanced image restoration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shoulie; Rahardja, Susanto

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for solving a balanced regularization problem in the frame-based image restoration. The balanced regularization is usually formulated as a minimization problem, involving an l(2) data-fidelity term, an l(1) regularizer on sparsity of frame coefficients, and a penalty on distance of sparse frame coefficients to the range of the frame operator. In image restoration, the balanced regularization approach bridges the synthesis-based and analysis-based approaches, and balances the fidelity, sparsity, and smoothness of the solution. Our proposed algorithm for solving the balanced optimal problem is based on a variable splitting strategy and the classical alternating direction method. This paper shows that the proposed algorithm is fast and efficient in solving the standard image restoration with balanced regularization. More precisely, a regularized version of the Hessian matrix of the l(2) data-fidelity term is involved, and by exploiting the related fast tight Parseval frame and the special structures of the observation matrices, the regularized Hessian matrix can perform quite efficiently for the frame-based standard image restoration applications, such as circular deconvolution in image deblurring and missing samples in image inpainting. Numerical simulations illustrate the efficiency of our proposed algorithm in the frame-based image restoration with balanced regularization. PMID:22752137

  16. Vibrio cholerae VpsT Regulates Matrix Production and Motility by Directly Sensing Cyclic di-GMP

    SciTech Connect

    Krasteva, P.; Fong, J; Shikuma, N; Beyhan, S; Navarro, M; Yildiz, F; Sondermann, H

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms can switch from a planktonic, free-swimming life-style to a sessile, colonial state, called a biofilm, which confers resistance to environmental stress. Conversion between the motile and biofilm life-styles has been attributed to increased levels of the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), yet the signaling mechanisms mediating such a global switch are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional regulator VpsT from Vibrio cholerae directly senses c-di-GMP to inversely control extracellular matrix production and motility, which identifies VpsT as a master regulator for biofilm formation. Rather than being regulated by phosphorylation, VpsT undergoes a change in oligomerization on c-di-GMP binding.

  17. Quantum unidirectional rotation directly imaged with molecules

    PubMed Central

    Mizuse, Kenta; Kitano, Kenta; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Ohshima, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A gas-phase molecular ensemble coherently excited to have an oriented rotational angular momentum has recently emerged as an appropriate microscopic system to illustrate quantum mechanical behavior directly linked to classical rotational motion, which has a definite direction. To realize an intuitive visualization of such a unidirectional molecular rotation, we report high-resolution direct imaging of direction-controlled rotational wave packets in nitrogen molecules. The rotational direction was regulated by a pair of time-delayed, polarization-skewed laser pulses, introducing the dynamic chirality to the system. The subsequent spatiotemporal propagation was tracked by a newly developed Coulomb explosion imaging setup. From the observed molecular movie, time-dependent detailed nodal structures, instantaneous alignment, angular dispersion, and fractional revivals of the wave packet are fully characterized while the ensemble keeps rotating in one direction. The present approach, providing an accurate view on unidirectional rotation in quantum regime, will guide more sophisticated molecular manipulations by utilizing its capability in capturing highly structured spatiotemporal evolution of molecular wave packets. PMID:26601205

  18. DIRECTLY IMAGING TIDALLY POWERED MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-01-10

    Upcoming direct-imaging experiments may detect a new class of long-period, highly luminous, tidally powered extrasolar gas giants. Even though they are hosted by {approx} Gyr-'old' main-sequence stars, they can be as 'hot' as young Jupiters at {approx}100 Myr, the prime targets of direct-imaging surveys. They are on years-long orbits and presently migrating to 'feed' the 'hot Jupiters'. They are expected from 'high-e' migration mechanisms, in which Jupiters are excited to highly eccentric orbits and then shrink semimajor axis by a factor of {approx}10-100 due to tidal dissipation at close periastron passages. The dissipated orbital energy is converted to heat, and if it is deposited deep enough into the atmosphere, the planet likely radiates steadily at luminosity L {approx} 100-1000 L{sub Jup}(2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} L{sub Sun }) during a typical {approx} Gyr migration timescale. Their large orbital separations and expected high planet-to-star flux ratios in IR make them potentially accessible to high-contrast imaging instruments on 10 m class telescopes. {approx}10 such planets are expected to exist around FGK dwarfs within {approx}50 pc. Long-period radial velocity planets are viable candidates, and the highly eccentric planet HD 20782b at maximum angular separation {approx}0.''08 is a promising candidate. Directly imaging these tidally powered Jupiters would enable a direct test of high-e migration mechanisms. Once detected, the luminosity would provide a direct measurement of the migration rate, and together with mass (and possibly radius) estimate, they would serve as a laboratory to study planetary spectral formation and tidal physics.

  19. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

  20. Two Mirrors: Infinite Images of DiCaprio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeev, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Movies are mostly viewed for entertainment. Mixing entertainment and physics gets students excited as we look at a famous movie scene from a different point of view. The following is a link to a fragment from the 2010 motion picture "Inception": http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3tBBhYJeAw. The following problem, based on images in facing…

  1. Two Mirrors: Infinite Images of DiCaprio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeev, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    Movies are mostly viewed for entertainment. Mixing entertainment and physics gets students excited as we look at a famous movie scene from a different point of view. The following is a link to a fragment from the 2010 motion picture "Inception": http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3tBBhYJeAw. The following problem, based on images in facing mirrors from that movie, was given to high school students studying geometric objects.

  2. Direct Exoplanet Detection with Binary Differential Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Mamajek, Eric E.; Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie; Hinz, Philip M.; Kaib, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Binaries are typically excluded from direct imaging exoplanet surveys. However, the recent findings of Kepler and radial velocity programs show that planets can and do form in binary systems. Here, we suggest that visual binaries offer unique advantages for direct imaging. We show that Binary Differential Imaging (BDI), whereby two stars are imaged simultaneously at the same wavelength within the isoplanatic patch at a high Strehl ratio, offers improved point spread function (PSF) subtraction that can result in increased sensitivity to planets close to each star. We demonstrate this by observing a young visual binary separated by 4″ with MagAO/Clio-2 at 3.9 μm, where the Strehl ratio is high, the isoplanatic patch is large, and giant planets are bright. Comparing BDI to angular differential imaging (ADI), we find that BDI’s 5σ contrast is ˜0.5 mag better than ADI’s within ˜1″ for the particular binary we observed. Because planets typically reside close to their host stars, BDI is a promising technique for discovering exoplanets in stellar systems that are often ignored. BDI is also 2-4× more efficient than ADI and classical reference PSF subtraction, since planets can be detected around both the target and PSF reference simultaneously. We are currently exploiting this technique in a new MagAO survey for giant planets in 140 young nearby visual binaries. BDI on a space-based telescope would not be limited by isoplanatism effects and would therefore be an even more powerful tool for imaging and discovering planets. This paper includes data obtained at the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  3. Transdermal Uptake of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(n-butyl) Phthalate Directly from Air: Experimental Verification

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of phthalate esters. Objectives This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and DnBP were measured in these samples and extrapolated to parent phthalate intakes, corrected for background and hood air exposures. Results For DEP, the median dermal uptake directly from air was 4.0 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.8 μg/(μg/m3 in air). For DnBP, the median dermal uptake from air was 3.1 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.9 μg/(μg/m3 in air). Conclusions This study shows that dermal uptake directly from air can be a meaningful exposure pathway for DEP and DnBP. For other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) whose molecular weight and lipid/air partition coefficient are in the appropriate range, direct absorption from air is also anticipated to be significant. Citation Weschler CJ, Bekö G, Koch HM, Salthammer T, Schripp T, Toftum J, Clausen G. 2015. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: experimental verification. Environ Health Perspect 123:928–934; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409151 PMID:25850107

  4. Weighting interferometric data for direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    The new generation interferometric arrays such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are composed of a large number of telescopes and their configurations are optimized for Fourier plane (a.k.a. uv-plane) coverage. As a consequence, solving for the missing information in the uv-plane is becoming less critical and the imaging algorithms can be revisited. The situation is getting similar to that encountered with single filled aperture telescopes and it is becoming possible to make images in a direct way. In this article a new weighting method is introduced to obtain "pseudo-clean" images without using prior information to solve for the Fourier transform of the source. This method is similar but not equivalent to the successive application of robust weighting and tapering at different scales. The idea is to weight the data to compensate for the imperfect distribution of natural weights in the uv-plane. The price to pay for this direct imaging technique is that the final point spread function (PSF or beam) may not follow a simple analytical shape such as a Gaussian (but this is also the case in optical astronomy) and some sensitivity is lost (but this is the case with any imaging algorithm in interferometry). Two parameters are introduced to control the trade-off between imaging quality and sensitivity, namely a threshold parameter and a coupling parameter. This method is applied to simulated ALMA observations with 16, 32 and 50 antennas. As expected this method is found to be more efficient with more antennas and for more compact configurations because the uv-plane coverage is more complete. With 50 antennas in compact configuration it is possible to reduce the amplitude of the inner sidelobes (outer sidelobes) by a factor >6 (>2) compared to natural weighting for ~10 % loss in sensitivity, leading to sidelobes lower than 1.6 % of the main lobe peak value. With 16 antennas only, the method can still be used to reduce the inner sidelobes of a

  5. Directly Estimating Endmembers for Compressive Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwei; Fu, Ning; Qiao, Liyan; Peng, Xiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of hyperspectral images (HSI) generated creates huge challenges for transmission and storage, making data compression more and more important. Compressive Sensing (CS) is an effective data compression technology that shows that when a signal is sparse in some basis, only a small number of measurements are needed for exact signal recovery. Distributed CS (DCS) takes advantage of both intra- and inter- signal correlations to reduce the number of measurements needed for multichannel-signal recovery. HSI can be observed by the DCS framework to reduce the volume of data significantly. The traditional method for estimating endmembers (spectral information) first recovers the images from the compressive HSI and then estimates endmembers via the recovered images. The recovery step takes considerable time and introduces errors into the estimation step. In this paper, we propose a novel method, by designing a type of coherent measurement matrix, to estimate endmembers directly from the compressively observed HSI data via convex geometry (CG) approaches without recovering the images. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional method with better estimation speed and better (or comparable) accuracy in both noisy and noiseless cases. PMID:25905699

  6. Direct ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Stefanik, R. P.

    2013-05-01

    Direct images of Betelgeuse were obtained over a span of 4 years with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. These images reveal the extended ultraviolet continuum emission (~2 times the optical diameter), the varying overall ultraviolet flux levels and a pattern of bright surface continuum features that change in position and appearance over several months or less. Concurrent photometry and radial velocity measures support the model of a pulsating star, first discovered in the ultraviolet from IUE. Spatially resolved HST spectroscopy reveals a larger extention in chromospheric emissions of Mg II as well as the rotation of the supergiant. Changing localized subsonic flows occur in the low chromosphere that can cover a substantial fraction of the stellar disk and may initiate the mass outflow.

  7. MKIDs for Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Meeker, Seth; Strader, Matthew; Szypryt, Paul; Walter, Alex; Bockstiegel, Clint; Collura, Giulia; Mawet, Dimitri; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Serabyn, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are single photon counting, energy resolving detectors applicable from the optical through near-IR. MKIDs are especially interesting for exoplanet direct imaging due to their read noise free, high speed, energy resolved near-IR photon counting in reasonably large formats. The first MKID instrument, ARCONS, has been taking data on the Palomar 200” for several years. There are currently two UVOIR MKID instruments fully funded and under construction for direct imaging of planets, DARKNESS for the Palomar coronagraphs and MEC for Subaru’s SCExAO. Operating an MKID camera behind these coronagraphs will allow an effective 2 kHz frame rate with minimal latency, allowing fast real-time nulling of atmospheric speckles. Simulations show this could improve contrast ratios by up to a factor of 100. In this this talk I will discuss the current state of these cameras as well as their expected scientific yield. In particular, MEC with SCExAO on Subaru may be capable of detecting Jupiter analogs in reflected light within the next 2 years.

  8. MKIDs for Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, B. A.; Eyken, J. v.; Meeker, S. R.; Jensen-Clem, R.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Guyon, O.

    2014-03-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs (Mazin et al 2012, 2013), are an emerging superconducting focal plane array technology that enables noise-free single photon counting and low resolution spectrophotometry throughout the optical and near-IR. MKIDs have enormous potential as combined integral field units (IFUs) for science data and focal plane wavefront sensors for coronagraphic direct imaging experiments. Their high speed and lack of read noise enables fast feedback for speckle nulling of atmospheric and quasistatic speckles, and the read noise-free science data cubes can be post-processed with a variety of speckle removal algorithms such as Chromatic Differential Imaging and the Dark Speckle technique. In this presentation we present preliminary performance calculations and designs of the recently funded 10,000 pixel MKID-based DARKNESS camera for the P1640 coronagraph at the Palomar 200 inch, and our plans for SSEC, a similar instrument for Subaru's SCExAO that could potentially image a handful of known RV planets in reflected light.

  9. Archaeology and direct imaging of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John B.

    The search for extraterrestrial technology effectively began 45 years ago with Frank Drake's Project Ozma and a radioastronomy start to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Eventually searches began for possible interstellar probes in stable orbits in the Solar System, as well as for infrared excesses from possible Dyson spheres round Sun-like stars. Whilst the Cold War was still underway, some scientists looked for evidence of nuclear waste dumps and nuclear wars elsewhere in the Milky Way. None of this work was carried out by archaeologists, even though by their very nature archaeologists are experts in the detection of ancient technologies. The technologies being searched for would have been partly ancient in age though advanced in techniques and science. The development of ESA's Darwin and NASA's TPF for detection and imaging of Earth-like exoplanets in our galactic neighbourhood represents an opportunity for the testing of techniques for detecting signatures of technological activities. Ideally, both Darwin and TPF might be able to provide spectroscopic data on the chemistry and biochemistry of the atmospheres of Earth-like exoplanets, and thus to detect some of the signs of life. If this can be accomplished successfully, then in theory evidence for pollution and nuclear accidents and wars should be detectable. Some infrared signatures of ETT on or round exoplanets might be detectable. Direct visual imaging of ETT structures will probably not be feasible till we have extremely powerful interstellar telescopes or actually send orbital craft.

  10. Implementation of a direct-imaging and FX correlator for the BEST-2 array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G.; Hickish, J.; Magro, A.; Price, D.; Zarb Adami, K.

    2014-04-01

    A new digital backend has been developed for the Basic Element for SKA Training II (BEST-2) array at Radiotelescopi di Medicina, INAF-IRA, Italy, which allows concurrent operation of an FX correlator, and a direct-imaging correlator and beamformer. This backend serves as a platform for testing some of the spatial Fourier transform concepts which have been proposed for use in computing correlations on regularly gridded arrays. While spatial Fourier transform-based beamformers have been implemented previously, this is, to our knowledge, the first time a direct-imaging correlator has been deployed on a radio astronomy array. Concurrent observations with the FX and direct-imaging correlator allow for direct comparison between the two architectures. Additionally, we show the potential of the direct-imaging correlator for time-domain astronomy, by passing a subset of beams though a pulsar and transient detection pipeline. These results provide a timely verification for spatial Fourier transform-based instruments that are currently in commissioning. These instruments aim to detect highly redshifted hydrogen from the epoch of reionization and/or to perform wide-field surveys for time-domain studies of the radio sky. We experimentally show the direct-imaging correlator architecture to be a viable solution for correlation and beamforming.

  11. Adaptive optics for directly imaging planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Vanessa Perry

    In this dissertation I present the results from five papers (including one in preparation) on giant planets, brown dwarfs, and their environments, as well as on the commissioning and optimization of the Adaptive Optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer. The first three Chapters cover direct imaging results on several distantly-orbiting planets and brown dwarf companions. The boundary between giant planets and brown dwarf companions in wide orbits is a blurry one. In Chapter 2, I use 3--5 mum imaging of several brown dwarf companions, combined with mid-infrared photometry for each system to constrain the circum-substellar disks around the brown dwarfs. I then use this information to discuss limits on scattering events versus in situ formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I present results from an adaptive optics imaging survey for giant planets, where the target stars were selected based on the properties of their circumstellar debris disks. Specifically, we targeted systems with debris disks whose SEDs indicated gaps, clearings, or truncations; these features may possibly be sculpted by planets. I discuss in detail one planet-mass companion discovered as part of this survey, HD 106906 b. At a projected separation of 650 AU and weighing in at 11 Jupiter masses, a companion such as this is not a common outcome of any planet or binary star formation model. In the remaining three Chapters, I discuss pre-commissioning, on-sky results, and planned work on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer Adaptive Optics system. Before construction of the LBT AO system was complete, I tested a prototype of LBTI's pyramid wavefront sensor unit at the MMT with synthetically-generated calibration files. I present the methodology and MMT on-sky tests in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, I present the commissioned performance of LBTIAO. Optical imperfections within LBTI limited the quality of the science images, and I describe a simple method to use the adaptive optics system

  12. Mass Determination Of Directly Imaged Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Neuhauser, R.; Seifahrt, A.

    2011-09-01

    About 20 sub-stellar companions with large separations (> 50 AU) to their young primary stars and brown dwarfs are confirmed by both common proper motion and late-M / early-L type spectra. The origin and early evolution of these objects is still under debate. While often these sub-stellar companions are regarded as brown dwarfs, they could possibly also be massive planets, the mass estimates are very uncertain so far. They are companions to primary stars or brown dwarfs in young associations and star forming regions like Taurus, Upper Scorpius, the TW Hya association, Beta Pic moving group, TucHor association, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon, hence their ages and distances are well known, in contrast to free-floating brown dwarfs. Here we present how mass estimates of such young directly imaged companions can be derived, using e.g. evolutionary models, which are however currently almost uncalibrated by direct mass measurements of young objects. An empirical classification by medium-resolution spectroscopy is currently not possible, because a spectral sequence that is taking the lower gravity into account, is not existing. This problem leads to an apparent mismatch between spectra of old field type objects and young low-mass companions at the same effective temperature, hampering a determination of temperature and surface gravity independent from models. We show that from spectra of the objects, using the advantages of light concentration by an AO-assisted integral field spectrograph, temperature, extinction, metallicity and surface gravity can be derived using non-equilibrium radiative transfer atmosphere models as comparison and that this procedure as well allows a mass determination in combination with the luminosities found by the direct observations, as has recently been done by us for several young sub-stellar companions, as e.g. GQ Lup, CT Cha or UScoCTIO 108.

  13. Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2005-04-11

    One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm with the heat of their formation. Together with a UCLA team that leads the

  14. Image fusion using bi-directional similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Infrared images are widely used in the practical applications to capture abundant information. However, it is still challenging to enhance the infrared image by the visual image. In this paper, we propose an effective method using bidirectional similarity. In the proposed method, we aim to find an optimal solution from many feasible solutions without introducing intermediate image. We employ some priori constraints to meet the requirements of image fusion which can be detailed to preserve both good characteristics in the infrared image and spatial information in the visual image. In the iterative step, we use the matrix with the square of the difference between images to integrate the image holding most information. We call this matrix the bidirectional similarity distance. By the bidirectional similarity distance, we can get the transitive images. Then, we fuse the images according to the weight. Experimental results show that, compared to the traditional image fusion algorithm, fusion images from bidirectional similarity fusion algorithm have greatly improved in the subjective vision, entropy, structural similarity index measurement. We believe that the proposed scheme can have a wide applications.

  15. Di-tert-butylsilylene-directed alpha-selective synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferyl T-antigen.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Akihiro; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2005-09-29

    [reaction: see text] We have succeeded in the facile synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferyl T-antigen as a substrate for endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase by exploiting the combination of the di-tert-butylsilylene effect and the Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:16178547

  16. Confocal imaging of transmembrane voltage by SEER of di-8-ANEPPS.

    PubMed

    Manno, Carlo; Figueroa, Lourdes; Fitts, Robert; Ríos, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Imaging, optical mapping, and optical multisite recording of transmembrane potential (V(m)) are essential for studying excitable cells and systems. The naphthylstyryl voltage-sensitive dyes, including di-8-ANEPPS, shift both their fluorescence excitation and emission spectra upon changes in V(m). Accordingly, they have been used for monitoring V(m) in nonratioing and both emission and excitation ratioing modes. Their changes in fluorescence are usually much less than 10% per 100 mV. Conventional ratioing increases sensitivity to between 3 and 15% per 100 mV. Low sensitivity limits the value of these dyes, especially when imaged with low light systems like confocal scanners. Here we demonstrate the improvement afforded by shifted excitation and emission ratioing (SEER) as applied to imaging membrane potential in flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers of adult mice. SEER--the ratioing of two images of fluorescence, obtained with different excitation wavelengths in different emission bands-was implemented in two commercial confocal systems. A conventional pinhole scanner, affording optimal setting of emission bands but less than ideal excitation wavelengths, achieved a sensitivity of up to 27% per 100 mV, nearly doubling the value found by conventional ratioing of the same data. A better pair of excitation lights should increase the sensitivity further, to 35% per 100 mV. The maximum acquisition rate with this system was 1 kHz. A fast "slit scanner" increased the effective rate to 8 kHz, but sensitivity was lower. In its high-sensitivity implementation, the technique demonstrated progressive deterioration of action potentials upon fatiguing tetani induced by stimulation patterns at >40 Hz, thereby identifying action potential decay as a contributor to fatigue onset. Using the fast implementation, we could image for the first time an action potential simultaneously at multiple locations along the t-tubule system. These images resolved the radially varying lag associated

  17. Confocal imaging of transmembrane voltage by SEER of di-8-ANEPPS

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Carlo; Figueroa, Lourdes; Fitts, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Imaging, optical mapping, and optical multisite recording of transmembrane potential (Vm) are essential for studying excitable cells and systems. The naphthylstyryl voltage-sensitive dyes, including di-8-ANEPPS, shift both their fluorescence excitation and emission spectra upon changes in Vm. Accordingly, they have been used for monitoring Vm in nonratioing and both emission and excitation ratioing modes. Their changes in fluorescence are usually much less than 10% per 100 mV. Conventional ratioing increases sensitivity to between 3 and 15% per 100 mV. Low sensitivity limits the value of these dyes, especially when imaged with low light systems like confocal scanners. Here we demonstrate the improvement afforded by shifted excitation and emission ratioing (SEER) as applied to imaging membrane potential in flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers of adult mice. SEER—the ratioing of two images of fluorescence, obtained with different excitation wavelengths in different emission bands—was implemented in two commercial confocal systems. A conventional pinhole scanner, affording optimal setting of emission bands but less than ideal excitation wavelengths, achieved a sensitivity of up to 27% per 100 mV, nearly doubling the value found by conventional ratioing of the same data. A better pair of excitation lights should increase the sensitivity further, to 35% per 100 mV. The maximum acquisition rate with this system was 1 kHz. A fast “slit scanner” increased the effective rate to 8 kHz, but sensitivity was lower. In its high-sensitivity implementation, the technique demonstrated progressive deterioration of action potentials upon fatiguing tetani induced by stimulation patterns at >40 Hz, thereby identifying action potential decay as a contributor to fatigue onset. Using the fast implementation, we could image for the first time an action potential simultaneously at multiple locations along the t-tubule system. These images resolved the radially varying lag

  18. Mueller matrix three-dimensional directional imaging of collagen fibers.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Hagen, Vegard Stenhjem; Kumar, Rajesh; Lilledahl, Magnus Borstad; Kildemo, Morten

    2014-02-01

    A method for measuring three-dimensional (3-D) direction images of collagen fibers in biological tissue is presented. Images of the 3-D directions are derived from the measured transmission Mueller matrix images (MMIs), acquired at different incidence angles, by taking advantage of the form birefringence of the collagen fibers. The MMIs are decomposed using the recently developed differential decomposition, which is more suited to biological tissue samples than the common polar decomposition method. Validation of the 3-D direction images was performed by comparing them with images from second-harmonic generation microscopy. The comparison found a good agreement between the two methods. It is envisaged that 3-D directional imaging could become a useful tool for understanding the collagen framework for fibers smaller than the diffraction limit. PMID:24503637

  19. Direct Estimation of Kinetic Parametric Images for Dynamic PET

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guobao; Qi, Jinyi

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) can monitor spatiotemporal distribution of radiotracer in vivo. The spatiotemporal information can be used to estimate parametric images of radiotracer kinetics that are of physiological and biochemical interests. Direct estimation of parametric images from raw projection data allows accurate noise modeling and has been shown to offer better image quality than conventional indirect methods, which reconstruct a sequence of PET images first and then perform tracer kinetic modeling pixel-by-pixel. Direct reconstruction of parametric images has gained increasing interests with the advances in computing hardware. Many direct reconstruction algorithms have been developed for different kinetic models. In this paper we review the recent progress in the development of direct reconstruction algorithms for parametric image estimation. Algorithms for linear and nonlinear kinetic models are described and their properties are discussed. PMID:24396500

  20. Geometric direct search algorithms for image registration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok; Choi, Minseok; Kim, Hyungmin; Park, Frank Chongwoo

    2007-09-01

    A widely used approach to image registration involves finding the general linear transformation that maximizes the mutual information between two images, with the transformation being rigid-body [i.e., belonging to SE(3)] or volume-preserving [i.e., belonging to SL(3)]. In this paper, we present coordinate-invariant, geometric versions of the Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm on the groups SL(3), SE(3), and their various subgroups, that are applicable to a wide class of image registration problems. Because the algorithms respect the geometric structure of the underlying groups, they are numerically more stable, and exhibit better convergence properties than existing local coordinate-based algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the improved convergence properties of our geometric algorithms. PMID:17784595

  1. Mars Rover imaging systems and directional filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Computer literature searches were carried out at Duke University and NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose is to enhance personal knowledge based on the technical problems of pattern recognition and image understanding which must be solved for the Mars Rover and Sample Return Mission. Intensive study effort of a large collection of relevant literature resulted in a compilation of all important documents in one place. Furthermore, the documents are being classified into: Mars Rover; computer vision (theory); imaging systems; pattern recognition methodologies; and other smart techniques (AI, neural networks, fuzzy logic, etc).

  2. Object silhouettes and surface directions through stereo matching image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kumagai, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the object silhouettes and surface direction through the stereo matching image processing to recognize the position, size and surface direction of the object. For this study we construct the pixel number change distribution of the HSI color component level, the binary component level image by the standard deviation threshold, the 4 directional pixels connectivity filter, the surface elements correspondence by the stereo matching and the projection rule relation. We note that the HSI color component level change tendency of the object image near the focus position is more stable than the HSI color component level change tendency of the object image over the unfocused range. We use the HSI color component level images near the fine focused position to extract the object silhouette. We extract the object silhouette properly. We find the surface direction of the object by the pixel numbers of the correspondence surface areas and the projection cosine rule after the stereo matching image processing by the characteristic areas and the synthesized colors. The epipolar geometry is used in this study because a pair of imager is arranged on the same epipolar plane. The surface direction detection results in the proper angle calculation. The construction of the object silhouettes and the surface direction detection of the object are realized.

  3. Direct infrared imaging of VB 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrutskie, M. F.; Forret, W. J.; Shure, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Near-infrared images of VB 8 taken at K (2.2 microns) and L-prime (3.75 microns) during a period of good seeing at the IRTF show no evidence of the brown dwarf companion reported by McCarthy et al. (1985). Any companion 1.0 arcsec away from the primary must be at least 4 mag fainter than the primary at K and 3 mag fainter at L-prime in order to escape detection. A faint nebula centered on the star with scattering properties similar to a nebula detected near another main-sequence M star, Lalande 21185 (reported by McCarthy in 1986), may account for the extended emission detected by speckle observations.

  4. Compressive sensing for direct millimeter-wave holographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Shen, Zongjun; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-10

    Direct millimeter-wave (MMW) holographic imaging, which provides both the amplitude and phase information by using the heterodyne mixing technique, is considered a powerful tool for personnel security surveillance. However, MWW imaging systems usually suffer from the problem of high cost or relatively long data acquisition periods for array or single-pixel systems. In this paper, compressive sensing (CS), which aims at sparse sampling, is extended to direct MMW holographic imaging for reducing the number of antenna units or the data acquisition time. First, following the scalar diffraction theory, an exact derivation of the direct MMW holographic reconstruction is presented. Then, CS reconstruction strategies for complex-valued MMW images are introduced based on the derived reconstruction formula. To pursue the applicability for near-field MMW imaging and more complicated imaging targets, three sparsity bases, including total variance, wavelet, and curvelet, are evaluated for the CS reconstruction of MMW images. We also discuss different sampling patterns for single-pixel, linear array and two-dimensional array MMW imaging systems. Both simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility of recovering MMW images from measurements at 1/2 or even 1/4 of the Nyquist rate. PMID:25967314

  5. OH radical imaging in a DI diesel engine and the structure of the early diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.; Coy, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q{sub 1}9 and Q{sub 2}8 lines of the (1,0) band of the A{yields}X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,O) and (1, I) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames. The signal is strong, and it is confined to a narrow region about the flame front because the threebody recombination reactions that reduce high flame-front OH concentrations to equilibrium levels occur rapidly at diesel pressures. No signal was evident in the fuel-rich premixed flame regions where calculations and burner experiments indicate that OH concentrations will be below detectable limits. Temporal sequences of OH PLIF images are presented showing the onset and development of the early diffusion flame up to the time that soot obscures the images. These images show that the diffusion flame develops around the periphery of the-downstream portion of the reacting fuel jet about half way through the premixed burn spike. Although affected by turbulence, the diffusion flame remains at the jet periphery for the rest of the imaged sequence.

  6. Image deblurring using the direction dependence of camera resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Masayoshi

    2013-03-01

    The blurring that occurs in the lens of a camera has a tendency to further degrade in areas away from the on-axis of the image. In addition, the degradation of the blurred image in an off-axis area exhibits directional dependence. Conventional methods have been known to use the Wiener filter or the Richardson-Lucy algorithm to mitigate the problem. These methods use the pre-defined point spread function (PSF) in the restoration process, thereby preventing an increase in the noise elements. However, the nonuniform degradation that depends on the direction is not improved even though the edges are emphasized by these conventional methods. In this paper, we analyze the directional dependence of resolution based on the modeling of an optical system using a blurred image. We propose a novel image deblurring method that employs a reverse filter based on optimizing the directional dependence coefficients of the regularization term in the maximum a posterior probability (MAP) algorithm. We have improved the directional dependence of resolution by optimizing the weight coefficients of the direction in which the resolution is degraded.

  7. Direction Dependent Effects In Widefield Wideband Full Stokes Radio Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannathan, Preshanth; Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Rau, Urvashi; Taylor, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy is affected by instrumental and atmospheric effects which introduce direction dependent gains.The antenna power pattern varies both as a function of time and frequency. The broad band time varying nature of the antenna power pattern when not corrected leads to gross errors in full stokes imaging and flux estimation. In this poster we explore the errors that arise in image deconvolution while not accounting for the time and frequency dependence of the antenna power pattern. Simulations were conducted with the wideband full stokes power pattern of the Very Large Array(VLA) antennas to demonstrate the level of errors arising from direction-dependent gains. Our estimate is that these errors will be significant in wide-band full-pol mosaic imaging as well and algorithms to correct these errors will be crucial for many up-coming large area surveys (e.g. VLASS)

  8. Direct extraction of topographic features from gray scale haracter images

    SciTech Connect

    Seong-Whan Lee; Young Joon Kim

    1994-12-31

    Optical character recognition (OCR) traditionally applies to binary-valued imagery although text is always scanned and stored in gray scale. However, binarization of multivalued image may remove important topological information from characters and introduce noise to character background. In order to avoid this problem, it is indispensable to develop a method which can minimize the information loss due to binarization by extracting features directly from gray scale character images. In this paper, we propose a new method for the direct extraction of topographic features from gray scale character images. By comparing the proposed method with the Wang and Pavlidis`s method we realized that the proposed method enhanced the performance of topographic feature extraction by computing the directions of principal curvature efficiently and prevented the extraction of unnecessary features. We also show that the proposed method is very effective for gray scale skeletonization compared to Levi and Montanari`s method.

  9. Hypertelescopes: The Challenge of Direct Imaging at High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sparse optical interferometric arrays of many apertures can produce direct images in the densified-pupil mode, also called "hypertelescope" mode. Pending the introduction of adaptive optics for cophasing, indirect images can also be reconstructed with speckle imaging techniques. But adaptive phasing is preferable, when a sufficiently bright guide star is available. Several wave sensing techniques, by-products of those used on monolithic telescopes for some of them, are potentially usable. For cophased direct images of very faint sources in the absence of a natural guide star, a modified form of the Laser Guide Star techniques demonstrated on conventional and segmented telescopes is described. Preliminary testing in laboratory suggests further investigation. Recorded images, assumed co-phased, are also improvable post-detection with optical aperture-synthesis techniques such as Earth rotation synthesis, where data from successive exposures are combined incoherently. Nevertheless, the gain becomes modest if hundreds of sub-apertures are used. Image deconvolution techniques are also applicable, if suitably modified as demonstrated by Aime et al. (2012), and Mary (2012). Their modified deconvolution algorithms can extend the Direct Imaging Field (also called Clean Field) of hypertelescopes. More sub-apertures at given collecting area, implying that their size is reduced, improve the direct-imaging performance. The predictable trend thus favors systems combining hundreds of sub-apertures of modest size, if workable designs can be evolved. One such design, the "Ubaye Hypertelescope" entering the initial testing phase in the southern Alps, has a fixed spherical meta-mirror with a 57 m effective aperture, expandable to 200 m. Preliminary results suggest that larger versions, whether spherical or active paraboloidal, can reach a kilometric aperture size at terrestrial sites having a suitable concave topography. In space, hypertelescope meta-apertures spanning up to 100 000

  10. Direct Sub-Angstrom Imaging of a Crystal Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Nellist, Peter D.; Chisholm, Matthew F; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.; Murfitt, M. F.; Szilagyi, Z. S.; Lupini, Andrew R; Borisevich, Albina Y; Sides, Jr., William H.; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Despite the use of electrons with wavelengths of just a few picometers, spatial resolution in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been limited by spherical aberration to typically around 0.15 nanometer. Individual atomic columns in a crystalline lattice can therefore only be imaged for a few low-order orientations, limiting the range of defects that can be imaged at atomic resolution. The recent development of spherical aberration correctors for transmission electron microscopy allows this limit to be overcome. We present direct images from an aberration-corrected scanning TEM that resolve a lattice in which the atomic columns are separated by less than 0.1 nanometer.

  11. VIDA: A Direct Spectro-Imager for the VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardièere, Olivier; Schneider, Jean

    In order to exploit the unique full forthcoming VLTI infrastructure (4 to 8 telescopes with AO and cophasing system), we propose VIDA, a near-IR direct imaging instrument using an all-to-one beam combiner and single-mode fibers. The pupil densification technique is used to concentrate all the flux in the field accessible by the VLTI array in one observation. This optimal use of photons provides more luminous and contrasted snapshot images than the Fizeau mode. Thanks to its snapshot capabilities ant its better sensitivity, this innovative instrument should open new investigation fields for the VLTI, as faint extragalactic sources studying and hot jupiters coronagraphic imaging

  12. Dosimetry and image quality assessment in a direct radiography system

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Paixão, Lucas; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mean glandular dose with a solid state detector and the image quality in a direct radiography system, utilizing phantoms. Materials and Methods Irradiations were performed with automatic exposure control and polymethyl methacrylate slabs with different thicknesses to calculate glandular dose values. The image quality was evaluated by means of the structures visualized on the images of the phantoms. Results Considering the uncertainty of the measurements, the mean glandular dose results are in agreement with the values provided by the equipment and with internationally adopted reference levels. Results obtained from images of the phantoms were in agreement with the reference values. Conclusion The present study contributes to verify the equipment conformity as regards dose values and image quality. PMID:25741119

  13. VIP: Vortex Image Processing pipeline for high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Wertz, Olivier; Christiaens, Valentin; Absil, Olivier; Mawet, Dimitri

    2016-03-01

    VIP (Vortex Image Processing pipeline) provides pre- and post-processing algorithms for high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets. Written in Python, VIP provides a very flexible framework for data exploration and image processing and supports high-contrast imaging observational techniques, including angular, reference-star and multi-spectral differential imaging. Several post-processing algorithms for PSF subtraction based on principal component analysis are available as well as the LLSG (Local Low-rank plus Sparse plus Gaussian-noise decomposition) algorithm for angular differential imaging. VIP also implements the negative fake companion technique coupled with MCMC sampling for rigorous estimation of the flux and position of potential companions.

  14. Retinex Image Processing: Improved Fidelity To Direct Visual Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1996-01-01

    Recorded color images differ from direct human viewing by the lack of dynamic range compression and color constancy. Research is summarized which develops the center/surround retinex concept originated by Edwin Land through a single scale design to a multi-scale design with color restoration (MSRCR). The MSRCR synthesizes dynamic range compression, color constancy, and color rendition and, thereby, approaches fidelity to direct observation.

  15. Detectability of Tidally Heated Exomoons Using Direct Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Mary Anne; Turner, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the capability of ground and space-based observatories, both existing and planned, to directly image tidally heated exomoons orbiting exoplanets. Tidally heated exomoons, or THEMs, can conceivably be much more luminous than their host exoplanet and as little as 1000 times dimmer than the system's primary star. Tidal forces can heat THEMs at arbitrarily large angular separations from the host star, in both young and old star systems, to temperatures of hundreds or even thousands of degrees Kelvin. THEMs may thus be far easier targets for direct imaging studies than giant exoplanets which must be both young and at a large projected angular separation from their host star to be imaged with existing high contrast instrumentation. Current instruments are capable of detecting nearby THEMs with Teff ≥ 600K and R ≥ Rearth in K-band. Future mid-infrared space telescopes, such as JWST and SPICA, will be capable of directly imaging THEMs around ~25 nearby stars with Teff ≥ 300K and R≥Rearth orbiting at angular separations ≥ 12AU at a 5σ confidence level in a 10,000 second integration. It is feasible that previously imaged exoplanets are actually THEMs or blends of such objects with hot young planets; we speculate that Fomalhaut b could be such a case. If THEMs exist and are common (i.e., nearby), it may be far easier to directly image a THEM with surface conditions that allow for liquid water than it will be to image an Earth-like planet in the classical Habitable Zone of its primary star.

  16. Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masihzadeh, Omid; Ammar, David A.; Kahook, Malik Y.; Gibson, Emily A.; Lei, Tim C.

    2013-03-01

    The development of technologies to characterize the ocular aqueous outflow system (AOS) is important for the understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) offers the advantage of high-resolution, label-free imaging with intrinsic image contrast because the emitted signals result from the specific biomolecular content of the tissue. Previous attempts to use MPM to image the murine irido-corneal region directly through the sclera have suffered from degradation in image resolution due to scattering of the focused laser light. As a result, transscleral MPM has limited ability to observe fine structures in the AOS. In this work, the porcine irido-corneal angle was successfully imaged through the transparent cornea using a gonioscopic lens to circumvent the highly scattering scleral tissue. The resulting high-resolution images allowed the detailed structures in the trabecular meshwork (TM) to be observed. Multimodal imaging by two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation allowed visualization of different features in the TM without labels and without disruption of the TM or surrounding tissues. MPM gonioscopy is a promising noninvasive imaging tool for high-resolution studies of the AOS, and research continues to explore the potential for future clinical applications in humans.

  17. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

  18. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  19. Three-dimensional imaging for indirect-direct bonding.

    PubMed

    El-Timamy, Ahmed M; El-Sharaby, Fouad A; Eid, Faten H; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a new concept of bracket positioning with special consideration to root axes. Cone-beam computed tomography imaging and computer-aided manufacturing were used to produce stereolithographic trays for indirect-direct bonding. PMID:27242004

  20. Data Images and Other Graphical Displays for Directional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morphet, Bill; Symanzik, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Vectors, axes, and periodic phenomena have direction. Directional variation can be expressed as points on a unit circle and is the subject of circular statistics, a relatively new application of statistics. An overview of existing methods for the display of directional data is given. The data image for linear variables is reviewed, then extended to directional variables by displaying direction using a color scale composed of a sequence of four or more color gradients with continuity between sequences and ordered intuitively in a color wheel such that the color of the 0deg angle is the same as the color of the 360deg angle. Cross over, which arose in automating the summarization of historical wind data, and color discontinuity resulting from the use a single color gradient in computational fluid dynamics visualization are eliminated. The new method provides for simultaneous resolution of detail on a small scale and overall structure on a large scale. Example circular data images are given of a global view of average wind direction of El Nino periods, computed rocket motor internal combustion flow, a global view of direction of the horizontal component of earth's main magnetic field on 9/15/2004, and Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle vectoring.

  1. DIRECT IMAGING CONSTRAINTS ON THE PUTATIVE EXOPLANET 14 Her C

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Males, Jared R.; Hinz, Philip M.; Knox, Russell P.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2011-05-01

    We present results of deep direct imaging of the radial velocity (RV) planet-host star 14 Her (=GJ 614, HD 145675), obtained in the L' band with the Clio-2 camera and the MMT adaptive optics system. This star has one confirmed planet and an unconfirmed outer companion, suggested by residuals in the RV data. The orbital parameters of the unconfirmed object are not well constrained since many mass/semimajor axis configurations can fit the available data. The star has been directly imaged several times, but none of the campaigns has ruled out sub-stellar companions. With {approx}2.5 hr of integration, we rule out at 5{sigma} confidence {approx}>18 M{sub J} companions beyond {approx}25 AU, based on the Baraffe et al. COND mass-luminosity models. Combining our detection limits with fits to the RV data and analytic dynamical analysis, we constrain the orbital parameters of 14 Her c to be 3 {approx}< m/M{sub J} {approx}<42, 7 {approx}< a/AU {approx}<25, and e {approx}< 0.5. A wealth of information can be obtained from RV/direct imaging overlap, especially with deep imaging as this work shows. The collaboration between RV and direct imaging will become more important in the coming years as the phase space probed by each technique converges. Future studies involving RV/imaging overlap should be sure to consider the effects of a potential planet's projected separation, as quoting limits assuming face-on orientation will be misleading.

  2. Fuel Cross Leak of Direct Di-methyl-ether Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Haraguchi, Tadao

    Fuel cross leak through a polymer electrolyte membrane of the direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DDFC) was investigated and was found to be approximately one-tenth that of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Three phenomena known to appear in the DMFC were also observed in the DDFC. These were (1) fuel cross leak due to the diffusion which increases with the fuel concentration on an open circuit condition, (2) electro-osmotic cross leak, which increases with the current density and fuel concentration, and (3) decrease of fuel cross leak with the increase of the current density due to fuel consumption at low fuel concentration. The decreased fuel cross leak realized by using Nafion ®117 as a membrane and the low fuel concentration of 11% resulted in an increase of the Farady efficiency of the DDFC of up to 90% at a current density of 80mA/cm2. The CO2 quantity at the anode outlet of the operating DDFC was slightly less than 2 mol per 12 protons, as estimated from an electrochemical reaction on the anode. The CO2 quantity at the cathode outlet was also investigated. The CO2 cross leak increased with current density at every CO2 concentration and the diffusion appeared to be the dominant phenomenon of the CO2 cross leak.

  3. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T; Zuckerman, B; Song, I; Patience, J; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R

    2008-10-14

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  4. Statistical length measurement method by direct imaging of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bengio, E Amram; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E; Behabtu, Natnael; Kleinerman, Olga; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Pasquali, Matteo

    2014-05-14

    The influence of carbon nanotube (CNT) length on their macroscopic properties requires an accurate methodology for CNT length measurement. So far, existing techniques are limited to short (less than a few micrometers) CNTs and sample preparation methods that bias the measured values. Here, we show that the average length of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be measured by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid. The method consists of dissolving at low concentration CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid (a true solvent), imaging the individual CNTs by cryo-TEM, and processing and analyzing the images to determine CNT length. By measuring the total CNT contour length and number of CNT ends in each image, and by applying statistical analysis, we extend the method to cases where each CNT is long enough to span many cryo-TEM images, making the direct length measurement of an entire CNT impractical. Hence, this new technique can be used effectively to estimate samples in a wide range of CNT lengths, although we find that cryo-TEM imaging may bias the measurement towards longer CNTs, which are easier to detect. Our statistical method is also applied to AFM images of CNTs to show that, by using only a few AFM images, it yields estimates that are consistent with literature techniques, based on individually measuring a higher number of CNTs. PMID:24773046

  5. Di-tert-butylsilylene-directed alpha-selective synthesis of p-nitrophenyl T-antigen analogues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuro; Imamura, Akihiro; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Seven analogues of p-nitrophenyl T-antigen [Galbeta(1-->3)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP] have been synthesized as potential substrates for elucidation of the substrate specificity of endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. These compounds, which are commercially unavailable, include: GlcNAcbeta(1-->3){GlcNAcbeta(1-->6)}GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP [core 4 type], GalNAcalpha(1-->3)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP [core 5 type], GlcNAcbeta(1-->6)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP [core 6 type], GalNAcalpha(1-->6)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP [core 7 type], Galalpha(1-->3)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP [core 8 type], Glcbeta(1-->3)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP and GalNAcbeta(1-->3)GalNAcalpha(1-->O)PNP. The assembly of these synthetic probes was accomplished efficiently, based on di-tert-butylsilylene(DTBS)-directed alpha-galactosylation as a key reaction. PMID:18709455

  6. A direct screen for c-di-GMP modulators reveals a Salmonella Typhimurium periplasmic ʟ-arginine-sensing pathway.

    PubMed

    Mills, Erez; Petersen, Erik; Kulasekara, Bridget R; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-06-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that transduces internal and external signals and regulates bacterial motility and biofilm formation. Some organisms encode more than 100 c-di-GMP-modulating enzymes, but only for a few has a signal been defined that modulates their activity. We developed and applied a high-throughput, real-time flow cytometry method that uses a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor of free c-di-GMP to screen for signals that modulate its concentration within Salmonella Typhimurium. We identified multiple compounds, including glucose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, salicylic acid, and ʟ-arginine, that modulated the FRET signal and therefore the free c-di-GMP concentration. By screening a library of mutants, we identified proteins required for the c-di-GMP response to each compound. Furthermore, low micromolar concentrations of ʟ-arginine induced a rapid translation-independent increase in c-di-GMP concentrations and c-di-GMP-dependent cellulose synthesis, responses that required the regulatory periplasmic domain of the diguanylate cyclase STM1987. ʟ-Arginine signaling also required the periplasmic putative ʟ-arginine-binding protein ArtI, implying that ʟ-arginine sensing occurred in the periplasm. Among the 20 commonly used amino acids, S. Typhimurium specifically responded to ʟ-arginine with an increase in c-di-GMP, suggesting that ʟ-arginine may serve as a signal during S. Typhimurium infection. Our results demonstrate that a second-messenger biosensor can be used to identify environmental signals and define pathways that alter microbial behavior. PMID:26060330

  7. Guided Adaptive Image Smoothing via Directional Anisotropic Structure Measurement.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yu; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Image smoothing prefers a good metric to identify dominant structures from textures adaptive of intensity contrast. In this paper, we drop on a novel directional anisotropic structure measurement (DASM) toward adaptive image smoothing. With observations on psychological perception regarding anisotropy, non-periodicity and local directionality, DASM can well characterize structures and textures independent on their contrast scales. By using such measurement as constraint, we design a guided adaptive image smoothing scheme by improving extrema localization and envelopes construction in a structure-aware manner. Our approach can well suppresses the staircase-like artifacts and blur of structures that appear in previous methods, which better suits structure-preserving image smoothing task. The algorithm is performed on a space-filling curve as the reduced domain, so it is very fast and much easy to implement in practice. We make comprehensive comparisons with previous state-of-the-art methods for a variety of applications. Experimental results demonstrate the merit using our DASM as metric to identify structures, and the effectiveness and efficiency of our adaptive image smoothing approach to produce commendable results. PMID:26357284

  8. Direct imaging of nanoscale magnetic interactions in minerals

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Richard J.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Putnis, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic microstructure of a natural, finely exsolved intergrowth of submicron magnetite blocks in an ulvöspinel matrix is characterized by using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. Single-domain and vortex states in individual blocks, as well as magnetostatic interaction fields between them, are imaged at a spatial resolution approaching the nanometer scale. The images reveal an extremely complicated magnetic structure dominated by the shapes of the blocks and magnetostatic interactions. Magnetic superstates, in which clusters of magnetite blocks act collectively to form vortex and multidomain states that have zero net magnetization, are observed directly. PMID:12482930

  9. ON THE DIRECT IMAGING OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability of existing and planned telescopes, on the ground and in space, to directly image tidally heated exomoons orbiting gas-giant exoplanets. Tidally heated exomoons can plausibly be far more luminous than their host exoplanet and as much as 0.1% as bright as the system's stellar primary if it is a low mass star. Because emission from exomoons can be powered by tidal forces, they can shine brightly at arbitrarily large separations from the system's stellar primary with temperatures of several hundreds degrees Kelvin or even higher in extreme cases. Furthermore, these high temperatures can occur in systems that are billions of years old. Tidally heated exomoons may thus be far easier targets for direct imaging studies than giant exoplanets which must be both young and at a large projected separation (typically at least tens of AU) from their primary to be accessible to current generation direct imaging studies. For example, the (warm) Spitzer Space Telescope and the next generation of ground based instruments could detect an exomoon roughly the size of the Earth at a temperature Almost-Equal-To 600 K and a distance Almost-Equal-To 5 pc in the K, L, and M bands at the 5{sigma} confidence level with a one hour exposure; in more favorable but still plausible cases, detection at distances of tens of parsecs is feasible. Future mid-infrared space telescopes, such as James Webb Space Telescope and SPICA, will be capable of directly imaging tidally heated exomoons around the nearest two dozen stars with a brightness temperature {>=}300 K and R {>=} 1 R{sub Circled-Plus} orbiting at {>=}12 AU from the primary star at a 5{sigma} confidence level in a 10{sup 4} s integration. In addition it is possible that some of the exoplanets which have already been directly imaged are actually tidally heated exomoons or blends of such objects with hot young planets. If such exomoons exist and are sufficiently common (i.e., nearby), it may well be far easier to

  10. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nirupama; Needles, Andrew; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionizing irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of preclinical and clinical ultrasound systems , the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic. PMID:20541656

  11. 3D Synchrotron Imaging of a Directionally Solidified Ternary Eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennstedt, Anne; Helfen, Lukas; Steinmetz, Philipp; Nestler, Britta; Ratke, Lorenz

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, the microstructure of directionally solidified ternary eutectics is visualized in three dimensions, using a high-resolution technique of X-ray tomography at the ESRF. The microstructure characterization is conducted with a photon energy, allowing to clearly discriminate the three phases Ag2Al, Al2Cu, and α-Aluminum solid solution. The reconstructed images illustrate the three-dimensional arrangement of the phases. The Ag2Al lamellae perform splitting and merging as well as nucleation and disappearing events during directional solidification.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Conditional Pacemakers: Rationale, Development and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2012-01-01

    Pacemakers and other cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have long been considered an absolute contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a crucial and growing imaging modality. In the last 20 years, protocols have been developed to allow MR scanning of CIED patients with a low complication rate. However, this practice has remained limited to a relatively small number of centers, and many pacemaker patients continue to be denied access to clinically indicated imaging. The introduction of MRI conditional pacemakers has provided a widely applicable and satisfactory solution to this problem. Here, the interactions of pacemakers with the MR environment, the results of MR scanning in patients with conventional CIEDs, the development and clinical experience with MRI conditional devices, and future directions are reviewed. PMID:23071382

  13. Compressed Sensing Photoacoustic Imaging Based on Fast Alternating Direction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueyan; Peng, Dong; Guo, Wei; Ma, Xibo; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been employed to reconstruct endogenous optical contrast present in tissues. At the cost of longer calculations, a compressive sensing reconstruction scheme can achieve artifact-free imaging with fewer measurements. In this paper, an effective acceleration framework using the alternating direction method (ADM) was proposed for recovering images from limited-view and noisy observations. Results of the simulation demonstrated that the proposed algorithm could perform favorably in comparison to two recently introduced algorithms in computational efficiency and data fidelity. In particular, it ran considerably faster than these two methods. PAI with ADM can improve convergence speed with fewer ultrasonic transducers, enabling a high-performance and cost-effective PAI system for biomedical applications. PMID:23365553

  14. Performance analysis of an inexpensive Direct Imaging Transmission Ion Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Patrick; Pallone, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    A direct imaging transmission ion microscope (DITIM) is built from a modified webcam and a commercially available polonium-210 antistatic device mounted on an optics rail. The performance of the DITIM in radiographic mode is analyzed in terms of the line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) for an opaque edge. Limitations of, potential uses for, and suggested improvements to the DITIM are also discussed. Faculty sponsor

  15. Imaging of Temporomandibular Joint: Approach by Direct Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Bruschetta, Daniele; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to conduct a morphological analysis of the temporomandibular joint, a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mandible. Materials and Methods: We have studied the temporom-andibular joint anatomy, directly on the living, from 3D images obtained by medical imaging Computed Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance acquisition, and subsequent re-engineering techniques 3D Surface Rendering and Volume Rendering. Data were analysed with the goal of being able to isolate, identify and distinguish the anatomical structures of the joint, and get the largest possible number of information utilizing software for post-processing work. Results: It was possible to reproduce anatomy of the skeletal structures, as well as through acquisitions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; it was also possible to visualize the vascular, muscular, ligamentous and tendinous components of the articular complex, and also the capsule and the fibrous cartilaginous disc. We managed the Surface Rendering and Volume Rendering, not only to obtain three-dimensional images for colour and for resolution comparable to the usual anatomical preparations, but also a considerable number of anatomical, minuter details, zooming, rotating and cutting the same images with linking, graduating the colour, transparency and opacity from time to time. Conclusion: These results are encouraging to stimulate further studies in other anatomical districts. PMID:25664280

  16. Fingerprint image enhancement method using directional median filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaohong; Shi, Zhixin; Govindaraju, Venu

    2004-08-01

    The performance of any fingerprint recognizer highly depends on the fingerprint image quality. Different types of noises in the fingerprint images pose greater difficulty for recognizers. Most Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) use some form of image enhancement. Although several methods have been described in the literature, there is still scope for improvement. In particular, effective methodology of cleaning the valleys between the ridge contours are lacking. We observe that noisy valley pixels and the pixels in the interrupted ridge flow gap are "impulse noises". Therefore, this paper describes a new approach to fingerprint image enhancement, which is based on integration of Anisotropic Filter and directional median filter(DMF). Gaussian-distributed noises are reduced effectively by Anisotropic Filter, "impulse noises" are reduced efficiently by DMF. Usually, traditional median filter is the most effective method to remove pepper-and-salt noise and other small artifacts, the proposed DMF can not only finish its original tasks, it can also join broken fingerprint ridges, fill out the holes of fingerprint images, smooth irregular ridges as well as remove some annoying small artifacts between ridges. The enhancement algorithm has been implemented and tested on fingerprint images from FVC2002. Images of varying quality have been used to evaluate the performance of our approach. We have compared our method with other methods described in the literature in terms of matched minutiae, missed minutiae, spurious minutiae, and flipped minutiae(between end points and bifurcation points). Experimental results show our method to be superior to those described in the literature.

  17. Rapid imaging of surgical breast excisions using direct temporal sampling two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Michael G.; Sheikine, Yuri; Vardeh, Hilde; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging is a modality that enables depth-sectioned, molecularly-specific imaging of cells and tissue using intrinsic contrast. However, clinical applications have not been well explored due to low imaging speed and limited field of view, which make evaluating large pathology samples extremely challenging. To address these limitations, we have developed direct temporal sampling two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging (DTS-FLIM), a method which enables a several order of magnitude increase in imaging speed by capturing an entire lifetime decay in a single fluorescent excitation. We use this greatly increased speed to perform a preliminary study using gigapixel-scale imaging of human breast pathology surgical specimens. PMID:26600997

  18. The Direct Imaging Search of Exoplanets from Ground and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian

    2015-08-01

    Exoplanets search is one of the hottest topics in both modern astronomy and public domain. Until now over 1990 exoplanets have been confirmed mostly by the indirect radial velocity and transiting approaches, yielding several important physical information such as masses and radius. The study of the physics of planet formation and evolution will focus on giant planets through the direct imaging.However, the direct imaging of exoplanets remains challenging, due to the large flux ratio difference and the nearby angular distance. In recent years, the extreme adaptive optics (Ex-AO) coronagraphic instrumentation has been proposed and developed on 8-meter class telescopes, which is optimized for the high-contrast imaging observation from ground, for the giant exoplanets and other faint stellar companions. Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) has recently come to its first light, with a development period over 10 years. The contrast level has been pushed to 10-6. Due to the space limitation or this or other reasons, none professional adaptive optics is available for most of current 3~4 meter class telescopes, which will limit its observation power to some extent, especially in the research of high-contrast imaging of exoplanets.In this presentation, we will report the latest observation results by using our Extreme Adaptive Optics (Ex-AO) as a visiting instrument for high-contrast imaging on ESO’s 3.58-meter NTT telescope at LSO, and on 3.5-meter ARC telescope at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. It has demonstrated the Ex-AO can be used for the scientific research of exoplanets and brown dwarfs. With a update of the currect configuration with critical hardware, the dedicated instrument called as EDICT for imaging research of young giant exoplanets will be presented. Meanwhile, we have fully demonstrated in the lab a contrast on the order of 10-9 in a large detection area, which is a critical technique for future Earth-like exoplanets imaging space missions. And a space

  19. Beyond Kepler: Direct Imaging of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Is there another Earth out there? Is there life on it? People have been asking these questions for over two thousand years, and we finally stand on the verge of answering them. The Kepler space telescope is NASA's first mission designed to study Earthlike exoplanets (exo-Earths), and it will soon tell us how often exo-Earths occur in the habitable zones of their stars. The next natural step after Kepler is spectroscopic characterization of exo-Earths, which would tell us whether they possess an atmosphere, oxygen, liquid water, as well as other biomarkers. In order to do this, directly imaging an exo-Earth may be necessary (at least for Sun-like stars). Directly imaging an exo-Earth is challenging and likely requires a flagship-size optical space telescope with an unprecedented imaging system capable of achieving contrasts of 1(exp 10) very close to the diffraction limit. Several coronagraphs and external occulters have been proposed to meet this challenge and are in development. After first overviewing the history and current state of the field, my talk will focus on the work proceeding at the Ames Coronagraph Experiment (ACE) at the NASA Ames Research Center, where we are developing the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph in a collaboration with JPL. PIAA is a powerful technique with demonstrated aggressive performance that defines the state of the art at small inner working angles. At ACE, we have achieved contrasts of 2(exp -8) with an inner working angle of 2 lambda/D and 1(exp -6) at 1.4 lambda/D. On the path to exo-Earth imaging, we are also pursuing a smaller telescope concept called EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), which was recently selected for technology development (Category III) by NASA's Explorer program. EXCEDE will do fundamental science on debris disks as well as serve as a technological and scientific pathfinder for an exo-Earth imaging mission.

  20. Direction-dependent localization errors in SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, Justin; Bowsher, James; Yin Fangfang

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is being investigated for imaging inside radiation therapy treatment rooms to localize biological targets. Here, computer simulations were used to analyze locational and directional dependencies in localization errors and to assess the effects of spatial resolution modeling and observer normalization on localization performance. Methods: SPECT images of the XCAT phantom, containing 12 hot tumors, were reconstructed with detector response function compensation (DRC) and without DRC (nDRC). Numerical observers were forced to select the most suspicious tumor location, using normalized cross correlation (NXC) or un-normalized cross correlation (XC), from 3 cm diameter search volumes that each contained only one tumor. For each tumor site, localization was optimized as a function of the iteration number and postreconstruction smoothing. Localization error, the distance between true and estimated tumor positions, was calculated across the ensembles of 80 images. Direction-dependent localization bias and precision were estimated from the image ensemble. Results: For the six superficial tumors in close proximity to the detector trajectory, mean localization errors were <2 mm and were lowest or comparable using DRC-NXC, though differences from DRC-XC and nDRC-NXC were not statistically significant. DRC-NXC did provide statistically significantly better localization than nDRC-XC for five of these six tumors. At the other six sites where attenuation was more severe and the distance was generally greater between the tumor and detector, DRC typically did not show better localization than nDRC. Observer normalization improved the localization substantially for a tumor near the hotter heart. Localization errors were anisotropic and dependent on tumor location relative to the detector trajectory. Conclusions: This computer-simulation study compared localization performance for normalized and un-normalized numerical

  1. Weighted Model Components for Gradient Direction Matching in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C W; Nikolaev, S; Paglieroni, D W

    2006-03-17

    Gradient direction matching (GDM) is the main target identification algorithm used in the Image Content Engine project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. GDM is a 3D solid model-based edge-matching algorithm which does not require explicit edge extraction from the source image. The GDM algorithm is presented, identifying areas where performance enhancement seems possible. Improving the process of producing model gradient directions from the solid model by assigning different weights to different parts of the model is an extension tested in the current study. Given a simple geometric model, we attempt to determine, without obvious semantic clues, if different weight values produce significantly better matching accuracy, and how those weights should be assigned to produce the best matching accuracy. Two simple candidate strategies for assigning weights are proposed--pixel-weighted and edge-weighted. We adjust the weights of the components in a simple model of a tractor/semi-trailer using relevance feedback to produce an optimal set of weights for this model and a particular test image. The optimal weights are then compared with pixel and edge-weighting strategies to determine which is most suitable and under what circumstances.

  2. Diffusion imaging quality control via entropy of principal direction distribution.

    PubMed

    Farzinfar, Mahshid; Oguz, Ipek; Smith, Rachel G; Verde, Audrey R; Dietrich, Cheryl; Gupta, Aditya; Escolar, Maria L; Piven, Joseph; Pujol, Sonia; Vachet, Clement; Gouttard, Sylvain; Gerig, Guido; Dager, Stephen; McKinstry, Robert C; Paterson, Sarah; Evans, Alan C; Styner, Martin A

    2013-11-15

    Diffusion MR imaging has received increasing attention in the neuroimaging community, as it yields new insights into the microstructural organization of white matter that are not available with conventional MRI techniques. While the technology has enormous potential, diffusion MRI suffers from a unique and complex set of image quality problems, limiting the sensitivity of studies and reducing the accuracy of findings. Furthermore, the acquisition time for diffusion MRI is longer than conventional MRI due to the need for multiple acquisitions to obtain directionally encoded Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI). This leads to increased motion artifacts, reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and increased proneness to a wide variety of artifacts, including eddy-current and motion artifacts, "venetian blind" artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise inconsistencies. Such artifacts mandate stringent Quality Control (QC) schemes in the processing of diffusion MRI data. Most existing QC procedures are conducted in the DWI domain and/or on a voxel level, but our own experiments show that these methods often do not fully detect and eliminate certain types of artifacts, often only visible when investigating groups of DWI's or a derived diffusion model, such as the most-employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, we propose a novel regional QC measure in the DTI domain that employs the entropy of the regional distribution of the principal directions (PD). The PD entropy quantifies the scattering and spread of the principal diffusion directions and is invariant to the patient's position in the scanner. High entropy value indicates that the PDs are distributed relatively uniformly, while low entropy value indicates the presence of clusters in the PD distribution. The novel QC measure is intended to complement the existing set of QC procedures by detecting and correcting residual artifacts. Such residual artifacts cause directional bias in the measured PD and here called

  3. Diffusion imaging quality control via entropy of principal direction distribution

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Ipek; Smith, Rachel G.; Verde, Audrey R.; Dietrich, Cheryl; Gupta, Aditya; Escolar, Maria L.; Piven, Joseph; Pujol, Sonia; Vachet, Clement; Gouttard, Sylvain; Gerig, Guido; Dager, Stephen; McKinstry, Robert C.; Paterson, Sarah; Evans, Alan C.; Styner, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion MR imaging has received increasing attention in the neuroimaging community, as it yields new insights into the microstructural organization of white matter that are not available with conventional MRI techniques. While the technology has enormous potential, diffusion MRI suffers from a unique and complex set of image quality problems, limiting the sensitivity of studies and reducing the accuracy of findings. Furthermore, the acquisition time for diffusion MRI is longer than conventional MRI due to the need for multiple acquisitions to obtain directionally encoded Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI). This leads to increased motion artifacts, reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and increased proneness to a wide variety of artifacts, including eddy-current and motion artifacts, “venetian blind” artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise inconsistencies. Such artifacts mandate stringent Quality Control (QC) schemes in the processing of diffusion MRI data. Most existing QC procedures are conducted in the DWI domain and/or on a voxel level, but our own experiments show that these methods often do not fully detect and eliminate certain types of artifacts, often only visible when investigating groups of DWI's or a derived diffusion model, such as the most-employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, we propose a novel regional QC measure in the DTI domain that employs the entropy of the regional distribution of the principal directions (PD). The PD entropy quantifies the scattering and spread of the principal diffusion directions and is invariant to the patient's position in the scanner. High entropy value indicates that the PDs are distributed relatively uniformly, while low entropy value indicates the presence of clusters in the PD distribution. The novel QC measure is intended to complement the existing set of QC procedures by detecting and correcting residual artifacts. Such residual artifacts cause directional bias in the measured PD and here

  4. Direct imaging of the coda of teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Gary L.

    This paper reviews the theoretical background of existing techniques for direct imaging of the coda of teleseismic P waves. A unifying theme of all approaches is the Born series for elastic wave scattering. Inversion methods for one-dimensional structure commonly included multiply scattered waves while all existing two and three-dimensional implementations are limited by a single scattering approximation that defines a linear inverse problem in material property perturbations. The problem has an analytic inverse because the forward problem can be cast as a generalized Radon transform with line/surface integrals along single scatterer isochrons. The inverse Radon transform can then be applied to estimate scattering strength at a given point as a linear combination of all data that match a time and polarization constraint. I describe how backprojection, Kirchhoff approximations, and inverse scattering approaches are related to the fundamental scattering equations. I introduce a new concept called the exploding converter model that is a useful physical model for understanding imaging techniques and show how it is related to the Born integral equation. Finally, I discuss limitation on imaging imposed by deconvolution of the incident wavefield. I show that deconvolution is based on an incorrect assumption because it neglects a propagator term from the base of the imaging volume to the free surface. I give the correct form of the deconvolution operator and suggest it may be possible to improve deconvolution through application of downward continuation operators that enter in these equations.

  5. Direct Imaging of the Coda of Teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, G. L.

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical background of existing techniques for direct imaging of the coda of teleseismic P waves. A unifying theme of all approaches is the Born series for elastic wave scattering. Inversion methods for one-dimensional structure commonly included multiply scattered waves while all existing two and three-dimensional implementations are limited by a single scattering approximation that defines a linear inverse problem in material property perturbations. The problem has an analytic inverse because the forward problem can be cast as a generalized Radon transform with line/surface integrals along single scatterer isocrons. The inverse Radon transform can then be applied to estimate scattering strength at a given point as a linear combination of all data that match a time and polarization constraint. I describe how backprojection, Kirchoff approximations, and inverse scattering approachs are related to the fundamental scattering equations. I introduce a new concept called the exploding converter model that is a useful physical model for understanding imaging techniques and show how it is related to the Born integral equation. Finally, I discuss limitation on imaging imposed by deconvolution of the incident wavefield. I show that deconvolution is based on an incorrect assumption because it neglects a propagator term from the base of the imaging volume to the free surface. I give the correct form of the deconvolution operator and suggest it may be possible to improve deconvolution through application of downward continuation operators that enter in these equations.

  6. Direct-Solve Image-Based Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    A method of wavefront sensing (more precisely characterized as a method of determining the deviation of a wavefront from a nominal figure) has been invented as an improved means of assessing the performance of an optical system as affected by such imperfections as misalignments, design errors, and fabrication errors. The method is implemented by software running on a single-processor computer that is connected, via a suitable interface, to the image sensor (typically, a charge-coupled device) in the system under test. The software collects a digitized single image from the image sensor. The image is displayed on a computer monitor. The software directly solves for the wavefront in a time interval of a fraction of a second. A picture of the wavefront is displayed. The solution process involves, among other things, fast Fourier transforms. It has been reported to the effect that some measure of the wavefront is decomposed into modes of the optical system under test, but it has not been reported whether this decomposition is postprocessing of the solution or part of the solution process.

  7. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging for direct in vivo tissue oxygen monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qi; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissue may provide physicians with essential information about the physiological state of tissue. However, currently available methods for measuring or imaging tissue pO2 have significant limitations, preventing them from being widely used in clinics. Recently, we have reported a direct and noninvasive in vivo imaging modality based on the photoacoustic lifetime which overcomes certain drawbacks of the existing methods. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflecting the spatial and temporal distributions of tissue oxygen. Here, we present two studies which apply photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) to monitor changes of tissue oxygen induced by external modulations. The first study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen a normal mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change in oxygen level with respect to normal, oxygen-rich, and oxygen-poor breathing conditions. The second study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hindlimb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of tissue pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were tracked and observed by PALI. PMID:25748857

  8. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging for direct in vivo tissue oxygen monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2015-03-01

    Measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissue may provide physicians with essential information about the physiological state of tissue. However, currently available methods for measuring or imaging tissue pO2 have significant limitations, preventing them from being widely used in clinics. Recently, we have reported a direct and noninvasive in vivo imaging modality based on the photoacoustic lifetime which overcomes certain drawbacks of the existing methods. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflecting the spatial and temporal distributions of tissue oxygen. Here, we present two studies which apply photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) to monitor changes of tissue oxygen induced by external modulations. The first study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen a normal mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change in oxygen level with respect to normal, oxygen-rich, and oxygen-poor breathing conditions. The second study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hindlimb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of tissue pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were tracked and observed by PALI.

  9. Colors of Alien Worlds from Direct Imaging Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Renyu

    2015-08-01

    Future direct-imaging exoplanet missions such as WFIRST/AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S will measure the reflectivity of exoplanets at visible wavelengths. Most of the exoplanets to be observed will be located further away from their parent stars than is Earth from the Sun. These “cold” exoplanets have atmospheric environments conducive for the formation of water and/or ammonia clouds, like Jupiter in the Solar System. I find the mixing ratio of methane and the pressure level of the uppermost cloud deck on these planets can be uniquely determined from their reflection spectra, with moderate spectral resolution, if the cloud deck is between 0.6 and 1.5 bars. The existence of this unique solution is useful for exoplanet direct imaging missions for several reasons. First, the weak bands and strong bands of methane enable the measurement of the methane mixing ratio and the cloud pressure, although an overlying haze layer can bias the estimate of the latter. Second, the cloud pressure, once derived, yields an important constraint on the internal heat flux from the planet, and thus indicating its thermal evolution. Third, water worlds having H2O-dominated atmospheres are likely to have water clouds located higher than the 10-3 bar pressure level, and muted spectral absorption features. These planets would occupy a confined phase space in the color-color diagrams, likely distinguishable from H2-rich giant exoplanets by broadband observations. Therefore, direct-imaging exoplanet missions may offer the capability to broadly distinguish H2-rich giant exoplanets versus H2O-rich super-Earth exoplanets, and to detect ammonia and/or water clouds and methane gas in their atmospheres.

  10. Colors of Alien Worlds from Direct Imaging Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Renyu

    2016-01-01

    Future direct-imaging exoplanet missions such as WFIRST will measure the reflectivity of exoplanets at visible wavelengths. Most of the exoplanets to be observed will be located further away from their parent stars than is Earth from the Sun. These "cold" exoplanets have atmospheric environments conducive for the formation of water and/or ammonia clouds, like Jupiter in the Solar System. I find the mixing ratio of methane and the pressure level of the uppermost cloud deck on these planets can be uniquely determined from their reflection spectra, with moderate spectral resolution, if the cloud deck is between 0.6 and 1.5 bars. The existence of this unique solution is useful for exoplanet direct imaging missions for several reasons. First, the weak bands and strong bands of methane enable the measurement of the methane mixing ratio and the cloud pressure, although an overlying haze layer can bias the estimate of the latter. Second, the cloud pressure, once derived, yields an important constraint on the internal heat flux from the planet, and thus indicating its thermal evolution. Third, water worlds having H2O-dominated atmospheres are likely to have water clouds located higher than the 10-3 bar pressure level, and muted spectral absorption features. These planets would occupy a confined phase space in the color-color diagrams, likely distinguishable from H2-rich giant exoplanets by broadband observations. Therefore, direct-imaging exoplanet missions may offer the capability to broadly distinguish H2-rich giant exoplanets versus H2O-rich super-Earth exoplanets, and to detect ammonia and/or water clouds and methane gas in their atmospheres.

  11. Direct imaging of myocardial ischemia: a potential new paradigm in nuclear cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Jain, Diwakar; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging has been in clinical use for over 30 years, serving as an effective, reliable, and relatively simple tool for diagnosis, risk stratification, and long-term follow-up of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. However, a unique strength of nuclear imaging is its ability to provide tools for imaging biochemical and metabolic processes and receptor and transporter functions at molecular and cellular levels in intact organisms under a wide variety of physiologic conditions. Despite their high resolution and technical sophistication, other imaging modalities currently do not have this capability. Metabolic imaging techniques using radiolabeled free fatty acid and glucose analogs provide a unique ability to image myocardial ischemia directly in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. These techniques can potentially overcome some of the limitations of currently used stress-rest perfusion imaging and also provide a unique opportunity to detect and image an episode of ischemia in the preceding hours even in the absence of other markers of ongoing myocardial ischemia. We describe recent studies using fluorine 18-labeled deoxyglucose and iodine 123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid for imaging myocardial ischemia. PMID:18761264

  12. Direct imaging of radio-frequency modes via traveling wave magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonyushkin, A.; Deelchand, D. K.; Van de Moortele, P.-F.; Adriany, G.; Kiruluta, A.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an experimental method for direct 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic radio-frequency (rf) field distribution in metal-dielectric structures based on traveling wave (TW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (>7 T). The typical apparatus would include an ultra-high field whole body or small bore MRI scanner, waveguide elements filled with MRI active dielectrics with predefined electric and magnetic properties, and TW rf transmit-receive probes. We validated the technique by obtaining TW MR images of the magnetic field distribution of the rf modes of circular waveguide filled with deionized water in a 16.4 T small-bore MRI scanner and compared the MR images with numerical simulations. Our MRI technique opens up a practical non-perturbed way of imaging of previously inaccessible rf field distribution of modes inside various shapes metal waveguides with inserted dielectric objects, including waveguide mode converters and transformers.

  13. Search for Exoplanets around Young Stellar Objects by Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyama, Taichi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    SEEDS project, exploring exoplanets and protoplanetary disks with Subaru/HiCIAO, has observed about 500 stars by Direct Imaging from 2009 Dec to 2015 Apr. Among these targets we explore around Young Stellar Objects (YSOs; age ≦ 10Myr) which often have the protoplanetary disks where planets are being formed in order to detect young exoplanets and to understand the formation process. We analyzed 66 YSOs (about 100 data in total) with LOCI data reduction. We will report the results (companion candidates and detection limit) of our exploration.

  14. Direct imaging of quantum wires nucleated at diatomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, S. I.; Varela, M.; Sales, D. L.; Ben, T.; Pizarro, J.; Galindo, P. L.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Pennycook, S. J.

    2007-10-01

    Atomic steps at growth surfaces are important heterogeneous sources for nucleation of epitaxial nano-objects. In the presence of misfit strain, we show that the nucleation process takes place preferentially at the upper terrace of the step as a result of the local stress relaxation. Evidence for strain-induced nucleation comes from the direct observation by postgrowth, atomic resolution, Z-contrast imaging of an InAs-rich region in a nanowire located on the upper terrace surface of an interfacial diatomic step.

  15. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  16. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  18. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Superstellar Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Apai, Dániel; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin R.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Freedman, Richard; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Lupu, Roxana; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R.; Marley, Mark; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Stone, Jordan; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Visscher, Channon; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ˜500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (˜1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (˜130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: Teff = 544 ± 10 K, g < 600 m s-2, [M/H] = 0.60 ± 0.12, cloud opacity parameter of fsed = 2-5, R = 0.96 ± 0.07 RJup, and log(L) = -6.13 ± 0.03 L⊙, implying a hot start mass of 3-30 Mjup for a conservative age range of 0.1-6.5 Gyr. Of particular interest, our model fits suggest that GJ 504 b has a superstellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with nonstellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrophisica, Italy; LBT

  19. Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2015-01-01

    To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in

  20. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "ηplanet" values for each kind of planet. These η values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  1. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-21

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level. PMID:27333828

  2. Wide Giant Planets are Rare: Planet Demographics from Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth

    2015-08-01

    The previous generation of direct imaging surveys probed samples of 100-200 stars with AO-driven coronagraphic imaging and advanced techniques such as Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) (e.g. surveys such as SEEDS, IDPS, the NICI Science Campaign, among others). These surveys found that wide giant planets are comparatively rare, especially at separations > 50 AU: for instance, Biller et al. 2013 find for a sample of 78 young moving group stars that the the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU is <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. As next generation planet-finding cameras such as GPI at Gemini, SPHERE at VLT, project 1640, and SceXAO at Suburu come online, our understanding of wide planet populations is likely to undergo a rapid evolution, especially for planets at separations of 10-50 AU. New large-scale surveys (400-500 stars) are now underway with these new instruments, e.g. NIRSUR with SPHERE and GPIES with GPI. In this talk, I will review the previous generation of surveys and the statistical results that they have yielded. I will also discuss prospects for the new generation of ongoing surveys.

  3. Direct Atom Imaging by Chemical-Sensitive Holography.

    PubMed

    Lühr, Tobias; Winkelmann, Aimo; Nolze, Gert; Krull, Dominique; Westphal, Carsten

    2016-05-11

    In order to understand the physical and chemical properties of advanced materials, functional molecular adsorbates, and protein structures, a detailed knowledge of the atomic arrangement is essential. Up to now, if subsurface structures are under investigation, only indirect methods revealed reliable results of the atoms' spatial arrangement. An alternative and direct method is three-dimensional imaging by means of holography. Holography was in fact proposed for electron waves, because of the electrons' short wavelength at easily accessible energies. Further, electron waves are ideal structure probes on an atomic length scale, because electrons have a high scattering probability even for light elements. However, holographic reconstructions of electron diffraction patterns have in the past contained severe image artifacts and were limited to at most a few tens of atoms. Here, we present a general reconstruction algorithm that leads to high-quality atomic images showing thousands of atoms. Additionally, we show that different elements can be identified by electron holography for the example of FeS2. PMID:27070050

  4. High-speed nonsilver lithographic system for laser direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DoMinh, Thap

    1991-08-01

    A high-speed nonsilver lithographic system has been demonstrated for direct laser imaging. The system is negative working and is based on a photoinsolubilization of a polymer coating by redox amplification. The essential components consist of a cobalt(III)amine (Coen), a redox transfer ligand (PAN), a light-sensitive quinone (Q), and a polysulfonamide binder (A6). On exposure, the quinone photogenerates a hydroquinone reducing agent. On heating, the hydroquinone reduces Coen to produce Co(II). PAN then complexes this Co(II) to form CO(II) PAN which, in turn, reduces more Coen. This resulting reaction produces Co(III)PAN and more Co(II) centers, which in the presence of excess PAN and Coen continues the cycle, giving photographically useful amplification. Polysulfonamide (A6) is an excellent medium with optimal acidity and thermomechanical properties to promote this chemistry. It provides toughness required for a dry-film photoresist, ink receptivity for lithographic plate, and aqueous development for both applications. Exposure to an Argon ion laser (4881514nm) at dose O.5-lmj/cm2 followed by heating (5 sec/120 C hot plate) produced high-density images that were insolubilized in an aqueous alkaline developer to give final nonswell images of excellent quality.

  5. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  6. Direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable planets with ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien

    2015-12-01

    While the ~1e10 reflected light contrast between Earth-like planets and Sun-like stars is extremely challenging to overcome for ground-based telescopes, habitable planets around lower-mass stars can be "only" a 10 million times fainter than their host stars. Thanks to the small angular resolution offered by upcoming extremely large telescopes (ELTs) and recent advances in wavefront control and coronagraphic techniques, direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable planets will be possible around nearby M-type stars. Deep (~1e-8) contrast can be achieved by combining (1) sensitive fast visible light wavefront sensing (extreme-AO) with (2) kHz speckle control in the near-IR and (3) high efficiency coronagraphy. Spectroscopy will measure abundances of water, oxygen and methane, measure the planet rotation period, orbit, and identify main surface features through time-domain spectrophotometry.The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system is a technology precursor to such a habitable planet imager for ELTs, and is currently under active development. By combining small inner working angle coronagraphy, visible-WFS based extreme-AO and fast speckle control, it will include the key elements of a future ELT system able to image and characterize habitable planets. We describe a technical plan to evolve SCExAO into a habitable planet imager for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), which is aimed at providing such scientific capability during the 2020 decade, and inform the design, deployment and scientific operation of a more capable Extreme-AO instrument.

  7. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantin, Eric; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Cavarroc, Celine; Sterzik, Michael F.

    2008-07-01

    The phase A study of a mid infrared imager and spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), called METIS, was endorsed in May 2008. Two key science drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo-planets and b) characterization of circumstellar discs from the early proto-planetary to the late debris phase. Observations in the 10μm atmospheric window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet or the disc of ~ 105. At shorter wavelengths the contrast between star and reflected light from the planet-disc system exceeds >~ 107 posing technical challenges. By means of end-to-end detailed simulations we demonstrate that the superb spatial resolution of a 42m telescope in combination with stellar light rejection methods such as coronagraphic or differential imaging will allow detections at 10μm for a solar type system down to a star-planet separation of 0.1" and a mass limit for irradiated planets of 1 Jupiter (MJ) mass. In case of self-luminous planets observations are possible further out e.g. at the separation limit of JWST of ~ 0.7", METIS will detect planets >~5MJ. This allows to derive a census of all such exo-planets by means of thermal imaging in a volume limited sample of up to 6pc. In addition, METIS will provide the possibility to study the chemical composition of atmospheres of exo-planets using spectroscopy at moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 100) for the brightest targets. Based on detailed performance and sensitivity estimates, we demonstrate that a mid-infrared instrument on an ELT is perfectly suited to observe gravitationally created structures such as gaps in proto- and post- planetary discs, in a complementary way to space missions (e.g. JWST, SOFIA) and ALMA which can only probe the cold dust emission further out.

  8. Direct curvature correction for noncontact imaging modalities applied to multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Amyot, Franck; Ehler, Martin; Hassan, Moinuddin; Demos, Stavros G.; Chernomordik, Victor; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Riley, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    Noncontact optical imaging of curved objects can result in strong artifacts due to the object’s shape, leading to curvature biased intensity distributions. This artifact can mask variations due to the object’s optical properties, and makes reconstruction of optical∕physiological properties difficult. In this work we demonstrate a curvature correction method that removes this artifact and recovers the underlying data, without the necessity of measuring the object’s shape. This method is applicable to many optical imaging modalities that suffer from shape-based intensity biases. By separating the spatially varying data (e.g., physiological changes) from the background signal (dc component), we show that the curvature can be extracted by either averaging or fitting the rows and columns of the images. Numerical simulations show that our method is equivalent to directly removing the curvature, when the object’s shape is known, and accurately recovers the underlying data. Experiments on phantoms validate the numerical results and show that for a given image with 16.5% error due to curvature, the method reduces that error to 1.2%. Finally, diffuse multispectral images are acquired on forearms in vivo. We demonstrate the enhancement in image quality on intensity images, and consequently on reconstruction results of blood volume and oxygenation distributions. PMID:20799815

  9. Exozodiacal Dust and Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets means contending with dust from extrasolar asteroids and comets. This 'exozodiacal dust' creates a structured background light that can easily outshine the light from an exoEarth and confuse a planet-search mission like TPF or TOPS. But exozodiacal dust can be both friend and foe: planets can stir dust clouds into patterns that reveal the presence of the planet and constrain its mass and orbit. I'll describe some recent research on this topic: 3-D dynamical models of dust clouds with planets and searches for exozodiacal dust with the Keck Interferometer. The author also offers a prediction for the typical zodiacal dust background found around solar analogs, based on seafloor sediment data.

  10. Exoplanet Community Report on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Direct infrared imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets will allow for detailed characterization of the atmospheric constituents of more than 200 nearby Earth-like planets, more than is possible with any other method under consideration. A flagship mission based on larger passively cooled infrared telescopes and formation flying technologies would have the highest angular resolution of any concept under consideration. The 2008 Exoplanet Forum committee on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets recommends: (1) a vigorous technology program including component development, integrated testbeds, and end-to-end modeling in the areas of formation flying and mid-infrared nulling; (2) a probe-scale mission based on a passively cooled structurally connected interferometer to be started within the next two to five years, for exoplanetary system characterization that is not accessible from the ground, and which would provide transformative science and lay the engineering groundwork for the flagship mission with formation flying elements. Such a mission would enable a complete exozodiacal dust survey (<1 solar system zodi) in the habitable zone of all nearby stars. This information will allow for a more efficient strategy of spectral characterization of Earth-sized planets for the flagship missions, and also will allow for optimization of the search strategy of an astrometric mission if such a mission were delayed due to cost or technology reasons. (3) Both the flagship and probe missions should be pursued with international partners if possible. Fruitful collaboration with international partners on mission concepts and relevant technology should be continued. (4) Research and Analysis (R&A) should be supported for the development of preliminary science and mission designs. Ongoing efforts to characterize the the typical level of exozodiacal light around Sun-like stars with ground-based nulling technology should be continued.

  11. Direct Imaging Searches with the Apodizing Phase Plate Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenworthy, M.; Meshkat, T.; Otten, , G.; Codona, J.

    2014-03-01

    The sensitivity of direct imaging searches for extrasolar planets is limited by the presence of diffraction rings from the primary star. Coronagraphs are angular filters that minimise these diffraction structures whilst allowing light from faint companions to shine through. The Apodizing Phase Plate (APP; Kenworthy 2007) coronagraph is a simple pupil plane optic that suppresses diffraction over a 180 degree region around each star simultaneously, providing easy beam switching observations and requiring no time consuming optical alignment at the telescope. We will present our results on using the APP at the Very Large Telescope in surveys for extrasolar planets around A/F and debris disk hosting stars in the L' band (3.8 microns) in the Southern Hemisphere, where we reach a contrast of 12 magnitudes at 0.5 arcseconds (Meshkat 2013). In Leiden, we are also developing the next generation of broadband achromatic coronagraphs that can simultaneously image both sides of the star using Vector APPs (Snik 2012, Otten 2012). Recent laboratory results showing the potential of this technology for future ELTs will also be presented.

  12. Rapamycin/DiR loaded lipid-polyaniline nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging guided enhanced photothermal and antiangiogenic combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinping; Guo, Fang; Yu, Meng; Liu, Li; Tan, Fengping; Yan, Ran; Li, Nan

    2016-09-10

    Imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) has promising application for treating tumors. Nevertheless, so far imaging-guided photothermal drug-delivery systems have been developed with limited success for tumor chemo-photothermal therapy. In this study, as the proof-of-concept, a stimuli-responsive tumor-targeting rapamycin/DiR loaded lipid-polyaniline nanoparticle (RDLPNP) for dual-modal imaging-guided enhanced PTT efficacy is reported for the first time. In this system, polyaniline (PANI) with π-π electronic conjugated system and effective photothermal efficiency is chosen as the appropriate model receptor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and loaded cyanine probe (e.g., 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) acts as the donor of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, rapamycin (RAPA), which is used as the antiangiogenesis chemotherapeutic drug, can cutdown the tumor vessels and delay tumor growth obviously. After intravenous treatment of RDLPNPs into Hela tumor bearing mice, fluorescent (from DiR) and enhanced photoacoustic (from DLPNPs) signals were found in tumor site over time, which reached to peak at the 6h time point. After irradiating with an NIR laser, a good anti-tumor effect was observed owing to the enhanced photothermal and antiangiogenic effect of RDLPNPs. These results show that the multifunctional nanoparticle can be used as a promising imaging-guided photothermal drug delivery nanoplatform for cancer therapy. PMID:27388755

  13. Separation of multiple images via directional guidance using structured prism and pyramid arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyemin; Seo, Hyein; Kang, Sunghwan; Yoon, Hyunsik

    2016-09-01

    We propose a new concept of separating images through a directional guide of multi-visuals by using structured prism or pyramid arrays. By placing prism arrays onto two different image arrays, the two collective images below the facets are guided to different directions. Using optical calculations, we identify a condition for successful image separation. Transparent pyramid arrays are used to separate four images into four directions. The direction of refracted rays can be controlled by the refractive index of prisms and liquid filled into the voids. In addition, the images can be switched by stretching and releasing an elastomeric prism array. PMID:27607698

  14. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging of strongly ordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Zanette, Irene; Weitkamp, Timm; David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon; Deyhle, Hans; Reznikova, Elena; Mohr, Juergen

    2010-12-01

    Recently a novel grating based x-ray imaging approach called directional x-ray dark-field imaging was introduced. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging yields information about the local texture of structures smaller than the pixel size of the imaging system. In this work we extend the theoretical description and data processing schemes for directional dark-field imaging to strongly scattering systems, which could not be described previously. We develop a simple scattering model to account for these recent observations and subsequently demonstrate the model using experimental data. The experimental data includes directional dark-field images of polypropylene fibers and a human tooth slice.

  15. Thermokarst Lake Gyre Flow Speed and Direction Derivation Using Image Matching from Sequential Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, S.; Wang, S.; Beck, R. A.; Liu, H.; Hinkel, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska are closely coupled with the regional climate through energy, water and carbon budgets. These lakes exhibit striking elongated shapes perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. This has led to the hypothesis that the expansion of lakes is caused by thermomechanical processes induced by wind-driven water circulation. The predominant bimodal wind regime in the region (easterly and westerly wind) redistributes lake sediment towards the west and east shores to form protective littoral shelves while the north and south shores are preferentially eroded. Previous research on wind-driven circulation in thermokarst lakes was mainly based on in situ studies which can only collect sparse measurements and is time-consuming. Examination of satellite imagery clearly reveals the wide-spread presence of gyres in thermokarst lakes. It allows the study of gyres and other circulation patterns at both lake and regional scales. This study examines the movement (speed, direction) of a 10-km-wide gyre using a Landsat-7 and an ASTER scene taken about 40 minutes apart. These two images are matched using a robust image matching technique based on cross-correlation. Flow speed and direction for the gyre are extracted from the images and are compared with the in situ measurements collected during previous field work. This study provides insight into the evolution of thermokarst lakes and their interaction with the local climate by quantifying gyre circulation rates over entire lakes.

  16. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF BROWN DWARFS AND DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-10-20

    A variety of observations provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated. We present three-dimensional, global, numerical simulations of convection in the interior, which demonstrate that at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ∼1 K near the top of the convection zone. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will cause a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At large scales, this should consist of stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present an approximate analytic theory of this circulation, which predicts characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ∼50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ∼10-300 m s{sup –1}, and vertical velocities that advect air over a scale height in ∼10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s. This vertical mixing may help to explain the chemical disequilibrium observed on some brown dwarfs. Moreover, the implied large-scale organization of temperature perturbations and vertical velocities suggests that near the L/T transition, patchy clouds can form near the photosphere, helping to explain recent observations of brown-dwarf variability in the near-IR.

  17. Direct Imaging of Gene-Carrier Complexes in Animal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alison J.; Slack, Nelle L.; Ahmad, Ayesha; Matsumoto, Brian; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    1998-03-01

    Cationic lipids are promising gene carriers for DNA transfection. Establishing the correlations between structures of cationic lipid/DNA complexes (CL-DNA) and pathways of transfection will greatly aid us in achieving the optimal CL-DNA transfections. Our first step is to determine the uptake mechanism of DNA by studying the interactions and structures of DNA and cationic lipids. X-ray diffraction shows that the CL-DNA undergoes structural phase transitions from lamellar( J. Raedler, I. Koltover, T. Salditt, C. R. Safinya, Science 275, 810 (1997).) to inverted hexagonal self-assemblies as we change the lipid composition. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy techniques are used to directly image the progress of the CL-DNA in mouse L-cells and unravel the complex structure in-situ. Fluorescence and confocal optical microscopy techniques allow us to monitor the interactions between the complexes and different organelles in the cell cytoplasm. Current results indicate that once inside cells, complexes containing DOPE follow a different pathway from those containing DOPC. This research is funded by NSF-DMR-9624091, PRF-31352-AC7, and Los Alamos-STB/UC:96-108.

  18. Chemistry and Structure of Graphene Oxide via Direct Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shreya H; Gong, Chuncheng; Robertson, Alex W; Warner, Jamie H; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-08-23

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) are the only variants of graphene that can be manufactured at the kilogram scale, and yet the widely accepted model for their structure has largely relied on indirect evidence. Notably, existing high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of graphene oxide report long-range order of sp(2) lattice with isolated defect clusters. Here, we present HRTEM evidence of a different structural form of GO, where nanocrystalline regions of sp(2) lattice are surrounded by regions of disorder. The presence of contaminants that adsorb to the surface of the material at room temperature normally prevents direct observation of the intrinsic atomic structure of this defective GO. To overcome this, we use an in situ heating holder within an aberration-corrected TEM (AC-TEM) to study the atomic structure of this nanocrystalline graphene oxide from room temperature to 700 °C. As the temperature increases to above 500 °C, the adsorbates detach from the GO and the underlying atomic structure is imaged to be small 2-4 nm crystalline domains within a polycrystalline GO film. By combining spectroscopic evidence with the AC-TEM data, we support the dynamic interpretation of the structural evolution of graphene oxide. PMID:27397115

  19. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  20. Vector analysis for direction prediction on image strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Grindley, Josef E.

    2012-10-01

    Vector analysis is a well-developed field that deals with details about line, surface and volume integrals which can be solved analytically to provide solutions to many problems. Using vector analysis, a curve can be divided up into many small arcs, each of which is a position vector. The summation of these position vectors can be used to represent the curve in detail; this is known as the total vector field. In this paper, there is shown a vector analysis methodology when applied to the wake immediately after a moving or stationary object, caused by the movement of the object through free space or the surrounding medium moving around the object respectively. The aim was to create a system that can determine the vectors between successive images in a video with the end result being able to establish an overall trajectory of the object. This could be implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or other device to be deployed in the field to track any type of object. If the device's orientation with magnetic north-south is known, the direction of the object is travelling in can be calculated and then relayed on. This could be useful as an easily deployable warning system for the armed forces or rescue services to inform personnel of potential incoming threats. This work builds upon the Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) mechanism implemented in the DSP Builder environment and describes how the changes allow the system to track the wake and plot its trajectory. System simulations of real world data are shown and the resultant imagery is then discussed. Furthermore, tests are conducted on single objects and then multiple objects to investigate how the system responds as real world situations are likely to have more than a single object.

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease imaging: Current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Kaplan, Jess L; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of imaging in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including detection of extraluminal complications and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, assessment of disease activity and treatment response, and discrimination of inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. IBD is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is comprised of two separate, but related intestinal disorders; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The paper discusses, in detail the pros and cons of the different IBD imaging modalities that need to be considered in order to optimize the imaging and clinical evaluation of patients with IBD. Historically, IBD evaluation of the bowel has included imaging to assess the portions of the small bowel that are inaccessible to optical endoscopic visualization. This traditionally was performed using barium fluoroscopic techniques; however, cross-sectional imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are being increasingly utilized for IBD evaluation because they can simultaneously assess mural and extramural IBD manifestations. Recent advances in imaging technology, that continue to improve the ability of imaging to noninvasively follow disease activity and treatment response, are also discussed. This review article summarizes the current imaging approach in inflammatory bowel disease as well as the role of emerging imaging modalities. PMID:26811637

  2. Evaluation of the veracity of one work by the artist Di Cavalcanti through non-destructive techniques: XRF, imaging and brush stroke analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiya, E. A. M.; Campos, P. H. O. V.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Appoloni, C. R.; Lopes, F.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents systematic studies and analysis that contributed to the identification of the forgery of a work by the artist Emiliano Augusto Cavalcanti de Albuquerque e Melo, known as Di Cavalcanti. The use of several areas of expertise such as brush stroke analysis ("pinacologia"), applied physics, and art history resulted in an accurate diagnosis for ascertaining the authenticity of the work entitled "Violeiro" (1950). For this work we used non-destructive methods such as techniques of infrared, ultraviolet, visible and tangential light imaging combined with chemical analysis of the pigments by portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and graphic gesture analysis. Each applied method of analysis produced specific information that made possible the identification of materials and techniques employed and we concluded that this work is not consistent with patterns characteristic of the artist Di Cavalcanti.

  3. Directed evolution of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for noninvasive imaging of dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mikhail G; Westmeyer, Gil G; Romero, Philip A; Szablowski, Jerzy O; Küster, Benedict; Shah, Ameer; Otey, Christopher R; Langer, Robert; Arnold, Frances H; Jasanoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The development of molecular probes that allow in vivo imaging of neural signaling processes with high temporal and spatial resolution remains challenging. Here we applied directed evolution techniques to create magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine. The sensors were derived from the heme domain of the bacterial cytochrome P450-BM3 (BM3h). Ligand binding to a site near BM3h’s paramagnetic heme iron led to a drop in MRI signal enhancement and a shift in optical absorbance. Using an absorbance-based screen, we evolved the specificity of BM3h away from its natural ligand and toward dopamine, producing sensors with dissociation constants for dopamine of 3.3–8.9 μM. These molecules were used to image depolarization-triggered neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells and in the brains of live animals. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of molecular-level functional MRI using neural activity–dependent sensors, and our protein engineering approach can be generalized to create probes for other targets. PMID:20190737

  4. High-speed four-color infrared digital imaging for studying in-cylinder processes in a DI diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, K. T.

    1995-07-01

    The study was to investigate in-cylinder events of a direct injection-type diesel engine by using a new high-speed infrared (IR) digital imaging systems for obtaining information that was difficult to achieve by the conventional devices. For this, a new high-speed dual-spectra infrared digital imaging system was developed to simultaneously capture two geometrically identical (in respective spectral) sets of IR images having discrete digital information in a (64x64) matrix at rates as high as over 1,800 frames/sec each with exposure period as short as 20 micron sec. At the same time, a new advanced four-color W imaging system was constructed. The first two sets of spectral data were the radiation from water vapor emission bands to compute the distributions of temperature and specie in the gaseous mixture and the remaining two sets of data were to find the instantaneous temperature distribution over the cylinder surface. More than eight reviewed publications have been produced to report many new findings including: Distributions of Water Vapor and Temperature in a Flame; End Gas Images Prior to Onset of Knock; Effect of MTBE on Diesel Combustion; Impact of Oxygen Enrichment on In-cylinder Reactions; Spectral IR Images of Spray Plume; Residual Gas Distribution; Preflame Reactions in Diesel Combustion; Preflame Reactions in the End Gas of an SI Engine; Postflame Oxidation; and Liquid Fuel Layers during Combustion in an SI Engine. In addition, some computational analysis of diesel combustion was performed using KIVA-II program in order to compare results from the prediction and the measurements made using the new IR imaging diagnostic tool.

  5. Directional binary wavelet patterns for biomedical image indexing and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Murala, Subrahmanyam; Maheshwari, R P; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-10-01

    A new algorithm for medical image retrieval is presented in the paper. An 8-bit grayscale image is divided into eight binary bit-planes, and then binary wavelet transform (BWT) which is similar to the lifting scheme in real wavelet transform (RWT) is performed on each bitplane to extract the multi-resolution binary images. The local binary pattern (LBP) features are extracted from the resultant BWT sub-bands. Three experiments have been carried out for proving the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Out of which two are meant for medical image retrieval and one for face retrieval. It is further mentioned that the database considered for three experiments are OASIS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database, NEMA computer tomography (CT) database and PolyU-NIRFD face database. The results after investigation shows a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and LBP with Gabor transform. PMID:21822675

  6. Direct Exoplanet Imaging around Sun-like Stars: Beating the Speckle Noise with Innovative Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Christian; Doyon, R.; Racine, R.; Nadeau, D.; Lafreniere, D.; Vallee, P.; Riopel, M.; Macintosh, B.

    2005-08-01

    Indirect surveys have now uncovered more than 150 exoplanets, but are limited to planets close to the star and measure only the projected mass and orbital parameters. Both photometry and spectroscopy of exoplanets are required to derive their physical characteristics. The star to exoplanet intensity ratio (>108 in the near infrared) and the relative separation (< 0.5 arcseconds) significantly complicate this endeavour. Current ground- and space-based direct imaging surveys achieve an intensity ratio up to 104 at 0.5. separation, a factor 10,000 from the desired goal. These surveys are limited by uncorrected atmospheric turbulence and optical surface imperfections that produce quasi-static speckles that look like exoplanets, but much brighter. Two techniques will be discussed to attenuate this speckle noise. The first is the Simultaneous Spectral Differential Imaging technique (SSDI), acquiring a number of images simultaneously at different adjacent narrowband wavelengths and combining them to attenuate speckles. The second is the Angular Differential Imaging technique (ADI), taking multiple observations while rotating the telescope or waiting for sufficient field rotation to subtract static speckles and to preserve the companion flux. Results from a dedicated SSDI camera "TRIDENT" that was mounted under PUEO/CFHT and from an ongoing ADI survey at Gemini with Altair/NIRI will be presented. Future work involving a new type of detector, the Multi-Color Detector Assembly (MCDA), will also be discussed. Combining these observation strategies and new detectors are of particular interest for specialized exoplanet finder instruments for 10-m telescopes that are currently under study, like ExAOC at Gemini, and future space-based observatories like TPF.

  7. Reconstructing chromosphere concentration images directly by continuous-wave diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Zhang, Quan; Culver, Joseph P; Miller, Eric L; Boas, David A

    2004-02-01

    We present an algorithm to reconstruct chromosphere concentration images directly rather than following the traditional two-step process of reconstructing wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient images and then calculating chromosphere concentration images. This procedure imposes prior spectral information into the image reconstruction that results in a dramatic improvement in the image contrast-to-noise ratio of better than 100%. We demonstrate this improvement with simulations and a dynamic blood phantom experiment. PMID:14759043

  8. Molecular imaging of breast cancer: present and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, David; Leal, Manuel Pernia; García-Bocanegra, Irene; García-Martín, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumor is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g., proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g., apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumor behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises. PMID:25566530

  9. Direct Penguin Counting Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C. U.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents an application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to monitor penguin colony in Baton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The area around Narębski Point located on the southeast coast of Barton Peninsula was designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171 (ASPA 171), and Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins inhabit in this area. The UAV images were acquired in a part of ASPA 171 from four flights in a single day, Jan 18, 2014. About 360 images were mosaicked as an image of about 3 cm spatial resolution and then a subset including representative penguin rookeries was selected. The subset image was segmented based on gradient map of pixel values, and spectral and spatial attributes were assigned to each segment. The object based image analysis (OBIA) was conducted with consideration of spectral attributes including mean and minimum values of each segment and various shape attributes such as area, length, compactness and roundness to detect individual penguin. The segments indicating individual penguin were effectively detected on rookeries with high contrasts in the spectral and shape attributes. The importance of periodic and precise monitoring of penguins has been recognized because variations of their populations reflect environmental changes and disturbance from human activities. Utilization of very high resolution imaging method shown in this study can be applied to other penguin habitats in Antarctica, and the results will be able to support establishing effective environmental management plans.

  10. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, David; Pernia Leal, Manuel; Garcia, Irene; Garcia-Martin, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  11. Future Directions In Image Management: Medical And Practical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, J. J.; Eikman, E. A.; Shaff, M. I.; James, A. E.

    1983-05-01

    The volume of data produced by new imaging modalities has far outstripped the ability of most departments to effectively utilize the images produced. The problem is further exacerbated by the fact that the diagnostic procedures have become progressively less invasive and traumatic and are being applied to an ever larger patient population. The decrease in cost and the rise in technological capability of computer systems in recent years has provided imaging specialists with the opportunity to create network systems for the storage and recall of diagnostic images. This paper examines the philosophy of image storage from the standpoint of the medical, legal, and practical questions. A proposal is made that not all images are equal and that some deserve to be archived for longer periods than others. The practical problem of using a video display for diagnostic readout, aside from the classical questions of resolution and response time, is discussed. A proposal is also made that two data bases might be created; one which provides rapid access to the clinically relevant images (i.e., the two or three that demonstrate pathology) and one which may require much longer to access, but which contains all the archived data.

  12. Image-Guided Tumor Ablation: Emerging Technologies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Justin P.; Lee, Edward W.; Yamamoto, Shota; Loh, Christopher T.; Kee, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    As the trend continues toward the decreased invasiveness of medical procedures, image-guided percutaneous ablation has begun to supplant surgery for the local control of small tumors in the liver, kidney, and lung. New ablation technologies, and refinements of existing technologies, will enable treatment of larger and more complex tumors in these and other organs. At the same time, improvements in intraprocedural imaging promise to improve treatment accuracy and reduce complications. In this review, the latest advancements in clinical and experimental ablation technologies will be summarized, and new applications of image-guided tumor ablation will be discussed. PMID:22550370

  13. New directions in clinical imaging of cortical dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Madan, Neel; Grant, P Ellen

    2009-10-01

    Neuroimaging is essential in the work-up of patients with intractable epilepsy. In pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy, cortical dysplasias account for a large percentage of the epileptogenic substrate. Unfortunately, these are also the most subtle lesions to identify. For this reason, there has been ongoing interest in utilizing new advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to improve the ability to identify, diagnose, characterize, and delineate cortical dysplasias. Technologic gains such as multichannel coils (32 phased array and beyond) and higher field strengths (3T, 7T, and greater) coupled with newer imaging sequences such as arterial spin labeling (ASL), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and diffusion tensor/spectrum imaging (DTI/DSI) are likely to increase yield. Improved MRI techniques coupled with a multimodality approach including magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and other techniques will increase sensitivity and specificity for identifying cortical dysplasias. PMID:19761449

  14. 12-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Attention Direction in Static Video Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes; Dahlstrom, Emma; Fredriksson, Ylva

    2005-01-01

    Twelve-month-old infants' ability to perceive gaze direction in static video images was investigated. The images showed a woman who performed attention-directing actions by looking or pointing toward 1 of 4 objects positioned in front of her (2 on each side). When the model just pointed at the objects, she looked straight ahead, and when she just…

  15. Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals.

    PubMed

    Izhaky, David; Nelson, Darin A; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia; Grinvald, Amiram

    2009-07-01

    The Retinal Function Imager (RFI; Optical Imaging, Rehovot, Israel) is a unique, noninvasive multiparameter functional imaging instrument that directly measures hemodynamic parameters such as retinal blood-flow velocity, oximetric state, and metabolic responses to photic activation. In addition, it allows capillary perfusion mapping without any contrast agent. These parameters of retinal function are degraded by retinal abnormalities. This review delineates the development of these parameters and demonstrates their clinical applicability for noninvasive detection of retinal function in several modalities. The results suggest multiple clinical applications for early diagnosis of retinal diseases and possible critical guidance of their treatment. PMID:19763751

  16. Direct Imaging of Exoplanets Living an Exciting Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, G.

    2016-01-01

    With the development of high contrast imaging techniques and instruments, vast efforts have been devoted during the past decades to detect and characterize lighter, cooler and closer companions to nearby stars, and ultimately image new planetary systems. Complementary to other planet-hunting techniques, this approach has opened a new astrophysical window to study the physical properties and the formation mechanisms of brown dwarfs and planets. In this review, I will briefly describe the different observing techniques and strategies used, the main samples of targeted nearby stars, finally the main results obtained so far about exoplanet discoveries characterization of their physical properties, and study of their occurrence and possible formation and evolution mechanisms.

  17. Detecting groundwater flow direction from infrared thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Akhundzadah Noor; Saito, Hirotaka; Asada, Kei; Kato, Makoto

    In this study we propose an approach to directly measure temperature changes around the heat source placed in a borehole using an infrared camera for determining groundwater flow direction. A plastic box filled with sands with a cylindrical perforated column placed in middle of the box was used in lab experiments. A heater was inserted in the center of the borehole. To detect the flow direction from the temperature distribution, an infrared camera that was placed face-down at the top of the cylinder (i.e., borehole) was used. COMSOL was used to numerically simulate coupled water flow and heat transfer to evaluate experimental results. Results show that when the flux is in the order of 10-2 to 10-4cm s-1, we can determine the groundwater flow direction because of a skewed temperature distribution due to convective transport of heat.

  18. Fiber optic direct Raman imaging system based on a hollow-core fiber bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, S.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.

    2015-03-01

    A Raman imaging system which combined a hollow fiber bundle and a direct imaging technique was constructed for high-speed endoscopic Raman imaging. The hollow fiber bundle is fabricated by depositing a silver thin film on the inner surface of pre-drawn glass capillary bundle. It performs as a fiber optic probe which transmits a Raman image with high signal-to-noise ratio because the propagating light is confined into the air core inducing little light scattering. The field of view on the sample is uniformly irradiated by the excitation laser light via the probe. The back-scattered image is collected by the probe and captured directly by an image sensor. A pair of thin film tunable filters is used to select target Raman band. This imaging system enables flexible and high-speed Raman imaging of biological tissues.

  19. Half-time Tc-99m sestamibi imaging with a direct conversion molecular breast imaging system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce necessary acquisition time to perform molecular breast imaging (MBI), we compared diagnostic performance of MBI performed with standard 10-min-per-view acquisitions and half-time 5-min-per-view acquisitions, with and without wide beam reconstruction (WBR) processing. Methods Eighty-two bilateral, two-view MBI studies were reviewed. Studies were performed with 300 MBq Tc-99 m sestamibi and a direct conversion molecular breast imaging (DC-MBI) system. Acquisitions were 10 min-per-view; the first half of each was extracted to create 5-min-per-view datasets, and WBR processing was applied. The 10-min-, 5-min-, and 5-min-per-view WBR studies were independently interpreted in a randomized, blinded fashion by two radiologists. Assessments of 1 to 5 were assigned; 4 and 5 were considered test positive. Background parenchymal uptake, lesion type, distribution of non-mass lesions, lesion intensity, and image quality were described. Results Considering detection of all malignant and benign lesions, 5 min-per-view MBI had lower sensitivity (mean of 70% vs. 85% (p ≤ 0.04) for two readers) and lower area under curve (AUC) (mean of 92.7 vs. 99.6, p ≤ 0.01) but had similar specificity (p = 1.0). WBR processing did not alter sensitivity, specificity, or AUC obtained at 5 min-per-view. Overall agreement in final assessment between 5-min-per-view and 10-min-per-view acquisition types was near perfect (κ = 0.82 to 0.89); however, fair to moderate agreement was observed for assessment category 3 (probably benign) (κ = 0.24 to 0.48). Of 33 malignant lesions, 6 (18%) were changed from assessment of 4 or 5 with 10-min-per-view MBI to assessment of 3 with 5-min-per-view MBI. Image quality of 5-min-per-view studies was reduced compared to 10-min-per-view studies for both readers (3.24 vs. 3.98, p < 0.0001 and 3.60 vs. 3.91, p < 0.0001). WBR processing improved image quality for one reader (3.85 vs. 3.24, p < 0

  20. The subjective image quality of direct digital and conventional panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, F; De Meyer, A M; Bou Serhal, C; Van den Bossche, C; Declerck, J; Persoons, M; Jacobs, R

    2000-09-01

    One of the main advantages of digital imaging is the possibility of altering display options for improved image interpretation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the subjective image quality of direct digital panoramic images and compare the results with those obtained from conventional images. Furthermore, the effect of various filter settings on image interpretation was assessed. Panoramic images were obtained with three different types of panoramic equipment (one direct digital and two conventional units) from three groups of 54 patients with a natural dentition in all quadrants. The first series of panoramic images consisted of 54 unprocessed digital images; conventional film images (n = 108) comprised the second and third series. A final series consisted of the digital images treated with three different filters ("smoothening," "sharpening," and "contrast enhancement"). All images were scored randomly by four experts in oral radiology on a 4-point rating scale. The results showed a statistically significant difference in scorings between the conventional and digital panoramic units. The main reason for poor image quality appeared to be a combination of blurring and overlapping in the panoramic image. The premolar region in the upper jaw was the region where most additional radiographs were needed. PMID:11000322

  1. Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. R.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Antonucci, R. R. J.; Kinney, A. L.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of VLA A-array 8.46 GHz continuum imaging of 55 Seyfert galaxies (19 Seyfert 1's and 36 Seyfert 2's). These galaxies are part of a larger sample of 88 Seyfert galaxies, selected from mostly isotropic properties, the flux at 60 μm, and warm infrared 25-60 μm colors. These images are used to study the structure of the radio continuum emission of these galaxies and their position angles, in the case of extended sources. These data, combined with information from broadband B and I observations, have been used to study the orientation of radio jets relative to the plane of their host galaxies (Kinney et al.).

  2. Candidate gravitational microlensing events for future direct lens imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C. B.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Park, H.; Han, C.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Udalski, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ ≳ 8 mas yr{sup –1}. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In ≲12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  3. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W.; Wilson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the edematous reaction in acute myocardial infarct (AMI) is not stable and warranted the use of edematous area in evaluating therapies. On the other hand, cine MRI demonstrated reproducible data on LV function in healthy volunteers and LV remodeling in patients. Noninvasive first pass perfusion, using exogenous tracer (gadolinium-based contrast media) and arterial spin labeling MRI, using endogenous tracer (water), are sensitive and useful techniques for evaluating myocardial perfusion and angiogenesis. Recently, new strategies have been developed to quantify myocardial viability using T1-mapping and equilibrium contrast enhanced MR techniques because existing delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) sequences are limited in detecting patchy microinfarct and diffuse fibrosis. These new techniques were successfully used for characterizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis associated with myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis heart failure, aortic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension). Diffusion MRI provides information regarding microscopic tissue structure, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) helps to characterize the myocardium and monitor the process of LV remodeling after AMI. Novel trends in hybrid imaging, such as cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI and optical imaging/MRI, are recently under intensive investigation. With the promise of higher spatial

  4. Candidate Gravitational Microlensing Events for Future Direct Lens Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. B.; Park, H.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Han, C.; Gaudi, B. S.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Tsurumi, N.; Wada, K.; Yamai, N.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Almeida, L. A.; Bos, M.; Choi, J.-Y.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Friedmann, M.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jablonski, F.; Jung, Y. K.; Kaspi, S.; Lee, C.-U.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; Moorhouse, D.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Pogge, R. W.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Tan, T.-G.; Thornley, G.; Yee, J. C.; μFUN Collaboration; Allan, A.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Street, R. A.; RoboNet Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ >~ 8 mas yr-1. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In lsim12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  5. Direct imaging of tunneling from a potential well.

    PubMed

    Tomes, Mathew; Vahala, Kerry J; Carmon, Tal

    2009-10-12

    We experimentally map the wavefunction in the vicinity of a radial potential well. We photograph light intensity near the tunneling region as well as measure the spiraling phase structure via interference with a reference wave. This spiraling phase structure is required for conservation of angular momentum. The experimental image reveals the non-intuitive emission of light from a region in space that is empty of material and relatively far from the device. PMID:20372652

  6. Direct estimation of evoked hemoglobin changes by multimodality fusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Theodore J.; Diamond, Solomon G.; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, both diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods have been developed as noninvasive tools for imaging evoked cerebral hemodynamic changes in studies of brain activity. Although these two technologies measure functional contrast from similar physiological sources, i.e., changes in hemoglobin levels, these two modalities are based on distinct physical and biophysical principles leading to both limitations and strengths to each method. In this work, we describe a unified linear model to combine the complimentary spatial, temporal, and spectroscopic resolutions of concurrently measured optical tomography and fMRI signals. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that concurrent optical and BOLD measurements can be used to create cross-calibrated estimates of absolute micromolar deoxyhemoglobin changes. We apply this new analysis tool to experimental data acquired simultaneously with both DOT and BOLD imaging during a motor task, demonstrate the ability to more robustly estimate hemoglobin changes in comparison to DOT alone, and show how this approach can provide cross-calibrated estimates of hemoglobin changes. Using this multimodal method, we estimate the calibration of the 3 tesla BOLD signal to be −0.55% ± 0.40% signal change per micromolar change of deoxyhemoglobin. PMID:19021411

  7. Mapping site-specific endonuclease binding to DNA by direct imaging with AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, D.P.; Thundat, T.; Doktycz, M.J.; Kerper, P.S.; Warmack, R.J.; Modrich, P.; Isfort, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Physical mapping of DNA can be accomplished by direct AFM imaging of site specific proteins bound to DNA molecules. Using Gln-111, a mutant of EcoRI endonuclease with a specific affinity for EcoRI sites 1,000 times greater than wild type enzyme but with cleavage rate constants reduced by a factor of 10{sup 4}, the authors demonstrate site-specific mapping by direct AFM imaging. Images are presented showing specific-site binding of Gln-111 to plasmids having either one (pBS{sup +}) or two (pMP{sup 32}) EcoRI sites. Identification of the Gln-111/DNA complex is greatly enhanced by biotinylation of the complex followed by reaction with streptavidin gold prior to imaging. Image enhancement coupled with improvements in the preparation techniques for imaging large DNA molecules, such as lambda DNA (47 kb), has the potential to contribute to direct AFM restriction mapping of cosmid-sized genomic DNAs.

  8. Fast multiscale directional filter bank-based speckle mitigation in gallstone ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Leavline, Epiphany Jebamalar; Sutha, Shunmugam; Singh, Danasingh Asir Antony Gnana

    2014-02-01

    Speckle noise is a multiplicative type of noise commonly seen in medical and remote sensing images. It gives a granular appearance that degrades the quality of the recorded images. These speckle noise components need to be mitigated before the image is used for further processing and analysis. This paper presents a novel approach for removing granular speckle noise in gray scale images. We used an efficient multiscale image representation scheme named fast multiscale directional filter bank (FMDFB) along with simple threshold methods such as Vishushrink for image processing. It is a perfect reconstruction framework that can be used for a wide range of image processing applications because of its directionality and reduced computational complexity. The FMDFB-based speckle mitigation is appealing over other traditional multiscale approaches such as wavelets and Contourlets. Our experimental results show that the despeckling performance of the proposed method outperforms the wavelet and Contourlet-based despeckling methods. PMID:24562027

  9. Exoplanet Direct Imaging: Coronagraph Probe Mission Study EXO-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    Flagship mission for spectroscopy of ExoEarths is a long-term priority for space astrophysics (Astro2010). Requires 10(exp 10) contrast at 3 lambda/D separation, ( (is) greater than 10,000 times beyond HST performance) and large telescope (is) greater than 4m aperture. Big step. Mission for spectroscopy of giant planets and imaging of disks requires 10(exp 9) contrast at 3 lambda/D (already demonstrated in lab) and (is) approximately 1.5m telescope. Should be much more affordable, good intermediate step.Various PIs have proposed many versions of the latter mission 17 times since 1999; no unified approach.

  10. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  11. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  12. Band-Limited Masks and Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Band-limited masks have become the baseline design for what is now called "classical TPF" and also the N|RCamcomnagraphonJW8 .This technology remains one of the most promising paths for direct detection ofmxop|anedm and disks. I'll describe some of the latest progress in the implementation of this technique and what we have learned about where it can and can not be effectively applied.

  13. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  14. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  15. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  16. Friends of Hot Jupiters: Trends in directly imaged companion fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R.; Bechter, Eric B.; Batygin, Konstantin; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Morton, Timothy; Muirhead, Philip S.

    2015-08-01

    Although almost half of all nearby solar-like stars are part of multi-star systems, the effect of stellar companions on the formation and evolution of planetary systems is poorly understood. In this study we use adaptive optics imaging to search for bound stellar companions to stars hosting transiting hot Jupiters in order to determine whether or not these companions might have influenced the orbital evolution of these planets. Here we expand on our initial survey and present new observations of 24 hot Jupiter hosts, for a total sample size of 74 systems. The increased survey size allows us to probe the relationship between companion fraction and other properties of these systems, such as planetary spin-orbit misalignment, orbital eccentricities, and stellar effective temperature. We also compare the binary fraction in our sample to that of field stars, and confirm our previous result that hot Jupiter hosts are twice as likely to have stellar companions between 50-2000 AU.

  17. Shallow subsurface imaging of the Piano di Pezza active normal fault (central Italy) by high-resolution refraction and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Fabio; Tulliani, Valerio; Fierro, Elisa; Sapia, Vincenzo; Civico, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The Piano di Pezza fault is the north-westernmost segment of the >20 km long Ovindoli-Pezza active normal fault-system (central Italy). Although existing paleoseismic data document high vertical Holocene slip rates (~1 mm/yr) and a remarkable seismogenic potential of this fault, its subsurface setting and Pleistocene cumulative displacement are still poorly known. We investigated for the first time by means of high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements the shallow subsurface of a key section of the Piano di Pezza fault. Our surveys cross a ~5 m-high fault scarp that was generated by repeated surface-rupturing earthquakes displacing some Late Holocene alluvial fans. We provide 2-D Vp and resistivity images which clearly show significant details of the fault structure and the geometry of the shallow basin infill material down to 50 m depth. We can estimate the dip (~50°) and the Holocene vertical displacement of the master fault (~10 m). We also recognize in the hangingwall some low-velocity/low-resistivity regions that we relate to packages of colluvial wedges derived from scarp degradation, which may represent the record of several paleo-earthquakes older than the Late Holocene events previously recognized by paleoseismic trenching. Conversely, due to the limited investigation depth of seismic and electrical tomography, the estimation of the cumulative amount of Pleistocene throw is hampered. Therefore, to increase the depth of investigation, we performed 7 TDEM measurements along the electrical profile using a 50 m loop size both in central and offset configuration. The recovered 1-D resistivity models show a good match with 2-D resistivity images in the near surface. Moreover, TDEM inversion results indicate that in the hangingwall, ~200 m away from the surface fault trace, the carbonate pre-Quaternary basement may be found at ~90-100 m depth. The combined approach of electrical and

  18. Direct Imaging Search for Extrasolar Planets in the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kodai; Matsuo, Taro; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Konishi, Mihokko; Sudo, Jun; Tanii, Ryoko; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyn; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E,; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; McElwain, Mike; Serabyn, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the H and K(sub S) bands using HiCIAO combined with adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the H band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch images, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was a background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second-epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining two were confirmed to be 60 M(sub J) brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5), respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the H band beyond 1.'' 5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50–1000 AU. For this reason we extrapolated the distribution of the planet mass and the semi-major axis derived from radial velocity observations, and adopted the planet evolution model Baraffe et al. (2003, A&A, 402, 701). Since there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% (2 sigma) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.

  19. Direct Image-To Registration Using Mobile Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehl, C.; Buckley, S. J.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Viola, I.; Howell, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Adding supplementary texture and 2D image-based annotations to 3D surface models is a useful next step for domain specialists to make use of photorealistic products of laser scanning and photogrammetry. This requires a registration between the new camera imagery and the model geometry to be solved, which can be a time-consuming task without appropriate automation. The increasing availability of photorealistic models, coupled with the proliferation of mobile devices, gives users the possibility to complement their models in real time. Modern mobile devices deliver digital photographs of increasing quality, as well as on-board sensor data, which can be used as input for practical and automatic camera registration procedures. Their familiar user interface also improves manual registration procedures. This paper introduces a fully automatic pose estimation method using the on-board sensor data for initial exterior orientation, and feature matching between an acquired photograph and a synthesised rendering of the orientated 3D scene as input for fine alignment. The paper also introduces a user-friendly manual camera registration- and pose estimation interface for mobile devices, based on existing surface geometry and numerical optimisation methods. The article further assesses the automatic algorithm's accuracy compared to traditional methods, and the impact of computational- and environmental parameters. Experiments using urban and geological case studies show a significant sensitivity of the automatic procedure to the quality of the initial mobile sensor values. Changing natural lighting conditions remain a challenge for automatic pose estimation techniques, although progress is presented here. Finally, the automatically-registered mobile images are used as the basis for adding user annotations to the input textured model.

  20. Recent developments in the direct-current geoelectrical imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Chambers, J. E.; Rucker, D. F.; Kuras, O.; Wilkinson, P. B.

    2013-08-01

    There have been major improvements in instrumentation, field survey design and data inversion techniques for the geoelectrical method over the past 25 years. Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. Continued developments in computer technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to carry out the interpretation on commonly available microcomputers. Multi-dimensional geoelectrical surveys are now widely used in environmental, engineering, hydrological and mining applications. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Large areas on land and water can be surveyed rapidly with computerized dynamic towed resistivity acquisition systems. The use of existing metallic wells as long electrodes has improved the detection of targets in areas where they are masked by subsurface infrastructure. A number of PC controlled monitoring systems are also available to measure and detect temporal changes in the subsurface. There have been significant advancements in techniques to automatically generate optimized electrodes array configurations that have better resolution and depth of investigation than traditional arrays. Other areas of active development include the translation of electrical values into geological parameters such as clay and moisture content, new types of sensors, estimation of fluid or ground movement from time-lapse images and joint inversion techniques. In this paper, we investigate the recent developments in geoelectrical imaging and provide a brief look into the future of where the science may be heading.

  1. Direction and movement angular velocity determining of cloudiness with panoramic images of the sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galileiskii, Viktor P.; Elizarov, Alexey I.; Kokarev, Dmitrii V.; Morozov, Aleksandr M.

    2014-11-01

    This article gives a short overview to method of direction determining and visible angular velocity of movement determining of cloudiness based on set of panoramic images of cloudy sky, obtained by "Fisheye" wide-angle lens.

  2. [The hyperspectral camera side-scan geometric imaging in any direction considering the spectral mixing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Hu, Shao-Xing; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2014-07-01

    In order to correct the image distortion in the hyperspectral camera side-scan geometric Imaging, the image pixel geo-referenced algorithm was deduced in detail in the present paper, which is suitable to the linear push-broom camera side-scan imaging on the ground in any direction. It takes the orientation of objects in the navigation coordinates system into account. Combined with the ground sampling distance of geo-referenced image and the area of push broom imaging, the general process of geo-referenced image divided into grids is also presented. The new image rows and columns will be got through the geo-referenced image area dividing the ground sampling distance. Considering the error produced by round rule in the pixel grids generated progress, and the spectral mixing problem caused by traditional direct spectral sampling method in the process of image correction, the improved spectral sampling method based on the weighted fusion method was proposed. It takes the area proportion of adjacent pixels in the new generated pixel as coefficient and then the coefficients are normalized to avoid the spectral overflow. So the new generated pixel is combined with the geo-referenced adjacent pixels spectral. Finally the amounts of push-broom imaging experiments were taken on the ground, and the distortion images were corrected according to the algorithm proposed above. The results show that the linear image distortion correction algorithm is valid and robust. At the same time, multiple samples were selected in the corrected images to verify the spectral data. The results indicate that the improved spectral sampling method is better than the direct spectral sampling algorithm. It provides reference for the application of similar productions on the ground. PMID:25269321

  3. Confirmation of the Planet around HD 95086 by Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Meshkat, T.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Currie, T.; Mawet, D.; Girard, J. H.; Bonnefoy, M.; Kenworthy, M.

    2013-12-01

    VLT/NaCo angular differential imaging at L' (3.8 μm) revealed a probable giant planet comoving with the young and early-type HD 95086, also known to harbor an extended debris disk. The discovery was based on the proper motion analysis of two datasets spanning 15 months. However, the second dataset suffered from bad atmospheric conditions, which limited the significance of the re-detection at the 3σ level. In this Letter, we report new VLT/NaCo observations of HD 95086 obtained on 2013 June 26 and 27 at L' to recover the planet candidate. We unambiguously re-detect the companion HD 95086 b with multiple independent pipelines at a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 5. Combined with previously reported measurements, our astrometry decisively shows that the planet is comoving with HD 95086 and inconsistent with a background object. With a revised mass of 5 ± 2 Jupiter masses, estimated from its L' photometry and "hot-start" models at 17 ± 4 Myr, HD 95086 b becomes a new benchmark for further physical and orbital characterization of young giant planets. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programs number 291.C-5023.

  4. CONFIRMATION OF THE PLANET AROUND HD 95086 BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Currie, T.; Mawet, D.; Girard, J. H.; Bonnefoy, M.

    2013-12-20

    VLT/NaCo angular differential imaging at L' (3.8 μm) revealed a probable giant planet comoving with the young and early-type HD 95086, also known to harbor an extended debris disk. The discovery was based on the proper motion analysis of two datasets spanning 15 months. However, the second dataset suffered from bad atmospheric conditions, which limited the significance of the re-detection at the 3σ level. In this Letter, we report new VLT/NaCo observations of HD 95086 obtained on 2013 June 26 and 27 at L' to recover the planet candidate. We unambiguously re-detect the companion HD 95086 b with multiple independent pipelines at a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 5. Combined with previously reported measurements, our astrometry decisively shows that the planet is comoving with HD 95086 and inconsistent with a background object. With a revised mass of 5 ± 2 Jupiter masses, estimated from its L' photometry and ''hot-start'' models at 17 ± 4 Myr, HD 95086 b becomes a new benchmark for further physical and orbital characterization of young giant planets.

  5. Direct fusion of geostationary meteorological satellite visible and infrared images based on thermal physical properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Wulie, Buzha; Yang, Yiling; Wang, Hongqing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a novel method of fusing visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) images with the major objective of obtaining higher-resolution IR images. Most existing image fusion methods focus only on visual performance and many fail to consider the thermal physical properties of the IR images, leading to spectral distortion in the fused image. In this study, we use the IR thermal physical property to correct the VIS image directly. Specifically, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is used as a strong constraint to modulate the VIS image, such that the fused result shows a similar level of regional thermal energy as the original IR image, while preserving the high-resolution structural features from the VIS image. This method is an improvement over our previous study, which required VIS-IR multi-wavelet fusion before the same correction method was applied. The results of experiments show that applying this correction to the VIS image directly without multi-resolution analysis (MRA) processing achieves similar results, but is considerably more computationally efficient, thereby providing a new perspective on VIS and IR image fusion. PMID:25569749

  6. Direct atomic resolution imaging of dislocation core structures in a 300 kV stem

    SciTech Connect

    McGibbon, A.J.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1995-05-01

    By employing the incoherent imaging technique of Z-contrast imaging in a 300kV STEM, the authors show that it is possible to provide directly interpretable, atomic resolution images of the sublattice in compound semiconductors. Using this approach, analysis of dislocations at an interface in the CdTe(001)/GaAs(001) system reveals unexpected core structures at Lomer dislocations.

  7. a Systematic Comparison of Direct and Image-Based Georeferencing in Challenging Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Nebiker, S.; Haala, N.

    2016-06-01

    Image-based mobile mapping systems enable an efficient acquisition of georeferenced image sequences, which can be used for geo-data capture in subsequent steps. In order to provide accurate measurements in a given reference frame while e.g. aiming at high fidelity 3D urban models, high quality georeferencing of the captured multi-view image sequences is required. Moreover, sub-pixel accurate orientations of these highly redundant image sequences are needed in order to optimally perform steps like dense multi-image matching as a prerequisite for 3D point cloud and mesh generation. While direct georeferencing of image-based mobile mapping data performs well in open areas, poor GNSS coverage in urban canyons aggravates fulfilling these high accuracy requirements, even with high-grade inertial navigation equipment. Hence, we conducted comprehensive investigations aiming at assessing the quality of directly georeferenced sensor orientations as well as the expected improvement by image-based georeferencing in a challenging urban environment. Our study repeatedly delivered mean trajectory deviations of up to 80 cm. By performing image-based georeferencing using bundle adjustment for a limited set of cameras and a limited number of ground control points, mean check point residuals could be lowered from approx. 40 cm to 4 cm. Furthermore, we showed that largely automated image-based georeferencing is capable of detecting and compensating discontinuities in directly georeferenced trajectories.

  8. Direct and inverse methods for ocean-wave imaging by SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotheram, S.; Macklin, J. T.

    1984-08-01

    The direct and inverse problems for ocean-wave imaging by SAR for the image and its power spectrum are discussed. The direct problem is reasonably well understood, but the inverse methods are not complete or optimum. However, they represent the first steps in the development of such methods, and they confirm aspects of imaging theory. Other aspects, particularly for the power spectrum, remain to be completed. Once this is done, optimum methods could be developed using Bacchus-Gilbert theory to provide the required tradeoff between resolution and speckle.

  9. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones.more » In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.« less

  10. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.

  11. Decision net, directed graph, and neural net processing of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki; Barnard, Etienne

    1989-01-01

    A decision-net solution involving a novel hierarchical classifier and a set of multiple directed graphs, as well as a neural-net solution, are respectively presented for large-class problem and mixture problem treatments of imaging spectrometer data. The clustering method for hierarchical classifier design, when used with multiple directed graphs, yields an efficient decision net. New directed-graph rules for reducing local maxima as well as the number of perturbations required, and the new starting-node rules for extending the reachability and reducing the search time of the graphs, are noted to yield superior results, as indicated by an illustrative 500-class imaging spectrometer problem.

  12. A Sphere Phantom Approach to Measure Directional Modulation Transfer Functions for Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changwoo; Baek, Jongduk

    2016-03-01

    We propose a sphere phantom approach to measure spatially varying directional modulation transfer functions (MTFs) for tomosynthesis imaging systems. Since the reconstructed tomosynthesis images contain significant artifacts, traditional background detrending techniques may not be effective to estimate the background trends accurately, which is essential to acquire sphere only data. A background detrending technique optimized for local volumes with different cone angles is presented. To measure directional MTFs, we calculate plane integrals of ideal sphere phantom and sphere only data. To minimize the effects of the high level of noise in tomosynthesis images, Richardson-Lucy deconvolution with Tikhonov-Miller is used to estimate directional plane spread function (PlSF). Then, directional MTFs are calculated by taking the modulus of the Fourier transform of the directional PlSFs. The measured directional MTFs are compared with the ideal directional MTFs calculated from a simulated point object. Our results show that the proposed method reliably measures directional MTFs along any desired directions, especially near low frequency regions. PMID:26571519

  13. Monte Carlo feasibility study for image guided surgery: from direct beta minus detection to Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotti, C. R.; Altabella, L.; Boschi, F.; Spinelli, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this work is to compare the performances of different beta minus detection strategies for image guided surgery or ex vivo tissue analysis. In particular we investigated Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) with and without the use of a radiator, direct and indirect beta detection and bremsstrahlung imaging using beta emitters commonly employed in Nuclear Medicine. Monte Carlo simulations were implemented using the GAMOS plug-in for GEANT4 considering a slab of muscle and a radioactive source (32P or 90Y) placed at 0.5 mm depth. We estimated the gain that can be obtained in terms of produced photons using different materials placed on the slab used as Cerenkov radiators, we then focused on the number of exiting photons and their spatial distribution for the different strategies. The use of radiator to enhance Cerenkov signal reduces the spatial resolution because of the increased optical spread. We found that direct beta detection and CLI are best approaches in term of resolution while the use of a thin scintillator increases the signal but the spatial resolution is degraded. Bremsstrahlung presents lower signal and it does not represent the best choice for image guided surgery. CLI represents a more flexible approach for image guided surgery using or ex vivo tissue analysis using beta-emitter imaging.

  14. Direct method of three-dimensional imaging using the multiple-wavelength range-gated active imaging principle.

    PubMed

    Matwyschuk, Alexis

    2016-05-10

    The tomography executed with mono-wavelength active imaging systems uses the recording of several images to restore a three-dimensional (3D) scene. Thus, in order to show the depth in the scene, a different color is attributed to each recorded image. Therefore, the 3D restoration depends on the video frame rate of the camera. By using a multiple-wavelength range-gated active imaging system, it is possible to restore the 3D scene directly in a single image at the moment of recording with a video camera. Each emitted light pulse with a different wavelength corresponds to a visualized zone at a different distance in the scene. The camera shutter opens just once during the emission of light pulses with the different wavelengths. Thus, the restoration can be executed in real time with regard to the video frame rate of the camera. From an analytical model and from a graphical approach, we demonstrated the feasibility of this new method of 3D restoration. The non-overlapping conditions between two consecutive visualized zones are analyzed. The experimental test results confirm these different conditions and validate the theoretical principle to directly restore the 3D scene in a color image with a multiple-wavelength laser source, an RGB filter, and a triggerable intensified camera. PMID:27168293

  15. The Impact of Transiting Planet Science on the Next Generation of Direct-Imaging Planet Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Joseph C.

    2009-02-01

    Within the next five years, a number of direct-imaging planet search instruments, like the VLT SPHERE instrument, will be coming online. To successfully carry out their programs, these instruments will rely heavily on a-priori information on planet composition, atmosphere, and evolution. Transiting planet surveys, while covering a different semi-major axis regime, have the potential to provide critical foundations for these next-generation surveys. For example, improved information on planetary evolutionary tracks may significantly impact the insights that can be drawn from direct-imaging statistical data. Other high-impact results from transiting planet science include information on mass-to-radius relationships as well as atmospheric absorption bands. The marriage of transiting planet and direct-imaging results may eventually give us the first complete picture of planet migration, multiplicity, and general evolution.

  16. Direct wavefront sensing for high-resolution in vivo imaging in scattering tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Sun, Wenzhi; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.; Betzig, Eric; Ji, Na

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics by direct imaging of the wavefront distortions of a laser-induced guide star has long been used in astronomy, and more recently in microscopy to compensate for aberrations in transparent specimens. Here we extend this approach to tissues that strongly scatter visible light by exploiting the reduced scattering of near-infrared guide stars. The method enables in vivo two-photon morphological and functional imaging down to 700 μm inside the mouse brain. PMID:26073070

  17. Direct nanoscale imaging of ballistic and diffusive thermal transport in graphene nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pumarol, Manuel E; Rosamond, Mark C; Tovee, Peter; Petty, Michael C; Zeze, Dagou A; Falko, Vladimir; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2012-06-13

    We report direct imaging of nanoscale thermal transport in single and few-layer graphene with approximately 50 nm lateral resolution using high vacuum scanning thermal microscopy. We observed increased heat transport in suspended graphene where heat is conducted by ballistic phonons, compared to adjacent areas of supported graphene, and observed decreasing thermal conductance of supported graphene with increased layer number. Our nanothermal images suggest a mean-free-path of thermal phonons in supported graphene below 100 nm. PMID:22524441

  18. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields. PMID:24610652

  19. The Circumstellar Imager: Direct detection of extra-solar planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ftaclas, Christ; Nonnenmacher, Andreas L.; Terrile, Richard J.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Gatewood, George D.; Levy, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    The Astrometric Imaging Telescope (AIT) is designed to probe the circumstellar environment by both direct imaging and indirect astrometric measurements. The Circumstellar Imager (CI) is a coronagraphic camera and is the direct imaging component of the AIT. The CI is designed to obtain high-sensitivity images of the circumstellar region. It provides crucial non-inferential information relating to the frequency, origin, and evolution of planetary systems and all forms of circumstellar matter. Such imaging is usually limited by the scattered and diffracted light halos of the star itself, which are greatly suppressed in the CI by mating a novel high-efficiency coronagraph with a phase-compensated optical system. For faint point sources in the circumstellar region, the CI will have a sensitivity in excess of 5 magnitudes fainter than the as-designed Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Laboratory data are shown for the coronagraph, which, in a diffraction-limited environment, is capable of suppressing the stellar diffraction sidelobes by several orders of magnitude without significant sacrifice of field of view. In order to realize the high rejection levels inherent in the coronagraph design, it is necessary to limit scatter in the optical systems, imposing a mid-spatial frequency figure error requirement an order of magnitude smaller than that of the HST. Experimental data directed toward meeting this requirement are also shown.

  20. A Molecular Imaging Paradigm to Rapidly Profile Response to Angiogenesis-directed Therapy in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Virostko, John; Xie, Jingping; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Gore, John C.; Manning, H. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The development of novel angiogenesis-directed therapeutics is hampered by the lack of non-invasive imaging metrics capable of assessing treatment response. We report the development and validation of a novel molecular imaging paradigm to rapidly assess response to angiogenesis-directed therapeutics in preclinical animal models. Procedures A monoclonal antibody-based optical imaging probe targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) expression was synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo via multispectral fluorescence imaging. Results The optical imaging agent demonstrated specificity for the target receptor in cultured endothelial cells and in vivo. The agent exhibited significant accumulation within 4T1 xenograft tumors. Mice bearing 4T1 xenografts and treated with sunitinib exhibited both tumor growth arrest and decreased accumulation of NIR800-αVEGFR2ab compared to untreated cohorts (p=0.0021). Conclusions Molecular imaging of VEGFR2 expression is a promising non-invasive biomarker for assessing angiogenesis and evaluating the efficacy of angiogenesis-directed therapies. PMID:19130143

  1. Determination of the Hubble Space Telescope effective conic-constant error from direct image measurements.

    PubMed

    Meinel, A B; Meinel, M P; Schulte, D H

    1993-04-01

    Direct measurement of discernible features in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imagery has enabled a self-consistent determination to be made of the effective conic constant of HST images taken with planetary camera 6 (PC-6) of the wide field and planetary camera. Before being corrected for the contribution from PC-6, the conic constant is - 1.01429 +/- 0.0002. The correction for PC-6 is less accurately determined but probably lies between -0.0002 and 0.0004. As a result the HST optics are characterized best by a conic constant of - 1.0140 +/- 0.0003 as obtained from direct image measurements. PMID:20820304

  2. Multisensor Super Resolution Using Directionally-Adaptive Regularization for UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonseok; Yu, Soohwan; Ko, Seungyong; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    In various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging applications, the multisensor super-resolution (SR) technique has become a chronic problem and attracted increasing attention. Multisensor SR algorithms utilize multispectral low-resolution (LR) images to make a higher resolution (HR) image to improve the performance of the UAV imaging system. The primary objective of the paper is to develop a multisensor SR method based on the existing multispectral imaging framework instead of using additional sensors. In order to restore image details without noise amplification or unnatural post-processing artifacts, this paper presents an improved regularized SR algorithm by combining the directionally-adaptive constraints and multiscale non-local means (NLM) filter. As a result, the proposed method can overcome the physical limitation of multispectral sensors by estimating the color HR image from a set of multispectral LR images using intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) image fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides better SR results than existing state-of-the-art SR methods in the sense of objective measures. PMID:26007744

  3. Fluorescence guided lymph node biopsy in large animals using direct image projection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringhausen, Elizabeth; Wang, Tylon; Pitts, Jonathan; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    The use of fluorescence imaging for aiding oncologic surgery is a fast growing field in biomedical imaging, revolutionizing open and minimally invasive surgery practices. We have designed, constructed, and tested a system for fluorescence image acquisition and direct display on the surgical field for fluorescence guided surgery. The system uses a near-infrared sensitive CMOS camera for image acquisition, a near-infra LED light source for excitation, and DLP digital projector for projection of fluorescence image data onto the operating field in real time. Instrument control was implemented in Matlab for image capture, processing of acquired data and alignment of image parameters with the projected pattern. Accuracy of alignment was evaluated statistically to demonstrate sensitivity to small objects and alignment throughout the imaging field. After verification of accurate alignment, feasibility for clinical application was demonstrated in large animal models of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Indocyanine green was injected subcutaneously in Yorkshire pigs at various locations to model sentinel lymph node biopsy in gynecologic cancers, head and neck cancer, and melanoma. Fluorescence was detected by the camera system during operations and projected onto the imaging field, accurately identifying tissues containing the fluorescent tracer at up to 15 frames per second. Fluorescence information was projected as binary green regions after thresholding and denoising raw intensity data. Promising results with this initial clinical scale prototype provided encouraging results for the feasibility of optical projection of acquired luminescence during open oncologic surgeries.

  4. Multisensor Super Resolution Using Directionally-Adaptive Regularization for UAV Images

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wonseok; Yu, Soohwan; Ko, Seungyong; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    In various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging applications, the multisensor super-resolution (SR) technique has become a chronic problem and attracted increasing attention. Multisensor SR algorithms utilize multispectral low-resolution (LR) images to make a higher resolution (HR) image to improve the performance of the UAV imaging system. The primary objective of the paper is to develop a multisensor SR method based on the existing multispectral imaging framework instead of using additional sensors. In order to restore image details without noise amplification or unnatural post-processing artifacts, this paper presents an improved regularized SR algorithm by combining the directionally-adaptive constraints and multiscale non-local means (NLM) filter. As a result, the proposed method can overcome the physical limitation of multispectral sensors by estimating the color HR image from a set of multispectral LR images using intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) image fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides better SR results than existing state-of-the-art SR methods in the sense of objective measures. PMID:26007744

  5. A multiscale contrast direction adaptation approach for the fusion of multispectral and multifocus infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karali, A. O.; Cakir, Serdar; Aytaç, Tayfun

    2015-10-01

    Infrared (IR) cameras are widely used in latest surveillance systems because spectral characteristics of objects provide valuable information for object detection and identification. To assist the surveillance system operator and automatic image processing tasks, fusing images in IR band is proposed as a solution to increase situational awareness and different fusion techniques are developed for this purpose. Proposed techniques are generally developed for specific scenarios because image content may vary dramatically depending on the spectral range, the optical properties of the cameras, the spectral characteristics of the scene, and the spatial resolution of the interested targets in the scene. A general purpose IR image fusion technique that is suitable for real-time applications is proposed. The proposed technique can support different scenarios by applying a multiscale detail detection and can be applied to images captured from different spectral regions of the spectrum by adaptively adjusting the contrast direction through cross checking between the source images. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on registered multi-spectral and multi-focus IR images. Fusion results are presented and the performance of the proposed technique is compared with the baseline fusion methods through objective and subjective tests. The technique outperforms baseline methods in the subjective tests and provide promising results in objective quality metrics with an acceptable computational load. Besides, the proposed technique preserves object details and prevents undesired artifacts better than the baseline techniques in the image fusion scenario that contains four source images.

  6. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanglei; Pu, Huangsheng; He, Wei; Liu, Fei; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  7. Experimental demonstration of an adaptive architecture for direct spectral imaging classification.

    PubMed

    Dunlop-Gray, Matthew; Poon, Phillip K; Golish, Dathon; Vera, Esteban; Gehm, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Spectral imaging is a powerful tool for providing in situ material classification across a spatial scene. Typically, spectral imaging analyses are interested in classification, though often the classification is performed only after reconstruction of the spectral datacube. We present a computational spectral imaging system, the Adaptive Feature-Specific Spectral Imaging Classifier (AFSSI-C), which yields direct classification across the spatial scene without reconstruction of the source datacube. With a dual disperser architecture and a programmable spatial light modulator, the AFSSI-C measures specific projections of the spectral datacube which are generated by an adaptive Bayesian classification and feature design framework. We experimentally demonstrate multiple order-of-magnitude improvement of classification accuracy in low signal-to-noise (SNR) environments when compared to legacy spectral imaging systems. PMID:27505794

  8. Feshbach enhanced s-wave scattering of fermions: direct observation with optimized absorption imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genkina, Dina; Aycock, Lauren; Stuhl, Benjamin; Lu, Hsin-I.; Williams, Ross; Spielman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    We directly measured the normalized s-wave scattering cross-section of ultracold 40 K atoms across a magnetic-field Feshbach resonance by colliding pairs of degenerate Fermi gases (DFGs) and imaging the scattered atoms. We extracted the scattered fraction for a range of bias magnetic fields, and measured the resonance location to be B 0 = 20.206(15) mT with width Δ = 1.0(5) mT. To optimize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of atom number in scattering images, we developed techniques to interpret absorption images in a regime where recoil induced detuning corrections are significant. These imaging techniques are generally applicable to experiments with lighter alkalis that would benefit from maximizing SNR on atom number counting at the expense of spatial imaging resolution.

  9. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guanglei; Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Fei; Bai, Jing; He, Wei; Luo, Jianwen

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  10. Binocular retinal image differences influence eye-position signals for perceived visual direction.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Deepika; Bedell, Harold E

    2012-06-01

    Correctly perceiving the direction of a visible object with respect to one's self (egocentric visual direction) requires that information about the location of the image on the retina (oculocentric visual direction) be combined with signals about the position of the eyes in the head. The Wells-Hering laws that govern the perception of visual direction and modern restatements of these laws assume implicitly that retinal and eye-position information are independent of one another. By measuring observers' manual pointing responses to targets in different horizontal locations, we show that retinal and eye-position information are not treated independently in the brain. In particular, decreasing the relative visibility of one eye's retinal image reduces the strength of the eye-position signal associated with that eye. The results can be accounted for by interactions between eye-specific retinal and eye-position signals at a common neural location. PMID:22560955

  11. A molecular image-directed, 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system for the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imageguided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% +/- 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients.

  12. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging of Glioma: Update on Current Imaging Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Watkins, Trevor William; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Haacke, E Mark

    2016-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) provides invaluable insight into glioma pathophysiology and internal tumoral architecture. The physical contribution of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) may correspond to intralesional hemorrhage, calcification, or tumoral neovascularity. In this review, we present emerging evidence of ITSS for assessment of intratumoral calcification, grading of glioma, and factors influencing the pattern of ITSS in glioblastoma. SWI phase imaging assists in identification of intratumoral calcification that aids in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Development of intratumoral calcification posttreatment of glioma serves as an imaging marker of positive therapy response. Grading of tumors with ITSS using information attributed to microhemorrhage and neovascularity in SWI correlates with MR perfusion parameters and histologic grading of glioma and enriches preoperative prognosis. Quantitative susceptibility mapping may provide a means to discriminate subtle calcifications and hemorrhage in tumor imaging. Recent data suggest ITSS patterns in glioblastoma vary depending on tumoral volume and sublocation and correlate with degree of intratumoral necrosis and neovascularity. Increasingly, there is a recognized role of obtaining contrast-enhanced SWI (CE-SWI) for assessment of tumoral margin in high-grade glioma. Significant higher concentration of gadolinium accumulates at the border of the tumoral invasion zone as seen on the SWI sequence; this results from contrast-induced phase shift that clearly delineates the tumor margin. Lastly, absence of ITSS may aid in differentiation between high-grade glioma and primary CNS lymphoma, which typically shows absence of ITSS. We conclude that SWI and CE-SWI are indispensable tools for diagnosis, preoperative grading, posttherapy surveillance, and assessment of glioma. PMID:27227542

  13. Color-direction patch-sparsity-based image inpainting using multidirection features.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidan; He, Hongjie; Tai, Heng-Ming; Yin, Zhongke; Chen, Fan

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a color-direction patch sparsity-based image in painting method to better maintain structure coherence, texture clarity, and neighborhood consistence of the in painted region of an image. The method uses super-wavelet transform to estimate the multi-direction features of a degraded image, and combines with color information to construct the weighted color-direction distance (WCDD) to measure the difference between two patches. Based on the WCDD, the color-direction structure sparsity is defined to obtain a more robust filling order and more suitable multiple candidate patches are searched. Then, the target patches are sparsely represented by the multiple candidate patches under neighborhood consistency constraints in both the color and the multi-direction spaces. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on tasks such as scratch removal, text removal, block removal, and object removal. The effects of super-wavelet transforms and direction features are also investigated. PMID:25532180

  14. Direct neural current imaging in an intact cerebellum with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Padmavathi; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Wells, William; Orbach, Darren; Orringer, Daniel; Mulkern, Robert; Okada, Yoshio

    2016-05-15

    The ability to detect neuronal currents with high spatiotemporal resolution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for studying human brain function in both health and disease. While significant progress has been made, we still lack evidence showing that it is possible to measure an MR signal time-locked to neuronal currents with a temporal waveform matching concurrently recorded local field potentials (LFPs). Also lacking is evidence that such MR data can be used to image current distribution in active tissue. Since these two results are lacking even in vitro, we obtained these data in an intact isolated whole cerebellum of turtle during slow neuronal activity mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors using a gradient-echo EPI sequence (TR=100ms) at 4.7T. Our results show that it is possible (1) to reliably detect an MR phase shift time course matching that of the concurrently measured LFP evoked by stimulation of a cerebellar peduncle, (2) to detect the signal in single voxels of 0.1mm(3), (3) to determine the spatial phase map matching the magnetic field distribution predicted by the LFP map, (4) to estimate the distribution of neuronal current in the active tissue from a group-average phase map, and (5) to provide a quantitatively accurate theoretical account of the measured phase shifts. The peak values of the detected MR phase shifts were 0.27-0.37°, corresponding to local magnetic field changes of 0.67-0.93nT (for TE=26ms). Our work provides an empirical basis for future extensions to in vivo imaging of neuronal currents. PMID:26899788

  15. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos, A. Rashid A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  16. Signal-to-Noise Behavior for Matches to Gradient Direction Models of Corners in Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Manay, S

    2007-02-09

    Gradient direction models for corners of prescribed acuteness, leg length, and leg thickness are constructed by generating fields of unit vectors emanating from leg pixels that point normal to the edges. A novel FFT-based algorithm that quickly matches models of corners at all possible positions and orientations in the image to fields of gradient directions for image pixels is described. The signal strength of a corner is discussed in terms of the number of pixels along the edges of a corner in an image, while noise is characterized by the coherence of gradient directions along those edges. The detection-false alarm rate behavior of our corner detector is evaluated empirically by manually constructing maps of corner locations in typical overhead images, and then generating different ROC curves for matches to models of corners with different leg lengths and thicknesses. We then demonstrate how corners found with our detector can be used to quickly and automatically find families of polygons of arbitrary position, size and orientation in overhead images.

  17. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging. PMID:20728336

  18. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography system, filtered images, and subtraction radiography

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Filho, Liogi Iwaki; Queiroz, Alfredo De Franco; Geron, Lucas Bachegas Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three different imaging systems: Direct digital radiography system (DDR-CMOS), four types of filtered images, and a priori and a posteriori registration of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) in the diagnosis of proximal defects. Materials and Methods: The teeth were arranged in pairs in 10 blocks of vinyl polysiloxane, and proximal defects were performed with drills of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm diameter. Kodak RVG 6100 sensor was used to capture the images. A posteriori DSR registrations were done with Regeemy 0.2.43 and subtraction with Image Tool 3.0. Filtered images were obtained with Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1 software. Images (n = 360) were evaluated by three raters, all experts in dental radiology. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) were higher for DSR images with all three drills (Az = 0.896, 0.979, and 1.000 for drills 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm, respectively). The highest values were found for 1-mm drills and the lowest for 0.25-mm drills, with negative filter having the lowest values of all (Az = 0.631). Conclusion: The best method of diagnosis was by using a DSR. The negative filter obtained the worst results. Larger drills showed the highest sensitivity and specificity values of the area under the ROC curve. PMID:24124300

  19. Body image disturbance in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Thiemann, Pia; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Body image is multifaceted and incorporates perceptual, affective, and cognitive components as well as behavioral features. Only few studies have examined the character of body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders. It is unknown whether body-image disturbances in children/adolescent with eating disturbances are comparable to those of adult patients with eating disorders. Body-image disturbance might differ quantitatively and qualitatively according to the cognitive developmental status and the age of the individual. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence for body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders, and how they compare with those adults with eating disorders. Current evidence indicates that older adolescent patients show similar deficits as adult patients with eating disorders, in particular for the attitudinal body-image component. However, evidence for a perceptual body-image disturbance in adolescent patients, in particular anorexia nervosa, is not conclusive. Reliable statements for childhood can hardly be made because clinical studies are not available. Investigations of body-image disturbance in children have focused on the predictive value for eating disorders. Limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and future directions for research and therapy are indicated. PMID:24365963

  20. Multidirectional edge-directed interpolation with region division for natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Yujin; Bae, Jonghyun; Kim, Jaeseok

    2012-04-01

    A multidirectional edge-directed interpolation algorithm that features a region division method is proposed. In the proposed method, an interpolation pixel is newly modeled as a weighted sum of 12 neighboring pixels representing 12 different directions. Each weight is estimated by Wiener filter theory using geometric duality. The proposed method for dividing the interpolation region reduces the heavy computational complexity of the proposed model. Analyzing edge continuities, the model divides an image into three regions, and only strong edge regions are interpolated. Simulation results show that several directional edges are restored clearly in a subjective test, with fair performance in an objective test.

  1. Direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet within a triple-star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Kevin; Apai, Dániel; Kasper, Markus; Kratter, Kaitlin; McClure, Melissa; Robberto, Massimo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Direct imaging allows for the detection and characterization of exoplanets via their thermal emission. We report the discovery via imaging of a young Jovian planet in a triple-star system and characterize its atmospheric properties through near-infrared spectroscopy. The semimajor axis of the planet is closer relative to that of its hierarchical triple-star system than for any known exoplanet within a stellar binary or triple, making HD 131399 dynamically unlike any other known system. The location of HD 131399Ab on a wide orbit in a triple system demonstrates that massive planets may be found on long and possibly unstable orbits in multistar systems. HD 131399Ab is one of the lowest mass (4 ± 1 Jupiter masses) and coldest (850 ± 50 kelvin) exoplanets to have been directly imaged.

  2. Direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet within a triple-star system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kevin; Apai, Dániel; Kasper, Markus; Kratter, Kaitlin; McClure, Melissa; Robberto, Massimo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-12

    Direct imaging allows for the detection and characterization of exoplanets via their thermal emission. We report the discovery via imaging of a young Jovian planet in a triple-star system and characterize its atmospheric properties through near-infrared spectroscopy. The semimajor axis of the planet is closer relative to that of its hierarchical triple-star system than for any known exoplanet within a stellar binary or triple, making HD 131399 dynamically unlike any other known system. The location of HD 131399Ab on a wide orbit in a triple system demonstrates that massive planets may be found on long and possibly unstable orbits in multistar systems. HD 131399Ab is one of the lowest mass (4 ± 1 Jupiter masses) and coldest (850 ± 50 kelvin) exoplanets to have been directly imaged. PMID:27386921

  3. Direct UV/Optical Imaging of Stellar Surfaces: The Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Lyon, Richard G.; Schrijver, Carolus; Karovska, Margarita; Mozurkewich, David

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/optical, space-based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living with a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in thc Universe. SI is a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap. We discuss herein the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technologies needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  4. Astrometry of Directly Imaged Exoplanets after PSF Subtraction using MCMC Forward Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jason; Graham, James R.; Pueyo, Laurent; Ruffio, Jean-Baptise; GPIES Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging allows for the characterization of the orbits of exoplanets. However, to remove the glare of the host star, we must use observing strategies (e.g., angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging) and data reduction techniques (e.g., Karhunen-Loève Image Projection; KLIP) that distort the apparent position of an exoplanet. Using recent methods to forward model the point spread function of a planet after using KLIP to subtract out the stellar light (Pueyo 2015), we are able to account for these astrometric biases. With the forward models, we can use a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to derive the posterior distribution on the position of an exoplanet. To test our methodology, we apply our technique to Gemini Planet Imager integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data of the newly discovered exoplanet around 51 Eri and the extensively studied exoplanet beta Pictoris b. In general, this technique is applicable to any broadband direct imaging data and IFS data where the spectrum is assumed to be known.

  5. Direct reconstruction of cardiac PET kinetic parametric images using a preconditioned conjugate gradient approach

    PubMed Central

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; Ouyang, Jinsong; Guerin, Bastien; Li, Quanzheng; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Our research goal is to develop an algorithm to reconstruct cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) kinetic parametric images directly from sinograms and compare its performance with the conventional indirect approach. Methods: Time activity curves of a NCAT phantom were computed according to a one-tissue compartmental kinetic model with realistic kinetic parameters. The sinograms at each time frame were simulated using the activity distribution for the time frame. The authors reconstructed the parametric images directly from the sinograms by optimizing a cost function, which included the Poisson log-likelihood and a spatial regularization terms, using the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm with the proposed preconditioner. The proposed preconditioner is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are the ratio of the parameter and the sensitivity of the radioactivity associated with parameter. The authors compared the reconstructed parametric images using the direct approach with those reconstructed using the conventional indirect approach. Results: At the same bias, the direct approach yielded significant relative reduction in standard deviation by 12%–29% and 32%–70% for 50 × 106 and 10 × 106 detected coincidences counts, respectively. Also, the PCG method effectively reached a constant value after only 10 iterations (with numerical convergence achieved after 40–50 iterations), while more than 500 iterations were needed for CG. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel approach based on the PCG algorithm to directly reconstruct cardiac PET parametric images from sinograms, and yield better estimation of kinetic parameters than the conventional indirect approach, i.e., curve fitting of reconstructed images. The PCG method increases the convergence rate of reconstruction significantly as compared to the conventional CG method. PMID:24089922

  6. Learning partially directed functional networks from meta-analysis imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jane; Fox, Peter T.; Turner, Robert; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new exploratory method for the discovery of partially directed functional networks from fMRI meta-analysis data. The method performs structure learning of Bayesian networks in search of directed probabilistic dependencies between brain regions. Learning is based on the co-activation of brain regions observed across several independent imaging experiments. In a series of simulations, we first demonstrate the reliability of the method. We then present the application of our approach in an extensive meta-analysis including several thousand activation coordinates from more than 500 imaging studies. Results show that our method is able to automatically infer Bayesian networks that capture both directed and undirected probabilistic dependencies between a number of brain regions, including regions that are frequently observed in motor-related and cognitive control tasks. PMID:19815079

  7. Direct estimation of nonrigid registrations with image-based self-occlusion reasoning.

    PubMed

    Gay-Bellile, Vincent; Bartoli, Adrien; Sayd, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The registration problem for images of a deforming surface has been well studied. External occlusions are usually well handled. In 2D image-based registration, self-occlusions are more challenging. Consequently, the surface is usually assumed to be only slightly self-occluding. This paper is about image-based nonrigid registration with self-occlusion reasoning. A specific framework explicitly modeling self-occlusions is proposed. It is combined with an intensity-based, "direct" data term for registration. Self-occlusions are detected as shrinkage areas in the 2D warp. Experimental results on several challenging data sets show that our approach successfully registers images with self-occlusions while effectively detecting the self-occluded regions. PMID:19926901

  8. A pnCCD-based, fast direct single electron imaging camera for TEM and STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryll, H.; Simson, M.; Hartmann, R.; Holl, P.; Huth, M.; Ihle, S.; Kondo, Y.; Kotula, P.; Liebel, A.; Müller-Caspary, K.; Rosenauer, A.; Sagawa, R.; Schmidt, J.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a new camera that is based on a pnCCD sensor for applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Emerging new microscopy techniques demand improved detectors with regards to readout rate, sensitivity and radiation hardness, especially in scanning mode. The pnCCD is a 2D imaging sensor that meets these requirements. Its intrinsic radiation hardness permits direct detection of electrons. The pnCCD is read out at a rate of 1,150 frames per second with an image area of 264 x 264 pixel. In binning or windowing modes, the readout rate is increased almost linearly, for example to 4000 frames per second at 4× binning (264 x 66 pixel). Single electrons with energies from 300 keV down to 5 keV can be distinguished due to the high sensitivity of the detector. Three applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy are highlighted to demonstrate that the pnCCD satisfies experimental requirements, especially fast recording of 2D images. In the first application, 65536 2D diffraction patterns were recorded in 70 s. STEM images corresponding to intensities of various diffraction peaks were reconstructed. For the second application, the microscope was operated in a Lorentz-like mode. Magnetic domains were imaged in an area of 256 x 256 sample points in less than 37 seconds for a total of 65536 images each with 264 x 132 pixels. Due to information provided by the two-dimensional images, not only the amplitude but also the direction of the magnetic field could be determined. In the third application, millisecond images of a semiconductor nanostructure were recorded to determine the lattice strain in the sample. A speed-up in measurement time by a factor of 200 could be achieved compared to a previously used camera system.

  9. Discretized aperture mapping with a micro-lenses array for interferometric direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patru, Fabien; Antichi, Jacopo; Mawet, Dimitri; Jolissaint, Laurent; Carbillet, Marcel; Milli, Julien; Girard, Julien; Rabou, Patrick; Giro, Enrico; Mourard, Denis

    2014-08-01

    Discretized Aperture Mapping (DAM) appears as an original filtering technique easy to play with existing adaptive optics (AO) systems. In its essential DAM operates as an optical passive filter removing part of the phase residuals in the wavefront without introducing any difficult-to-align component in the Fourier conjugate of the entrance pupil plane. DAM reveals as a new interferometric technique combined with spatial filtering allowing direct imaging over a narrow field of view (FOV). In fact, the entrance pupil of a single telescope is divided into many sub-pupils so that the residual phase in each sub-pupil is filtered up to the DAM cut-off frequency. DAM enables to smooth the small scale wavefront defects which correspond to high spatial frequencies in the pupil plane and to low angular frequencies in the image plane. Close to the AO Nyquist frequency, such pupil plane spatial frequencies are not well measured by the wavefront sensor (WFS) due to aliasing. Once bigger than the AO Nyquist frequency, they are no more measured by the WFS due to the fitting limit responsible for the narrow AO FOV. The corresponding image plane angular frequencies are not transmitted by DAM and are useless to image small FOVs, as stated by interferometry. That is why AO and DAM are complementary assuming that the DAM cut-off frequency is equal to the AO Nyquist frequency. Here we describe the imaging capabilities when DAM is placed downstream an AO system, over a convenient pupil which precedes the scientific detector. We show firstly that the imaging properties are preserved on a narrow FOV allowing direct imaging throughout interferometry. Then we show how the residual pupil plane spatial frequencies bigger than the AO Nyquist one are filtered out, as well as the residual halo in the image is dimmed.

  10. Testing zinc chloride as a new catalyst for direct synthesis of cellulose di- and tri-acetate in a solvent free system under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa; El Sikaily, Amany

    2016-10-20

    This research demonstrates the effect of ZnCl2 as a catalyst on the esterification of commercial cotton cellulose using acetic anhydride in order to obtain di- and tri-cellulose acetates under microwave irradiation. It was discovered that microwave irradiation significantly increased the yield and reduced the reaction time. It was found that the maximum yield for cellulose triacetates was 95.83% under the reaction conditions that were as follows: 3min reaction time, 200mg of ZnCl2 catalyst and 20ml of Ac2O for 5g cellulose. However, the cellulose acetate obtained in this manner had the highest DS (2.87). The cellulose di-acetate was produced with the maximum yield of 89.97% and with the highest DS (2.69) using 25ml Ac2O, 200mg of ZnCl2 for 5g cellulose and in 3min reaction time. The effect of some factors such as the amount of used catalyst, the quantity of acetic acid anhydride and the reaction time of the esterification process have been investigated. The production of di- and tri-cellulose acetate and the degree of substitution were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal stability was investigated using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular weight and the degree of polymerization were obtained using Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of di- and tri-cellulose acetate without degradation during the reaction; these results were found to be in contrast to some recent studies. The present study reveals that ZnCl2 is a new catalyst; it is effective as well as inexpensive and is a low toxicity catalyst for usage in cellulose esterification. PMID:27474655

  11. Direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain: Feasibility investigation for HARP-AMFPI

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, M. M.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-12-15

    The authors are investigating the concept of a direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain for low-dose x-ray imaging. It consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor partitioned into a thick drift region for x-ray-to-charge conversion and a relatively thin region called high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP) in which the charge undergoes avalanche multiplication. An active matrix of thin film transistors is used to read out the electronic image. The authors call the proposed imager HARP active matrix flat panel imager (HARP-AMFPI). The key advantages of HARP-AMFPI are its high spatial resolution, owing to the direct-conversion a-Se layer, and its programmable avalanche gain, which can be enabled during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise and disabled during high dose radiography to prevent saturation of the detector elements. This article investigates key design considerations for HARP-AMFPI. The effects of electronic noise on the imaging performance of HARP-AMFPI were modeled theoretically and system parameters were optimized for radiography and fluoroscopy. The following imager properties were determined as a function of avalanche gain: (1) the spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency; (2) fill factor; (3) dynamic range and linearity; and (4) gain nonuniformities resulting from electric field strength nonuniformities. The authors results showed that avalanche gains of 5 and 20 enable x-ray quantum noise limited performance throughout the entire exposure range in radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. It was shown that HARP-AMFPI can provide the required gain while maintaining a 100% effective fill factor and a piecewise dynamic range over five orders of magnitude (10{sup -7}-10{sup -2} R/frame). The authors have also shown that imaging performance is not significantly affected by the following: electric field strength nonuniformities, avalanche noise for x-ray energies above 1 keV and direct

  12. Direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain: feasibility investigation for HARP-AMFPI.

    PubMed

    Wronski, M M; Rowlands, J A

    2008-12-01

    The authors are investigating the concept of a direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain for low-dose x-ray imaging. It consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor partitioned into a thick drift region for x-ray-to-charge conversion and a relatively thin region called high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP) in which the charge undergoes avalanche multiplication. An active matrix of thin film transistors is used to read out the electronic image. The authors call the proposed imager HARP active matrix flat panel imager (HARP-AMFPI). The key advantages of HARP-AMFPI are its high spatial resolution, owing to the direct-conversion a-Se layer, and its programmable avalanche gain, which can be enabled during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise and disabled during high dose radiography to prevent saturation of the detector elements. This article investigates key design considerations for HARP-AMFPI. The effects of electronic noise on the imaging performance of HARP-AMFPI were modeled theoretically and system parameters were optimized for radiography and fluoroscopy. The following imager properties were determined as a function of avalanche gain: (1) the spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency; (2) fill factor; (3) dynamic range and linearity; and (4) gain nonuniformities resulting from electric field strength nonuniformities. The authors results showed that avalanche gains of 5 and 20 enable x-ray quantum noise limited performance throughout the entire exposure range in radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. It was shown that HARP-AMFPI can provide the required gain while maintaining a 100% effective fill factor and a piecewise dynamic range over five orders of magnitude (10(-7)-10(-2) R/frame). The authors have also shown that imaging performance is not significantly affected by the following: electric field strength nonuniformities, avalanche noise for x-ray energies above 1 keV and direct interaction

  13. Direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain: Feasibility investigation for HARP-AMFPI

    PubMed Central

    Wronski, M. M.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors are investigating the concept of a direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain for low-dose x-ray imaging. It consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor partitioned into a thick drift region for x-ray-to-charge conversion and a relatively thin region called high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP) in which the charge undergoes avalanche multiplication. An active matrix of thin film transistors is used to read out the electronic image. The authors call the proposed imager HARP active matrix flat panel imager (HARP-AMFPI). The key advantages of HARP-AMFPI are its high spatial resolution, owing to the direct-conversion a-Se layer, and its programmable avalanche gain, which can be enabled during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise and disabled during high dose radiography to prevent saturation of the detector elements. This article investigates key design considerations for HARP-AMFPI. The effects of electronic noise on the imaging performance of HARP-AMFPI were modeled theoretically and system parameters were optimized for radiography and fluoroscopy. The following imager properties were determined as a function of avalanche gain: (1) the spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency; (2) fill factor; (3) dynamic range and linearity; and (4) gain nonuniformities resulting from electric field strength nonuniformities. The authors results showed that avalanche gains of 5 and 20 enable x-ray quantum noise limited performance throughout the entire exposure range in radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. It was shown that HARP-AMFPI can provide the required gain while maintaining a 100% effective fill factor and a piecewise dynamic range over five orders of magnitude (10−7–10−2 R∕frame). The authors have also shown that imaging performance is not significantly affected by the following: electric field strength nonuniformities, avalanche noise for x-ray energies above 1 keV and direct

  14. Investigating Non-Equilibrium Fluctuations of Nanocolloids in a Magnetic Field Using Direct Imaging Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ashley; Oprisan, Ana; Oprisan, Sorinel; Rice-Oprisan College of Charleston Team

    Nanoparticles of iron oxide have a high surface area and can be controlled by an external magnetic field. Since they have a fast response to the applied magnetic field, these systems have been used for numerous in vivo applications, such as MRI contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery, and cell separation. We performed three direct imaging experiments in order to investigate the concentration-driven fluctuations using magnetic nanoparticles in the absence and in the presence of magnetic field. Our direct imaging experimental setup involved a glass cell filled with magnetic nanocolloidal suspension and water with the concentration gradient oriented against the gravitational field and a superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. Nonequilibrium concentration-driven fluctuations were recorded using a direct imaging technique. We used a dynamic structure factor algorithm for image processing in order to compute the structure factor and to find the power law exponents. We saw evidence of large concentration fluctuations and permanent magnetism. Further research will use the correlation time to approximate the diffusion coefficient for the free diffusion experiment. Funded by College of Charleston Department of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities SURF grant.

  15. Space telescope design to directly image the habitable zone of Alpha Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, Eduardo A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Lozi, Julien; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared; Weston, Sasha; McElwain, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The scientific interest in directly imaging and identifying Earth-like planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) around nearby stars is driving the design of specialized direct imaging missions such as ACESAT, EXO-C, EXO-S and AFTA-C. The inner edge of Alpha Cen A and B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7" and 0.4" respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 0.3m class telescope. Contrast ratios on the order of 1010 are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets may allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architecture maximizes stability and throughput. A Multi-Star Wave Front algorithm is implemented to drive a deformable mirror controlling simultaneously diffracted light from the on-axis and binary companion star. The instrument has a Focal Plane Occulter to reject starlight into a highprecision pointing control camera. Finally we utilize a Orbital Differential Imaging (ODI) post-processing method that takes advantage of a highly stable environment (Earth-trailing orbit) and a continuous sequence of images spanning 2 years, to reduce the final noise floor in post processing to ~2e-11 levels, enabling high confidence and at least 90% completeness detections of Earth-like planets.

  16. Translation invariant directional framelet transform combined with Gabor filters for image denoising.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of a directional lifting transform for wavelet frames. A nonsubsampled lifting structure is developed to maintain the translation invariance as it is an important property in image denoising. Then, the directionality of the lifting-based tight frame is explicitly discussed, followed by a specific translation invariant directional framelet transform (TIDFT). The TIDFT has two framelets ψ1, ψ2 with vanishing moments of order two and one respectively, which are able to detect singularities in a given direction set. It provides an efficient and sparse representation for images containing rich textures along with properties of fast implementation and perfect reconstruction. In addition, an adaptive block-wise orientation estimation method based on Gabor filters is presented instead of the conventional minimization of residuals. Furthermore, the TIDFT is utilized to exploit the capability of image denoising, incorporating the MAP estimator for multivariate exponential distribution. Consequently, the TIDFT is able to eliminate the noise effectively while preserving the textures simultaneously. Experimental results show that the TIDFT outperforms some other frame-based denoising methods, such as contourlet and shearlet, and is competitive to the state-of-the-art denoising approaches. PMID:24215934

  17. Resampling technique in the orthogonal direction for down-looking Synthetic Aperture Imaging Ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangyuan; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Guangyu; Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Liren

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of down-looking Synthetic Aperture Imaging Ladar(SAIL) uses quadratic phase history reconstruction in the travel direction and linear phase modulation reconstruction in the orthogonal direction. And the linear phase modulation in the orthogonal direction is generated by the shift of two cylindrical lenses in the two polarization-orthogonal beams. Therefore, the fast-moving of two cylindrical lenses is necessary for airborne down-looking SAIL to match the aircraft flight speed and to realize the compression of the orthogonal direction, but the quick start and the quick stop of the cylindrical lenses must greatly damage the motor and make the motion trail non-uniform. To reduce the damage and get relatively well trajectory, we make the motor move like a sinusoidal curve to make it more realistic movement, and through a resampling interpolation imaging algorithm, we can transform the nonlinear phase to linear phase, and get good reconstruction results of point target and area target in laboratory. The influences on imaging quality in different sampling positions when the motor make a sinusoidal motion and the necessity of the algorithm are analyzed. At last, we perform a comparison of the results of two cases in resolution.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF A SELF-GRAVITATING PROTOPLANETARY DISK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR DIRECT IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Takayuki

    2011-09-20

    We consider the effects of self-gravity on the hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction of a gaseous disk and discuss the possible signature of the self-gravity that may be captured by direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks in the future. In this paper, we consider a vertically isothermal disk in order to isolate the effects of self-gravity. The specific disk model we consider in this paper is the one with a radial surface density gap, at which the Toomre's Q-parameter of the disk varies rapidly in the radial direction. We calculate the vertical structure of the disk including the effects of self-gravity. We then calculate the scattered light and the dust thermal emission. We find that if the disk is massive enough and the effects of self-gravity come into play, a weak bump-like structure at the gap edge appears in the near-infrared (NIR) scattered light, while no such bump-like structure is seen in the submillimeter (sub-mm) dust continuum image. The appearance of the bump is caused by the variation of the height of the surface in the NIR wavelength. If such a bump-like feature is detected in future direct imaging observations, combined with sub-mm observations, it will give us useful information about the physical states of the disk.

  19. How to Directly Image a Habitable Planet Around Alpha Centauri with a 30cm Space Telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, R.; Bendek, E.; Thomas, S.; Black, D.

    2014-12-01

    More than 1,700 exoplanets have been discovered to date, including a handful of potentially habitable ones. There is on average more than one planet per star, and estimates of occurrence rates for potentially habitable planets (eta_Earth) from the Kepler mission range between 5 and 50%. Several mission concepts have been studied to directly image planets around nearby stars. Direct imaging enables spectroscopic detection of biomarkers such as atmospheric oxygen and methane, which would be highly suggestive of extraterrestrial life. It is commonly thought that directly imaging a potentially habitable exoplanet requires telescopes with apertures of at least 1m, costing at least $1B, and launching no earlier than the 2020s. A notable exception to this is Alpha Centauri. The system contains two Sun-like stars with a wide separation that allows dynamically stable habitable zones around either star. Habitable zones span about 0.5-1" in stellocentric angle, 3x wider than around any other FGKM star. A 30cm visible light space telescope is sufficient to resolve the habitable zone and detect a potentially habitable planet in minutes with ideal components, or days with realistic ones. We are developing a mission concept called ACEND (Alpha Centauri Direct Imager) consisting of a 30cm primary, a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph, and a wavefront control system. It is designed to suppress the light leak from both stars and directly image their planetary systems in 3 color channels, including the capability to detect potentially habitable planets. Color imaging is sufficient to differentiate Venus-like, Earth-like, and Mars-like planets from each other and establish the presence of Earth-pressure atmosphere through Rayleigh scattering. Two factors make it possible to realize the requirements of ACEND (most notably 10^10 contrast) on a small budget and fast schedule: (a) ACEND will collect a long continuous sequence of images on Alpha Centauri A and B for 2 years

  20. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  1. Detection and direct identification of liquid contaminants at standoff distances with an imaging polarimetric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiang, Eugene; Oberbeck, Adam; Akagi, Jason; Knobbe, Ed

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a remote sensing method, based on an imaging polarimetric spectrometer, to determine the complex refractive index of materials. The approach represents an adaptation of a technique used in semiconductor ellipsometry. Our experimental demonstration setup comprises a Sagnac-type LWIR spatial interferometer (8 - 12 micron) designed for hyperspectral imaging in emission and reflection. The method facilitates direct measurement of the complex refractive index and the thickness of a layer. Presented work focuses on SF96, a liquid surrogate for toxic chemicals, but the method is generally applicable to solids, including soils, and to any substrate with a general bidirectional reflectance distribution function.

  2. Direct imaging of periodic subwavelength patterns generated by optical phase masks

    SciTech Connect

    Tonyushkin, Alexei; Sleator, Tycho

    2006-11-15

    We have demonstrated direct imaging of interference fringes of total atomic density with periods {lambda}/4 and {lambda}/2 for optical wavelength {lambda} that have been produced in a de Broglie wave atom interferometer. The imaging was done by means of an 'optical mask' technique, which allowed us to observe subwavelength periodic patterns with a resolution of up to {lambda}/16. In addition, the dependence of the fringe pattern on the recoil phase and pulse area reveals quantum dynamics in the atomic center-of-mass motion. The behavior of the fringe patterns near the interference times distinguishes the effects of phase gratings from those of amplitude gratings.

  3. Direct Geolocation of TerraSAR-X Spotlight Mode Image and Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa; Gong, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    The research dealt with direct geolocation of spaceborne high-resolution SAR image. The TerraSAR-X spotlight mode image was chosen as the study object. The mathematical model of SAR geolocation is Range-Doppler (RD) model. Its resolving algorithms had been studied and the ASF algorithm was chosen because of its high accuracy. The focus of this research laid on the error sources and their correction method which could affect the geolocation accuracy, such as the orbit errors, azimuth timing errors and range timing errors. At last, the accuracy of this method was verified by the experiment results.

  4. Infrared adaptive spectral imagers for direct detection of spectral signatures and hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Neil; Fox, Marsha; Adler-Golden, Steven; Gregor, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Field test results are presented for a prototype long-wave adaptive imager that provides both hyperspectral imagery and contrast imagery based on the direct application of hyperspectral detection algorithms in hardware. Programmable spatial light modulators are used to provide both spectral and spatial resolution using a single element detector. Programmable spectral and spatial detection filters can be used to superimpose any possible analog spectral detection filter on the image. In this work, we demonstrate three modes of operation, including hyperspectral imagery, and one and two-dimensional imagery using a generalized matched filter for detection of a specific target gas within the scene.

  5. Calculating the propagation direction of coronal mass ejections by connecting in situ observations with heliospheric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid; Biernat, Helfried K.

    2010-05-01

    We determined the propagation direction of two coronal mass ejections by using data provided by the Heliospheric Imagers (HI) and the PLASTIC and IMPACT instruments onboard the two STEREO satellites. To facilitate the tracking of the CME's leading edge we made time-elongation plots (J-plots) for the investigated events and tracked the apparent leading edge therein several times in order to estimate the measurement error. For converting elongation to distance we compared several methods (Point-P, Fixed-Phi and their harmonic mean). To determine the direction of the CME's propagation in the ecliptic we connected the CME-track derived from HI J-plots with the measured in situ arrival time by modifying the propagation direction within the used model equations. The resulting directions and their errors are discussed with respect to the different assumptions used for each technique.

  6. Efficient completion for corrupted low-rank images via alternating direction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Duanqing; Lu, Dongming

    2014-05-01

    We propose an efficient and easy-to-implement method to settle the inpainting problem for low-rank images following the recent studies about low-rank matrix completion. In general, our method has three steps: first, corresponding to the three channels of RGB color space, an incomplete image is split into three incomplete matrices; second, each matrix is restored by solving a convex problem derived from the nuclear norm relaxation; at last, the three recovered matrices are merged to produce the final output. During the process, in order to efficiently solve the nuclear norm minimization problem, we employ the alternating direction method. Except for the basic image inpainting problem, we also enable our method to handle cases where corrupted images not only have missing values but also have noisy entries. Our experiments show that our method outperforms the existing inpainting techniques both quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrate that our method is capable of processing many other situations, including block-wise low-rank image completion, large-scale image restoration, and object removal.

  7. Direct design of two freeform optical surfaces for wide field of view line imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-fields direct design method aiming to calculate two freeform surfaces with an entrance pupil incorporated for wide field of view on-axis line imaging applications. Both infinite and finite conjugate objectives can be designed with this approach. Since a wide angle imaging system requires more than few discrete perfect imaging points, the multi-fields design approach is based on partial coupling of multiple fields, which guarantees a much more balanced imaging performance over the full field of view. The optical path lengths (OPLs) and image points of numerous off-axis fields are calculated during the procedure, thus very few initial parameters are needed. The procedure to calculate such a freeform lens is explained in detail. We have designed an exemplary monochromatic single lens to demonstrate the functionality of the design method. A rotationally symmetric counterpart following the same specifications is compared in terms of RMS spot radius to demonstrate the clear benefit that freeform lens brings to on-axis line imaging systems. In addition, a practical achromatic wide angle objective is designed by combining our multi-fields design method with classic optical design strategies, serving as a very good starting point for further optimization in a commercial optical design program. The results from the perspective of aberrations plots and MTF values show a very good and well balanced performance over the full field of view.

  8. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  9. The dynamic effect of reading direction habit on spatial asymmetry of image perception.

    PubMed

    Afsari, Zaeinab; Ossandón, José P; König, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Exploration of images after stimulus onset is initially biased to the left. Here, we studied the causes of such an asymmetry and investigated effects of reading habits, text primes, and priming by systematically biased eye movements on this spatial bias in visual exploration. Bilinguals first read text primes with right-to-left (RTL) or left-to-right (LTR) reading directions and subsequently explored natural images. In Experiment 1, native RTL speakers showed a leftward free-viewing shift after reading LTR primes but a weaker rightward bias after reading RTL primes. This demonstrates that reading direction dynamically influences the spatial bias. However, native LTR speakers who learned an RTL language late in life showed a leftward bias after reading either LTR or RTL primes, which suggests the role of habit formation in the production of the spatial bias. In Experiment 2, LTR bilinguals showed a slightly enhanced leftward bias after reading LTR text primes in their second language. This might contribute to the differences of native RTL and LTR speakers observed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, LTR bilinguals read normal (LTR, habitual reading) and mirrored left-to-right (mLTR, nonhabitual reading) texts. We observed a strong leftward bias in both cases, indicating that the bias direction is influenced by habitual reading direction and is not secondary to the actual reading direction. This is confirmed in Experiment 4, in which LTR participants were asked to follow RTL and LTR moving dots in prior image presentation and showed no change in the normal spatial bias. In conclusion, the horizontal bias is a dynamic property and is modulated by habitual reading direction. PMID:27611064

  10. Direction operator-based switching filters for removing the impulse noise from the corrupted image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang Cheng; Qiu, Hong Tong; He, Guang Jin

    2011-12-01

    A novel switching-based filter is proposed in this work to remove the impulse noise from the corrupted image. First, samples in 5×5 filter window are fully considered to detect whether the center is corrupted by impulse noise or not. Then, the detected noise free samples in the 5×5 filter window, aligned in the main direction, are weighted more heavily than those that are not on the main direction when using the median operation to suppress the impulse noise. At last, simulation results demonstrated that this algorithm outperforms many other methods in terms of both quantitative and qualitative aspects.

  11. Direct imaging of complex nano- to microscale interfaces involving solid, liquid, and gas phases.

    PubMed

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Landin, Trevan; Walker, Marlon L; Scott, John Henry J; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-10-23

    Surfaces with special wetting properties not only can efficiently repel or attract liquids such as water and oils but also can prevent formation of biofilms, ice, and clathrate hydrates. Predicting the wetting properties of these special surfaces requires detailed knowledge of the composition and geometry of the interfacial region between the droplet and the underlying substrate. In this work we introduce a 3D quantitative method for direct nanoscale visualization of such interfaces. Specifically, we demonstrate direct nano- to microscale imaging of complex fluidic interfaces using cryostabilization in combination with cryogenic focused ion beam milling and SEM imaging. We show that application of this method yields quantitative information about the interfacial geometry of water condensate on superhydrophilic, superhydrophobic, and lubricant-impregnated surfaces with previously unattainable nanoscale resolution. This type of information is crucial to a fundamental understanding as well as the design of surfaces with special wetting properties. PMID:23020195

  12. Direct imaging of topological edge states in cold-atom systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Nathan; Dalibard, Jean; Dauphin, Alexandre; Gerbier, Fabrice; Lewenstein, Maciej; Zoller, Peter; Spielman, Ian B.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting topological order in cold-atom experiments is an ongoing challenge, the resolution of which offers novel perspectives on topological matter. In material systems, unambiguous signatures of topological order exist for topological insulators and quantum Hall devices. In quantum Hall systems, the quantized conductivity and the associated robust propagating edge modes—guaranteed by the existence of nontrivial topological invariants—have been observed through transport and spectroscopy measurements. Here, we show that optical-lattice-based experiments can be tailored to directly visualize the propagation of topological edge modes. Our method is rooted in the unique capability for initially shaping the atomic gas and imaging its time evolution after suddenly removing the shaping potentials. Our scheme, applicable to an assortment of atomic topological phases, provides a method for imaging the dynamics of topological edge modes, directly revealing their angular velocity and spin structure. PMID:23569266

  13. Direct imaging of topological edge states in cold-atom systems.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nathan; Dalibard, Jean; Dauphin, Alexandre; Gerbier, Fabrice; Lewenstein, Maciej; Zoller, Peter; Spielman, Ian B

    2013-04-23

    Detecting topological order in cold-atom experiments is an ongoing challenge, the resolution of which offers novel perspectives on topological matter. In material systems, unambiguous signatures of topological order exist for topological insulators and quantum Hall devices. In quantum Hall systems, the quantized conductivity and the associated robust propagating edge modes--guaranteed by the existence of nontrivial topological invariants--have been observed through transport and spectroscopy measurements. Here, we show that optical-lattice-based experiments can be tailored to directly visualize the propagation of topological edge modes. Our method is rooted in the unique capability for initially shaping the atomic gas and imaging its time evolution after suddenly removing the shaping potentials. Our scheme, applicable to an assortment of atomic topological phases, provides a method for imaging the dynamics of topological edge modes, directly revealing their angular velocity and spin structure. PMID:23569266

  14. Direct Imaging of Dynamic Glassy Behavior in a Strained Manganite Film.

    PubMed

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Sheng, Zhigao; Yang, Yongliang; Lai, Keji; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Kelly, Michael A; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Tang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinxin; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-12-31

    Complex many-body interaction in perovskite manganites gives rise to a strong competition between ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered phases with nanoscale electronic inhomogeneity and glassy behaviors. Investigating this glassy state requires high-resolution imaging techniques with sufficient sensitivity and stability. Here, we present the results of a near-field microwave microscope imaging on the strain-driven glassy state in a manganite film. The high contrast between the two electrically distinct phases allows direct visualization of the phase separation. The low-temperature microscopic configurations differ upon cooling with different thermal histories. At sufficiently high temperatures, we observe switching between the two phases in either direction. The dynamic switching, however, stops below the glass transition temperature. Compared with the magnetization data, the phase separation was microscopically frozen, while spin relaxation was found in a short period of time. PMID:26765006

  15. Direct Imaging of Dynamic Glassy Behavior in a Strained Manganite Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Sheng, Zhigao; Yang, Yongliang; Lai, Keji; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Kelly, Michael A.; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Tang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinxin; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-12-01

    Complex many-body interaction in perovskite manganites gives rise to a strong competition between ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered phases with nanoscale electronic inhomogeneity and glassy behaviors. Investigating this glassy state requires high-resolution imaging techniques with sufficient sensitivity and stability. Here, we present the results of a near-field microwave microscope imaging on the strain-driven glassy state in a manganite film. The high contrast between the two electrically distinct phases allows direct visualization of the phase separation. The low-temperature microscopic configurations differ upon cooling with different thermal histories. At sufficiently high temperatures, we observe switching between the two phases in either direction. The dynamic switching, however, stops below the glass transition temperature. Compared with the magnetization data, the phase separation was microscopically frozen, while spin relaxation was found in a short period of time.

  16. Resolving the Crab Nebula with Direct Hard X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Apple, Jeff A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We report the first direct hard (25--60 keV) X-ray imaging observation of the Crab Nebula that resolves structure to approximately 0.25 pc. The observation was performed over a 1.4 hour period during a balloon flight from Ft. Sumner, NM, on 2007 May 27. The source was detected in the energy band above the atmospheric cutoff at approx.25 keV and below the mirror graze angle cutoff at approx.60 keV. The image shows elongation about 25 degrees E of N in the direction along the plane of the torus (and perpendicular to the jet axis) with a slight surface-brightness enhancement NE of the pulsar. The spectrum within a 1.7 arcminute radius region centered on the Crab pulsar can be fitted with a Gamma=2 power law absorbed by an atmospheric column consistent with the balloon altitude at the time of observation.

  17. A format standard for efficient interchange of high-contrast direct imaging science products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquet, Élodie; Vigan, Arthur; Soummer, Rémi; Chauvin, Gaël.; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-07-01

    The present and next few years will see the arrival of several new coronagraphic instruments dedicated to the detection and characterization of planetary systems. These ground- and space-based instruments (Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/ CHARIS, JWST NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs among others), will provide a large number of new candidates, through multiple nearby-star surveys and will complete and extend those acquired with current generation instruments (Palomar P1640, VLT/NACO, Keck, HST). To optimize the use of the wealth of data, including non-detection results, the science products of these instruments will require to be shared among the community. In the long term such data exchange will significantly ease companion confirmations, planet characterization via different type of instruments (integral field spectrographs, polarimetric imagers, etc.), and Monte-Carlo population studies from detection and non-detection results. In this context, we initiated a collaborative effort between the teams developing the data reduction pipelines for SPHERE, GPI, and the JWST coronagraphs, and the ALICE (Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environment) collaboration, which is currently reprocessing all the HST/NICMOS coronagraphic surveys. We are developing a standard format for the science products generated by high-contrast direct imaging instruments (reduced image, sensitivity limits, noise image, candidate list, etc.), that is directly usable for astrophysical investigations. In this paper, we present first results of this work and propose a preliminary format adopted for the science product. We call for discussions in the high-contrast direct imaging community to develop this effort, reach a consensus and finalize this standard. This action will be critical to enable data interchange and combination in a consistent way between several instruments and to stiffen the scientific production in the community.

  18. Application of an imaging plate system to the direct measurement of a fixed surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masahiro; Kimura, Keiji; Sato, Rumi; Koike, Yuya; Iimoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Satoru

    2014-08-01

    An imaging plate (IP) system was used as an effective detector for direct measurement of radioactive surface contamination. The IP system displayed images designating the locations and extent of fixed surface contamination of uranyl acetate. The amount of radioactive waste produced during decontamination was reduced because the contaminated spots could be isolated; furthermore, creation of radioactive dust during removal of contamination was prevented because the contaminated spots could be removed without being pulverized. The images were used in efficiently and safely isolating the location of fixed surface contamination. The IP system surface contamination detection limit for uranyl acetate was 2.5 × 10 Bq cm, a value much lower than the surface contamination limit and the clearance level. PMID:24978288

  19. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall.

    PubMed

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The AB-BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation. PMID:27312315

  20. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-06-01

    The AB-BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation.

  1. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground

  2. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    DOEpatents

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  3. Direct Visualization of the Perforant Pathway in the Human Brain with Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Augustinack, Jean C.; Helmer, Karl; Huber, Kristen E.; Kakunoori, Sita; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging yields high resolution images that reveal detailed cerebral anatomy and explicit cytoarchitecture in the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and white matter in the human brain. Our data illustrate neuroanatomical correlates of limbic circuitry with high resolution images at high field. In this report, we have studied ex vivo medial temporal lobe samples in high resolution structural MRI and high resolution diffusion MRI. Structural and diffusion MRIs were registered to each other and to histological sections stained for myelin for validation of the perforant pathway. We demonstrate probability maps and fiber tracking from diffusion tensor data that allows the direct visualization of the perforant pathway. Although it is not possible to validate the DTI data with invasive measures, results described here provide an additional line of evidence of the perforant pathway trajectory in the human brain and that the perforant pathway may cross the hippocampal sulcus. PMID:20577631

  4. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The AB–BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation. PMID:27312315

  5. Cryogenic-temperature electron microscopy direct imaging of carbon nanotubes and graphene solutions in superacids.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, O; Parra-Vasquez, A Nicholas G; Green, M J; Behabtu, N; Schmidt, J; Kesselman, E; Young, C C; Cohen, Y; Pasquali, M; Talmon, Y

    2015-07-01

    Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful tool for imaging liquid and semiliquid systems. While cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) is a standard technique in many fields, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) is still not that widely used and is far less developed. The vast majority of systems under investigation by cryo-EM involve either water or organic components. In this paper, we introduce the use of novel cryo-TEM and cryo-SEM specimen preparation and imaging methodologies, suitable for highly acidic and very reactive systems. Both preserve the native nanostructure in the system, while not harming the expensive equipment or the user. We present examples of direct imaging of single-walled, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene, dissolved in chlorosulfonic acid and oleum. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of these new cryo-TEM and cryo-SEM methodologies to follow phase transitions in carbon nanotube (CNT)/superacid systems, starting from dilute solutions up to the concentrated nematic liquid-crystalline CNT phases, used as the 'dope' for all-carbon-fibre spinning. Originally developed for direct imaging of CNTs and graphene dissolution and self-assembly in superacids, these methodologies can be implemented for a variety of highly acidic systems, paving a way for a new field of nonaqueous cryogenic electron microscopy. PMID:25818279

  6. Tomographic imaging of a target directly irradiated in experiments on the Iskra-5 iodine laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, R V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Oreshkov, O V; Potapov, S V; Suslov, N A; Frolova, N V

    2010-12-29

    We set forth the data of experiments involving direct microtarget irradiation by the 12 second-harmonic beams ({lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) of iodine laser radiation carried out on the Iskra-5 facility. For microtargets we employed glass shells {approx}500 {mu}m in diameter with {approx}1-{mu}m thick walls, which were filled with a DT mixture at a pressure p{sub DT} {approx} 3-4 atm. In one of these experiments, a tomographic image of the microtarget was recorded from the images obtained using pinhole cameras, which were arranged along seven different directions. The pinhole images were acquired in the X-ray radiation with photon energies above 1.5 keV. The procedure used for reconstructing the volume luminosity of the microtarget is described. An analysis of the tomographic image suggests that the compressed microtarget domain possesses a complex asymmetric shape; 20-30 {mu}m sized structural elements being clearly visible. The resultant data set allowed us to estimate the initial nonuniformity of microtarget surface irradiation by the laser radiation. The rms nonuniformity of microtarget irradiance was estimated at {approx}60 %. (interaction of laser radiation with targets)

  7. Anisotropic conductivity tensor imaging in MREIT using directional diffusion rate of water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Kwon, Oh; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an emerging method to visualize electrical conductivity and/or current density images at low frequencies (below 1 KHz). Injecting currents into an imaging object, one component of the induced magnetic flux density is acquired using an MRI scanner for isotropic conductivity image reconstructions. Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) measures the intrinsic three-dimensional diffusion property of water molecules within a tissue. It characterizes the anisotropic water transport by the effective diffusion tensor. Combining the DT-MRI and MREIT techniques, we propose a novel direct method for absolute conductivity tensor image reconstructions based on a linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. We first recover the projected current density, which is the best approximation of the internal current density one can obtain from the measured single component of the induced magnetic flux density. This enables us to estimate a scale factor between the diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor. Combining these values at all pixels with the acquired diffusion tensor map, we can quantitatively recover the anisotropic conductivity tensor map. From numerical simulations and experimental verifications using a biological tissue phantom, we found that the new method overcomes the limitations of each method and successfully reconstructs both the direction and magnitude of the conductivity tensor for both the anisotropic and isotropic regions.

  8. JJ1017 image examination order codes: standardized codes supplementary to DICOM for imaging modality, region, and direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Michio; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nakajima, Takashi; Morimura, Shinya; Kabata, Shun

    2002-05-01

    The DICOM standard includes non-image data information such as image study ordering data and performed procedure data, which are used for sharing information between HIS/RIS/PACS/modalities, which is essential for IHE. In order to bring such parts of the DICOM standard into force in Japan, a joint committee of JIRA and JAHIS (vendor associations) established JJ1017 management guideline. It specifies, for example, which items are legally required in Japan while remaining optional in the DICOM standard. Then, what should be used for the examination type, regional, and directional codes? Our investigation revealed that DICOM tables do not include items that are sufficiently detailed for use in Japan. This is because radiology departments (radiologists) in the US exercise greater discretion in image examination than in Japan, and the contents of orders from requesting physicians do not include the extra details used in Japan. Therefore, we have generated the JJ1017 code for these 3 codes for use based on the JJ1017 guidelines. The stem part of the JJ1017 code partially employs the DICOM codes in order to remain in line with the DICOM standard. JJ1017 codes are to be included not only in IHE-J specifications, also in Ministry recommendations of health data exchange.

  9. Fetal head detection and measurement in ultrasound images by a direct inverse randomized Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Tan, Jinglu; Floyd, Randall C.

    2005-04-01

    Object detection in ultrasound fetal images is a challenging task for the relatively low resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio. A direct inverse randomized Hough transform (DIRHT) is developed for filtering and detecting incomplete curves in images with strong noise. The DIRHT combines the advantages of both the inverse and the randomized Hough transforms. In the reverse image, curves are highlighted while a large number of unrelated pixels are removed, demonstrating a "curve-pass filtering" effect. Curves are detected by iteratively applying the DIRHT to the filtered image. The DIRHT was applied to head detection and measurement of the biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC). No user input or geometric properties of the head were required for the detection. The detection and measurement took 2 seconds for each image on a PC. The inter-run variations and the differences between the automatic measurements and sonographers" manual measurements were small compared with published inter-observer variations. The results demonstrated that the automatic measurements were consistent and accurate. This method provides a valuable tool for fetal examinations.

  10. Computer Based Direct Digital Film Recording For Hard Copy Of Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Bruce S.

    1984-06-01

    With the introduction of digital medical imaging modalities and picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) the necessary and desirable capabilities of a film recorder for hard-copy output will vary from the specifications of the current video-based recorder. Image data can be presented to the film recorder in a digital rather than analog video format. The resulting film image is no longer subject to degradation due to nonlinearities in the video portion of the recorder. Spatial resolution is also greatly enhanced (4096 x 4096 pixels). The inherent data processing capabilities of the digital film recorder allow a number of additional functions to be performed internally. Features of the system to be discussed include automatic calibration, automatic failure diagnosis, data compression and expansion, data error detection and correction, gamma and exposure compensation, alphanumeric and graphic frame identification, graphic image recording (EKG, EEG, EMG), color capability, data format conversion, multi-format multi-modality sequences, print spooling from multiple image sources and direct connection to a PACS network.

  11. Instrumental Direction-dependent Effects in Wide-field Wide-band Interferometric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Rau, U.; Golap, K.

    2014-04-01

    Many next generation radio telescopes, some now in operation, offer significant improvement in the sensitivity and angular resolution compared to the telescopes operated in the past decades. This improvement in sensitivity is achieved with the use of wide-band receivers and larger collecting area. The effects of wide instantaneous fractional bandwidths that classical calibration and imaging algorithms ignore, lead to errors higher than the sensitivity that these new telescopes offer. Examples, relevant for some of the telescopes already in operation include the effects of time and frequency variant primary beams, frequency dependence of the emission from the sky and antenna pointing errors. The effects of wide fractional bandwidth and ionospheric phase screen limit the imaging performance below ~1 GHz. Additionally, significant variations in the shape of the wide-band primary beams (PB) for aperture array telescopes leads to errors of similar magnitude. Corrections for these effects increases the required computing power by many orders of magnitude. Furthermore, both wide fractional bandwidths and larger collecting area lead to many orders of magnitude increase in the data volume also, putting severe constraints on the run-time performance of the algorithms for calibration and imaging. In this talk, I will review the state-of-the-art algorithms for wide-field wide-band imaging and the run-time costs of the different approaches for correction of various direction-dependent effects and discuss the computational challenges in thermal noise-limited wide-field imaging with current and future radio telescopes.

  12. Retrieving direct and diffuse radiation with the use of sky imager pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Kalisch, John; Lorenz, Elke

    2015-04-01

    A machine-learning approach for retrieving direct and diffuse irradiance from pictures taken by a ground-based whole-sky imagery (sky imager) is investigated in the present work. The use of sky imagers for shortest-term local solar irradiance forecasts is a growing field in research and industry. Accurate predictions of surface solar irradiance fluctuations up to 30 minutes ahead are important for a variety of solar energy and power grid applications. Sky imager picture analyses provide very high resolution binary cloud masks, but have limitations in deriving aerosol and cloud optical properties. In a first approach, surface solar irradiance was retrieved from the binary cloud masks with the use of clear sky and overcast irradiance calculations. With this method, forecast performance improvements over persistence could be achieved especially for broken cloud situations. These situations are characterized by inhomogeneous cloud patterns contributing to surface solar irradiance deviating from the clear sky or overcast levels. The accurate estimation of the radiative components will therefore improve the irradiance retrievals. One year of measurements at the University of Oldenburg was used as a robust data basis for this new approach. The data sets consists of direct, diffuse and global horizontal irradiance measured with a sample rate of 1 Hz. In order to account for diurnal and seasonal variations radiation measurements are normalized to the clear-sky conditions. Hemispheric images were taken every 10 s by a sky imager mounted close to the radiometers. The proposed approach uses image features like the average pixel intensity of the whole image and the circumsolar area, analyses of the gray-level co-occurence matrix (GLCM), information of the RGB and HSV color space and the analysed cloud fraction. In order to estimate normalized direct and diffuse radiation, a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) regression algorithm is applied. The performance of this model is evaluated by

  13. Wide-field direct CCD observations supporting the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission's Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintzen, Paul; Angione, Ron; Talbert, Freddie; Cheng, K.-P.; Smith, Eric; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1993-01-01

    Wide field direct CCD observations are being obtained to support and complement the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) images provided by Astro's Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during a Space Shuttle flight in December 1990. Because of the wide variety of projects addressed by UIT, the fields observed include (1) galactic supernova remnants such as the Cygnus Loop and globular clusters such as Omega Cen and M79; (2) the Magellanic Clouds, M33, M81, and other galaxies in the Local Group; and (3) rich clusters of galaxies, principally the Perseus cluster and Abell 1367. Ground-based observations have been obtained for virtually all of the Astro-1 UIT fields. The optical images allow identification of individual UV sources in each field and provide the long baseline in wavelength necessary for accurate analysis of UV-bright sources. To facilitate use of our optical images for analysis of UIT data and other projects, we plan to archive them, with the UIT images, at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), where they will be universally accessible via anonymous FTP. The UIT, one of three telescopes comprising the Astro spacecraft, is a 38-cm f/9 Ritchey-Chretien telescope on which high quantum efficiency, solar-blind image tubes are used to record VUV images on photographic film. Five filters with passbands centered between 1250A and 2500A provide both VUV colors and a measurement of extinction via the 2200A dust feature. The resulting calibrated VUV pictures are 40 arcminutes in diameter at 2.5 arcseconds resolution. The capabilities of UIT, therefore, complement HST's WFPC: the latter has 40 times greater collecting area, while UIT's usable field has 170 times WFPC's field area.

  14. Why Alpha Centauri is a Particularly Good Target for Direct Imaging of Exoplanets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, R.; Bendek, E.; Thomas, S.; Males, J.

    2015-12-01

    Several mission concepts are being studied to directly image planets around nearby stars. It is commonly thought that directly imaging a potentially habitable exoplanet around a Sun-like star requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 1m. A notable exception to this is Alpha Centauri (A and B), which is an extreme outlier among FGKM stars in terms of apparent habitable zone size: the habitable zones are ~3x wider in apparent size than around any other FGKM star and are thus in theory accessible to much smaller telescopes. Alpha Centauri is also an extreme outlier in terms of how bright its planets are. For example, an Earth-like planet would be several magnitudes brighter around Alpha Centauri than around any other Sun-like star. Alpha Centauri lies in the galactic plane but its high brightness and proper motion make confusion with background stars unlikely, and extinction by our own galaxy makes confusion with extragalactic sources unlikely. The high brightness also helps any planet stand out against exozodiacal light. Alpha Centauri B has a (probable) planet, which establishes that a planetary system has formed in the system despite the multiplicity of the system. Dynamical simulations show that the habitable zones around both Alpha Centauri A and B are stable, and RV measurements rule out any large planets in the system that may have disrupted the formation of habitable planets. Recently developed high contrast techniques enable the detection of planets in multi-star systems, enabling imaging planets around Alpha Centauri. In particular, a small ~30-45cm visible light space telescope equipped with a modern high performance coronagraph or starshade is sufficient to directly image any potentially habitable planet that may exist in the system.

  15. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Weiss, Jerome; Dubrulle, Berengere; Amon, Axelle; Le Bouil, Antoine; Crassous, Jerome; Amitrano, David; Graner, Francois

    2014-12-01

    Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i) cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii) is as general as possible; (iii) is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit. It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor) is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable. Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions. It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform. Easy to understand and implement, it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging. We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials), to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  16. Developing a Method to Generate Indoorgml Data from the Omni-Directional Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    Recently, many applications for indoor space are developed. The most realistic way to service an indoor space application is on the omni-directional image so far. Due to limitations of positioning technology and indoor space modelling, however, indoor navigation service can't be implemented properly. In 2014, IndoorGML is approved as an OGC's standard. This is an indoor space data model which is for the indoor navigation service. Nevertheless, the IndoorGML is defined, there is no method to generate the IndoorGML data except manually. This paper is aimed to propose a method to generate the IndoorGML data semi-automatically from the omni-directional image. In this paper, image segmentation and classification method are adopted to generate the IndoorGML data. The edge detection method is used to extract the features from the image. After doing the edge detection method, image classification method with ROI is adopted to find the features that we want. The following step is to convert the extracted area to the point which is regarded as state and connect to shooting point's state. This is the IndoorGML data at the shooting point. It can be expanded to the floor's IndoorGML data by connecting the each shooting points after repeating the process. Also, IndoorGML data of building can be generated by connecting the floor's IndoorGML data. The proposed method is adopted at the testbed, and the IndoorGML data is generated. By using the generated IndoorGML data, it can be applied to the various applications for indoor space information service.

  17. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Matthews, J. C.; Reader, A. J.; Angelis, G. I.; Zaidi, H.

    2014-10-01

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [15O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  18. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C; Reader, A J; Angelis, G I; Zaidi, H

    2014-10-21

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [(15)O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  19. Subaru Direct Imaging Survey of Wide-Orbit Exoplanets and Solar-System-Scale Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Motohide

    2015-08-01

    SEEDS (Strategic Explorations of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru) is the first Subaru Strategic Program, whose aim is to conduct a direct imaging survey for giant planets as well as protoplanetary/debris disks at a few to a few tens of AU region around 500 nearby solar-type or more massive young stars devoting 120 Subaru nights for 5 years from 2009. The targets are composed of five categories spanning the ages of ~1 Myr to ~1 Gyr. Some RV-planet targets with older ages are also observed. We describe this survey and present its main results. The topics include (1) statistic of wide-orbit planets, (2) detection and characterization of one of the most lowest-mass planet via direct imaging. (3) detection of a super-Jupiter around the most massive star ever imaged, (4) detection of companions around retrograde exoplanet, (5) the discovery of unprecedentedly detailed structures of more than a dozen of protoplanetary disks and some debris disks. The detected structures such as wide gaps and spirals arms of a Solar-system scale could be signpost of planet.

  20. A HWIL test facility of infrared imaging laser radar using direct signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Lu, Wei; Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Laser radar has been widely used these years and the hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of laser radar become important because of its low cost and high fidelity compare with On-the-Fly testing and whole digital simulation separately. Scene generation and projection two key technologies of hardware-in-the-loop testing of laser radar and is a complicated problem because the 3D images result from time delay. The scene generation process begins with the definition of the target geometry and reflectivity and range. The real-time 3D scene generation computer is a PC based hardware and the 3D target models were modeled using 3dsMAX. The scene generation software was written in C and OpenGL and is executed to extract the Z-buffer from the bit planes to main memory as range image. These pixels contain each target position x, y, z and its respective intensity and range value. Expensive optical injection technologies of scene projection such as LDP array, VCSEL array, DMD and associated scene generation is ongoing. But the optical scene projection is complicated and always unaffordable. In this paper a cheaper test facility was described that uses direct electronic injection to provide rang images for laser radar testing. The electronic delay and pulse shaping circuits inject the scenes directly into the seeker's signal processing unit.

  1. Directional ocean wave measurements in a coastal setting using a focused array imaging radar

    SciTech Connect

    Frasier, S.J.; Liu, Y.; Moller, D.; McIntosh, R.E.; Long, C.

    1995-03-01

    A unique focused array imaging Doppler radar was used to measure directional spectra of ocean surface waves in a nearshore experiment performed on the North Carolina Outer Banks. Radar images of the ocean surface`s Doppler velocity were used to generate two dimensional spectra of the radial component of the ocean surface velocity field. These are compared to simultaneous in-situ measurements made by a nearby array of submerged pressure sensors. Analysis of the resulting two-dimensional spectra include comparisons of dominant wave lengths, wave directions, and wave energy accounting for relative differences in water depth at the measurement locations. Limited estimates of the two-dimensional surface displacement spectrum are derived from the radar data. The radar measurements are analogous to those of interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSAR), and the equivalent INSAR parameters are shown. The agreement between the remote and in-situ measurements suggests that an imaging Doppler radar is effective for these wave measurements at near grazing incidence angles.

  2. Directly Reconstructing Principal Components of Heterogeneous Particles from Cryo-EM Images

    PubMed Central

    Tagare, Hemant D.; Kucukelbir, Alp; Sigworth, Fred J.; Wang, Hongwei; Rao, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity of particles can be investigated by their three-dimensional principal components. This paper addresses the question of whether, and with what algorithm, the three-dimensional principal components can be directly recovered from cryo-EM images. The first part of the paper extends the Fourier slice theorem to covariance functions showing that the three-dimensional covariance, and hence the principal components, of a heterogeneous particle can indeed be recovered from two-dimensional cryo-EM images. The second part of the paper proposes a practical algorithm for reconstructing the principal components directly from cryo-EM images without the intermediate step of calculating covariances. This algorithm is based on maximizing the (posterior) likelihood using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The last part of the paper applies this algorithm to simulated data and to two real cryo-EM data sets: a data set of the 70S ribosome with and without Elongation Factor-G (EF-G), and a data set of the inluenza virus RNA dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP). The first principal component of the 70S ribosome data set reveals the expected conformational changes of the ribosome as the EF-G binds and unbinds. The first principal component of the RdRP data set reveals a conformational change in the two dimers of the RdRP. PMID:26049077

  3. DIRECT IMAGING CONFIRMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A DUST-ENSHROUDED CANDIDATE EXOPLANET ORBITING FOMALHAUT

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Debes, John; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Burrows, Adam; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko

    2012-12-01

    We present Subaru/IRCS J-band data for Fomalhaut and a (re)reduction of archival 2004-2006 HST/ACS data first presented by Kalas et al. We confirm the existence of a candidate exoplanet, Fomalhaut b, in both the 2004 and 2006 F606W data sets at a high signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, we confirm the detection at F814W and present a new detection in F435W. Fomalhaut b's space motion may be consistent with it being in an apsidally aligned, non-debris ring-crossing orbit, although new astrometry is required for firmer conclusions. We cannot confirm that Fomalhaut b exhibits 0.7-0.8 mag variability cited as evidence for planet accretion or a semi-transient dust cloud. The new, combined optical spectral energy distribution and IR upper limits confirm that emission identifying Fomalhaut b originates from starlight scattered by small dust, but this dust is most likely associated with a massive body. The Subaru and IRAC/4.5 {mu}m upper limits imply M < 2 M{sub J} , still consistent with the range of Fomalhaut b masses needed to sculpt the disk. Fomalhaut b is very plausibly 'a planet identified from direct imaging' even if current images of it do not, strictly speaking, show thermal emission from a directly imaged planet.

  4. Optimization of image quality and patient dose in radiographs of paediatric extremities using direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, C; Jerrom, C; Honey, I D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of beam quality on the image quality (IQ) of ankle radiographs of paediatric patients in the age range of 0–1 year whilst maintaining constant effective dose (ED). Methods: Lateral ankle radiographs of an infant foot phantom were taken at a range of tube potentials (40.0–64.5 kVp) with and without 0.1-mm copper (Cu) filtration using a Trixell Pixium 4600 detector (Trixell, Morains, France). ED to the patient was computed for the default exposure parameters using PCXMC v. 2.0 and was fixed for other beam qualities by modulating the tube current-time product. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between the tibia and adjacent soft tissue. The IQ of the phantom images was assessed by three radiologists and a reporting radiographer. Four IQ criteria were defined each with a scale of 1–3, giving a maximum score of 12. Finally, a service audit of clinical images at the default and optimum beam qualities was undertaken. Results: The measured CNR for the 40 kVp/no Cu image was 12.0 compared with 7.6 for the default mode (55  0.1 mm Cu). An improvement in the clinical IQ scores was also apparent at this lower beam quality. Conclusion: Lowering tube potential and removing filtration improved the clinical IQ of paediatric ankle radiographs in this age range. Advances in knowledge: There are currently no UK guidelines on exposure protocols for paediatric imaging using direct digital radiography. A lower beam quality will produce better IQ with no additional dose penalty for infant extremity imaging. PMID:25816115

  5. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yock, Adam D.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck.

  6. Cross-sectional imaging of directed self-assembly block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Kye; Yi, He; Tung, Maryann C.; Tiberio, Richard; Bekaert, Joost; Gronheid, Roel; Wong, H.-S. P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we address an important topic for the development of block copolymer directed self assembly, which is the lack of the third dimensional information. The three-dimensional shape of the DSA feature directly impacts the ability to transfer the DSA pattern into etched patterns. Through TEM sample preparation by in-situ focused ion beam (FIB) Pt deposition and milling, we show cross-sectional images for the two most elemental building blocks of directed self assembled block copolymers, namely, the single and double-hole (peanut shape) etched in Si structures with great contrast at the interface formed by PS and PMMA. Additionally, a hard-mask single hole structure processed with a different template material is shown as well. Elemental mapping with energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) was shown to assist interpretation of images. 3D reconstruction of the holes formed in the hard-mask sample was performed using dark field (DF) STEM. A reduction in the SOC and SOG thickness was observed post in-situ Pt deposition for the hard mask structure. Further TEM sample preparation improvements will be needed to minimize the compression observed.

  7. Initial look at the coronagraph technology gaps for direct imaging of exo-earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Siegler, Nick

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Astrophysics Division plans to initiate mission concept studies in 2016 of large candidate astrophysics missions for consideration by the 2020 Decadal Survey. The studies are expected to include two mission concepts capable of directly imaging exo-earths (HabEx and LUVOIR). Direct imaging of an exo-earth begins with starlight suppression, which is required at a depth of 10-10 in the visible for an earth-sun twin. The current results of laboratory coronagraphs are approaching the levels needed for the direct detection and characterization of an exo-earth. Other critical technologies are needed, such as ultra-low noise detectors, large format deformable mirrors, a large aperture space telescope, and sophisticated post-processing algorithms. While technologically challenging, the goal is not impossible; many of the required technologies are already at TRL 3 and beyond. After the successful on-orbit operation of WFIRST-AFTA in the next decade, some of the technologies will be at TRL 9. This paper summarizes the needed technologies that NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program is prioritizing for maturation.

  8. Directional denoising and line enhancement for device segmentation in real time fluoroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Martin; Royalty, Kevin; Oberstar, Erick; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the segmentation of interventional devices (e.g. guidewires) in fluoroscopic images. This is required for the real time 3D reconstruction from two angiographic views where noise can cause severe reconstruction artifacts and incomplete reconstruction. The proposed method reduces the noise while enhancing the thin line structures of the device in images with subtracted background. Methods: A two-step approach is presented here. The first step estimates, for each pixel and a given number of directions, a measure for the probability that the point is part of a line segment in the corresponding direction. This can be done efficiently using binary masks. In the second step, a directional filter kernel is applied for pixel that are assumed to be part of a line. For all other pixels a mean filter is used. Results: The proposed algorithm was able to achieve an average contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of 6.3 compared to the bilateral filter with 5.8. For the device segmentation using global thresholding the number of missing or wrong pixels is reduced to 25 % compared to 40 % using the bilateral approach. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm is a simple and efficient approach, which can easily be parallelized for the use on modern graphics processing units. It improves the segmentation results of the device compared to other denoising methods, and therefore reduces artifacts and increases the quality of the reconstruction without increasing the delay in real time applications notably.

  9. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  10. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  11. Image reconstruction from partial pseudo polar Fourier sampling based on alternating direction total variation minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiu-hong; Shu, Fan; Zhang, Wen-kun; Cai, Ai-long; Li, Lei; Yan, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Linear scan Computed Tomography (LCT) has emerged as a promising technique in fields like industrial scanning and security inspection due to its straight-line source trajectory and high scanning speed. However, in practical applications of LCT, the ordinary algorithms suffer from serious artifacts owing to the limited-angle and insufficient data. In this paper, a new method which reconstructs image from partial Fourier data sampled in pseudo polar grid based on alternating direction anisometric total variation minimization has been proposed. The main idea is to reform the image reconstruction problem into solving an under-determined linear equation, and then reconstruct image by applying the popular total variation (TV) minimization to reform an unconstraint optimization by means of augmented Lagrange method and using the alternating minimization method of multiplier (ADMM) which contributes to the fast convergence. The proposed method is practical in the large-scale task of reconstruction due to its algorithmic simplicity and computational efficiency and reconstructs better images. The results of the numerical simulations and pseudo real data reconstructions from the linear scan validate that the proposed method is both efficient and accurate.

  12. 3D/2D image registration using weighted histogram of gradient directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafurian, Soheil; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Tan, Virak; Li, Kang

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) to two dimensional (2D) image registration is crucial in many medical applications such as image-guided evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders. One of the key problems is to estimate the 3D CT- reconstructed bone model positions (translation and rotation) which maximize the similarity between the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and the 2D fluoroscopic images using a registration method. This problem is computational-intensive due to a large search space and the complicated DRR generation process. Also, finding a similarity measure which converges to the global optimum instead of local optima adds to the challenge. To circumvent these issues, most existing registration methods need a manual initialization, which requires user interaction and is prone to human error. In this paper, we introduce a novel feature-based registration method using the weighted histogram of gradient directions of images. This method simplifies the computation by searching the parameter space (rotation and translation) sequentially rather than simultaneously. In our numeric simulation experiments, the proposed registration algorithm was able to achieve sub-millimeter and sub-degree accuracies. Moreover, our method is robust to the initial guess. It can tolerate up to +/-90°rotation offset from the global optimal solution, which minimizes the need for human interaction to initialize the algorithm.

  13. Direct Imaging Detection of Methane in the Atmosphere of GJ 504 b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Spiegel, David; Thalmann, Christian; Currie, Thayne; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Zimmerman, Neil; Sorahana, Satoko; Kotani, Takayuki; Schlieder, Joshua; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; McElwain, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Most exoplanets detected by direct imaging so far have been characterized by relatively hot (approximately greater than1000 K) and cloudy atmospheres. A surprising feature in some of their atmospheres has been a distinct lack of methane, possibly implying non-equilibrium chemistry. Recently, we reported the discovery of a planetary companion to the Sun-like star GJ 504 using Subaru/HiCIAO within the SEEDS survey. The planet is substantially colder (less than 600 K) than previously imaged planets, and has indications of fewer clouds, which implies that it represents a new class of planetary atmospheres with expected similarities to late T-type brown dwarfs in the same temperature range. If so, one might also expect the presence of significant methane absorption, which is characteristic of such objects. Here, we report the detection of deep methane absorption in the atmosphere of GJ 504 b, using the Spectral Differential Imaging mode of HiCIAO to distinguish the absorption feature around 1.6 micrometers. We also report updated JHK photometry based on new K(sub s)-band data and a re-analysis of the existing data. The results support the notion that GJ 504 b has atmospheric properties distinct from other imaged exoplanets, and will become a useful reference object for future planets in the same temperature range.

  14. DIRECT IMAGING DETECTION OF METHANE IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF GJ 504 b

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Spiegel, David S.; Thalmann, Christian; Currie, Thayne; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Zimmerman, Neil; Schlieder, Joshua; Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus; Sorahana, Satoko; Kotani, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, Sebastian; Abe, Lyu; Carson, Joseph C.; Goto, Miwa; and others

    2013-11-20

    Most exoplanets detected by direct imaging thus far have been characterized by relatively hot (≳1000 K) and cloudy atmospheres. A surprising feature in some of their atmospheres has been a distinct lack of methane, possibly implying non-equilibrium chemistry. Recently, we reported the discovery of a planetary companion to the Sun-like star GJ 504 using Subaru/HiCIAO within the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru survey. The planet is substantially colder (<600 K) than previously imaged planets, and has indications of fewer clouds, which implies that it represents a new class of planetary atmospheres with expected similarities to late T-type brown dwarfs in the same temperature range. If so, one might also expect the presence of significant methane absorption, which is characteristic of such objects. Here, we report the detection of deep methane absorption in the atmosphere of GJ 504 b, using the Spectral Differential Imaging mode of HiCIAO to distinguish the absorption features around 1.6 μm. We also report updated JHK photometry based on new K {sub s}-band data and a re-analysis of the existing data. The results support the notion that GJ 504 b has atmospheric properties distinct from other imaged exoplanets, and will become a useful reference object for future planets in the same temperature range.

  15. Study of a dual mode SWIR active imaging system for direct imaging and non-line-of-sight vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Velten, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The application of non-line of sight vision and see around a corner has been demonstrated in the recent past on laboratory level with round trip path lengths on the scale of 1 m as well as 10 m. This method uses a computational imaging approach to analyze the scattered information of objects which are hidden from the direct sensors field of view. Recent demonstrator systems were driven at laser wavelengths (800 nm and 532 nm) which are far from the eye-safe shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelength band i.e. between 1.4 μm and 2 μm. Therefore, the application in public or inhabited areas is difficult with respect to international laser safety conventions. In the present work, the authors evaluate the application of recent eye safe laser sources and sensor devices for non-line of sight sensing and give predictions on range and resolution. Further, the realization of a dual mode concept is studied enabling both, the direct view on a scene and the indirect view on a hidden scene. While recent laser gated viewing sensors have high spatial resolution, their application in non-line of sight imaging suffer from a too low temporal resolution due to minimal sensor gate width of around 150 ns. On the other hand, Geiger-mode single photon counting devices have high temporal resolution, but their spatial resolution is (until now) limited to array sizes of some thousand sensor elements. In this publication the authors present detailed theoretical and experimental evaluations.

  16. The Subaru SEEDS Direct Imaging Survey for Planets of Early-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Kellen D.; Carson, Joseph; Thalmann, Christian; Seeds Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the Subaru SEEDS sub-program to search for extrasolar planets around early-type (mostly A-type) stars. SEEDS, the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, is a multi-year, direct-imaging survey to explore the link between planets and disks, and the evolution of protoplanetary systems and debris disks. With first observations carried out in 2009, the early-type star sub-program uses the Subaru 8-meter Telescope, the AO188 adaptive optics system, the HiCIAO near infrared science camera, and an Angular Differential Imaging observing procedure to distinguish faint orbiting companions from the overwhelming light of the parent star. We summarize progress to date, including the nature of our data processing techniques, improved software sensitivities, and our prior discovery of the 'Super-Jupiter' Kappa Andromedae b.

  17. Transitioning process of a film-based radiology department to direct digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romlein, John R.; Weiser, John C.; Willis, Charles E.; Smith, Suzy; Guinther, Rik; Quillin, Edward

    1994-05-01

    The initial transition of the Radiology Department at Madigan Army Medical Center, the Wright Patterson Air Force Medical Center and the Brooke Army Medical Center from film- based operations to direct digital image capture and display has been completed. This presentation describes the planning process and the impact of the transition on radiology operations and clinical services. PACS implementation requires changes in both the physical plant and the human element of the Radiology departments as well as in the clinical areas where imaging workstations were installed. Equipment retrofit, utility upgrades, space trade- offs, quality control operations, work flow variations, and educational requirements were major considerations. An overview of the scope of departmental transitions is achieved.

  18. Image segmentation using the student's t-test and the divergence of direction on spherical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetten, George; Horvath, Samantha; Galeotti, John; Shukla, Gaurav; Wang, Bo; Chapman, Brian

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a new framework for analyzing images called Shells and Spheres (SaS) based on a set of spheres with adjustable radii, with exactly one sphere centered at each image pixel. This set of spheres is considered optimized when each sphere reaches, but does not cross, the nearest boundary of an image object. Statistical calculations at varying scale are performed on populations of pixels within spheres, as well as populations of adjacent spheres, in order to determine the proper radius of each sphere. In the present work, we explore the use of a classical statistical method, the student's t-test, within the SaS framework, to compare adjacent spherical populations of pixels. We present results from various techniques based on this approach, including a comparison with classical gradient and variance measures at the boundary. A number of optimization strategies are proposed and tested based on pairs of adjacent spheres whose size are controlled in a methodical manner. A properly positioned sphere pair lies on opposite sides of an object boundary, yielding a direction function from the center of each sphere to the boundary point between them. Finally, we develop a method for extracting medial points based on the divergence of that direction function as it changes across medial ridges, reporting not only the presence of a medial point but also the angle between the directions from that medial point to the two respective boundary points that make it medial. Although demonstrated here only in 2D, these methods are all inherently n-dimensional.

  19. Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction with Matrix-Compatible Fiber Coating for Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Grapes by Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS).

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Érica A; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-05-13

    A fast and sensitive direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS) method for the determination of multiresidue pesticides in grapes employing a PDMS-modified PDMS/DVB coating was developed utilizing multivariate approaches for optimization of the most important factors affecting SPME performance. A comprehensive investigation of appropriate internal standards using a bottom-up approach led to the selection of suitable compounds that adequately covered a range of 40 pesticides pertaining to various classes. The validated method yielded good accuracy, precision, and sensitivity and has been successfully applied to the analysis of commercial samples. With regard to the limitations of the proposed method, the DI-SPME method did not provide a satisfactory performance toward more polar pesticides (e.g., acephate, omethoate, dimethoate) and highly hydrophobic pesticides, such as pyrethroids. Despite the challenges and limitations encountered by this method, the practical aspects of the PDMS-modified coating demonstrated here create new opportunities for SPME applied in food analysis. PMID:25856792

  20. Connecting Young Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Gas-Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Michael; Dupuy, Trent; Allers, Katelyn; Aller, Kimberly; Best, William; Magnier, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Direct detections of gas-giant exoplanets and discoveries of young (~10-100 Myr) field brown dwarfs from all-sky surveys are strengthening the link between the exoplanet and brown dwarf populations, given the overlapping ages, masses, temperatures, and surface gravities. In light of the relatively small number of directly imaged planets and the modest associated datasets, the large census of young field brown dwarfsprovides a compelling laboratory for enriching our understanding of both classes of objects. However, work to date on young field objects has typically focused on individual discoveries.We present a large comprehensive study of the youngest field brown dwarfs, comprising both previously known objects and our new discoveries from the latest wide-field surveys (Pan-STARRS-1 and WISE). With masses now extending down to ~5 Jupiter masses, these objects have physical properties that largely overlap young gas-giant planets and thus are promising analogs for studying exoplanet atmospheres at unparalleled S/N, spectral resolution, and wavelength coverage. We combine high-quality spectra and parallaxes to determine spectral energy distributions, luminosities, temperatures, and ages for young field objects. We demonstrate that this population spans a continuum in the color-magnitude diagram, thereby forming a bridge between the hot and cool extremes of directly imaged planets. We find that the extremely dusty properties of the planets around 2MASS J1207-39 and HR 8799 do occur in some young brown dwarfs, but these properties do not have a simple correspondence with age, perhaps contrary to expectations. We find young field brown dwarfs can have unusually low temperatures and suggest a new spectral type-temperature scale appropriate for directly imaged planets.To help provide a reference for extreme-contrast imaging surveys, we establish a grid of spectral standards and benchmarks, based on membership in nearby young moving groups, in order to calibrate gravity

  1. Direct and interferometric imaging approaches for detecting earth-like extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J.; Van Zyl, J.; Jones, D. L.; Tubbs, E.; Wright, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses functional requirements of space-based observational systems with sufficient sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range to image earth-like extrasolar planets within a search radius of 10 parsecs from the sun. Both direct and interferometric systems operating at visible and infrared wavelengths are evaluated, and the methods used to establish the system tolerances are presented. Due to the more favorable star/planet contrast ratio in the infrared, optical tolerance requirements are less stringent than in the visible. However, reduction of thermal radiation from the telescope requires cooling of the primary optics. Other tradeoffs between various approaches are enumerated.

  2. A digital receiver module with direct data acquisition for magnetic resonance imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weinan; Sun, Hongyu; Wang, Weimin

    2012-10-01

    A digital receiver module for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with detailed hardware implementations is presented. The module is based on a direct sampling scheme using the latest mixed-signal circuit design techniques. A single field-programmable gate array chip is employed to perform software-based digital down conversion for radio frequency signals. The modular architecture of the receiver allows multiple acquisition channels to be implemented on a highly integrated printed circuit board. To maintain the phase coherence of the receiver and the exciter in the context of direct sampling, an effective phase synchronization method was proposed to achieve a phase deviation as small as 0.09°. The performance of the described receiver module was verified in the experiments for both low- and high-field (0.5 T and 1.5 T) MRI scanners and was compared to a modern commercial MRI receiver system.

  3. Image-guided spine surgery: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Shafizadeh, Sven; Rixen, Dieter; Paffrath, Thomas; Bouillon, Bertil; Steinhausen, Eva S.; Baethis, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Navigation technology is a widely available tool in spine surgery and has become a part of clinical routine in many centers. The issue of where and when navigation technology should be used is still an issue of debate. It is the aim of this study to give an overview on the current knowledge concerning the technical capabilities of image-guided approaches and to discuss possible future directions of research and implementation of this technique. Based on a Medline search total of 1,462 publications published until October 2008 were retrieved. The abstracts were scanned manually for relevance to the topics of navigated spine surgery in the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, the lumbar spine, as well as ventral spine surgery, radiation exposure, tumor surgery and cost-effectivity in navigated spine surgery. Papers not contributing to these subjects were deleted resulting in 276 papers that were included in the analysis. Image-guided approaches have been investigated and partially implemented into clinical routine in virtually any field of spine surgery. However, the data available is mostly limited to small clinical series, case reports or retrospective studies. Only two RCTs and one metaanalysis have been retrieved. Concerning the most popular application of image-guided approaches, pedicle screw insertion, the evidence of clinical benefit in the most critical areas, e.g. the thoracic spine, is still lacking. In many other areas of spine surgery, e.g. ventral spine surgery or tumor surgery, image-guided approaches are still in an experimental stage. The technical development of image-guided techniques has reached a high level as the accuracies that can be achieved technically meet the anatomical demands. However, there is evidence that the interaction between the surgeon (‘human factor’) and the navigation system is a source of inaccuracy. It is concluded that more effort needs to be spend to understand this interaction. PMID:19763640

  4. Handheld directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattison, Phillip R.; Dombrowski, Mark S.; Lorenz, James M.; Davis, Keith J.; Mann, Harley C.; Johnson, Philip; Foos, Bryan

    1998-10-01

    Many applications require quantitative measurements of surface light scattering, including quality control on production lines, inspection of painted surfaces, inspection of field repairs, etc. Instruments for measuring surface scattering typically fall into two main categories, namely bidirectional reflectometers, which measure the angular distribution of scattering, and hemispherical directional reflectometers, which measure the total scattering into the hemisphere above the surface. Measurement of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the greatest insight into how light is scattered from a surface. Measurements of BRDF, however, are typically very lengthy measurements taken by moving a source and detector to map the scattering. Since BRDF has four angular degrees of freedom, such measurements can require hours to days to complete. Instruments for measuring BRDF are also typically laboratory devices, although a field- portable bi-directional reflectometer does exist. Hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR) is a much easier measurement to make, although care must be taken to use the proper methodology when measuring at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometer, since integrating spheres (typically used to make such measurements) are very energy inefficient and lose their integrating properties at very long wavelengths. A few field- portable hemispherical directional reflectometers do exist, but typically measure HDR only at near-normal angles. Boeing Defense and Space Group and Surface Optics Corporation, under a contract from the Air Force Research Laboratory, have developed a new hand-held instrument capable of measuring both BRDF and HDR using a unique, patented angular imaging technique. A combination of an hemi-ellipsoidal mirror and an additional lens translate the angular scatter from a surface into a two-dimensional spatial distribution, which is recorded by an imaging array. This configuration fully maps the scattering from a half

  5. Image based weighted center of proximity versus directly measured knee contact location during simulated gait.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongsheng; Chen, Tony; Koff, Matthew F; Hutchinson, Ian D; Gilbert, Susannah; Choi, Dan; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-07-18

    To understand the mechanical consequences of knee injury requires a detailed analysis of the effect of that injury on joint contact mechanics during activities of daily living. Three-dimensional (3D) knee joint geometric models have been combined with knee joint kinematics to dynamically estimate the location of joint contact during physiological activities-using a weighted center of proximity (WCoP) method. However, the relationship between the estimated WCoP and the actual location of contact has not been defined. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between knee joint contact location as estimated using the image-based WCoP method, and a directly measured weighted center of contact (WCoC) method during simulated walking. To achieve this goal, we created knee specific models of six human cadaveric knees from magnetic resonance imaging. All knees were then subjected to physiological loads on a knee simulator intended to mimic gait. Knee joint motion was captured using a motion capture system. Knee joint contact stresses were synchronously recorded using a thin electronic sensor throughout gait, and used to compute WCoC for the medial and lateral plateaus of each knee. WCoP was calculated by combining knee kinematics with the MRI-based knee specific model. Both metrics were compared throughout gait using linear regression. The anteroposterior (AP) location of WCoP was significantly correlated with that of WCoC on both tibial plateaus in all specimens (p<0.01, 95% confidence interval of Pearson׳s coefficient r>0), but the correlation was not significant in the mediolateral (ML) direction for 4/6 knees (p>0.05). Our study demonstrates that while the location of joint contact obtained from 3D knee joint contact model, using the WCoP method, is significantly correlated with the location of actual contact stresses in the AP direction, that relationship is less certain in the ML direction. PMID:24837219

  6. Dynamic imaging reveals that BDNF can independently regulate motility and direction of RMS neuroblast migration

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Joshua A.; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal precursors generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB). Although, the mechanisms regulating this migration remain largely unknown, studies have suggested that molecular factors, such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) emanating from the OB, may function as chemoattractants drawing neuroblasts toward their target. To better understand the role of BDNF in RMS migration, we used an acute slice preparation from early postnatal mice to track the tangential migration of GAD65-GFP labeled RMS neuroblasts with confocal time-lapse imaging. By quantifying the cell dynamics using specific directional and motility criteria, our results showed that removal of the OB did not alter the overall directional trajectory of neuroblasts, but did reduce their motility. This suggested that additional guidance factors may be present locally within the RMS. Thus, we next demonstrated that BDNF and its high affinity receptor, TrkB, are indeed heterogeneously expressed within the RMS at postnatal day 7, and by altering BDNF levels within the entire pathway, showed that reduced BDNF signaling changes both neuroblast motility and direction, while increased BDNF levels changes only motility. Together these data reveal that during this early postnatal period BDNF plays a complex role in regulating both the motility and direction of RMS flow, and that it arises from within the RMS itself, as well as from the olfactory bulb. PMID:20538046

  7. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. II. DIRECT DETECTION OF THE HD 8375 TERTIARY

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Yantek, Scott M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A.; Wright, Jason T.; Feng Ying

    2013-07-01

    We present the direct imaging detection of a faint tertiary companion to the single-lined spectroscopic binary HD 8375 AB. Initially noticed as an 53 m s{sup -1} yr{sup -1} Doppler acceleration by Bowler et al., we have obtained high-contrast adaptive optics observations at Keck using NIRC2 that spatially resolve HD 8375 C from its host(s). Astrometric measurements demonstrate that the companion shares a common proper-motion. We detect orbital motion in a clockwise direction. Multiband relative photometry measurements are consistent with an early M-dwarf spectral type ({approx}M1V). Our combined Doppler and imaging observations place a lower-limit of m {>=} 0.297 M{sub Sun} on its dynamical mass. We also provide a refined orbit for the inner pair using recent radial velocity measurements obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer. HD 8375 is one of many triple-star systems that are apparently missing in the solar neighborhood.

  8. DIRECT IMAGING IN THE HABITABLE ZONE AND THE PROBLEM OF ORBITAL MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Close, Laird M.

    2013-07-01

    High contrast imaging searches for exoplanets have been conducted on 2.4-10 m telescopes, typically at H band (1.6 {mu}m) and used exposure times of {approx}1 hr to search for planets with semi-major axes of {approx}> 10 AU. We are beginning to plan for surveys using extreme-AO systems on the next generation of 30 m class telescopes, where we hope to begin probing the habitable zones (HZs) of nearby stars. Here we highlight a heretofore ignorable problem in direct imaging: planets orbit their stars. Under the parameters of current surveys, orbital motion is negligible over the duration of a typical observation. However, this motion is not negligible when using large diameter telescopes to observe at relatively close stellar distances (1-10 pc), over the long exposure times (10-20 hr) necessary for direct detection of older planets in the HZ. We show that this motion will limit our achievable signal-to-noise ratio and degrade observational completeness. Even on current 8 m class telescopes, orbital motion will need to be accounted for in an attempt to detect HZ planets around the nearest Sun-like stars {alpha} Cen A and B, a binary system now known to harbor at least one planet. Here we derive some basic tools for analyzing this problem, and ultimately show that the prospects are good for de-orbiting a series of shorter exposures to correct for orbital motion.

  9. Frequency Modulation of Directly Imaged Exoplanets: Geometric Effect as a Probe of Planetary Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    We consider the time–frequency analysis of a scattered light curve of a directly imaged exoplanet. We show that the geometric effect due to planetary obliquity and orbital inclination induce the frequency modulation of the apparent diurnal periodicity. We construct a model of the frequency modulation and compare it with the instantaneous frequency extracted from the pseudo-Wigner distribution of simulated light curves of a cloudless Earth. The model provides good agreement with the simulated modulation factor, even for the light curve with Gaussian noise comparable to the signal. Notably, the shape of the instantaneous frequency is sensitive to the difference between the prograde, retrograde, and pole-on spin rotations. While our technique requires the albedo map to be static, it does not need to solve the albedo map of the planet. The time–frequency analysis is complementary to other methods which utilize the amplitude modulation. This paper demonstrates the importance of the frequency domain of the photometric variability for the characterization of directly imaged exoplanets in future research.

  10. Direct Imaging of a Two-Dimensional Silica Glass on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P. Y.; Kurasch, S.; Srivastava, A.; Skakalova, V.; Kotakoski, J.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Hovden, R. M.; Mao, Q.; Meyer, J. C.; Smet, J.; Muller, D. A.; Kaiser, U.

    2012-02-01

    Large-area graphene substrates [1] are a promising lab bench for synthesizing and characterizing novel low-dimensional materials such as two-dimensional (2D) glasses. Unlike 2D crystals such as graphene, 2D glasses are almost entirely unexplored--yet they have enormous applicability for understanding amorphous structures, which are difficult to probe in 3D. We report direct observations of the structure of an amorphous 2D silica supported on graphene. To our knowledge, these results represent the first discovery of an extended 2D glass. The 2D glass enables aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy, producing the first atomically-resolved experimental images of a glass. The images strikingly resemble Zachariasen's seminal 1932 cartoons of a 2D continuous random network glass [2] and allow direct structural analyses not possible in 3D glassy materials. DFT calculations indicate that van der Waals interactions with graphene energetically favor the 2D structure over bulk SiO2, suggesting that graphene can be instrumental in stabilizing new 2D materials. [1] J. C. Meyer et al., Nature 454, 319--322 (2008). [2] W. H. Zachariasen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 54, 3841--3851 (1932).

  11. Mid-callosal plane determination using preferred directions from diffusion tensor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, André L.; Rittner, Letícia; Lotufo, Roberto A.; Appenzeller, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The corpus callosum is the major brain structure responsible for inter{hemispheric communication between neurons. Many studies seek to relate corpus callosum attributes to patient characteristics, cerebral diseases and psychological disorders. Most of those studies rely on 2D analysis of the corpus callosum in the mid-sagittal plane. However, it is common to find conflicting results among studies, once many ignore methodological issues and define the mid-sagittal plane based on precary or invalid criteria with respect to the corpus callosum. In this work we propose a novel method to determine the mid-callosal plane using the corpus callosum internal preferred diffusion directions obtained from diffusion tensor images. This plane is analogous to the mid-sagittal plane, but intended to serve exclusively as the corpus callosum reference. Our method elucidates the great potential the directional information of the corpus callosum fibers have to indicate its own referential. Results from experiments with five image pairs from distinct subjects, obtained under the same conditions, demonstrate the method effectiveness to find the corpus callosum symmetric axis relative to the axial plane.

  12. Adaptive Optics for Direct Detection of Extrasolar Planets: The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erikson, D; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Soummer, R; Veran, J

    2007-04-24

    The direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by extrasolar planets, spatially resolved from their parent star, is a major frontier in the study of other solar systems. Direct detection will provide statistical information on planets in 5-50 AU orbits, inaccessible to current Doppler searches, and allow spectral characterization of radius, temperature, surface gravity, and perhaps composition. Achieving this will require new dedicated high-contrast instruments. One such system under construction is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) This combines a high-order/high-speed adaptive optics system to control wavefront errors from the Earth's atmosphere, an advanced coronagraph to block diffraction, ultrasmooth optics, a precision infrared interferometer to measure and correct systematic errors, and a integral field spectrograph/polarimeter to image and characterize target planetary systems. We predict that GPI will be able to detect planets with brightness less than 10{sup -7} of their parent star, sufficient to observe warm self-luminous planets around a large population of targets.

  13. An image-based multi-directional reflectance measurement setup for flexible objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, Aditya S.; Farup, Ivar; Tominaga, Shoji

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an image-based method to measure reflectance of a homogeneous flexible object material (usually used in packaging). A point light source and a commercially available RGB camera is used to illuminate and measure the radiance reflected from the object surface in multiple reflection directions. By curving the flexible object onto a cylinder of known radius we are able to record radiance at multiple reflection angles in a faster way. In order to estimate the reflectance and to characterise the material, a spectralon reference tile is used. The spectralon tile is assumed to be homogenous and has near lambertain surface properties. Using Lambert's cosine law, irradiance at a given point on the object surface is calculated. This information is then used to calculate a BRDF using Phong reflection model to describe the sample surface reflection properties. The measurement setup is described and discussed in this paper along with its use to estimate a BRDF for a given material/substrate. Results obtained indicate that the proposed image-based technique works well to measure light reflected at different planar angles and record information to estimate the BRDF of the sample materials that can be modelled using Phong reflection model. The object material properties, sample curvature and camera resolution decides the number of incident and reflection angles at which the bi-directional reflectance, or the material BRDF, can be estimated using this method.

  14. Direct three-dimensional imaging of structure in a strongly-coupled dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. A.; Goree, J.; Pieper, J. B.

    1996-11-01

    Using direct imaging of 9 μ m plastic spheres suspended in low-power Krypton discharges, we have constructed three-dimensional images showing the crystalline structure of a strongly-coupled dusty plasma. The spheres, which are highly charged and levitated by the electrode sheath, form a strongly-coupled system. A horizontal laser sheet illuminates a slice through the suspension, and a video camera views at 90^circ . Using a vertical stack of digitized images of particles in equally-spaced horizontal planes, we reconstructed the 3-D structure. We found bcc (body-centered cubic) and simple hexagonal structures coexisting in the same suspension. This coexistence is attributed to a bistability owing to an attractive potential region downstream of a charged grain in the presence of flowing ions. The probability of the system arranging in itself in the bcc or simple hexagonal phases is found to depend on the rf power that is used to sustain the discharge, and this in turn affects the particle charge and Debye length.(J. B. Pieper, J. Goree, R. A. Quinn, submitted to Phys. Rev. E) Work supported by NSF and NASA

  15. Design method of freeform off-axis reflective imaging systems with a direct construction process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Zhu, Jun; Hou, Wei; Jin, Guofan

    2014-04-21

    In this paper, a novel method is proposed to design the freeform off-axis reflective imaging systems. A special algorithm is demonstrated to calculate the data points on the unknown freeform surface using the rays from multiple fields and different pupil coordinates. These points are used to construct the multiple three-dimensional freeform surfaces in an imaging system which works for a certain object size and a certain width of light beam. An unobscured design with freeform surfaces can be obtained directly with this method, and it can be taken as a good starting point for further optimization. The benefit of this design method is demonstrated by designing a freeform off-axis three-mirror imaging system with high performance and system specifications. The final system operates at F/1.49 with a 64mm entrance pupil diameter and an 8° × 9° field-of-view (FOV). The performance of the system is diffraction limited at LWIR (long-wavelength-infrared). PMID:24787809

  16. Line scanning system for direct digital chemiluminescence imaging of DNA sequencing blots

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, A.E.; Weiss, R.; Gesteland, R.F. Eccles Inst. of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT )

    1993-07-01

    A cryogenically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with an area CCD array is used in a line scanning system for low-light-level imaging of chemiluminescent DNA sequencing blots. Operating the CCD camera in time-delayed integration (TDI) mode results in continuous data acquisition independent of the length of the CCD array. Scanning is possible with a resolution of 1.4 line pairs/mm at the 50% level of the modulation transfer function. High-sensitivity, low-light-level scanning of chemiluminescent direct-transfer electrophoresis (DTE) DNA sequencing blots is shown. The detection of DNA fragments on the blot involves DNA-DNA hybridization with oligonucleotide-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and 1,2-dioxetane-based chemiluminescence. The width of the scan allows the recording of up to four sequencing reactions (16 lanes) on one scan. The scan speed of 52 cm/h used for the sequencing blots corresponds to a data acquisition rate of 384 pixels/s. The chemiluminescence detection limit on the scanned images is 3.9 [times] 10[sup [minus]18] mol of plasmid DNA. A conditional median filter is described to remove spikes caused by cosmic ray events from the CCD images. 39 refs., 9 refs.

  17. Direct imaging of the cold jovian (?) companion GJ504b with VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, Mickaël

    2015-12-01

    In 2008, the Subaru/SEEDS survey reported the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504. With a mass of 3-10 MJup and projected separation of 43.5 AU, this object challenges the core-accretion paradigm. This is the only known nearly mature (age ≫ 50 Myr) gas giant planet imaged so far. The very low (500 K) estimated temperature of the object makes it a benchmark for the study of the physical and chemical processes at play into the non-irradiated atmospheres of gas giants.We will present new SPHERE dual-band imaging data on the system gathered from 0.95 to 2.25 microns. The data enable to detect the companion and complete its spectral energy distribution. We use them to refine the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity estimates for the object. This in turns enables to discuss the nature of the companion. We also set constraints on additional companions in the system.

  18. A Space Mission Concept to Directly Image the Habitable Zone of Alpha Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, E.; Belikov, R.; Males, J.; Thomas, S.; Lozi, J.

    2015-12-01

    The inner edge of Alpha Cen A&B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7" and 0.4" respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 30cm class telescope. Contrast ratios in the order of 1010 are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets, will allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope, that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induce Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architecture maximizes stability and throughput. The Multi-Star Wave Front algorithm is implemented to drive a deformable mirror controlling simultaneously diffracted light from the on-axis and binary companion star. The instrument has a Focal Plane Occulter to reject starlight into a Low Order Wavefront Sensor that delivers high-precision pointing control. Finally we utilize the ODI post-processing method that takes advantage of a highly stable environment (Earth-trailing orbit) and a continuous sequence of images spanning 2 years, to reduce the final noise floor in post processing to ~2e-11 levels, enabling high confidence and at least 90% completeness detections of Earth-like planets.

  19. Polarization of Directly Imaged Young Giant Planets as a Probe of Mass, Rotation, and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Sengupta, Sujan

    2012-01-01

    Young, hot gas giant planets at large separations from their primaries have been directly imaged around several nearby stars. More such planets will likely be detected by ongoing and new imaging surveys with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Efforts continue to model the spectra of these planets in order to constrain their masses, effective temperatures, composition, and cloud structure. One potential tool for analyzing these objects, which has received relatively less attention, is polarization. Linear polarization of gas giant exoplanets can arise from the combined influences of light scattering by atmospheric dust and a rotationally distorted shape. The oblateness of gas giant planet increases of course with rotation rate and for fixed rotation also rises with decreasing gravity. Thus young, lower mass gas giant planets with youthful inflated radii could easily have oblateness greater than that of Saturn s 10%. We find that polarizations of over 1% may easily be produced in the near-infrared in such cases. This magnitude of polarization may be measurable by GPI and other instruments. Thus if detected, polarization of a young Jupiter places constraints on the combination of its gravity, rotation rate, and degree of cloudiness. We will present results of our multiple scattering analysis coupled with a self-consistent dusty atmospheric models to demonstrate the range of polarizations that might be expected from resolved exoplanets and the range of parameter space that such observations may inform.

  20. STEREO DIRECT IMAGING OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION-DRIVEN SHOCK TO 0.5 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Shane A.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2011-07-20

    Fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) generate standing or bow shocks as they propagate through the corona and solar wind. Although CME shocks have previously been detected indirectly via their emission at radio frequencies, direct imaging has remained elusive due to their low contrast at optical wavelengths. Here we report the first images of a CME-driven shock as it propagates through interplanetary space from 8 R{sub sun} to 120 R{sub sun} (0.5 AU), using observations from the STEREO Heliospheric Imager. The CME was measured to have a velocity of {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} and a Mach number of 4.1 {+-} 1.2, while the shock front standoff distance ({Delta}) was found to increase linearly to {approx}20 R{sub sun} at 0.5 AU. The normalized standoff distance ({Delta}/D{sub O} ) showed reasonable agreement with semi-empirical relations, where D{sub O} is the CME radius. However, when normalized using the radius of curvature, {Delta}/R{sub O} did not agree well with theory, implying that R{sub O} was underestimated by a factor of {approx}3-8. This is most likely due to the difficulty in estimating the larger radius of curvature along the CME axis from the observations, which provide only a cross-sectional view of the CME.

  1. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  2. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  3. Direct Imaging of Cerebral Thromboemboli Using Computed Tomography and Fibrin-targeted Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Ryu, Ju Hee; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Sun, In-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Jiwon; Kwon, Ick Chan; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kim, Dong-Eog

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the current standard for time-critical decision-making in stroke patients, informing decisions on thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has a narrow therapeutic index. We aimed to develop a CT-based method to directly visualize cerebrovascular thrombi and guide thrombolytic therapy. Glycol-chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (GC-AuNPs) were synthesized and conjugated to fibrin-targeting peptides, forming fib-GC-AuNP. This targeted imaging agent and non-targeted control agent were characterized in vitro and in vivo in C57Bl/6 mice (n = 107) with FeCl3-induced carotid thrombosis and/or embolic ischemic stroke. Fibrin-binding capacity was superior with fib-GC-AuNPs compared to GC-AuNPs, with thrombi visualized as high density on microCT (mCT). mCT imaging using fib-GC-AuNP allowed the prompt detection and quantification of cerebral thrombi, and monitoring of tPA-mediated thrombolytic effect, which reflected histological stroke outcome. Furthermore, recurrent thrombosis could be diagnosed by mCT without further nanoparticle administration for up to 3 weeks. fib-GC-AuNP-based direct cerebral thrombus imaging greatly enhance the value and information obtainable by regular CT, has multiple uses in basic / translational vascular research, and will likely allow personalized thrombolytic therapy in clinic by a) optimizing tPA-dosing to match thrombus burden, b) enabling the rational triage of patients to more radical therapies such as endovascular clot-retrieval, and c) potentially serving as a theranostic platform for targeted delivery of concurrent thrombolysis. PMID:26199648

  4. What can we expect from near to mid-term direct imaging programs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaletti, A.

    2015-10-01

    Direct imaging for exoplanets has made enormous progress in the last decades owing to the advent of new technologies, efficient algorithms for postprocessing and dedicated observing strategies. A few young giant exoplanets were detected with the previous generation of instruments (beta Pic b, HS3799bcde, HR95086b ...). While SPHERE and GPI were conceived with this very purpose, we are thus expecting many more discoveries in the next years. SPHERE comes with a series of facilities to characterize the atmosphere of these planets, from the visible to the near IR, with broad band, narrow band filters, and low to medium resolution spectroscopy as well. It is also a fabulous instrument to study circumstellar disks both intensity and polarimetry in order to establish the link between planets and their environments. A large survey of 600 targets on a 5 years baseline has been started. The next space telescope, JWST equipped with MIRI and NIRCAM will extend the ability to characterize young giants in the mid IR. NO doubt we will learn more about their atmospheres. Finally, by the next decade, very large apertures will become available on the ground. Extremely Large Telescope will have general first light instruments (MICADO, HARMONI), but some programs to image and characterize young giant planets around very distant stars (>100pc) will be feasible. For much ambitious goal, detecting telluric planets and studying their atmosphere, two paths are now considered either from space (WFIRST AFTA-C is good candidate) and from the Ground with SPHERE-like instruments on ELTs. A review of achievments and perspectives in the context of direct imaging will be presented.

  5. Direct magnetic resonance detection of myelin and prospects for quantitative imaging of myelin density

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Ong, Henry H.; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Hackney, David B.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has previously demonstrated its potential for indirectly mapping myelin density, either by relaxometric detection of myelin water or magnetization transfer. Here, we investigated whether myelin can be detected and possibly quantified directly. We identified the spectrum of myelin in the spinal cord in situ as well as in myelin lipids extracted via a sucrose gradient method, and investigated its spectral properties. High-resolution solution NMR spectroscopy showed the extract composition to be in agreement with myelin’s known chemical make-up. The 400-MHz 1H spectrum of the myelin extract, at 20 °C (room temperature) and 37 °C, consists of a narrow water resonance superimposed on a broad envelope shifted ∼3.5 ppm upfield, suggestive of long-chain methylene protons. Superimposed on this signal are narrow components resulting from functional groups matching the chemical shifts of the constituents making up myelin lipids. The spectrum could be modeled as a sum of super-Lorentzians with a T2* distribution covering a wide range of values (0.008–26 ms). Overall, there was a high degree of similarity between the spectral properties of extracted myelin lipids and those found in neural tissue. The normalized difference spectrum had the hallmarks of membrane proteins, not present in the myelin extract. Using 3D radially ramp-sampled proton MRI, with a combination of adiabatic inversion and echo subtraction, the feasibility of direct myelin imaging in situ is demonstrated. Last, the integrated signal from myelin suspensions is shown, both spectroscopically and by imaging, to scale with concentration, suggesting the potential for quantitative determination of myelin density. PMID:22628562

  6. Calibrated digital images of Campbell-Stokes recorder card archives for direct solar irradiance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horseman, A. M.; Richardson, T.; Boardman, A. T.; Tych, W.; Timmis, R.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    A systematic, semi-automatic method for imaging the cards from the widely used Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder is described. We show how the application of inexpensive commercial equipment and practices can simply and robustly build an archive of high-quality card images and manipulate them into a form suitable for easy further analysis. Rectified and registered digital images are produced, with the card's midday marker in the middle of the longest side, and with a temporal scaling of 150 pixels per hour. The method improves on previous, mostly manual, analyses by simplifying and automating steps into a process capable of handling thousands of cards in a practical timescale. A prototype method of extraction of data from this archive is then tested by comparison with records from a co-located pyrheliometer at a resolution of the order of minutes. The comparison demonstrates that the Campbell-Stokes recorder archive contains a time series of downwelling solar-irradiance-related data with similar characteristics to that of benchmark pyrheliometer data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network. A universal transfer function for card burn to direct downwelling short-wave radiation is still some way off and is the subject of ongoing research. Until such time as a universal transfer function is available, specific functions for extracting data in particular circumstances offer a useful way forward. The new image-capture method offers a practical way to exploit the worldwide sets of long-term Campbell-Stokes recorder data to create a time series of solar irradiance and atmospheric aerosol loading metrics reaching back over 100 yr from the present day.

  7. Amorphous selenium direct detection CMOS digital x-ray imager with 25 micron pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Christopher C.; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Ghanbarzadeh, Sina; Allan, Gary; Farrier, Michael; Cunningham, Ian A.; Karim, Karim S.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a high resolution amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detection imager using a large-area compatible back-end fabrication process on top of a CMOS active pixel sensor having 25 micron pixel pitch. Integration of a-Se with CMOS technology requires overcoming CMOS/a-Se interfacial strain, which initiates nucleation of crystalline selenium and results in high detector dark currents. A CMOS-compatible polyimide buffer layer was used to planarize the backplane and provide a low stress and thermally stable surface for a-Se. The buffer layer inhibits crystallization and provides detector stability that is not only a performance factor but also critical for favorable long term cost-benefit considerations in the application of CMOS digital x-ray imagers in medical practice. The detector structure is comprised of a polyimide (PI) buffer layer, the a-Se layer, and a gold (Au) top electrode. The PI layer is applied by spin-coating and is patterned using dry etching to open the backplane bond pads for wire bonding. Thermal evaporation is used to deposit the a-Se and Au layers, and the detector is operated in hole collection mode (i.e. a positive bias on the Au top electrode). High resolution a-Se diagnostic systems typically use 70 to 100 μm pixel pitch and have a pre-sampling modulation transfer function (MTF) that is significantly limited by the pixel aperture. Our results confirm that, for a densely integrated 25 μm pixel pitch CMOS array, the MTF approaches the fundamental material limit, i.e. where the MTF begins to be limited by the a-Se material properties and not the pixel aperture. Preliminary images demonstrating high spatial resolution have been obtained from a frst prototype imager.

  8. WEIRD : Wide orbit Exoplanet search with InfraRed Direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Frédérique; Artigau, Etienne; Rameau, Julien; Lafrenière, David; Albert, Loic; Naud, Marie-Eve; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Doyon, Rene; Beichman, Charles; Delorme, Philippe; Janson, Markus

    2015-12-01

    We currently do not know what does the emission spectrum of a young 1 Jupiter-mass planet look like, as no such object has yet been directly imaged. Arguably, the most useful Jupiter-mass planet would be one that is bound to a star of known age, distance and metallicity but which has an orbit large enough (100-5000 UA) that it can be studied as an "isolated" object. We are therefore searching for the most extreme planetary systems. We are currently gathering a large dataset to try to identify such objects through deep [3.6] and [4.5] imaging from SPITZER and deep seeing-limited J (with Flamingos 2 and WIRCam) and z imaging (with GMOS-S and MegaCam) of all 181 known confirmed members of a known young association (<120 Myr) within 70pc of the Sun. Our study will reveal distant planetary companions, over the reveal distant PMCs up to 5000 AU. AU separation range, through their distinctively red z-J and [4.5]-[3.6] colors. The sensitivity limits of our combined Spitzer+ground-based program will allow detection of planets with masses as low as 1 Mjup with very low contamination rates. Here we present some preliminary results of our survey. This approach is unique in the community and will give us an overview of the architecture of the outer part of planetary systems that were never probed before. Our survey will provide benchmark young Saturn and Jupiter for imaging and spectroscopy with the JWST

  9. Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

    PubMed Central

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0. PMID:23685703

  10. Direct imaging of ER calcium with targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED).

    PubMed

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca(2+) indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca(2+) indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca(2+) indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca(2+) indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca(2+) complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0. PMID:23685703

  11. Real-time direct and diffraction X-ray imaging of irregular silicon wafer breakage

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Danilewsky, Andreas N.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture and breakage of single crystals, particularly of silicon wafers, are multi-scale problems: the crack tip starts propagating on an atomic scale with the breaking of chemical bonds, forms crack fronts through the crystal on the micrometre scale and ends macroscopically in catastrophic wafer shattering. Total wafer breakage is a severe problem for the semiconductor industry, not only during handling but also during temperature treatments, leading to million-dollar costs per annum in a device production line. Knowledge of the relevant dynamics governing perfect cleavage along the {111} or {110} faces, and of the deflection into higher indexed {hkl} faces of higher energy, is scarce due to the high velocity of the process. Imaging techniques are commonly limited to depicting only the state of a wafer before the crack and in the final state. This paper presents, for the first time, in situ high-speed crack propagation under thermal stress, imaged simultaneously in direct transmission and diffraction X-ray imaging. It shows how the propagating crack tip and the related strain field can be tracked in the phase-contrast and diffracted images, respectively. Movies with a time resolution of microseconds per frame reveal that the strain and crack tip do not propagate continuously or at a constant speed. Jumps in the crack tip position indicate pinning of the crack tip for about 1–2 ms followed by jumps faster than 2–6 m s−1, leading to a macroscopically observed average velocity of 0.028–0.055 m s−1. The presented results also give a proof of concept that the described X-ray technique is compatible with studying ultra-fast cracks up to the speed of sound. PMID:27006774

  12. Real-time direct and diffraction X-ray imaging of irregular silicon wafer breakage.

    PubMed

    Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Danilewsky, Andreas N

    2016-03-01

    Fracture and breakage of single crystals, particularly of silicon wafers, are multi-scale problems: the crack tip starts propagating on an atomic scale with the breaking of chemical bonds, forms crack fronts through the crystal on the micrometre scale and ends macroscopically in catastrophic wafer shattering. Total wafer breakage is a severe problem for the semiconductor industry, not only during handling but also during temperature treatments, leading to million-dollar costs per annum in a device production line. Knowledge of the relevant dynamics governing perfect cleavage along the {111} or {110} faces, and of the deflection into higher indexed {hkl} faces of higher energy, is scarce due to the high velocity of the process. Imaging techniques are commonly limited to depicting only the state of a wafer before the crack and in the final state. This paper presents, for the first time, in situ high-speed crack propagation under thermal stress, imaged simultaneously in direct transmission and diffraction X-ray imaging. It shows how the propagating crack tip and the related strain field can be tracked in the phase-contrast and diffracted images, respectively. Movies with a time resolution of microseconds per frame reveal that the strain and crack tip do not propagate continuously or at a constant speed. Jumps in the crack tip position indicate pinning of the crack tip for about 1-2 ms followed by jumps faster than 2-6 m s(-1), leading to a macroscopically observed average velocity of 0.028-0.055 m s(-1). The presented results also give a proof of concept that the described X-ray technique is compatible with studying ultra-fast cracks up to the speed of sound. PMID:27006774

  13. Improving signal-to-noise in the direct imaging of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with MLOCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Yang, Bin; Canovas, Hector; de Boer, Jozua; Casassus, Simon; Ménard, François; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2015-09-01

    We present a new algorithm designed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of point and extended source detections around bright stars in direct imaging data.One of our innovations is that we insert simulated point sources into the science images, which we then try to recover with maximum S/N. This improves the S/N of real point sources elsewhere in the field. The algorithm, based on the locally optimized combination of images (LOCI) method, is called Matched LOCI or MLOCI. We show with Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) data on HD 135344 B and Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) data on several stars that the new algorithm can improve the S/N of point source detections by 30-400% over past methods. We also find no increase in false detections rates. No prior knowledge of candidate companion locations is required to use MLOCI. On the other hand, while non-blind applications may yield linear combinations of science images that seem to increase the S/N of true sources by a factor >2, they can also yield false detections at high rates. This is a potential pitfall when trying to confirm marginal detections or to redetect point sources found in previous epochs. These findings are relevant to any method where the coefficients of the linear combination are considered tunable, e.g., LOCI and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus we recommend that false detection rates be analyzed when using these techniques. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  14. THE SYNERGY OF DIRECT IMAGING AND ASTROMETRY FOR ORBIT DETERMINATION OF EXO-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Michael; Catanzarite, Joseph; Pan Xiaopei E-mail: joseph.catanzarite@jpl.nasa.go

    2010-09-01

    The holy grail of exoplanet searches is an exo-Earth, an Earth mass planet in the habitable zone (HZ) around a nearby star. Mass is one of the most important characteristics of a planet and can only be measured by observing the motion of the star around the planet-star center of gravity. The planet's orbit can be measured either by imaging the planet at multiple epochs or by measuring the position of the star at multiple epochs by space-based astrometry. The measurement of an exoplanet's orbit by direct imaging is complicated by a number of factors. One is the inner working angle (IWA). A space coronagraph or interferometer imaging an exo-Earth can separate the light from the planet from the light from the star only when the star-planet separation is larger than the IWA. Second, the apparent brightness of a planet depends on the orbital phase. A single image of a planet cannot tell us whether the planet is in the HZ or distinguish whether it is an exo-Earth or a Neptune-mass planet. Third is the confusion that may arise from the presence of multiple planets. With two images of a multiple planet system, it is not possible to assign a dot to a planet based only on the photometry and color of the planet. Finally, the planet-star contrast must exceed a certain minimum value in order for the planet to be detected. The planet may be unobservable even when it is outside the IWA, such as when the bright side of the planet is facing away from us in a 'crescent' phase. In this paper we address the question: 'Can a prior astrometric mission that can identify which stars have Earth-like planets significantly improve the science yield of a mission to image exo-Earths?' In the case of the Occulting Ozone Observatory, a small external occulter mission that cannot measure spectra, we find that the occulter mission could confirm the orbits of {approx}4 to {approx}5 times as many exo-Earths if an astrometric mission preceded it to identify which stars had such planets. In the case

  15. Effect of Cu pad morphology on direct-Cu pillar formation in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Cui, Eunwha; Lee, Ukjae; Son, Hyung Bin; Hahn, Sang June; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-09-01

    We report the feasibility of forming Ni bumps directly on Cu pads in CMOS image sensor (CIS) logic elements formed by Cu wires with diameters of less than 65 nm. The direct Ni bump process proposed in this study simplifies the fabrication process and reduces costs by eliminating the need for Al pad process. In addition, this process can secure the margin of the final layer, enabling the realization of thin camera modules. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pad annealing on the direct formation of Ni bumps over Cu pads. The results suggest that the morphology of the Cu pad varies depending on the annealing sequence, and post-passivation annealing resulted in fewer defects than pad etch annealing. The shear stress of the Ni bumps was 57.77 mgf/m2, which is six times greater than the corresponding reference value. Furthermore, we evaluated the reliability of a chip with an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) and a non-conducting paste (NCP) by using high-temperature storage (HTS), thermal cycling (TC), and wet high-temperature storage (WHTS) reliability tests. The evaluation results suggest the absence of abnormalities in all samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Improvement of image quality in MDCT by high-frequency sampling of x-, y- and z-direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Naruomi; Ishikawa, Yoko; Kodera, Yoshie

    2006-03-01

    The multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) has dramatically increased speed of scanning, and allows high-resolution imaging compared with the conventional single-detector row CT (SDCT). However, use of the MDCT was making use of three-dimensional (3D) volume scanning and four-dimensional (4D) dynamic scanning increase, and made radiation dose to patients increase simultaneously. In addition, in recent years, lung-cancer screening CT (LSCT) is introduced, and low-dose scanning is strongly required to increase the benefit/risk ratio. In this study, high-frequency volume data sampling (over-sampling) method of x-, y- and z-direction was proposed as technique for reduction of image noise in the MDCT and discussed about reduction of radiation dose and improvement of image quality. In this proposed method, volume data are obtained by over-sampling of x-, y- and z-direction and image is obtained by averaging these data. In x- and y-direction, over-sampling is equivalent to obtaining projection data using large matrix size for same scan-field of view (scan-FOV), and in z-direction, equivalent to using thin slice. Normally, when signal with which noise distribution differs are averaged n-times, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) will increases by factor of [square root of] n. In this method, each pixel value of the image is obtained from n2 x,yn z pixels by n x,y-times sampling for x- and y-direction, and n z-times sampling for z-direction. In other words, SNR of the image increases [square root of] n2 x,yn z-times. In this high-frequency data sampling method, it is possible to obtain high-quality image as compared with conventional image. Moreover, by applying to noisy image obtained with low-dose scanning, reduction of radiation dose to patients is possible.

  17. Direct Imaging of Exoplanets around Alpha Centauri and Other Multiple Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, E.; Thomas, S.; Belikov, R.

    2014-03-01

    We propose to demonstrate a new method to directly image planets in multiple-star systems such as Alpha Centauri. A (sun-like) star is 10 billion times brighter than an Earth-like planet that may be orbiting around it. In any real telescope, diffraction and glare from that star completely swamps the miniscule brightness of the planet, similar to how a searchlight swamps the light of a nearby firefly. Several starlight suppression systems have been demonstrated in the laboratory that can remove the leakage of light from a star down to 1010 contrast, enabling Earth-like planet detection [1], but only for single-star systems. These systems employ a combination of a coronagraph to suppress the star and a wavefront control system based on a deformable mirror (DM) to remove residual starlight (speckles) created by the imperfections of telescope optics. Removal of speckles by the DM can only occur up to the spatial frequency range of the deformable mirror (half- Nyquist). The challenge with double-star (or multi-star) systems is that the off-axis companion star lies outside the DM's control region and thus preventing the DM to remove the speckles from the off-axis star. Until now, it has been thought that removing the light of a companion star is impossible with current technology, excluding binary star systems from target lists of direct imaging missions, and so binary star systems are often excluded from target lists of direct imaging missions. Our solution uses the deformable mirror (DM) in a regime outside its nominal spatial control range, where the DM experiences what is typically a harmful side effect: aliasing. Our innovation is that we use aliasing as a feature, rather than a bug, modulating and removing speckles that are several Nyquist frequencies away from the off-axis star (while simultaneously removing the light from the on-axis star using conventional methods.) This solution potentially enables the detection of biomarkers on Earth-like planets (if they

  18. Segmentation of a class of ophthalmological images using a directional variance operator and co-occurrence arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paplinski, Andrew P.; Boyce, James F.

    1997-11-01

    The posterior capsule opacification images considered are images of the membrane encapsulating an artificial lens implanted during cataract surgery in place of the natural lens. The images are taken to monitor the state of the patient's vision after the surgery. Subsequent to the surgery, the membrane of the posterior capsule may become opacified, thus degrading the patient's vision. We discuss the methodology used and the results obtained in the segmentation of the images into transparent and opacified regions. The opacification is primarily characterized by its texture, therefore a directional standard deviation operator is applied to an image giving rise to a family of 'conjugate' images. From these images, the multi-dimensional histogram (co- occurrence) array is calculated and subsequently approximated by Gaussian distributions to form the basis for the segmentation step.

  19. An efficient algorithm for measurement of retinal vessel diameter from fundus images based on directional filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuchu; Niu, Yanmin

    2011-02-01

    Automatic measurement of vessels from fundus images is a crucial step for assessing vessel anomalies in ophthalmological community, where the change in retinal vessel diameters is believed to be indicative of the risk level of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a new retinal vessel diameter measurement method by combining vessel orientation estimation and filter response is proposed. Its interesting characteristics include: (1) different from the methods that only fit the vessel profiles, the proposed method extracts more stable and accurate vessel diameter by casting this problem as a maximal response problem of a variation of Gabor filter; (2) the proposed method can directly and efficiently estimate the vessel's orientation, which is usually captured by time-consuming multi-orientation fitting techniques in many existing methods. Experimental results shows that the proposed method both retains the computational simplicity and achieves stable and accurate estimation results.

  20. Direct optical sensing of single unlabelled proteins and super-resolution imaging of their binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliarik, Marek; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2014-07-01

    Detection of single analyte molecules without the use of any label would improve the sensitivity of current biosensors by orders of magnitude to the ultimate graininess of biological matter. Over two decades, scientists have succeeded in pushing the limits of optical detection to single molecules using fluorescence. However, restrictions in photophysics and labelling protocols make this technique less attractive for biosensing. Recently, mechanisms based on vibrational spectroscopy, photothermal detection, plasmonics and microcavities have been explored for fluorescence-free detection of single biomolecules. Here, we show that interferometric detection of scattering (iSCAT) can achieve this goal in a direct and label-free fashion. In particular, we demonstrate detection of cancer marker proteins in buffer solution and in the presence of other abundant proteins. Furthermore, we present super-resolution imaging of protein binding with nanometer localization precision. The ease of iSCAT instrumentation promises a breakthrough for label-free studies of interactions involving proteins and other small biomolecules.

  1. A New Omni-Directional EMAT for Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Tomography Imaging of Metallic Plate Defects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Songling; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Shen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new omni-directional electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for the ultrasonic Lamb wave (ULW) tomography imaging (TI) of defects in metallic plates. The proposed EMAT is composed of a permanent magnet and a coil with a contra-flexure structure. This new EMAT coil structure is used for omni-directional ULW transmission and reception and ULW TI for the first time. The theoretical background and the working principles of this EMAT are presented and analyzed. The experimental results of its use on a 3 mm thick aluminum plate indicate that the EMAT with a contra-flexure coil (CFC) can transmit and receive a pure single A0 mode ULW with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, the extraction of the projection data used for ULW TI may be performed accurately. The circumferential consistency of the projection data is only slightly influenced by the distortion of the eddy current field that is induced by the new CFC with an irregular shape. When the new EMAT array is used for ULW TI using the cross-hole method and SIRT arithmetic, a desirable imaging quality can be achieved, and the estimated size of an artificial corrosion defect agreed well with its actual value. The relation between the reconstruction resolution and the number of the new EMATs used is analyzed. More TI experiments are carried out when the aluminum plate defect is in two different locations relative to the EMAT array, for the further investigation of the performances of the new EMATs. PMID:24561398

  2. Radio Spectroscopic Imaging of Bi-directional Electron Beam Pairs in a Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Zhitao; Gary, Dale E.

    2016-05-01

    In solar flares, energetic electrons are believed to be accelerated at or near the magnetic reconnection site. They propagate outward along newly reconnected field lines usually in the form of electron beams. These beams can emit radio waves commonly known as type III radio bursts. An important feature of these bursts is that they are emitted near the local plasma frequency or its harmonic, which is only a function of the ambient plasma density. In particular, an electron beam propagating upward in the corona encounters plasma with lower and lower density, producing a radio burst with a “normal” frequency slope (whose frequency decreases in time). Similarly, a downward propagating beam produces a reverse-slope burst. Sometimes both the normal- and reverse-slope type III bursts are observed simultaneously. These type III burst with opposite slopes have been considered to be the signature of a pair of bi-directional electron beams emerging from a common acceleration site. However, previous studies had no imaging capability to locate these bursts and put them in the flare context. Here we report observations of decimetric type III burst pairs by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) during the impulsive phase of a C5.6 flare. Using VLA’s unprecedented ultra-high-cadence spectroscopic imaging capability, we demonstrate that the type III burst pairs indeed correspond to high speed (~0.1c), bi-directional electron beams emerging from a common site in the corona where post-flare loops appeared later on. Implications of our results on magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration will be briefly discussed.

  3. A new omni-directional EMAT for ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography imaging of metallic plate defects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Songling; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Shen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new omni-directional electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for the ultrasonic Lamb wave (ULW) tomography imaging (TI) of defects in metallic plates. The proposed EMAT is composed of a permanent magnet and a coil with a contra-flexure structure. This new EMAT coil structure is used for omni-directional ULW transmission and reception and ULW TI for the first time. The theoretical background and the working principles of this EMAT are presented and analyzed. The experimental results of its use on a 3 mm thick aluminum plate indicate that the EMAT with a contra-flexure coil (CFC) can transmit and receive a pure single A0 mode ULW with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, the extraction of the projection data used for ULW TI may be performed accurately. The circumferential consistency of the projection data is only slightly influenced by the distortion of the eddy current field that is induced by the new CFC with an irregular shape. When the new EMAT array is used for ULW TI using the cross-hole method and SIRT arithmetic, a desirable imaging quality can be achieved, and the estimated size of an artificial corrosion defect agreed well with its actual value. The relation between the reconstruction resolution and the number of the new EMATs used is analyzed. More TI experiments are carried out when the aluminum plate defect is in two different locations relative to the EMAT array, for the further investigation of the performances of the new EMATs. PMID:24561398

  4. Multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques: a new direction for nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuhua; Deng, Yiming; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Xin; Bai, Libing; Li, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) , structure health monitoring (SHM) and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions. PMID:24287536

  5. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuhua; Deng, Yiming; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Xin; Bai, Libing; Li, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), structure health monitoring (SHM) and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions. PMID:24287536

  6. Spacer-free BODIPY fluorogens in antimicrobial peptides for direct imaging of fungal infection in human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mendive-Tapia, Lorena; Zhao, Can; Akram, Ahsan R.; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lee, Martin; Serrels, Alan; Kielland, Nicola; Read, Nick D; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Vendrell, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent antimicrobial peptides are promising structures for in situ, real-time imaging of fungal infection. Here we report a fluorogenic probe to image Aspergillus fumigatus directly in human pulmonary tissue. We have developed a fluorogenic Trp-BODIPY amino acid with a spacer-free C-C linkage between Trp and a BODIPY fluorogen, which shows remarkable fluorescence enhancement in hydrophobic microenvironments. The incorporation of our fluorogenic amino acid in short antimicrobial peptides does not impair their selectivity for fungal cells, and enables rapid and direct fungal imaging without any washing steps. We have optimized the stability of our probes in human samples to perform multi-photon imaging of A. fumigatus in ex vivo human tissue. The incorporation of our unique BODIPY fluorogen in biologically relevant peptides will accelerate the development of novel imaging probes with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26956772

  7. Spacer-free BODIPY fluorogens in antimicrobial peptides for direct imaging of fungal infection in human tissue.

    PubMed

    Mendive-Tapia, Lorena; Zhao, Can; Akram, Ahsan R; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lee, Martin; Serrels, Alan; Kielland, Nicola; Read, Nick D; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Vendrell, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent antimicrobial peptides are promising structures for in situ, real-time imaging of fungal infection. Here we report a fluorogenic probe to image Aspergillus fumigatus directly in human pulmonary tissue. We have developed a fluorogenic Trp-BODIPY amino acid with a spacer-free C-C linkage between Trp and a BODIPY fluorogen, which shows remarkable fluorescence enhancement in hydrophobic microenvironments. The incorporation of our fluorogenic amino acid in short antimicrobial peptides does not impair their selectivity for fungal cells, and enables rapid and direct fungal imaging without any washing steps. We have optimized the stability of our probes in human samples to perform multi-photon imaging of A. fumigatus in ex vivo human tissue. The incorporation of our unique BODIPY fluorogen in biologically relevant peptides will accelerate the development of novel imaging probes with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26956772

  8. Mapping the crop row direction by using Formosat-2 panchromatic images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais-Sicre, C.; Baup, F.; Fieuzal, R.

    2012-04-01

    The detection of crop row direction is a key factor for landscape analyses from satellite images. In optical and microwave frequency domains, Kimes and al, 1983 and Ulaby and al, 1984 shown the strong impact of the crop row orientation on the optical reflectance (Bidirectional reflectance distribution function) and on the radar backscattering coefficient (from L to X band). Consequently, it is particularly important to consider this parameter for remote sensing analyses but also in the physical and empirical approaches intended to the estimation of biophysical parameters (vegetation biomass, humidity, soil moisture content, tillage, runoff, erosion…) at the agricultural field scale. The studied area is located near Toulouse (South-west of France) in a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate with an annual rainfall of about 600mm per year. The region is composed of a wide variety of irrigated and non-irrigated crops (wheat, sunflower, corn, hemp…). Agricultural fields are strongly contrasted in terms of geometric forms, surface area (from 1ha to 50ha), type of soils, slopes... The remote sensing analyses are based on a time series of 13 panchromatic Formosat-2 images, acquired with a spatial resolution of 2 meters, and processed with a TOA (Top of Atmosphere) radiometric correction. Ground data are collected, the closest of satellite acquisitions, over 232 plots during the MCM'10 experiment (Multispectral Crop Monitoring, http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/us/mcm.html) conducted by the CESBIO laboratory in 2010. The proposed approach consists in estimating row direction, by using directional convolution filters and operators of mathematical morphology. First of all, one date capabilities is discussed, improved by multi-temporal analyses. Then, an original method is proposed for extrapolating the estimated row direction to the scene (over the Formosat-2 swath). Best results, obtained for multi

  9. Direct Coherent Raman Temperature Imaging and Wideband Chemical Detection in a Hydrocarbon Flat Flame.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J

    2015-02-19

    A single-shot coherent Raman imaging technique has been developed for spatially correlated one-dimensional high-fidelity gas-phase thermometry and multiplex chemical detection in flames. The technique utilizes two-beam phase matching, operating a single ultrashort pump/Stokes excitation pulse (7 fs) and a narrowband picosecond probe pulse (70 ps), interrogating a Raman active window of ∼4200 cm(-1) with ∼0.3 cm(-1) spectral resolution. The measurement geometry is formed intersecting the two beams shaped as laser-sheets and the one-coordinate spatial information is retrieved with a linespread function of <40 μm. The advance provides the possibility for the multiplexed measurement of all combustion relevant major species simultaneously with gaseous temperature monitored over a several millimeter field of view. The current technique is optimized in a premixed hydrocarbon flat-flame. At the flame-front, it is shown that direct imaging renders the temperature profile within ∼1% inaccuracy, whereas typical point-wise raster scanning may have relative systematic deviations up to 15% due to spatial averaging effects. PMID:26262480

  10. Deconvolving images with unknown boundaries using the alternating direction method of multipliers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana S C; Figueiredo, Mario

    2013-08-01

    The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) has recently sparked interest as a flexible and efficient optimization tool for inverse problems, namely, image deconvolution and reconstruction under non-smooth convex regularization. ADMM achieves state-of-the-art speed by adopting a divide and conquer strategy, wherein a hard problem is split into simpler, efficiently solvable sub-problems (e.g., using fast Fourier or wavelet transforms, or simple proximity operators). In deconvolution, one of these sub-problems involves a matrix inversion (i.e., solving a linear system), which can be done efficiently (in the discrete Fourier domain) if the observation operator is circulant, i.e., under periodic boundary conditions. This paper extends ADMM-based image deconvolution to the more realistic scenario of unknown boundary, where the observation operator is modeled as the composition of a convolution (with arbitrary boundary conditions) with a spatial mask that keeps only pixels that do not depend on the unknown boundary. The proposed approach also handles, at no extra cost, problems that combine the recovery of missing pixels (i.e., inpainting) with deconvolution. We show that the resulting algorithms inherit the convergence guarantees of ADMM and illustrate its performance on non-periodic deblurring (with and without inpainting of interior pixels) under total-variation and frame-based regularization. PMID:23613043

  11. Direct imaging of a two-dimensional silica glass on graphene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pinshane Y; Kurasch, Simon; Srivastava, Anchal; Skakalova, Viera; Kotakoski, Jani; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V; Hovden, Robert; Mao, Qingyun; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen; Muller, David A; Kaiser, Ute

    2012-02-01

    Large-area graphene substrates provide a promising lab bench for synthesizing, manipulating, and characterizing low-dimensional materials, opening the door to high-resolution analyses of novel structures, such as two-dimensional (2D) glasses, that cannot be exfoliated and may not occur naturally. Here, we report the accidental discovery of a 2D silica glass supported on graphene. The 2D nature of this material enables the first atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy of a glass, producing images that strikingly resemble Zachariasen's original 1932 cartoon models of 2D continuous random network glasses. Atomic-resolution electron spectroscopy identifies the glass as SiO(2) formed from a bilayer of (SiO(4))(2-) tetrahedra and without detectable covalent bonding to the graphene. From these images, we directly obtain ring statistics and pair distribution functions that span short-, medium-, and long-range order. Ab initio calculations indicate that van der Waals interactions with graphene energetically stabilizes the 2D structure with respect to bulk SiO(2). These results demonstrate a new class of 2D glasses that can be applied in layered graphene devices and studied at the atomic scale. PMID:22268818

  12. Flight demonstration of a milliarcsecond pointing system for direct exoplanet imaging.

    PubMed

    Mendillo, Christopher B; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Hicks, Brian A; Lane, Benjamin F

    2012-10-10

    We present flight results from the optical pointing control system onboard the Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) sounding rocket. PICTURE (NASA mission number: 36.225 UG) was launched on 8 October 2011, from White Sands Missile Range. It attempted to directly image the exozodiacal dust disk of ϵ Eridani (K2V, 3.22 pc) down to an inner radius of 1.5 AU using a visible nulling coronagraph. The rocket attitude control system (ACS) provided 627 milliarcsecond (mas) RMS body pointing (~2'' peak-to-valley). The PICTURE fine pointing system (FPS) successfully stabilized the telescope beam to 5.1 mas (0.02λ/D) RMS using an angle tracker camera and fast steering mirror. This level of pointing stability is comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the hardware design of the FPS, a description of the limiting noise sources and a power spectral density analysis of the FPS and rocket ACS in-flight performance. PMID:23052087

  13. Direct spectral imaging of plasmonic nanohole arrays for real-time sensing.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Spencer T; Rich, Isabel S; Lindquist, Nathan C

    2016-05-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical transmission through arrays of nano-structured holes has led to the development of a new generation of optical sensors. In this paper, to dramatically simplify the standard optical setups of these sensors, we position the nanoholes, an LED illumination source and a spacer layer directly on top of a CMOS imager chip. Transmitted light diffracts from the nanohole array, spreading into a spectrum over the space of a millimeter to land on the imager as a full spectrum. Our chip is used as a sensor in both a liquid and a gas environment. The spectrum is monitored in real-time and the plasmon-enhanced transmission peaks shift upon exposure to different concentrations of glycerol-in-water solutions or ethanol vapors in nitrogen. While liquids provide good refractive index contrast for sensing, to enhance sensitivity to solvent vapors, we filled the nanoholes with solvatochromic dyes. This on-chip solution circumvents the bulky components (e.g. microscopes, coupling optics, and spectrometers) needed for traditional plasmonic sensing setups, uses the nanohole array as both the sensing surface and a diffraction grating, and maintains good sensitivity. Finally, we show simultaneous sensing from two side-by-side locations, demonstrating potential for multiplexing and lab on a chip integration. PMID:27010077

  14. Optical merger of direct vision with virtual images for scaled teleoperation.

    PubMed

    Clanton, Samuel T; Wang, David C; Chib, Vikram S; Matsuoka, Yoky; Stetten, George D

    2006-01-01

    Scaled teleoperation is increasingly prevalent in medicine, as well as in other applications of robotics. Visual feedback in such systems is essential and should make maximal use of natural hand-eye coordination. This paper describes a new method of visual feedback for scaled teleoperation in which the operator manipulates the handle of a remote tool in the presence of a registered virtual image of the target in real time. The method adapts a concept already used successfully in a new medical device called the Sonic Flashlight, which permits direct in situ visualization of ultrasound during invasive procedures. The Sonic Flashlight uses a flat-panel monitor and a half-silvered mirror to merge the visual outer surface of a patient with a simultaneous ultrasound scan of the patient's interior. Adapting the concept to scaled teleoperation involves removing the imaging device and the target to a remote location and adding a master-slave control device. This permits the operator to see his hands, along with what appears to be the tool, and the target, merged in a workspace that preserves natural hand-eye coordination. Three functioning prototypes are described, one based on ultrasound and two on light microscopy. The limitations and potential of the new approach are discussed. PMID:16509386

  15. Direct spectral imaging of plasmonic nanohole arrays for real-time sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Spencer T.; Rich, Isabel S.; Lindquist, Nathan C.

    2016-05-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical transmission through arrays of nano-structured holes has led to the development of a new generation of optical sensors. In this paper, to dramatically simplify the standard optical setups of these sensors, we position the nanoholes, an LED illumination source and a spacer layer directly on top of a CMOS imager chip. Transmitted light diffracts from the nanohole array, spreading into a spectrum over the space of a millimeter to land on the imager as a full spectrum. Our chip is used as a sensor in both a liquid and a gas environment. The spectrum is monitored in real-time and the plasmon-enhanced transmission peaks shift upon exposure to different concentrations of glycerol-in-water solutions or ethanol vapors in nitrogen. While liquids provide good refractive index contrast for sensing, to enhance sensitivity to solvent vapors, we filled the nanoholes with solvatochromic dyes. This on-chip solution circumvents the bulky components (e.g. microscopes, coupling optics, and spectrometers) needed for traditional plasmonic sensing setups, uses the nanohole array as both the sensing surface and a diffraction grating, and maintains good sensitivity. Finally, we show simultaneous sensing from two side-by-side locations, demonstrating potential for multiplexing and lab on a chip integration.

  16. Effects of frequency- and direction-dependent elastic materials on linearly elastic MRE image reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Perreard, I M; Pattison, A J; Doyley, M; McGarry, M D J; Barani, Z; Van Houten, E E; Weaver, J B; Paulsen, K D

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical model commonly used in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is linear elasticity. However, soft tissue may exhibit frequency-and direction-dependent (FDD) shear moduli in response to an induced excitation causing a purely linear elastic model to provide an inaccurate image reconstruction of its mechanical properties. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of reconstructing FDD data using a linear elastic inversion (LEI) algorithm. Linear and FDD phantoms were manufactured and LEI images were obtained from time-harmonic MRE acquisitions with variations in frequency and driving signal amplitude. LEI responses to artificially imposed uniform phase shifts in the displacement data from both purely linear elastic and FDD phantoms were also evaluated. Of the variety of FDD phantoms considered, LEI appeared to tolerate viscoelastic data-model mismatch better than deviations caused by poroelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties in terms of visual image contrast. However, the estimated shear modulus values were substantially incorrect relative to independent mechanical measurements even in the successful viscoelastic cases and the variations in mean values with changes in experimental conditions associated with uniform phase shifts, driving signal frequency and amplitude were unpredictable. Overall, use of LEI to reconstruct data acquired in phantoms with FDD material properties provided biased results under the best conditions and significant artifacts in the worst cases. These findings suggest that the success with which LEI is applied to MRE data in tissue will depend on the underlying mechanical characteristics of the tissues and/or organs systems of clinical interest. PMID:21030746

  17. Skin cancer texture analysis of OCT images based on Haralick, fractal dimension and the complex directional field features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupov, Dmitry S.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2016-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is usually employed for the measurement of tumor topology, which reflects structural changes of a tissue. We investigated the possibility of OCT in detecting changes using a computer texture analysis method based on Haralick texture features, fractal dimension and the complex directional field method from different tissues. These features were used to identify special spatial characteristics, which differ healthy tissue from various skin cancers in cross-section OCT images (B-scans). Speckle reduction is an important pre-processing stage for OCT image processing. In this paper, an interval type-II fuzzy anisotropic diffusion algorithm for speckle noise reduction in OCT images was used. The Haralick texture feature set includes contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity evaluated in different directions. A box-counting method is applied to compute fractal dimension of investigated tissues. Additionally, we used the complex directional field calculated by the local gradient methodology to increase of the assessment quality of the diagnosis method. The complex directional field (as well as the "classical" directional field) can help describe an image as set of directions. Considering to a fact that malignant tissue grows anisotropically, some principal grooves may be observed on dermoscopic images, which mean possible existence of principal directions on OCT images. Our results suggest that described texture features may provide useful information to differentiate pathological from healthy patients. The problem of recognition melanoma from nevi is decided in this work due to the big quantity of experimental data (143 OCT-images include tumors as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Malignant Melanoma (MM) and Nevi). We have sensitivity about 90% and specificity about 85%. Further research is warranted to determine how this approach may be used to select the regions of interest automatically.

  18. Direct estimate of cirrus noise in Herschel Hi-GAL images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Roy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Molinari, S.; Billot, N.; Brunt, C.; Calzoletti, L.; Digiorgio, A. M.; Elia, D.; Faustini, F.; Joncas, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natoli, P.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Robitaille, J. F.; Strafella, F.; Traficante, A.; Veneziani, M.

    2010-07-01

    In Herschel images of the Galactic plane and many star forming regions, a major factor limiting our ability to extract faint compact sources is cirrus confusion noise, operationally defined as the “statistical error to be expected in photometric measurements due to confusion in a background of fluctuating surface brightness”. The histogram of the flux densities of extracted sources shows a distinctive faint-end cutoff below which the catalog suffers from incompleteness and the flux densities become unreliable. This empirical cutoff should be closely related to the estimated cirrus noise and we show that this is the case. We compute the cirrus noise directly, both on Herschel images from which the bright sources have been removed and on simulated images of cirrus with statistically similar fluctuations. We connect these direct estimates with those from power spectrum analysis, which has been used extensively to predict the cirrus noise and provides insight into how it depends on various statistical properties and photometric operational parameters. We report multi-wavelength power spectra of diffuse Galactic dust emission from Hi-GAL observations at 70 to 500 μm within Galactic plane fields at l = 30 °and l = 59 °. We find that the exponent of the power spectrum is about -3. At 250 μm, the amplitude of the power spectrum increases roughly as the square of the median brightness of the map and so the expected cirrus noise scales linearly with the median brightness. For a given region, the wavelength dependence of the amplitude can be described by the square of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the dust emission. Generally, the confusion noise will be a worse problem at longer wavelengths, because of the combination of lower angular resolution and the rising power spectrum of cirrus toward lower spatial frequencies, but the photometric signal to noise will also depend on the relative SED of the source compared to the cirrus. Herschel is an ESA space

  19. The effects of random directional distributed flow in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahn, C B; Lee, S Y; Nalcioglu, O; Cho, Z H

    1987-01-01

    Capillary flow or microscopic random directional coherent flow as a model of perfusion is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the model, we assumed that molecular motion within a finite resolvable volume element (voxel) is a superposition of flow of randomly oriented small capillaries. In such a case, the observed signal from the capillary flow within a voxel will be attenuated in signal amplitude without any change in phase. Although this attenuation effect is similar to the diffusion phenomenon, it differs basically in the following aspects: since the motion in each capillary segment is coherent, phase cancellation occurs at even echoes due to spin rephasing, while the diffusion phenomenon is a purely random Brownian motion of the thermally agitated molecules, changing both in direction and speed during the measurement period. Because of the random character of diffusion, even-echo rephasing cannot be observed. Thus capillary flow or perfusionlike microscopic flow can be measured based on the above distinct flow characteristics, i.e., signal restoration at even echoes versus signal amplitude attenuation at odd echoes. By applying a suitable mathematical algorithm, information on the capillary flow alone can be extracted from the two separate distinct measurements, i.e., one with a single echo and the other with a double echo. Both a theoretical calculation of the capillary flow, as well as the experimental results with a human volunteer by a 0.6-T nuclear magnetic resonance imager, are presented. PMID:3561335

  20. Direct gravitational imaging of intermediate mass black holes in extragalactic haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Rashkov, Valery; Silk, Joseph; Madau, Piero

    2013-11-01

    A galaxy halo may contain a large number of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses in the range of 102 M⊙ ≲ MBH ≲ 106 M⊙. We propose to directly detect these IMBHs by observing multiply imaged QSO-galaxy or galaxy-galaxy strong lens systems in the submillimetre bands with high angular resolution. The silhouette of an IMBH in the lensing galaxy halo would appear as either a monopole-like or a dipole-like variation at the scale of the Einstein radius against the Einstein ring of the dust-emitting region surrounding the QSO. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo with black holes (BHs), and show that the surface mass density and number density of IMBHs have power-law dependences on the distance from the centre of the host halo if smoothed on a scale of ˜ 1 kpc. Most of the BHs orbiting close to the centre are freely roaming as they have lost their dark matter hosts during infall due to tidal stripping. Next generation submillimetre telescopes with high angular resolution (≲0.3 mas) will be capable of directly mapping such off-nuclear freely roaming BHs with a mass of ≲106 M⊙ in a lensing galaxy that harbours an O(109) M⊙ supermassive black hole in its nucleus.

  1. Efficient evaluation of epitaxial MoS2 on sapphire by direct band structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hokwon; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Fregnaux, Mathieu; Benayad, Anass; Kung, Yen-Cheng; Kis, Andras; Renault, Olivier; Lanes Group, Epfl Team; Leti, Cea Team

    The electronic band structure evaluation of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides is critical as the band structure can be greatly influenced by the film thickness, strain, and substrate. Here, we performed a direct measurement of the band structure of as-grown monolayer MoS2 on single crystalline sapphire by reciprocal-space photoelectron emission microscopy with a conventional laboratory ultra-violet He I light source. Arrays of gold electrodes were deposited onto the sample in order to avoid charging effects due to the insulating substrate. This allowed the high resolution mapping (ΔE = 0.2 eV Δk = 0.05 Å-1) of the valence states in momentum space down to 7 eV below the Fermi level. The high degree of the epitaxial alignment of the single crystalline MoS2 nuclei was verified by the direct momentum space imaging over a large area containing multiple nuclei. The derived values of the hole effective mass were 2.41 +/-0.05 m0 and 0.81 +/-0.05 m0, respectively at Γ and K points, consistent with the theoretical values of the freestanding monolayer MoS2 reported in the literature. HK acknowledges the french CEA Basic Technological Research program (RTB) for funding.

  2. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  3. Metabolic profiling directly from the Petri dish using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Watrous, Jeramie; Roach, Patrick; Heath, Brandi; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2013-11-01

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin. PMID:24047514

  4. Shallow subsurface imaging of the Piano di Pezza active normal fault (central Italy) by high-resolution refraction and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time-domain electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Fabio; Tulliani, Valerio; Sapia, Vincenzo; Fierro, Elisa; Civico, Riccardo; Pantosti, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The Piano di Pezza fault is the central section of the 35 km long L'Aquila-Celano active normal fault-system in the central Apennines of Italy. Although palaeoseismic data document high Holocene vertical slip rates (˜1 mm yr-1) and a remarkable seismogenic potential of this fault, its subsurface setting and Pleistocene cumulative displacement are still poorly known. We investigated for the first time the shallow subsurface of a key section of the main Piano di Pezza fault splay by means of high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time-domain electromagnetic soundings (TDEM). Our surveys cross a ˜5-m-high fault scarp that was generated by repeated surface-rupturing earthquakes displacing Holocene alluvial fans. We provide 2-D Vp and resistivity images, which show significant details of the fault structure and the geometry of the shallow basin infill material down to 50 m depth. Our data indicate that the upper fault termination has a sub-vertical attitude, in agreement with palaeoseismological trench evidence, whereas it dips ˜50° to the southwest in the deeper part. We recognize some low-velocity/low-resistivity regions in the fault hangingwall that we relate to packages of colluvial wedges derived from scarp degradation, which may represent the record of some Holocene palaeo-earthquakes. We estimate a ˜13-15 m throw of this fault splay since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (˜18 ka), leading to a 0.7-0.8 mm yr-1 throw rate that is quite in accordance with previous palaeoseismic estimation of Holocene vertical slip rates. The 1-D resistivity models from TDEM soundings collected along the trace of the electrical profile significantly match with 2-D resistivity images. Moreover, they indicate that in the fault hangingwall, ˜200 m away from the surface fault trace, the pre-Quaternary carbonate basement is at ˜90-100 m depth. We therefore provide a minimal ˜150-160 m estimate of the cumulative throw of the Piano di Pezza

  5. Complete fourier direct magnetic resonance imaging (CFD-MRI) for diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Alpay

    2013-01-01

    The foundation for an accurate and unifying Fourier-based theory of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW–MRI) is constructed by carefully re-examining the first principles of DW–MRI signal formation and deriving its mathematical model from scratch. The derivations are specifically obtained for DW–MRI signal by including all of its elements (e.g., imaging gradients) using complex values. Particle methods are utilized in contrast to conventional partial differential equations approach. The signal is shown to be the Fourier transform of the joint distribution of number of the magnetic moments (at a given location at the initial time) and magnetic moment displacement integrals. In effect, the k-space is augmented by three more dimensions, corresponding to the frequency variables dual to displacement integral vectors. The joint distribution function is recovered by applying the Fourier transform to the complete high-dimensional data set. In the process, to obtain a physically meaningful real valued distribution function, phase corrections are applied for the re-establishment of Hermitian symmetry in the signal. Consequently, the method is fully unconstrained and directly presents the distribution of displacement integrals without any assumptions such as symmetry or Markovian property. The joint distribution function is visualized with isosurfaces, which describe the displacement integrals, overlaid on the distribution map of the number of magnetic moments with low mobility. The model provides an accurate description of the molecular motion measurements via DW–MRI. The improvement of the characterization of tissue microstructure leads to a better localization, detection and assessment of biological properties such as white matter integrity. The results are demonstrated on the experimental data obtained from an ex vivo baboon brain. PMID:23596401

  6. Optical Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptors Directly Following the Capture of Light

    PubMed Central

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Capture of light in the photoreceptor outer segment initiates a cascade of chemical events that inhibit neurotransmitter release, ultimately resulting in vision. The massed response of the photoreceptor population can be measured non-invasively by electrical recordings, but responses from individual cells cannot be measured without dissecting the retina. Here we used optical imaging to observe individual human cones in the living eye as they underwent bleaching of photopigment and associated phototransduction. The retina was simultaneously stimulated and observed with high intensity visible light at 1 kHz, using adaptive optics. There was marked variability between individual cones in both photosensitivity and pigment optical density, challenging the conventional assumption that photoreceptors act as identical subunits (coefficient of variation in rate of photoisomerization = 23%). There was also a pronounced inverse correlation between these two parameters (p<10−7); the temporal evolution of image statistics revealed this to be a dynamic relationship, with cone waveguiding efficiency beginning a dramatic increase within 3 ms of light onset. Beginning as early as 2 ms after light onset and including half of cells by ∼7 ms, cone intensity showed reversals characteristic of interference phenomena, with greater delays in reversal corresponding to cones with more photopigment (p<10−3). The timing of these changes is argued to best correspond with either the cessation of dark current, or to related events such as changes in intracellular cGMP. Cone intensity also showed fluctuations of high frequency (332±25 Hz) and low amplitude (3.0±0.85%). Other groups have shown similar fluctuations that were directly evoked by light; if this corresponds to the same phenomenon, we propose that the amplitude of fluctuation may be increased by the use of a bright flash followed by a brief pause, to allow recovery of cone circulating current. PMID:24260177

  7. Direct Imaging of Hippocampal Epileptiform Calcium Motifs Following Kainic Acid Administration in Freely Behaving Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K.; Frady, E. Paxon; Nassi, Jonathan J.; Aluisio, Leah; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Otte, Stephani; Wyatt, Ryan M.; Dugovic, Christine; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA). We observed that KA administration led to systematic patterns of epileptiform calcium activity: a series of large-scale, intensifying flashes of increased calcium fluorescence concurrent with a cluster of low-amplitude EEG waveforms. This was accompanied by a steady increase in cellular calcium levels (>5 fold increase relative to the baseline), followed by an intense spreading calcium wave characterized by a 218% increase in global mean intensity of calcium fluorescence (n = 8, range [114–349%], p < 10−4; t-test). The wave had no consistent EEG phenotype and occurred before the onset of motor convulsions. Similar changes in calcium activity were also observed in animals treated with 2 different proconvulsant agents, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), suggesting the measured changes in calcium dynamics are a signature of seizure activity rather than a KA-specific pathology. Additionally, despite reducing the behavioral severity of KA-induced seizures, the anticonvulsant drug valproate (VA, 300 mg/kg) did not modify the observed abnormalities in calcium dynamics. These results confirm the presence of pathological calcium activity preceding convulsive motor seizures and support calcium as a candidate signaling molecule in a pathway connecting seizures to subsequent cellular damage. Integrating in vivo calcium imaging with traditional assessment of seizures could potentially increase translatability of pharmacological

  8. Recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2008-03-25

    Systems and methods are described for recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image. A method includes digitally recording, at a first reference beam-object beam angle, a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a first spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the first reference beam-object beam angle; digitally recording, at a second reference beam-object beam angle, a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a second spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the second reference beam-object beam angle; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and define a first result; performing a first inverse Fourier transform on the first result; applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and define a second result; and performing a second inverse Fourier transform on the second result, wherein the first reference beam-object beam angle is not equal to the second reference beam-object beam angle and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  9. Effects of latent heating on driving atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    Growing observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) and directly imaged extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), such as brightness variability and surface maps have provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these worlds. Previous studies that serve to understand the atmospheric circulation of BDs include modeling of convection from the interior and its interactions with stably stratified atmospheres. These models show that such interactions can drive an atmospheric circulation, forming zonal jets and/or vortices. However, these models are dry, not including condensation of various chemical species. Latent heating from condensation of water has previously been shown to play an important role on driving the zonal jets on four giant planets in our solar system. As such, condensation cycles of various chemical species are believed to be an important source in driving the atmospheric circulation of BDs and directly imaged EGPs. Here we present results from three-dimensional simulations for the atmospheres of BDs and EGPs based on a general circulation model that includes the effect of a condensate cycle. Large-scale latent heating and molecular weight effect due to condensation of a single species are treated explicitly. We examine the circulation patterns caused by large-scale latent heating which results from condensation of silicate vapor in hot dwarfs and water vapor in the cold dwarfs. By varying the abundance of condensable vapor and the radiative timescale, we conclude that under normal atmospheric conditions of BDs (hot and thus with relatively short radiative timescale), latent heating alone by silicate vapor is unable to drive a global circulation, leaving a quiescent atmosphere, because of the suppression to moist instability by downward transport of dry air. Models with relatively long radiative timescale, which may be the case for cooler bodies, tend to maintain an active hydrological cycle and develop zonal jets. Once condensation happens, storms driven by

  10. Direct imaging of enhanced current collection on grain boundaries of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, JunHo; Kim, SeongYeon; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Ramanathan, Kannan; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2014-02-10

    We report on direct imaging of current collection by performing conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) measurement on a complete Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell. The localized current was imaged by milling away the top conductive layer of the device by repeated C-AFM scans. The result exhibits enhanced photocurrent collection on grain boundaries (GBs) of CIGS films, consistent with the argument for electric-field-assisted carrier collection on the GBs.

  11. Industrial X-ray imaging based on scintillators and CMOS APS array: direct X-ray irradiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Jeon, Sung Chae; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Gyuseong

    2005-01-01

    To see the effects of the direct X-ray in a Lanex screen-coupled CMOS APS imager, we measured modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). These measurements were performed under the condition of non-destructive test (NDT). By increasing the cumulative exposure on the imager, the MTF was degraded, and also leading to the DQE degradation. Each parameter changed by the exposure is described in detail.

  12. Direct Comparison of Gyrokinetic Turbulence Simulations with Phase Contrast Imaging Fluctuation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Darin; Long, A.; Basse, N.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.; Dorland, W.

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a synthetic diagnostic^1 for the GS2 gyrokinetic code for direct comparisons with phase contrast imaging (PCI) measurements of density fluctuations in Alcator C-Mod. The gyrokinetic simulation is carried out in a local, field line following flux-tube, while PCI measures density fluctuations along 32 chords passing vertically through the plasma cross-section.^2 Transforming from Clebsch to cartesian coordinates, and integrating appropriately over portions of the flux tube viewed by the diagnostic, yields a density fluctuation spectrum versus wavenumber kR in the major radius direction. To achieve vertical localization, we examine an ITB case in which the spectrum is dominated by a strong trapped electron mode, localized near the half-radius. The wavelength spectrum from the simulations, using the synthetic diagnostic, closely reproduces the PCI spectrum. Contributions from kψ, where B=∇αx∇ψ, downshift the GS2 kα spectrum to improve upon our previous raw comparison with the PCI kR spectrum.^3 ^1A. Long, D. R. Ernst et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50(8) p. 153, GP1.48, also p. 235, LP1.37 http://www.psfc.mit.edu/research/alcator/pubs/APS/APS2005/ernst.pdf. ^2N. P. Basse et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 052512 (2005). ^3D. R. Ernst et al., 2004 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, IAEA-CN116/TH/4-1 http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/fec/fec2004/datasets/TH4-1.html, see also Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2637.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Cook, Peter F.; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L.; Marino, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of ‘associative′ regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Cook, Peter F; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L; Marino, Lori

    2015-07-22

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of 'associative' regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  15. Direct imaging of light elements by annular dark-field aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotnyk, Andriy Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-02-17

    In this report, we show that an annular dark-field detector in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope allows the direct observation of light element columns in crystalline lattices. At specific imaging conditions, an enhancement of the intensities of light element columns in the presence of heavy element columns is observed. Experimental results are presented for imaging the nitrogen and carbon atomic columns at the GaN-SiC interface and within the GaN and SiC compounds. The crystal polarity of GaN at the interface is identified. The obtained findings are discussed and are well supported by image simulations.

  16. 6Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H. K. M.; Watanabe, H.

    2014-04-01

    Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a 6Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos.

  17. 6Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, H. K. M.; Watanabe, H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a 6Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos. PMID:24759616

  18. ⁶Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H K M; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a (6)Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos. PMID:24759616

  19. DiOlistics: Delivery of Fluorescent Dyes into Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sherazee, Nyssa; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2013-01-01

    DiOlistic labeling utilizes a particle-mediated delivery system to incorporate dye into cells. Because of its random nature, this technique generates sparse fluorescent labeling which is well suited for the study of neuronal dendritic branching and dendritic spine morphology. DiOlistics is a quick, reliable and nontoxic method that can be used in combination with other techniques such as immunostaining, biolistic DNA transfection, and retrograde tracing. In this article, we describe the methods for diOlistic labeling of neurons from rodent brain slices using DiI and the imaging of neuronal and synaptic morphology using confocal microscopy. PMID:23104356

  20. Laser direct imaging of transparent indium tin oxide electrodes using high speed stitching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pi-Ying; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Chung, Chien-Kai; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Liao, Ien-Chang

    2014-09-01

    To accomplish an electrode patterning in large area, we present a high speed stitching technique used in an ultraviolet laser processing system and investigate the interaction between laser beams and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates. After optimizing the process parameters of the laser direct imaging (LDI) for the large-area electrode patterning, the ablated lines looked like regularly fish-scale marks of about a 40 μm diameter and a 120 nm depth around the processing path. The parameters includes the laser power of 1W, the scanning speed of galvanometers of 800 mm/s, and the laser pulse repetition frequency of 50 kHz. Moreover, the resistance value of the ablated ITO thin film is larger than 200MΩ that is electrically insulated from the other regions of electrode structure. LDI technology with UV laser beam has great potential applications in patterning on wafer or sapphire substrates and patterning a conductive layer deposited on the touch panels for semiconductor and optoelectric industries, respectively.

  1. Advanced Compositional Analysis of Nanoparticle-polymer Composites Using Direct Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Crick, Colin R; Noimark, Sacha; Peveler, William J; Bear, Joseph C; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Edel, Joshua B; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of polymer-nanoparticle composites is extremely important in the development of many functional materials. Identifying the precise composition of these materials is essential, especially in the design of surface catalysts, where the surface concentration of the active component determines the activity of the material. Antimicrobial materials which utilize nanoparticles are a particular focus of this technology. Recently swell encapsulation has emerged as a technique for inserting antimicrobial nanoparticles into a host polymer matrix. Swell encapsulation provides the advantage of localizing the incorporation to the external surfaces of materials, which act as the active sites of these materials. However, quantification of this nanoparticle uptake is challenging. Previous studies explore the link between antimicrobial activity and surface concentration of the active component, but this is not directly visualized. Here we show a reliable method to monitor the incorporation of nanoparticles into a polymer host matrix via swell encapsulation. We show that the surface concentration of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles can be accurately visualized through cross-sectional fluorescence imaging. Using this method, we can quantify the uptake of nanoparticles via swell encapsulation and measure the surface concentration of encapsulated particles, which is key in optimizing the activity of functional materials. PMID:27500449

  2. Direct imaging of single UvrD helicase dynamics on long single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Balci, Hamza; Jia, Haifeng; Lohman, Timothy M; Ha, Taekjip

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of single-protein dynamics on DNA has been largely limited to double-stranded DNA or short single-stranded DNA. We have developed a hybrid approach for observing single proteins moving on laterally stretched kilobase-sized ssDNA. Here we probed the single-stranded DNA translocase activity of Escherichia coli UvrD by single fluorophore tracking, while monitoring DNA unwinding activity with optical tweezers to capture the entire sequence of protein binding, single-stranded DNA translocation and multiple pathways of unwinding initiation. The results directly demonstrate that the UvrD monomer is a highly processive single-stranded DNA translocase that is stopped by a double-stranded DNA, whereas two monomers are required to unwind DNA to a detectable degree. The single-stranded DNA translocation rate does not depend on the force applied and displays a remarkable homogeneity, whereas the unwinding rate shows significant heterogeneity. These findings demonstrate that UvrD assembly state regulates its DNA helicase activity with functional implications for its stepping mechanism, and also reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the active species during unwinding. PMID:23695672

  3. Generation of Customizable Micro-wavy Pattern through Grayscale Direct Image Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ran; Wang, Shunqiang; Andrews, Geoffrey; Shi, Wentao; Liu, Yaling

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing amount of research work in surface studies, a more effective method of producing patterned microstructures is highly desired due to the geometric limitations and complex fabricating process of current techniques. This paper presents an efficient and cost-effective method to generate customizable micro-wavy pattern using direct image lithography. This method utilizes a grayscale Gaussian distribution effect to model inaccuracies inherent in the polymerization process, which are normally regarded as trivial matters or errors. The measured surface profiles and the mathematical prediction show a good agreement, demonstrating the ability of this method to generate wavy patterns with precisely controlled features. An accurate pattern can be generated with customizable parameters (wavelength, amplitude, wave shape, pattern profile, and overall dimension). This mask-free photolithography approach provides a rapid fabrication method that is capable of generating complex and non-uniform 3D wavy patterns with the wavelength ranging from 12 μm to 2100 μm and an amplitude-to-wavelength ratio as large as 300%. Microfluidic devices with pure wavy and wavy-herringbone patterns suitable for capture of circulating tumor cells are made as a demonstrative application. A completely customized microfluidic device with wavy patterns can be created within a few hours without access to clean room or commercial photolithography equipment.

  4. Direct imaging of rare-earth ion clusters in Yb:CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, B.; Genevois, C.; Doualan, J. L.; Brasse, G.; Braud, A.; Ruterana, P.; Camy, P.; Talbot, E.; Moncorgé, R.; Margerie, J.

    2014-09-01

    The existence and the identification of only one or several coparticipating luminescent Yb3+ centers in the heavily doped Yb :CaF2 laser crystals which are considered in the development of several high intensity laser chains have been examined first by using two complementary and original experimental approaches, i.e., registration of low temperature site-selective laser excitation spectra related to near-infrared and visible cooperative emission processes, on the one hand, and direct imaging at the atomic scale of isolated ions and clusters using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope in the high angle annular dark-field mode, on the other hand, and then correlating the data with simple crystal field calculations. As a consequence, and although all the experimental details could not be accounted for quantitatively, a good overall correlation was found between the experimental and the theoretical data. The results show that at the investigated dopant concentrations, Yb:CaF2 should be considered as a multisite system whose luminescent and lasing properties are dominated by a series of Yb3+ clusters ranging from dimers to tetramers. Hexameric luminescent centers may be dominant at really high dopant concentrations (likely above 20 at. %), as was originally proposed, but certainly not at the intermediate dopant concentrations which are considered for the laser application, i.e., between about 0.5 and 10 at. %.

  5. STABILITY OF THE DIRECTLY IMAGED MULTIPLANET SYSTEM HR 8799: RESONANCE AND MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2010-02-20

    A new era of directly imaged extrasolar planets has produced a three-planet system, where the masses of the planets have been estimated by untested cooling models. We point out that the nominal circular, face-on orbits of the planets lead to a dynamical instability in {approx}10{sup 5} yr, a factor of at least 100 shorter than the estimated age of the star. Reduced planetary masses produce stability only for unreasonably small planets ({approx}<2 M{sub Jup}). Relaxing the face-on assumption, but still requiring circular orbits while fitting the observed positions, makes the instability time even shorter. A promising solution is that the inner two planets have a 2:1 commensurability between their periods, and they avoid close encounters with each other through this resonance. The fact that the inner resonance has lasted until now, in spite of the perturbations of the outer planet, leads to a limit {approx}<10 M{sub Jup} on the masses unless the outer two planets are also engaged in a 2:1 mean-motion resonance. In a double resonance, which is consistent with the current data, the system could survive until now even if the planets have masses of {approx}20 M{sub Jup}. Apsidal alignment can further enhance the stability of a mean-motion resonant system. A completely different dynamical configuration, with large eccentricities and large mutual inclinations among the planets, is possible but finely tuned.

  6. Direct imaging of CdTe(001) surface reconstructions by high-resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Smith, David J.

    1991-08-01

    Novel reconstructions of the CdTe(001) surface have been directly observed using high-resolution electron microscopy in the profile-imaging geometry. The CdTe(001) surface, obtained by in situ annealing under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, is found to have a (2 × 1) structure at temperatures of less than about 200° C, but it transforms reversibly into a (3 × 1) structure at temperatures above 200 °C. Structural models for the reconstructions have been proposed and confirmed by extensive computer simulations. The (2 × 1) reconstruction, stabilized by Cd atoms, consists of a {1}/{2} monolayer of Cd vacancies and a large inward relaxation of the remaining surface Cd atoms, similar to the (2 × 1) reconstruction previously proposed for the GaAs(001) surface. The (3 × 1) reconstruction, stabilized by Te atoms, involves formation of surface dimers and the presence of vacancies. In both reconstructions, atomic displacements are observed that extend a few layers into the bulk and serve to reduce the strain energy.

  7. The Age of the Directly Imaged Planet Host Star κ Andromedae Determined from Interferometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Quinn, S.; Ireland, M.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    κ Andromedae, an early-type star that hosts a directly imaged low-mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity (v sin i = ˜162 km s‑1). We observed the star with the CHARA Array’s optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this v sin i value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is ˜85% of the critical rate and a low inclination of ˜30°. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of {47}-40+27 Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion’s temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of {22}-9+8 M J.

  8. Generation of Customizable Micro-wavy Pattern through Grayscale Direct Image Lithography

    PubMed Central

    He, Ran; Wang, Shunqiang; Andrews, Geoffrey; Shi, Wentao; Liu, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing amount of research work in surface studies, a more effective method of producing patterned microstructures is highly desired due to the geometric limitations and complex fabricating process of current techniques. This paper presents an efficient and cost-effective method to generate customizable micro-wavy pattern using direct image lithography. This method utilizes a grayscale Gaussian distribution effect to model inaccuracies inherent in the polymerization process, which are normally regarded as trivial matters or errors. The measured surface profiles and the mathematical prediction show a good agreement, demonstrating the ability of this method to generate wavy patterns with precisely controlled features. An accurate pattern can be generated with customizable parameters (wavelength, amplitude, wave shape, pattern profile, and overall dimension). This mask-free photolithography approach provides a rapid fabrication method that is capable of generating complex and non-uniform 3D wavy patterns with the wavelength ranging from 12 μm to 2100 μm and an amplitude-to-wavelength ratio as large as 300%. Microfluidic devices with pure wavy and wavy-herringbone patterns suitable for capture of circulating tumor cells are made as a demonstrative application. A completely customized microfluidic device with wavy patterns can be created within a few hours without access to clean room or commercial photolithography equipment. PMID:26902520

  9. The Age of the Directly Imaged Planet Host Star κ Andromedae Determined from Interferometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Quinn, S.; Ireland, M.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    κ Andromedae, an early-type star that hosts a directly imaged low-mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity (v sin i = ∼162 km s‑1). We observed the star with the CHARA Array’s optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this v sin i value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is ∼85% of the critical rate and a low inclination of ∼30°. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of {47}-40+27 Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion’s temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of {22}-9+8 M J.

  10. Histology-directed and imaging mass spectrometry: an emerging technology in ectopic calcification

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Giorgio; Caprioli, Richard M; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential of an optimized histology directed protein identification combined with imaging mass spectrometry technology to reveal and identify molecules associated to ectopic calcification in human tissue. As a proof of concept, mineralized and non-mineralized areas were compared within the same dermal tissue obtained from a patient affected by Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a genetic disorder characterized by calcification only at specific sites of soft connective tissues. Data have been technically validated on a contralateral dermal tissue from the same subject and compared with those from control healthy skin. Results demonstrate that this approach 1) significantly reduces the effects generated by techniques that, disrupting tissue organization, blend data from affected and unaffected areas; 2) demonstrates that, abolishing differences due to inter-individual variability, mineralized and non-mineralized areas within the same sample have a specific protein profile and have a different distribution of molecules; 3) avoiding the bias of focusing on already known molecules, reveals a number of proteins that have been never related to the disease nor to the calcification process, thus paving the way for the selection of new molecules to be validated as pathogenic or as potential pharmacological targets. PMID:25595835

  11. Image-Directed Fine-needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid with Safety-engineered Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbitt, Randy R. Palmer, Dennis J.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L. Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to integrate safety-engineered devices into outpatient fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the thyroid in an interventional radiology practice. Materials and Methods: The practice center is a tertiary referral center for image-directed FNA thyroid biopsies in difficult patients referred by the primary care physician, endocrinologist, or otolaryngologist. As a departmental quality of care and safety improvement program, we instituted integration of safety devices into our thyroid biopsy procedures and determined the effect on outcome (procedural pain, diagnostic biopsies, inadequate samples, complications, needlesticks to operator, and physician satisfaction) before institution of safety devices (54 patients) and after institution of safety device implementation (56 patients). Safety devices included a patient safety technology-the mechanical aspirating syringe (reciprocating procedure device), and a health care worker safety technology (antineedlestick safety needle). Results: FNA of thyroid could be readily performed with the safety devices. Safety-engineered devices resulted in a 49% reduction in procedural pain scores (P < 0.0001), a 56% reduction in significant pain (P < 0.002), a 21% increase in operator satisfaction (P < 0.0001), and a 5% increase in diagnostic specimens (P = 0.5). No needlesticks to health care workers or patient injuries occurred during the study. Conclusions: Safety-engineered devices to improve both patient and health care worker safety can be successfully integrated into diagnostic FNA of the thyroid while maintaining outcomes and improving safety.

  12. LOFAR imaging of Cygnus A - Direct detection of a turnover in the hotspot radio spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. P.; Godfrey, L. E. H.; Vegetti, S.; Wise, M. W.; Morganti, R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Rafferty, D.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horst, A. J. van der; Iacobelli, M.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J.. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Serylak, M.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-08-01

    The low-frequency radio spectra of the hotspots within powerful radio galaxies can provide valuable information about the physical processes operating at the site of the jet termination. These processes are responsible for the dissipation of jet kinetic energy, particle acceleration, and magnetic-field generation. Here we report new observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) between 109 and 183 MHz, at an angular resolution of ˜3.5 arcsec. The radio emission of the lobes is found to have a complex spectral index distribution, with a spectral steepening found towards the centre of the source. For the first time, a turnover in the radio spectrum of the two main hotspots of Cygnus A has been directly observed. By combining our LOFAR imaging with data from the Very Large Array at higher frequencies, we show that the very rapid turnover in the hotspot spectra cannot be explained by a low-energy cut-off in the electron energy distribution, as has been previously suggested. Thermal (free-free) absorption or synchrotron self absorption models are able to describe the low-frequency spectral shape of the hotspots, however, as with previous studies, we find that the implied model parameters are unlikely, and interpreting the spectra of the hotspots remains problematic.

  13. Cyclic Di-AMP Impairs Potassium Uptake Mediated by a Cyclic Di-AMP Binding Protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Zarrella, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play important roles as a second messenger in bacterial physiology and infections. However, understanding of how the signal is transduced is still limited. Previously, we have characterized a diadenylate cyclase and two c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we identified a c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) in S. pneumoniae using c-di-AMP affinity chromatography. We demonstrated that CabP specifically bound c-di-AMP and that this interaction could not be interrupted by competition with other nucleotides, including ATP, cAMP, AMP, phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). By using a bacterial two-hybrid system and genetic mutagenesis, we showed that CabP directly interacted with a potassium transporter (SPD_0076) and that both proteins were required for pneumococcal growth in media with low concentrations of potassium. Interestingly, the interaction between CabP and SPD_0076 and the efficiency of potassium uptake were impaired by elevated c-di-AMP in pneumococci. These results establish a direct c-di-AMP-mediated signaling pathway that regulates pneumococcal potassium uptake. PMID:24272783

  14. Cyclic di-AMP impairs potassium uptake mediated by a cyclic di-AMP binding protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Zarrella, Tiffany M; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-02-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play important roles as a second messenger in bacterial physiology and infections. However, understanding of how the signal is transduced is still limited. Previously, we have characterized a diadenylate cyclase and two c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we identified a c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) in S. pneumoniae using c-di-AMP affinity chromatography. We demonstrated that CabP specifically bound c-di-AMP and that this interaction could not be interrupted by competition with other nucleotides, including ATP, cAMP, AMP, phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). By using a bacterial two-hybrid system and genetic mutagenesis, we showed that CabP directly interacted with a potassium transporter (SPD_0076) and that both proteins were required for pneumococcal growth in media with low concentrations of potassium. Interestingly, the interaction between CabP and SPD_0076 and the efficiency of potassium uptake were impaired by elevated c-di-AMP in pneumococci. These results establish a direct c-di-AMP-mediated signaling pathway that regulates pneumococcal potassium uptake. PMID:24272783

  15. Electronic intraoral dental x-ray imaging system employing a direct-sensing CCD array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, John D.; Langford, D. S.; Williams, Donald W.

    1993-12-01

    A commercial prototype intraoral radiography system has been developed that can provide digital x-ray images for diagnosis. The system consists of an intraoral detector head, an intermediate drive electronics package, a main drive electronics package, and a PC-based digital image management system. The system has the potential to replace the use of dental film in intraoral radiographic examinations. High-resolution images are acquired, then displayed on a CRT within seconds of image acquisition.

  16. Methodical evaluation and improvement of matrix compatible PDMS-overcoated coating for direct immersion solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (DI-SPME-GC)-based applications.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Érica A; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Shirey, Robert; Sidisky, Len; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-05-12

    The main quest for the implementation of direct SPME to complex matrices has been the development of matrix compatible coatings that provide sufficient sensitivity towards the target analytes. In this context, we present here a thorough evaluation of PDMS-overcoated fibers suitable for simultaneous extraction of different polarities analytes, while maintaining adequate matrix compatibility. For this, eleven analytes were selected, from various application classes (pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals) and with a wide range of log P values (ranging from 1.43 to 6). The model matrix chosen was commercial Concord grape juice, which is rich in pigments such as anthocyanins, and contains approximately 20% of sugar (w/w). Two types of PDMS, as well as other intrinsic factors associated with the PDMS-overcoated fiber fabrication are studied. The evaluation showed that the PDMS-overcoated fibers considerably slowed down the coating fouling process during direct immersion in complex matrices of high sugar content. Longevity differences could be seen between the two types of PDMS tested, with a proprietary Sylgard(®) giving superior performance because of lesser amount of reactive groups and enhanced hydrophobicity. Conversely, the thickness of the outer layer did not seem to have a significant effect on the fiber lifetime. We also demonstrate that the uniformity of the overcoated PDMS layer is paramount to the achievement of reliable data and extended fiber lifetime. Employing the optimum overcoated fiber, limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.2-1.3 ng/g could be achieved. Additional improvement is attainable by introducing washing of the coatings after desorption, so that any carbon build-up (fouling) left on the coating surface after thermal desorption can be removed. PMID:27114223

  17. Analysis of ROC on chest direct digital radiography (DR) after image processing in diagnosis of SARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guozheng; Lan, Rihui; Zeng, Qingsi; Zheng, Zhong

    2004-05-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, also called Infectious Atypical Pneumonia), which initially broke out in late 2002, has threatened the public"s health seriously. How to confirm the patients contracting SARS becomes an urgent issue in diagnosis. This paper intends to evaluate the importance of Image Processing in the diagnosis on SARS at the early stage. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis has been employed in this study to compare the value of DR images in the diagnosis of SARS patients before and after image processing by Symphony Software supplied by E-Com Technology Ltd., and DR image study of 72 confirmed or suspected SARS patients were reviewed respectively. All the images taken from the studied patients were processed by Symphony. Both the original and processed images were taken into ROC analysis, based on which the ROC graph for each group of images has been produced as described below: For processed images: a = 1.9745, b = 1.4275, SA = 0.8714; For original images: a = 0.9066, b = 0.8310, SA = 0.7572; (a - intercept, b - slop, SA - Area below the curve). The result shows significant difference between the original images and processed images (P<0.01). In summary, the images processed by Symphony are superior to the original ones in detecting the opacity lesion, and increases the accuracy of SARS diagnosis.

  18. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  19. Orbital Differential Imaging: a new high-contrast post-processing technique for direct imaging of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Jared R.; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Current post-processing techniques in high contrast imaging depend on some source of diversity between the exoplanet signal and the residual star light at that location. The two main techniques are angular differential imaging (ADI), which makes use of parallactic sky rotation to separate planet from star light, and spectral differential imaging (SDI), which makes use of differences in the spectrum of planet and star light and the wavelength dependence of the point spread function (PSF). Here we introduce our technique for exploiting another source of diversity: orbital motion. Given repeated observations of an exoplanetary system with sufficiently short orbital periods, the motion of the planets allows us to discriminate them from the PSF. In addition to using powerful PSF subtraction algorithms, such an observing strategy enables temporal filtering. Once an orbit is determined, the planet can be "de-orbited" to further increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We call this collection of techniques Orbital Differential Imaging (ODI). Here we present the motivation for this technique, present a noise model, and present results from simulations. We believe ODI will be an enabling technique for imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars with dedicated space missions.

  20. Image-guided surgery and therapy: current status and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Terence M.

    2001-05-01

    Image-guided surgery and therapy is assuming an increasingly important role, particularly considering the current emphasis on minimally-invasive surgical procedures. Volumetric CT and MR images have been used now for some time in conjunction with stereotactic frames, to guide many neurosurgical procedures. With the development of systems that permit surgical instruments to be tracked in space, image-guided surgery now includes the use of frame-less procedures, and the application of the technology has spread beyond neurosurgery to include orthopedic applications and therapy of various soft-tissue organs such as the breast, prostate and heart. Since tracking systems allow image- guided surgery to be undertaken without frames, a great deal of effort has been spent on image-to-image and image-to- patient registration techniques, and upon the means of combining real-time intra-operative images with images acquired pre-operatively. As image-guided surgery systems have become increasingly sophisticated, the greatest challenges to their successful adoption in the operating room of the future relate to the interface between the user and the system. To date, little effort has been expended to ensure that the human factors issues relating to the use of such equipment in the operating room have been adequately addressed. Such systems will only be employed routinely in the OR when they are designed to be intuitive, unobtrusive, and provide simple access to the source of the images.

  1. Multiple-view spectrally resolved x-ray imaging observations of polar-direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, R. C.; Johns, H. M.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Nagayama, T.; Hsu, S. C.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Hakel, P.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2014-12-15

    We present spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved narrow- and broad-band x-ray images of polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on OMEGA. These self-emission images were obtained during the deceleration phase and bang time using several multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging instruments fielded along two or three quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight, including equatorial and polar views. The instruments recorded images based on K-shell lines from a titanium tracer located in the shell as well as continuum emission. These observations constitute the first such data obtained for PDD implosions. The image data show features attributed to laser imprinting and zero-order hydrodynamics. Equatorial-view images show a “double bun” structure that is consistent with synthetic images obtained from post-processing 2D and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment. Polar-view images show a pentagonal, petal pattern that correlates with the PDD laser illumination used on OMEGA, thus revealing a 3D aspect of PDD OMEGA implosions not previously observed. Differences are noted with respect to a PDD experiment performed at National Ignition Facility.

  2. Toward Direct Imaging of Low-mass Gas-Giant Planets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, J. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Meyer, M. R.; Greene, T.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have identified new members of the nearby, young M dwarf sample and compiled an up to date list of these stars. Here we summarize our efforts to identify young M dwarfs, describe the current sample, and detail its demographics in the context of direct planet imaging. We also describe our investigations of the unprecedented sensitivity of the JWST when imaging nearby, young M dwarfs. The JWST is the only near term facility capable of routinely pushing direct imaging capabilities around M dwarfs to sub-Jovian masses and will provide key insight into questions regarding low-mass gas-giant properties, frequency, formation, and architectures.

  3. Direct Imaging of an Emerging Flux Rope and a Resulting Chromospheric Jet Observed by Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Berger, T.; Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; DeRosa, M.

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic flux emergence has been traditionally observed on the disk by identifying changes in magnetograms. Observations near the limb offer an alternative perspective and allow direct imaging of emerging flux ropes. We present Hinode/SOT Ca II H observations of such an event in an equatorial coronal hole on 2007 February 9. The precursor of the event was a bundle of fine material threads that extended at an oblique angle above the chromosphere and appeared to rotate about a common axis. This bundle first slowly and then rapidly swung up, accompanied by a loop that appeared at the base of the bundle and expanded at comparable rates. During the first (slow rise) stage, the apex of the loop ascended at 16 km/s, a velocity similar to that of H-alpha arch filaments (e.g., Chou & Zirin) and of emerging flux ropes expanding into the corona as found in MHD simulations (e.g., Fan & Gibson; Martinez-Sykora). The second stage started at the onset of a GOES A5 flare and the loop expansion accelerated, reaching a velocity of 130 km/s when the loop appeared to rupture near the peak of the flare. The material bundle then swung back in a whiplike manner and developed into a collimated jet, exhibiting oscillatory transverse motions across its axis, as expected from unwinding twists. Some jet material fell back along smooth streamlines, which bypass an unseen dome and presumably a null point in the low corona, depicting an inverted-Y shape. Some of these observations resemble the model (e.g., Uchida & Shibata) of the emergence of a twisted flux rope into an open field region that leads to reconnection and formation of a jet. Some observations are, however, not predicted in previous models and we will discuss their implications.

  4. Atmospheric retrieval analysis of the directly imaged exoplanet HR 8799b

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Min; Heng, Kevin; Irwin, Patrick G. J. E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch

    2013-12-01

    Directly imaged exoplanets are unexplored laboratories for the application of the spectral and temperature retrieval method, where the chemistry and composition of their atmospheres are inferred from inverse modeling of the available data. As a pilot study, we focus on the extrasolar gas giant HR 8799b, for which more than 50 data points are available. We upgrade our non-linear optimal estimation retrieval method to include a phenomenological model of clouds that requires the cloud optical depth and monodisperse particle size to be specified. Previous studies have focused on forward models with assumed values of the exoplanetary properties; there is no consensus on the best-fit values of the radius, mass, surface gravity, and effective temperature of HR 8799b. We show that cloud-free models produce reasonable fits to the data if the atmosphere is of super-solar metallicity and non-solar elemental abundances. Intermediate cloudy models with moderate values of the cloud optical depth and micron-sized particles provide an equally reasonable fit to the data and require a lower mean molecular weight. We report our best-fit values for the radius, mass, surface gravity, and effective temperature of HR 8799b. The mean molecular weight is about 3.8, while the carbon-to-oxygen ratio is about unity due to the prevalence of carbon monoxide. Our study emphasizes the need for robust claims about the nature of an exoplanetary atmosphere to be based on analyses involving both photometry and spectroscopy and inferred from beyond a few photometric data points, such as are typically reported for hot Jupiters.

  5. Daytime Variation of Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols from GOES-8 Imager.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Zhang, Jianglong

    2002-02-01

    Hourly Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) imager data (1344-1944 UTC) from 20 July-31 August 1998 were used to study the daytime variation of shortwave direct radiative forcing (SWARF) of smoke aerosols over biomass burning regions in South America (4°-16°S, 51°-65°W). Vicarious calibration procedures were used to adjust the GOES visible channel reflectance values for the degradation in signal response. Using Mie theory and discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) calculations, smoke aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was estimated at 0.67 m. The GOES-retrieved AOT was then compared against ground-based AOT retrieved values. Using the retrieved GOES-8 AOT, a four-stream broadband radiative transfer model was used to compute shortwave fluxes for smoke aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The daytime variation of smoke AOT and SWARF was examined for the study area. For selected days, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) TOA shortwave (SW) fluxes are compared against the model-derived SW fluxes.Results of this study show that the GOES-derived AOT is in excellent agreement with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-derived AOT values with linear correlation coefficient of 0.97. The TOA CERES-estimated SW fluxes compare well with the model-calculated SW fluxes with linear correlation coefficient of 0.94. For August 1998 the daytime diurnally averaged AOT and SWARF for the study area is 0.63 ± 0.39 and 45.8 ± 18.8 W m2, respectively. This is among the first studies to estimate the daytime diurnal variation of SWARF of smoke aerosols using satellite data.

  6. HOW DO MOST PLANETS FORM?-CONSTRAINTS ON DISK INSTABILITY FROM DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Bonavita, Mariangela; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2012-01-20

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence has accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2-A0-type stars and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions is <8% for FGKM-type stars under our most conservative assumptions, for an outer disk radius of 300 AU, at 99% confidence. Furthermore, we find that the frequency is always <10% at 99% confidence independently of outer disk radius, for any radius from 5 to 500 AU. We also simulate migration at a wide range of rates and find that the conclusions hold even if the companions move substantially after formation. Hence, core accretion remains the likely dominant formation mechanism for the total planet population, for every type of star from M-type through B-type.

  7. How to Directly Image a Habitable Planet Around Alpha Centauri with a 30-45 cm Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Several mission concepts are being studied to directly image planets around nearby stars. It is commonly thought that directly imaging a potentially habitable exoplanet around a Sun-like star requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 1m. A notable exception to this is Alpha Centauri (A and B), which is an extreme outlier among FGKM stars in terms of apparent habitable zone size: the habitable zones are approximately 3x wider in apparent size than around any other FGKM star. This enables a approximately 30-45cm visible light space telescope equipped with a modern high performance coronagraph or star shade to resolve the habitable zone at high contrast and directly image any potentially habitable planet that may exist in the system. The raw contrast requirements for such an instrument can be relaxed to 1e-8 if the mission spends 2 years collecting tens of thousands of images on the same target, enabling a factor of 500-1000 speckle suppression in post processing using a new technique called Orbital Difference Imaging (ODI). The raw light leak from both stars is controllable with a special wave front control algorithm known as Multi-Star Wave front Control (MSWC), which independently suppresses diffraction and aberrations from both stars using independent modes on the deformable mirror. This paper will present an analysis of the challenges involved with direct imaging of Alpha Centauri with a small telescope and how the above technologies are used together to solve them. We also show an example of a small coronagraphic mission concepts to take advantage of this opportunity called "ACESat: Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite" submitted to NASA's small Explorer (SMEX) program in December of 2014.

  8. Lipiodol: A Potential Direct Surrogate for Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance in Radiotherapy of Liver Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Jinbo; Sun Xindong; Cai Jing; Yin Fangfang; Yin Yong; Zhu Jian; Lu Jie; Liu Tonghai; Yu Jinming; Shi Xuetao; Song Jinlong

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using lipiodol as a direct surrogate for target localization using cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance in radiotherapy (RT) of patients with unresectable liver tumors after transarterial chemoembolization. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with an unresectable solitary liver tumor were enrolled for RT using active breathing control (ABC) and CBCT image guidance after transarterial chemoembolization. Each patient had pre- and posttreatment CBCT in the first 10 fractions of treatment. Lipiodol retention was evaluated using daily CBCT scans, and volume of lipiodol retention in the liver was calculated and compared between planning CT and post-RT CT. Influence of lipiodol on dosimetry was evaluated by measuring doses using an ion chamber with and without the presence of lipiodol. Margin analysis was performed on the basis of both inter- and intrafractional target localization errors. Results: Twenty-eight patients successfully completed the study. The shape and size of lipiodol retention did not vary substantially during the course of treatment. The mean Dice similarity coefficient for the lipiodol volume in pretreatment CT and that in posttreatment CT was 0.836 (range, 0.817-0.885). The maximum change (ratio of the lipiodol volume in pretreatment CT to that in posttreatment CT) was 1.045. The mean dose changes with the presence of <10 mL lipiodol were -1.44% and 0.13% for 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. With ABC and online CBCT image guidance, clinical target volume-planning target volume margins were determined to be 2.5 mm in the mediolateral direction, 2.9 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 4.0 mm in the craniocaudal direction. Conclusions: Lipiodol could be used as a direct surrogate for CBCT image guidance to improve the localization accuracy for RT of liver tumors. Combination of ABC and CBCT image guidance with lipiodol can potentially reduce the clinical target volume-planning target volume margin.

  9. Direct Characterization of Arterial Input Functions by Fluorescence Imaging of Exposed Carotid Artery to Facilitate Kinetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Sexton, Kristian J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With the goal of facilitating tracer kinetic analysis in small-animal planar fluorescence imaging, an experimental method for characterizing tracer arterial input functions is presented. The proposed method involves exposing the common carotid arteries by surgical dissection, which can then be imaged directly during tracer injection and clearance. Procedures Arterial concentration curves of IRDye-700DX-carboxylate, IRDye-800CW-EGF, and IRDye-800CW conjugated to anti-EGFR Affibody are recovered from athymic female mice (n=12) by directly imaging exposed vessels. Images were acquired with two imaging protocols: a slow-kinetics approach (temporal resolution=45 s) to recover the arterial curves from two tracers simultaneously, and a fast-kinetics approach (temporal resolution=500 ms) to characterize the first-pass peak of a single tracer. Arterial input functions obtained by the carotid imaging technique, as well as plasma curves measured by blood sampling were fit with a biexponential pharmacokinetic model. Results Pharmacological fast- and slow-phase rate constants recovered with the proposed method were 0.37±0.26 and 0.007±0.001 min−1, respectively, for the IRDye700DX-C. For the IRDye800CW-EGF, the rate constants were 0.11±0.13 and 0.003±0.002 min−1. These rate constants did not differ significantly from those calculated previously by blood sampling, as determined by an F test; however, the between-subject variability was four times lower for arterial curves recovered using the proposed technique, compared with blood sampling. Conclusions The proposed technique enables the direct characterization of arterial input functions for kinetic analysis. As this method requires no additional instrumentation, it is immediately deployable in commercially available planar fluorescence imaging systems. PMID:24420443

  10. Direct imaging of singlet oxygen luminescence generated in blood vessels during photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lisheng; Lin, Huiyun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Longchao; Wang, Min; Xie, Shusen; Gu, Ying; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Buhong

    2014-05-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is commonly recognized to be a major phototoxic component for inducing the biological damage during photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, a novel configuration of a thermoelectrically-cooled near-infrared sensitive InGaAs camera was developed for imaging of photodynamically-generated 1O2 luminescence. The validation of 1O2 luminescence images for solution samples was performed with the model photosensitizer Rose Bengal (RB). Images of 1O2 luminescence generated in blood vessels in vivo in a well-controlled dorsal skinfold window chamber model were also recorded during PDT. This study demonstrated the capacity of the newly-developed imaging system for imaging of 1O2 luminescence, and the first reported images of 1O2 luminescence in blood vessels in vivo. This system has potential for elucidating the mechanisms of vascular targeted PDT.

  11. Direct imaging of elemental distributions in tissue sections by laser ablation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Nilsson, Anna; Bonta, Maximilian; Gan, Jinrui; Marklund, Niklas; Clausen, Fredrik; Källback, Patrik; Loden, Henrik; Limbeck, Andreas; Andrén, Per E

    2016-07-15

    We present a strategy for imaging of elements in biological tissues using laser ablation (LA) mass spectrometry (MS), which was compared to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) MS. Both methods were adopted for quantitative imaging of elements in mouse kidney, as well as traumatic brain injury model tissue sections. MS imaging (MSI) employing LA provides quantitative data by comparing signal abundances of sodium from tissues to those obtained by imaging quantitation calibration standards of the target element applied to adjacent control tissue sections. LA-ICP MSI provided quantitative data for several essential elements in both brain and kidney tissue sections using a dried-droplet approach. Both methods were used to image a rat model of traumatic brain injury, revealing accumulations of sodium and calcium in the impact area and its peripheral regions. LA MSI is shown to be a viable option for quantitative imaging of specific elements in biological tissue sections. PMID:27263025

  12. Magnetic Particle Imaging Tracers: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lisa M; Situ, Shu F; Griswold, Mark A; Samia, Anna Cristina S

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality with promising applications in diagnostic imaging and guided therapy. The image quality in MPI is strongly dependent on the nature of its iron oxide nanoparticle-based tracers. The selection of potential MPI tracers is currently limited, and the underlying physics of tracer response is not yet fully understood. An in-depth understanding of the magnetic relaxation processes that govern MPI tracers, gained through concerted theoretical and experimental work, is crucial to the development of optimized MPI tracers. Although tailored tracers will lead to improvements in image quality, tailored relaxation may also be exploited for biomedical applications or more flexible image contrast, as in the recent demonstration of color MPI. PMID:26266727

  13. Interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging for space targets based on wideband direct sampling using two antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Biao; Liu, Yang; Xu, Shiyou; Chen, Zengping

    2014-01-01

    Interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (InISAR) imaging provides complementary information to monostatic inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. This paper proposes a new InISAR imaging system for space targets based on wideband direct sampling using two antennas. The system is easy to realize in engineering since the motion trajectory of space targets can be known in advance, which is simpler than that of three receivers. In the preprocessing step, high speed movement compensation is carried out by designing an adaptive matched filter containing speed that is obtained from the narrow band information. Then, the coherent processing and keystone transform for ISAR imaging are adopted to reserve the phase history of each antenna. Through appropriate collocation of the system, image registration and phase unwrapping can be avoided. Considering the situation not to be satisfied, the influence of baseline variance is analyzed and compensation method is adopted. The corresponding size can be achieved by interferometric processing of the two complex ISAR images. Experimental results prove the validity of the analysis and the three-dimensional imaging algorithm.

  14. Large-Scale medical image analytics: Recent methodologies, applications and Future directions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2016-10-01

    Despite the ever-increasing amount and complexity of annotated medical image data, the development of large-scale medical image analysis algorithms has not kept pace with the need for methods that bridge the semantic gap between images and diagnoses. The goal of this position paper is to discuss and explore innovative and large-scale data science techniques in medical image analytics, which will benefit clinical decision-making and facilitate efficient medical data management. Particularly, we advocate that the scale of image retrieval systems should be significantly increased at which interactive systems can be effective for knowledge discovery in potentially large databases of medical images. For clinical relevance, such systems should return results in real-time, incorporate expert feedback, and be able to cope with the size, quality, and variety of the medical images and their associated metadata for a particular domain. The design, development, and testing of the such framework can significantly impact interactive mining in medical image databases that are growing rapidly in size and complexity and enable novel methods of analysis at much larger scales in an efficient, integrated fashion. PMID:27503077

  15. Matrix Pre-Coated Targets for Direct Lipid Analysis and Imaging of Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed targets pre-coated with matrix for imaging lipids in tissues using MALDI-MS. Thin tissue sections (rat kidney and mouse or rat brains) were placed onto 2,5-diaminonaphthalene pre-coated targets (prepared beforehand by a protocol utilizing sublimation) and were washed with ammonium formate solution. After a brief drying period, the target slides were imaged by MALDI MS. The resulting images from these sections were of equivalent quality to those obtained using the usual post-coating approach such as sublimation and spraying in term of the sharpness of substructures in the images demonstrated by imaging at spatial resolutions of 100, 10 and 5 μm. Matrix pre-coated targets have a shelf-life more than 6 months when kept in a dark, non-humid environment such as a non-transparent desiccator. PMID:23418860

  16. Seeing Below the Drop: Direct Nano-to-microscale Imaging of Complex Interfaces involving Solid, Liquid, and Gas Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Landin, Trevan; Walker, Marlon L.; Scott, John Henry J.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2012-11-01

    Nanostructured surfaces with special wetting properties have the potential to transform number of industries, including power generation, water desalination, gas and oil production, and microelectronics thermal management. Predicting the wetting properties of these surfaces requires detailed knowledge of the geometry and the composition of the contact volume linking the droplet to the underlying substrate. Surprisingly, a general nano-to-microscale method for direct imaging of such interfaces has previously not been developed. Here we introduce a three dimensional imaging method which resolves this one-hundred-year-old metrology gap in wetting research. Specifically, we demonstrate direct nano-to-microscale imaging of complex fluidic interfaces using cryofixation in combination with cryo-FIB/SEM. We show that application of this method yields previously unattainable quantitative information about the interfacial geometry of water condensed on silicon nanowire forests with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface termination in the presence or absence of an intermediate water repelling oil. We also discuss imaging artifacts and the advantages of secondary and backscatter electron imaging, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and three dimensional FIB/SEM tomography.

  17. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sangwon

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  18. Crevice flow and combustion visualization in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using laser imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.C.; Fansler, T.D.; French, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Crevice flows of hydrocarbon fuel (both liquid and vapor) have been observed directly from fuel-injector mounting and nozzle-exit crevices in an optically-accessible single-cylinder direct-injection two-stroke engine burning commercial gasoline. Fuel trapped in crevices escapes combustion during the high-pressure portions of the engine cycle, exits the crevice as the cylinder pressure decreases, partially reacts when mixed with hot combustion gases in the cylinder, and contributes to unburned hydrocarbon emissions. High-speed laser Mie-scattering imaging reveals substantial liquid crevice flow in a cold engine at light load, decreasing as the engine warms up and as load is increased. Single-shot laser induced fluorescence imaging of fuel (both vapor and liquid) shows that substantial fuel vapor emanates from fuel injector crevices during every engine cycle and for all operating conditions. Early in the crevice-flow process, some of the emerging fuel vapor (imaged by laser-induced fluorescence) burns as a rich diffusion flame (imaged by flame luminosity), but most of the crevice flow fails to burn as the cylinder pressure and temperature fall. Crevice HC`s are a significant (but not the predominant) source of hydrocarbon emissions in this two-stroke engine, since most of the crevice flow hydrocarbons are retained as residual fuel in the combustion chamber. Similar laser-imaging techniques are applicable to four-stroke spark-ignition engines, where crevice flows are believed to be the dominant hydrocarbon-emissions source.

  19. Effect of direct x-ray interaction in the photodetector on image noise for a CCD/scintillator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Michael J.; Hames, Sean M.; Ciarelli, James J.

    1996-04-01

    Digital x-ray imaging detectors for soft x-rays (1 to 50 keV) are significant for medical mammography, dental radiography, microradiography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray telescope applications. For systems in which a scintillator is optically coupled to a photodetector, a small number of electrons are produced for each interaction in the scintillator (more than 10 e- in well designed systems). However, x-rays interacting directly in the photodetector produce a large charge for each detected event (about 4,700 e- for a 17 keV x-ray absorbed in silicon. These direct interactions can significantly increase image noise even when their interaction probability and contribution to image signal are low. In this paper we report on analytic investigations of the direct and indirect contributions to noise for a system consisting of a CsI scintillator, fiber optic coupler, and CCD photo-detector. The fiber optic coupler is shown to be essential to shield the CCD detector from direct interactions. A 3 mm thick fiber optic coupler is sufficient to eliminate most of the events that can noticeably increase noise.

  20. The Atmospheres of Directly Imaged Planets: Where Has All the Methane Gone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Methane and ammonia both first appear at lower effective temperatures in brown dwarf atmospheres than equilibrium chemistry models would suggest. This has traditionally been understood as a consequence of vertical mixing timescales being shorter than chemical equilibration timescales in brown dwarf photospheres. Indeed the eddy diffusivity, a variable accounting for the vigor of vertical mixing, has become a standard part of the description of brown dwarf atmosphere models, along with Teff and log g. While some models have suggested that methane is less favored at lower gravity, the almost complete absence of methane in the atmospheres of directly imaged planets, such as those orbiting HR 8799, even at effective temperatures where methane is readily apparent in brown dwarf spectra, has been puzzling. To better understand the paucity of methane in low gravity atmospheres we have revisited the problem of methane chemistry and mixing. We employed a 1-D atmospheric chemistry code augmented with an updated and complete network of the chemical reactions that link CO to CH4. We find the methane abundance at altitudes at or above the effective photosphere is a strong function of surface gravity because higher g shifts the p-T structure to higher pressures (i.e., a given optical depth is proportional to p/g, a relation mitigated somewhat by pressure broadening). Thus quenching in more massive brown dwarfs occurs at a lower temperature and higher pressure, both favoring CH4. We predict that in the lowest mass young giant planets, methane will appear very late, at effective temperatures as low as 600 K rather than the 1200 K seen among field brown dwarfs. This methane deficiency has important implications for the interpretation of spectra as well as methane-based planetary companion searches, such as the NICI survey. The GPI and SPHERE surveys will test these ideas and probe atmospheric chemistry and composition in an entire new range of parameter space. A caveat is that

  1. One-pass manufacturing of multimaterial colloidal particles using optical recognition-enhanced laser direct imaging lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavčič, Blaž; Kokot, Gašper; Poberaj, Igor; Babić, Dušan; Osterman, Natan

    2016-02-01

    We report on a maskless lithography rapid prototyping system for the fabrication of multimaterial hybrid structures in standard i-line negative photoresists enriched by the addition of functionalization particles. The system uses a combination of image recognition methods to detect particle positions in the photoresist and laser direct imaging to illuminate it with a focused ultraviolet laser. A set of acousto-optic deflectors, used to steer the laser, enables precise high-speed illumination of complex patterns. As a result, hybrid micron-sized structures composed of a base particle embedded in a photoresist frame can be manufactured using a one-pass process.

  2. Effective Five Directional Partial Derivatives-Based Image Smoothing and a Parallel Structure Design.

    PubMed

    Choongsang Cho; Sangkeun Lee

    2016-04-01

    Image smoothing has been used for image segmentation, image reconstruction, object classification, and 3D content generation. Several smoothing approaches have been used at the pre-processing step to retain the critical edge, while removing noise and small details. However, they have limited performance, especially in removing small details and smoothing discrete regions. Therefore, to provide fast and accurate smoothing, we propose an effective scheme that uses a weighted combination of the gradient, Laplacian, and diagonal derivatives of a smoothed image. In addition, to reduce computational complexity, we designed and implemented a parallel processing structure for the proposed scheme on a graphics processing unit (GPU). For an objective evaluation of the smoothing performance, the images were linearly quantized into several layers to generate experimental images, and the quantized images were smoothed using several methods for reconstructing the smoothly changed shape and intensity of the original image. Experimental results showed that the proposed scheme has higher objective scores and better successful smoothing performance than similar schemes, while preserving and removing critical and trivial details, respectively. For computational complexity, the proposed smoothing scheme running on a GPU provided 18 and 16 times lower complexity than the proposed smoothing scheme running on a CPU and the L0-based smoothing scheme, respectively. In addition, a simple noise reduction test was conducted to show the characteristics of the proposed approach; it reported that the presented algorithm outperforms the state-of-the art algorithms by more than 5.4 dB. Therefore, we believe that the proposed scheme can be a useful tool for efficient image smoothing. PMID:26886985

  3. Bimodal imaging probes for combined PET and OI: recent developments and future directions for hybrid agent development.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Uwe; Wängler, Björn; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging--and especially positron emission tomography (PET)--has gained increasing importance for diagnosis of various diseases and thus experiences an increasing dissemination. Therefore, there is also a growing demand for highly affine PET tracers specifically accumulating and visualizing target structures in the human body. Beyond the development of agents suitable for PET alone, recent tendencies aim at the synthesis of bimodal imaging probes applicable in PET as well as optical imaging (OI), as this combination of modalities can provide clinical advantages. PET, due to the high tissue penetration of the γ-radiation emitted by PET nuclides, allows a quantitative imaging able to identify and visualize tumors and metastases in the whole body. OI on the contrary visualizes photons exhibiting only a limited tissue penetration but enables the identification of tumor margins and infected lymph nodes during surgery without bearing a radiation burden for the surgeon. Thus, there is an emerging interest in bimodal agents for PET and OI in order to exploit the potential of both imaging techniques for the imaging and treatment of tumor diseases. This short review summarizes the available hybrid probes developed for dual PET and OI and discusses future directions for hybrid agent development. PMID:24822177

  4. Semi-automatic quantification of neurite fasciculation in high-density neurite images by the Neurite Directional Distribution Analysis (NDDA)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Amy M; Wheeler, Brandon; Staii, Cristian; Kaplan, David L.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bundling of neurite extensions occur during nerve development and regeneration. Understanding the factors that drive neurite bundling is important for designing biomaterials for nerve regeneration toward the innervation target and preventing nociceptive collateral sprouting. High-density neuron cultures including dorsal root ganglia explants are employed for in vitro screening of biomaterials designed to control directional outgrowth. Although some semiautomated image processing methods exist for quantification of neurite outgrowth, methods to quantify axonal fasciculation in terms of direction of neurite outgrowth are lacking. New Method This work presents a semi-automated program to analyze micrographs of high-density neurites; the program aims to quantify axonal fasciculation by determining the orientational distribution function of the tangent vectors of the neurites and calculating its Fourier series coefficients (‘c’ values). Results We found that neurite directional distribution analysis (NDDA) of fasciculated neurites yielded ‘c’ values of ≥ ~0.25 whereas branched outgrowth led to statistically significant lesser values of <~0.2. The ‘c’ values correlated directly to the width of neurite bundles and indirectly to the number of branching points. Comparison with Existing Methods Information about the directional distribution of outgrowth is lost in simple counting methods or achieved laboriously through manual analysis. The NDDA supplements previous quantitative analyses of axonal bundling using a vector-based approach that captures new information about the directionality of outgrowth. Conclusion The NDDA is a valuable addition to open source image processing tools available to biomedical researchers offering a robust, precise approach to quantification of imaged features important in tissue development, disease, and repair. PMID:24680908

  5. DIRC Dreams: Research Directions for the Next Generation of Internally Reflected Imaging Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N.

    1999-08-17

    Some conceptual design features of the total internally reflecting,imaging Cherenkov counter (DIRC) are described. Limits of the DIRC approach to particle identification, and a few features of alternative DIRC designs, are briefly explored.

  6. DIRC Dreams Redux: Research Directions for the Next Generation of Internally Reflected Imaging Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N

    2001-09-18

    Some general conceptual design features of total internally reflecting, imaging Cherenkov counters (DIRCs) are described. Limits of the DIRC approach to particle identification and a few features of alternative DIRC designs are briefly explored.

  7. DIRECT IMAGE PROCESSING OF CORRODING SURFACES APPLIED TO FRICTION STIR WELDING.

    SciTech Connect

    ISAACS,H.S.ET AL.

    2003-10-12

    An in situ process for visually locating corrosion is presented. The process visually displays image differences obtained by subtracting one digitized image from another. The difference image shows only where changes have taken place during period between the recording of the two images. Changes are due to both corrosion attack of the surface and concentration changes of dissolved corrosion products in solution. Indicators added to the solution assist by decorating sites of corrosion as diffusion and convection of the dissolved products increase the size of the affected region. A study of the initial stages of corrosion of a friction stir welded Al alloy 7075 has been performed using this imaging technique. Pitting potential measurements suggest that there was an initial increased sensitivity to corrosion. The difference image technique demonstrated that it was due to a reformation of the passive film that occurs with Zn containing Al alloys which occurs preferentially along flow protected regions. The most susceptible region of the weld was found to be where both limited deformation and thermal transients are produced during welding.

  8. Rotationally Invariant Image Representation for Viewing Direction Classification in Cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Singer, Amit

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new rotationally invariant viewing angle classification method for identifying, among a large number of cryo-EM projection images, similar views without prior knowledge of the molecule. Our rotationally invariant features are based on the bispectrum. Each image is denoised and compressed using steerable principal component analysis (PCA) such that rotating an image is equivalent to phase shifting the expansion coefficients. Thus we are able to extend the theory of bispectrum of 1D periodic signals to 2D images. The randomized PCA algorithm is then used to efficiently reduce the dimensionality of the bispectrum coefficients, enabling fast computation of the similarity between any pair of images. The nearest neighbors provide an initial classification of similar viewing angles. In this way, rotational alignment is only performed for images with their nearest neighbors. The initial nearest neighbor classification and alignment are further improved by a new classification method called vector diffusion maps. Our pipeline for viewing angle classification and alignment is experimentally shown to be faster and more accurate than reference-free alignment with rotationally invariant K-means clustering, MSA/MRA 2D classification, and their modern approximations. PMID:24631969

  9. Retinal imaging in the twenty-first century: state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Keane, Pearse A; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of chorioretinal disease is dependent on the ability to visualize pathologic changes occurring in the posterior segment of the eye using optical instruments, termed ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmoscopy, in turn, has been enhanced greatly by the development of techniques that allow recording of these changes, termed retinal imaging. As well as documenting pathologic features, retinal and fundal imaging facilitates the identification of morphologic features not visible to the clinician on biomicroscopy. As such, advances in retinal imaging have proven fundamental to many paradigm shifts in our understanding and treatment of ocular disease. In the 1950s, with the advent of electronic flashes and 35-mm cameras, the field of modern fundus photography was born. Similarly, in the 1960s and 1970s, the introduction of fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revolutionized our ability to assess the integrity of the chorioretinal vasculature. More recently, in the 1990s, the introduction of a wholly new form of noninvasive cross-sectional imaging, optical coherence tomography, has greatly facilitated use of emerging pharmacotherapies in diagnosing and monitoring chorioretinal disease. In this translational science review, we provide an overview of current, state-of-the-art retinal imaging technologies, as well as highlight many emerging imaging technologies that we believe are likely to transform the provision of eye care in the 21st century. PMID:25282252

  10. lop-DWI: A Novel Scheme for Pre-Processing of Diffusion-Weighted Images in the Gradient Direction Domain

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Choupan, Jeiran; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Gal, Yaniv; Tieng, Quang M.; McMahon, Katie L.; Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C.; Yang, Zhengyi

    2015-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a pre-processing method based on a periodic spiral sampling of diffusion-gradient directions for high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Our pre-processing method incorporates prior knowledge about the acquired diffusion-weighted signal, facilitating noise reduction. Periodic spiral sampling of gradient direction encodings results in an acquired signal in each voxel that is pseudo-periodic with characteristics that allow separation of low-frequency signal from high frequency noise. Consequently, it enhances local reconstruction of the orientation distribution function used to define fiber tracks in the brain. Denoising with periodic spiral sampling was tested using synthetic data and in vivo human brain images. The level of improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and in the accuracy of local reconstruction of fiber tracks was significantly improved using our method. PMID:25628600

  11. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COLD JOVIAN EXOPLANET IN ORBIT AROUND THE SUN-LIKE STAR GJ 504

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzuhara, M.; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Hori, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Suenaga, T.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Kwon, J.; Kudo, T.; Janson, M.; Brandt, T. D.; Spiegel, D.; Burrows, A.; Turner, E. L.; Moro-Martin, A.; Thalmann, C.; Biller, B.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; McElwain, M. W.; and others

    2013-09-01

    Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800-1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct-imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160{sup +350}{sub -60} Myr, GJ 504b has an estimated mass of 4{sup +4.5}{sub -1.0} Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of {approx}30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504b is also significantly cooler (510{sup +30}{sub -20} K) and has a bluer color (J - H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets as well as their atmospheric properties.

  12. Direct Imaging of a Cold Jovian Exoplanet in Orbit around the Sun-Like Star GJ 504

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzuhara, M.; Tamura, M.; Kudo, T.; Janson, M; Kandori, R.; Brandt, T. D.; Thalmann, C.; Spiegel, D.; Biller, B.; Carson, J.; Hori, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Burrows, A.; Henning, T.; Turner, E. L.; McElwain, M. W.; Moro-Martin, A.; Suenaga, T.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Kwon, J.; Lucas, P.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Grady, C. A.; Serabyn, E.

    2013-01-01

    Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800-1800 K and very red colors (J -H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly-imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160(+350/-60) Myr, GJ 504 b has an estimated mass of 4(+4.5/-1.0) Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of approx.. 30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504 b is also significantly cooler (510(+30/-20) K)) and has a bluer color (J - H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets, as well as their atmospheric properties.

  13. Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

  14. NUFFT-Based Iterative Image Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Total Variation Minimization for Sparse-View CT

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bin; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Hanming; Li, Lei; Cai, Ailong

    2015-01-01

    Sparse-view imaging is a promising scanning method which can reduce the radiation dose in X-ray computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction algorithm for sparse-view imaging system is of significant importance. The adoption of the spatial iterative algorithm for CT image reconstruction has a low operation efficiency and high computation requirement. A novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction technique that utilizes nonuniform fast Fourier transform is presented in this study along with the advanced total variation (TV) regularization for sparse-view CT. Combined with the alternating direction method, the proposed approach shows excellent efficiency and rapid convergence property. Numerical simulations and real data experiments are performed on a parallel beam CT. Experimental results validate that the proposed method has higher computational efficiency and better reconstruction quality than the conventional algorithms, such as simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique using TV method and the alternating direction total variation minimization approach, with the same time duration. The proposed method appears to have extensive applications in X-ray CT imaging. PMID:26120355

  15. Live dynamic OCT imaging of cardiac structure and function in mouse embryos with 43 Hz direct volumetric data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Lopez, Andrew L.; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Schill, Alexander; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient phenotyping of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos has significant implications on understanding of early mammalian heart development and congenital cardiac defects. Recent studies established optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a powerful tool for live embryonic heart imaging in various animal models. However, current four-dimensional (4D) OCT imaging of the beating embryonic heart largely relies on gated data acquisition or postacquisition synchronization, which brings errors when cardiac cycles lack perfect periodicity and is time consuming and computationally expensive. Here, we report direct 4D OCT imaging of the structure and function of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos achieved by employing a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser source that enables ~1.5 MHz A-line rate. Through utilizing both forward and backward scans of a resonant mirror, we obtained a ~6.4 kHz frame rate, which allows for a direct volumetric data acquisition speed of ~43 Hz, around 20 times of the early-stage mouse embryonic heart rate. Our experiments were performed on mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5. Time-resolved 3D cardiodynamics clearly shows the heart structure in motion. We present analysis of cardiac wall movement and its velocity from the primitive atrium and ventricle. Our results suggest that the combination of ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging with live embryo culture could be a useful embryonic heart phenotyping approach for mouse mutants modeling human congenital heart diseases.

  16. Computerized mass detection for digital breast tomosynthesis directly from the projection images

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, I.; Nishikawa, R.M.; Giger, M.L.; Wu, T.; Rafferty, E.A.; Moore, R.; Kopans, D.B.

    2006-02-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently emerged as a new and promising three-dimensional modality in breast imaging. In DBT, the breast volume is reconstructed from 11 projection images, taken at source angles equally spaced over an arc of 50 degrees. Reconstruction algorithms for this modality are not fully optimized yet. Because computerized lesion detection in the reconstructed breast volume will be affected by the reconstruction technique, we are developing a novel mass detection algorithm that operates instead on the set of raw projection images. Mass detection is done in three stages. First, lesion candidates are obtained for each projection image separately, using a mass detection algorithm that was initially developed for screen-film mammography. Second, the locations of a lesion candidate are backprojected into the breast volume. In this feature volume, voxel intensities are a combined measure of detection frequency (e.g., the number of projections in which a given lesion candidate was detected), and a measure of the angular range over which a given lesion was detected. Third, features are extracted after reprojecting the three-dimensional (3-D) locations of lesion candidates into projection images. Features are combined using linear discriminant analysis. The database used to test the algorithm consisted of 21 mass cases (13 malignant, 8 benign) and 15 cases without mass lesions. Based on this database, the algorithm yielded a sensitivity of 90% at 1.5 false positives per breast volume. Algorithm performance is positively biased because this dataset was used for development, training, and testing, and because the number of algorithm parameters was approximately the same as the number of patient cases. Our results indicate that computerized mass detection in the sequence of projection images for DBT may be effective despite the higher noise level in those images.

  17. The Water Abundance of the Directly Imaged Substellar Companion κ And b Retrieved from a Near Infrared Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Line, Michael R.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Hinkley, Sasha; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-05-01

    Spectral retrieval has proven to be a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties and atmospheric compositions of extrasolar planet atmospheres based on observed spectra, primarily for transiting objects but also for directly imaged planets and brown dwarfs. Despite its strengths, this approach has been applied to only about a dozen targets. Determining the abundances of the main carbon- and oxygen-bearing compounds in a planetary atmosphere can lead to the C/O ratio of the object, which is crucial for understanding its formation and migration history. We present a retrieval analysis of the published near-infrared spectrum of κ \\quad {Andromedae} b, a directly imaged substellar companion to a young B9 star. We fit the emission spectrum model utilizing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We estimate the abundance of water vapor, and its uncertainty, in the atmosphere of the object. In addition, we place an upper limit on the abundance of CH4. We qualitatively compare our results with studies that have applied model retrieval on multiband photometry and emission spectroscopy of hot Jupiters (extrasolar giant planets with orbital periods of several days) and the directly imaged giant planet HR 8799b.

  18. Novel technique to retrieve the direct normal irradiance from SEVIRI images over the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite-based models that determine direct normal irradiance (DNI) values with high temporal resolution have relatively high RMSE values. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was developed to derive DNI values from SEVIRI images under a wide range of sun-satellite geometries. The final product has a temporal resolution of 15 minutes and a spatial resolution of 3 km. ANNs, which imitate the way the brain processes information, are systems that can be trained with sets of inputs and outputs in order to find the best pattern that provides the best match. Given a set of inputs the ANN could then simulate the corresponding output. There are different types of neural networks; the one proposed here is the multilayer perceptron (MLP), which is known to have the capability to solve nonlinear and complex problems. Several ANN-based techniques have been developed recently to estimate global horizontal radiation, but only ground-based meteorological measurements were used as inputs. The MLP ANN is proposed here given the complexity of the non-linear relationship between DNI and satellite measurements. Complex combination and interaction of several atmospheric parameters contribute to the total DNI attenuation and the contributions of each of these parameters are not usually measurable. Such parameters include air molecules, water vapor, water droplets, ozone, carbon dioxide and dust. An MLP ANN tool was designed to estimate the total optical depth of the atmosphere (δ) which includes all the attenuating parameters. This is followed from the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law: DNI = I0*ɛ*exp(-δm) where I0 is the solar constant, ɛ is the sun-earth distance correction, and m is the air mass. δ values computed from ground-measured DNI values were used as truth data in training the ANN. The ground-measured DNI values were measured using a Rotating Shadow Band Pyranometer at 10-minute resolution. This instrument consists of a pyranometer which measures the global

  19. Evolution of Satellite Imagers and Sounders for Low Earth Orbit and Technology Directions at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Imagers and Sounders for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) provide fundamental global daily observations of the Earth System for scientists, researchers, and operational weather agencies. The imager provides the nominal 1-2 km spatial resolution images with global coverage in multiple spectral bands for a wide range of uses including ocean color, vegetation indices, aerosol, snow and cloud properties, and sea surface temperature. The sounder provides vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, water vapor cloud properties, and trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide. Performance capabilities of these systems has evolved with the optical and sensing technologies of the decade. Individual detectors were incorporated on some of the first imagers and sounders that evolved to linear array technology in the '80's. Signal-to-noise constraints limited these systems to either broad spectral resolution as in the case of the imager, or low spatial resolution as in the case of the sounder. Today's area 2-dimensional large format array technology enables high spatial and high spectral resolution to be incorporated into a single instrument. This places new constraints on the design of these systems and enables new capabilities for scientists to examine the complex processes governing the Earth System.

  20. Direct in vitro comparison of six 3D positive contrast methods for susceptibility marker imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vonken, Evert-jan P. A.; Schär, Michael; Yu, Jing; Bakker, Chris J. G.; Stuber, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare different techniques for positive contrast imaging of susceptibility markers with MRI for 3D visualization. As several different techniques have been reported, the choice of the suitable method depends on its properties with regard to the amount of positive contrast and the desired background suppression, as well as other imaging constraints needed for a specific application. Materials and methods Six different positive contrast techniques are investigated for their ability to image at 3T a single susceptibility marker in vitro. The white marker method (WM), susceptibility gradient mapping (SGM), inversion recovery with on-resonant water suppression (IRON), frequency selective excitation (FSX), fast low flip-angle positive contrast SSFP (FLAPS), and iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) were implemented and investigated. Results The different methods were compared with respect to the volume of positive contrast, the product of volume and signal intensity, imaging time, and the level of background suppression. Quantitative results are provided and strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches are discussed. Conclusion The appropriate choice of positive contrast imaging technique depends on the desired level of background suppression, acquisition speed, and robustness against artifacts, for which in vitro comparative data is now available. PMID:23281151

  1. A review of content-based image retrieval systems in medical applications-clinical benefits and future directions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henning; Michoux, Nicolas; Bandon, David; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2004-02-01

    content-based access methods into picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have been created. This article gives an overview of available literature in the field of content-based access to medical image data and on the technologies used in the field. Section 1 gives an introduction into generic content-based image retrieval and the technologies used. Section 2 explains the propositions for the use of image retrieval in medical practice and the various approaches. Example systems and application areas are described. Section 3 describes the techniques used in the implemented systems, their datasets and evaluations. Section 4 identifies possible clinical benefits of image retrieval systems in clinical practice as well as in research and education. New research directions are being defined that can prove to be useful. This article also identifies explanations to some of the outlined problems in the field as it looks like many propositions for systems are made from the medical domain and research prototypes are developed in computer science departments using medical datasets. Still, there are very few systems that seem to be used in clinical practice. It needs to be stated as well that the goal is not, in general, to replace text-based retrieval methods as they exist at the moment but to complement them with visual search tools. PMID:15036075

  2. Direct observation of receptors and images in simple and compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Land, M F

    1990-01-01

    The relation between the quality of the optical image and the fineness of the retinal mosaic has been studied in eyes of three different optical types: the simple eyes of spiders, the superposition compound eyes of moths, and the apposition compound eyes of butterflies. In all three it is possible to observe both the receptor mosaic and the image in the living eye, using appropriate ophthalmoscopic techniques. Whereas in humans the retinal sampling frequency approaches the optical cut-off frequency quite closely, in diurnal insects of both types the image is undersampled by a factor of 2-3, and in crepuscular spiders this factor may be greater than 100. Reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:2288086

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging in musculoskeletal radiology—clinical applications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bhojwani, Nicholas; Szpakowski, Peter; Partovi, Sasan; Maurer, Martin H.; Grosse, Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Zipp-Partovi, Lisa; Fergus, Nathan; Kosmas, Christos; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established diagnostic tool with regards to the central nervous system (CNS) and research into its application in the musculoskeletal system has been growing. It has been shown that DWI has utility in differentiating vertebral compression fractures from malignant ones, assessing partial and complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), monitoring tumor response to therapy, and characterization of soft-tissue and bone tumors. DWI is however less useful in differentiating malignant vs. infectious processes. As of yet, no definitive qualitative or quantitative properties have been established due to reasons ranging from variability in acquisition protocols to overlapping imaging characteristics. Even with these limitations, DWI can still provide clinically useful information, increasing diagnostic accuracy and improving patient management when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are inconclusive. The purpose of this article is to summarize recent research into DWI applications in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26682143

  4. Discret aperture mapping with a micro-lenses array for interferometric direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patru, Fabien; Antichi, Jacopo; Rabou, Patrick; Giro, Enrico; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien; Girard, Julien; Carbillet, Marcel; Mourard, Denis

    2013-12-01

    A challenging study for high resolution and high-contrast imaging is the detection and the characterization of planets in the habitable zone. The problem of detection in imaging is due to both the contrast ratio and the tiny separation between the hosting star and the exoplanet. Certainly, many techniques in high-contrast imaging will have to be optimized simultaneously to enhance the detection treshold and to probe the candidates for life. In this context, the objective is to demonstrate the technical faisability and to get scientific returns with a new concept called Discret Aperture Mapping or DAM (Patru et al. 2011). DAM is a new interferometric technique allowing high contrast imaging over a narrow field of view imaged by the present class of mono-pupil telescopes equipped with adaptive optics (AO). DAM consists in mapping the telescope pupil to provide a correct sampling of the spatial frequency content of the telescope. DAM can be realized by an afocal double lenslet array array (BIGRE-DAM, Antichi et al. 2011), or by a single-mode fiber combiner (Fibered-DAM, Patru et al. 2008). The spatial filtering used in interferometry allows to subdivide the entrance pupil of a large telescope into many coherent sub-pupils, so that the intra-sub-pupil residual phase is averaged out. On the other side, frequencies higher than the deformable mirror sampling one are not corected by AO impling aliasing effect and a strong impact of Fresnel propagation on the compensated wavefront up to the final focus (Antichi et al. 2010). DAM is then a high frequency optical filter able to remove part of the AO residuals and to remove most of the halo in the image. It may improve the contrast limit to explore the inner region of new stellar systems (disk, exoplanet). We show here first simulation results on the DAM concept.

  5. Super-resolution Imaging of Live Bacteria Cells Using a Genetically Directed, Highly Photostable Fluoromodule.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Saumya; Perez, Adam M; Comerci, Colin J; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W E

    2016-08-24

    The rapid development in fluorescence microscopy and imaging techniques has greatly benefited our understanding of the mechanisms governing cellular processes at the molecular level. In particular, super-resolution microscopy methods overcome the diffraction limit to observe nanoscale cellular structures with unprecedented detail, and single-molecule tracking provides precise dynamic information about the motions of labeled proteins and oligonucleotides. Enhanced photostability of fluorescent labels (i.e., maximum emitted photons before photobleaching) is a critical requirement for achieving the ultimate spatio-temporal resolution with either method. While super-resolution imaging has greatly benefited from highly photostable fluorophores, a shortage of photostable fluorescent labels for bacteria has limited its use in these small but relevant organisms. In this study, we report the use of a highly photostable fluoromodule, dL5, to genetically label proteins in the Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, enabling long-time-scale protein tracking and super-resolution microscopy. dL5 imaging relies on the activation of the fluorogen Malachite Green (MG) and can be used to label proteins sparsely, enabling single-protein detection in live bacteria without initial bleaching steps. dL5-MG complexes emit 2-fold more photons before photobleaching compared to organic dyes such as Cy5 and Alexa 647 in vitro, and 5-fold more photons compared to eYFP in vivo. We imaged fusions of dL5 to three different proteins in live Caulobacter cells using stimulated emission depletion microscopy, yielding a 4-fold resolution enhancement compared to diffraction-limited imaging. Importantly, dL5 fusions to an intermediate filament protein CreS are significantly less perturbative compared to traditional fluorescent protein fusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the use of fluorogen activating proteins for super-resolution imaging in live bacterial

  6. Direct optical imaging of graphene in vitro by nonlinear femtosecond laser spectral reshaping.

    PubMed

    Li, Baolei; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Yi, Congwen; Brown, April S; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S

    2012-11-14

    Nonlinear optical microscopy, based on femtosecond laser spectral reshaping, characterized and imaged graphene samples made from different methods, both on slides and in a biological environment. This technique clearly discriminates between graphene flakes with different numbers of layers and reveals the distinct nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide as compared to mechanically exfoliated or chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The nonlinearity makes it applicable to scattering samples (such as tissue) as opposed to previous methods, such as transmission. This was demonstrated by high-resolution imaging of breast cancer cells incubated with graphene flakes. PMID:23101475

  7. Future directions in focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers is discussed. Significant improvement in image quality and consequent scientific return may be enabled through the utilization of focal-plane signal processing techniques. The possible application of focal-plane signal processing to readout noise reduction, cosmic ray circumvention, non-uniformity correction, and throughput enhancement is described. On-focal-plane analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion and micromotion stabilization are also discussed. It is the intention of this paper to stimulate further thought and efforts in this field.

  8. Direct imaging of coexisting ordered and frustrated sublattices in artificial ferromagnetic quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, B.; Bhat, V. S.; Balk, A.; Teipel, E.; Smith, N.; Unguris, J.; Keavney, D. J.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

    2016-04-01

    We have used scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis and photoemission electron microscopy to image the two-dimensional magnetization of permalloy films patterned into Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). The interplay of exchange interactions in asymmetrically coordinated vertices and short-range dipole interactions among connected film segments stabilize magnetically ordered, spatially distinct sublattices that coexist with frustrated sublattices at room temperature. Numerical simulations that include long-range dipole interactions between sublattices agree with images of as-grown P2T samples and predict a magnetically ordered ground state for a two-dimensional quasicrystal lattice of classical Ising spins.

  9. Efficient and robust 3D CT image reconstruction based on total generalized variation regularization using the alternating direction method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Cheng, Genyang

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography (CT) through total variation regularization based on piecewise constant assumption can produce accurate, robust, and stable results. Nonetheless, this approach is often subject to staircase artefacts and the loss of fine details. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called total generalized variation (TGV) for the effective production of high-quality images from incomplete or noisy projection data for 3D reconstruction. We propose a new, fast alternating direction minimization algorithm to solve CT image reconstruction problems through TGV regularization. Based on the theory of sparse-view image reconstruction and the framework of augmented Lagrange function method, the TGV regularization term has been introduced in the computed tomography and is transformed into three independent variables of the optimization problem by introducing auxiliary variables. This new algorithm applies a local linearization and proximity technique to make the FFT-based calculation of the analytical solutions in the frequency domain feasible, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the algorithm. Experiments with various 3D datasets corresponding to incomplete projection data demonstrate the advantage of our proposed algorithm in terms of preserving fine details and overcoming the staircase effect. The computation cost also suggests that the proposed algorithm is applicable to and is effective for CBCT imaging. Theoretical and technical optimization should be investigated carefully in terms of both computation efficiency and high resolution of this algorithm in application-oriented research. PMID:26756406

  10. Radiological image compression using error-free irreversible two-dimensional direct-cosine-transform coding techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Lo, S C; Ho, B K; Lou, S L

    1987-05-01

    Some error-free and irreversible two-dimensional direct-cosine-transform (2D-DCT) coding, image-compression techniques applied to radiological images are discussed in this paper. Run-length coding and Huffman coding are described, and examples are given for error-free image compression. In the case of irreversible 2D-DCT coding, the block-quantization technique and the full-frame bit-allocation (FFBA) technique are described. Error-free image compression can achieve a compression ratio from 2:1 to 3:1, whereas the irreversible 2D-DCT coding compression technique can, in general, achieve a much higher acceptable compression ratio. The currently available block-quantization hardware may lead to visible block artifacts at certain compression ratios, but FFBA may be employed with the same or higher compression ratios without generating such artifacts. An even higher compression ratio can be achieved if the image is compressed by using first FFBA and then Huffman coding. The disadvantages of FFBA are that it is sensitive to sharp edges and no hardware is available. This paper also describes the design of the FFBA technique. PMID:3598750

  11. DISCOVERY OF A PROBABLE 4-5 JUPITER-MASS EXOPLANET TO HD 95086 BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Delorme, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Girard, J. H.; Dumas, C.; Desidera, S.; Bonavita, M.

    2013-08-01

    Direct imaging has only begun to inventory the population of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars in the solar neighborhood. Following this approach, we carried out a deep imaging survey in the near-infrared using VLT/NaCo to search for substellar companions. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion orbiting the young (10-17 Myr), dusty, early-type (A8) star HD 95086 at 56 AU in L' (3.8 {mu}m) images. This discovery is based on observations with more than a year time lapse. Our first epoch clearly revealed the source at {approx_equal} 10{sigma}, while our second epoch lacks good observing conditions, yielding a {approx_equal} 3{sigma} detection. Various tests were thus made to rule out possible artifacts. This recovery is consistent with the signal at the first epoch but requires cleaner confirmation. Nevertheless, our astrometric precision suggests that the companion is comoving with the star with a 3{sigma} confidence level. The planetary nature of the source is reinforced by a non-detection in the Ks-band (2.18 {mu}m) images according to its possible extremely red Ks-L' color. Conversely, background contamination is rejected with good confidence level. The luminosity yields a predicted mass of about 4-5 M{sub Jup} (at 10-17 Myr) using ''hot-start'' evolutionary models, making HD 95086 b the exoplanet with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star.

  12. A Virtual Reality System for PTCD Simulation Using Direct Visuo-Haptic Rendering of Partially Segmented Image Data.

    PubMed

    Fortmeier, Dirk; Mastmeyer, Andre; Schröder, Julian; Handels, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new visuo-haptic virtual reality (VR) training and planning system for percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-drainage (PTCD) based on partially segmented virtual patient models. We only use partially segmented image data instead of a full segmentation and circumvent the necessity of surface or volume mesh models. Haptic interaction with the virtual patient during virtual palpation, ultrasound probing and needle insertion is provided. Furthermore, the VR simulator includes X-ray and ultrasound simulation for image-guided training. The visualization techniques are GPU-accelerated by implementation in Cuda and include real-time volume deformations computed on the grid of the image data. Computation on the image grid enables straightforward integration of the deformed image data into the visualization components. To provide shorter rendering times, the performance of the volume deformation algorithm is improved by a multigrid approach. To evaluate the VR training system, a user evaluation has been performed and deformation algorithms are analyzed in terms of convergence speed with respect to a fully converged solution. The user evaluation shows positive results with increased user confidence after a training session. It is shown that using partially segmented patient data and direct volume rendering is suitable for the simulation of needle insertion procedures such as PTCD. PMID:25532197

  13. Bimodal Imaging Probes for Combined PET and OI: Recent Developments and Future Directions for Hybrid Agent Development

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Uwe; Wängler, Björn; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging—and especially positron emission tomography (PET)—has gained increasing importance for diagnosis of various diseases and thus experiences an increasing dissemination. Therefore, there is also a growing demand for highly affine PET tracers specifically accumulating and visualizing target structures in the human body. Beyond the development of agents suitable for PET alone, recent tendencies aim at the synthesis of bimodal imaging probes applicable in PET as well as optical imaging (OI), as this combination of modalities can provide clinical advantages. PET, due to the high tissue penetration of the γ-radiation emitted by PET nuclides, allows a quantitative imaging able to identify and visualize tumors and metastases in the whole body. OI on the contrary visualizes photons exhibiting only a limited tissue penetration but enables the identification of tumor margins and infected lymph nodes during surgery without bearing a radiation burden for the surgeon. Thus, there is an emerging interest in bimodal agents for PET and OI in order to exploit the potential of both imaging techniques for the imaging and treatment of tumor diseases. This short review summarizes the available hybrid probes developed for dual PET and OI and discusses future directions for hybrid agent development. PMID:24822177

  14. Performance evaluation of four directional emissivity analytical models with thermal SAIL model and airborne images.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Rongyuan; Yan, Guangjian; Li, Zhao-Liang; Qin, Qiming; Liu, Qiang; Nerry, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    Land surface emissivity is a crucial parameter in the surface status monitoring. This study aims at the evaluation of four directional emissivity models, including two bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models and two gap-frequency-based models. Results showed that the kernel-driven BRDF model could well represent directional emissivity with an error less than 0.002, and was consequently used to retrieve emissivity with an accuracy of about 0.012 from an airborne multi-angular thermal infrared data set. Furthermore, we updated the cavity effect factor relating to multiple scattering inside canopy, which improved the performance of the gap-frequency-based models. PMID:25968800

  15. Centimeter-order view for magnetic domain imaging with local magnetization direction by longitudinal Kerr effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Sakae; Akahane, Koichi; Saito, Shin

    2016-05-01

    An observation system of centimeter-order of view of magnetic domain with local magnetization direction was developed by designing a telecentric optical system of finite design through the extension of microscope technology. The field of view realized in the developed system was 1.40 × 1.05 cm as suppressing defocus and distortion. Detection of the local magnetization direction has become possible by longitudinal Kerr observation from the orthogonal two directions. This system can be applied to the domain observation of rough surface samples and time resolved analysis for soft magnetic materials such as amorphous foil strips and soft magnetic thin films.

  16. Direct observations of flow path evolution during reactive transport in porous media using clinical nuclear imaging tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhan, J. L.; Finsterle, S.; Vandehey, N. T.; Boutchko, R.; O'Neil, J.; Moses, W. W.; Nico, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the physical structure of a porous medium associated with heterogeneous reactivity are extremely difficult to observe directly. We require the ability to monitor, quantify and predict these changes in order to optimize contaminant sequestration and remediation strategies, develop carbon storage methods and preserve groundwater resources. Field-scale detection of chemically induced permeability alteration is often accomplished by multiple hydrogeophysical observations and pumping tests, whereas direct analysis of the structural changes in a porous medium are limited to small sample sizes that do not capture the range of length scales describing heterogeneity. Here we present a novel application of medical imaging techniques to directly observe variations in flow field structure associated with mineral precipitation in real time. We use a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) scanner to observe the movement of a conservative 99mTc-DTPA tracer introduced to a through-flowing column of packed sediment recovered from the Old Rifle aquifer in Western Colorado. Nine individual imaging studies were carried out over the course of 112 days of continuous flow in the 30 cm long, 10 cm diameter column. During this time, organic carbon was supplied to the influent, leading to microbially mediated reduction of Fe(III) (hyrdo)oxides and sulfate. Permeability reduction associated with this reactivity is known to occur as a result of biomass accumulation and precipitation of FeS and carbonate minerals. The nine imaging datasets each yielded intensity values over a 24 hour period at a resolution of 4.42 mm3. These images were corrected for decay and attenuation to produce 4D datasets directly proportional to Tc-DTPA concentration. These data provide a highly accurate observation of the flow field during each imaging study, and are used to assign property values to the elements of a geostatistical model using the iTOUGH2 code. Permeability distributions

  17. Canadian Consensus Guidelines on Use of Amyloid Imaging in Canada: Update and Future Directions from the Specialized Task Force on Amyloid imaging in Canada.

    PubMed

    Laforce, Robert; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Rabinovici, Gil D; Dubois, Bruno; Gauthier, S

    2016-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid beta is now clinically available in several countries including the United States and the United Kingdom, but not Canada. It has become an established technique in the field of neuroimaging of aging and dementia, with data incorporated in the new consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and predementia Alzheimer's disease-related conditions. At this point, there are three US Food and Drug Administration- and European Union-approved tracers. Guided by appropriate use criteria developed in 2013 by the Alzheimer's Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the utility of amyloid imaging in medical practice is now supported by a growing body of research. In this paper, we aimed to provide an update on the 2012 Canadian consensus guidelines to dementia care practitioners on proper use of amyloid imaging. We also wished to generate momentum for the industry to submit a new drug proposal to Health Canada. A group of local, national, and international dementia experts and imaging specialists met to discuss scenarios in which amyloid PET could be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed and published literature between January 2004 and May 2015 was searched. Technical and regulatory considerations pertaining to Canada were considered. The results of a survey of current practices in Canadian dementia centers were considered. A set of specific clinical and research guidelines was agreed on that defines the types of patients and clinical circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used in Canada. Future research directions were also outlined, notably the importance of studies that would assess the pharmaco-economics of amyloid imaging. PMID:26916179

  18. Extreme Exoplanet Direct Imaging: New Results with GPI and SCExAO and the Path to Imaging Another Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne

    2015-12-01

    We describe the discovery of a bright, young Kuiper belt-like debris disk around HD 115600, a ˜ 1.4--1.5 M_{⊙}, ˜ 15 Myr old member of the Sco-Cen OB Association. Our H-band coronagraphy/integral field spectroscopy from the Gemini Planet Imager shows the ring has a (luminosity scaled) semi major axis of (˜ 22 AU) ˜ 48 AU, similar to the current Kuiper belt. The disk appears to have neutral scattering dust, is eccentric (e ˜ 0.1--0.2), and could be sculpted by analogues to the outer solar system planets. Spectroscopy of the disk ansae reveal a slightly blue to gray disk color, consistent with major Kuiper belt chemical constituents, where water-ice is a very plausible dominant constituent. Besides being the first object discovered with the next generation of extreme adaptive optics systems (i.e. SCExAO, GPI, SPHERE), HD 115600's debris ring and planetary system provides a key reference point for the early evolution of the solar system, the structure and composition of the Kuiper belt, and the interaction between debris disks and planets.

  19. Magnetic resonance visualization of conductive structures by sequence-triggered direct currents and spin-echo phase imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eibofner, Frank; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Graf, Hansjörg E-mail: drGraf@t-online.de; Clasen, Stephan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Instrument visualization in interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly performed via susceptibility artifacts. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from limited conspicuity in inhomogeneous tissue and disturbed spatial encoding. Also, susceptibility artifacts are controllable only by sequence parameters. This work presents the basics of a new visualization method overcoming such problems by applying sequence-triggered direct current (DC) pulses in spin-echo (SE) imaging. SE phase images allow for background free current path localization. Methods: Application of a sequence-triggered DC pulse in SE imaging, e.g., during a time period between radiofrequency excitation and refocusing, results in transient field inhomogeneities. Dependent on the additional z-magnetic field from the DC, a phase offset results despite the refocusing pulse. False spatial encoding is avoided by DC application during periods when read-out or slice-encoding gradients are inactive. A water phantom containing a brass conductor (water equivalent susceptibility) and a titanium needle (serving as susceptibility source) was used to demonstrate the feasibility. Artifact dependence on current strength and orientation was examined. Results: Without DC, the brass conductor was only visible due to its water displacement. The titanium needle showed typical susceptibility artifacts. Applying triggered DC pulses, the phase offset of spins near the conductor appeared. Because SE phase images are homogenous also in regions of persistent field inhomogeneities, the position of the conductor could be determined with high reliability. Artifact characteristic could be easily controlled by amperage leaving sequence parameters unchanged. For an angle of 30° between current and static field visualization was still possible. Conclusions: SE phase images display the position of a conductor carrying pulsed DC free from artifacts caused by persistent field inhomogeneities. Magnitude and phase

  20. Modelling capillary trapping using finite-volume simulation of two-phase flow directly on micro-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeini, Ali Q.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2015-09-01

    We study capillary trapping in porous media using direct pore-scale simulation of two-phase flow on micro-CT images of a Berea sandstone and a sandpack. The trapped non-wetting phase saturations are predicted by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using a volume-of-fluid based finite-volume framework to simulate primary drainage followed by water injection. Using these simulations, we analyse the effects of initial non-wetting-phase saturation, capillary number and flow direction on the residual saturation. The predictions from our numerical method are in agreement with published experimental measurements of capillary trapping curves. This shows that our direct simulation method can be used to elucidate the effect of pore structure and flow pattern of capillary trapping and provides a platform to study the physics of multiphase flow at the pore scale.

  1. Direct Imaging of Nanoscale Conductance Evolution in Ion-Gel-Gated Oxide Transistors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhuoyu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold Y; Lai, Keji

    2015-07-01

    Electrostatic modification of functional materials by electrolytic gating has demonstrated a remarkably wide range of density modulation, a condition crucial for developing novel electronic phases in systems ranging from complex oxides to layered chalcogenides. Yet little is known microscopically when carriers are modulated in electrolyte-gated electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs) due to the technical challenge of imaging the buried electrolyte-semiconductor interface. Here, we demonstrate the real-space mapping of the channel conductance in ZnO EDLTs using a cryogenic microwave impedance microscope. A spin-coated ionic gel layer with typical thicknesses below 50 nm allows us to perform high resolution (on the order of 100 nm) subsurface imaging, while maintaining the capability of inducing the metal-insulator transition under a gate bias. The microwave images vividly show the spatial evolution of channel conductance and its local fluctuations through the transition as well as the uneven conductance distribution established by a large source-drain bias. The unique combination of ultrathin ion-gel gating and microwave imaging offers a new opportunity to study the local transport and mesoscopic electronic properties in EDLTs. PMID:26061780

  2. Design and Verification of External Occulters for Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An occulter is an optical element which is placed in front of the telescope to block most of the light from a star before it reaches the optics inside, without blocking the planet.In our case, we use two spacecraft ying in formation: First has its edge shaped to cancel the starlight Second is the telescope which images the star and planet

  3. Image-guided focused ultrasound ablation of breast cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A. C.; Gianfelice, D.; Daniel, B. L.; Mali, W. P. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided focussed ultrasound (FUS) ablation is a non-invasive procedure that has been used for treatment of benign or malignant breast tumours. Image-guidance during ablation is achieved either by using real-time ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The past decade phase I studies have proven MRI-guided and US-guided FUS ablation of breast cancer to be technically feasible and safe. We provide an overview of studies assessing the efficacy of FUS for breast tumour ablation as measured by percentages of complete tumour necrosis. Successful ablation ranged from 20% to 100%, depending on FUS system type, imaging technique, ablation protocol, and patient selection. Specific issues related to FUS ablation of breast cancer, such as increased treatment time for larger tumours, size of ablation margins, methods used for margin assessment and residual tumour detection after FUS ablation, and impact of FUS ablation on sentinel node procedure are presented. Finally, potential future applications of FUS for breast cancer treatment such as FUS-induced anti-tumour immune response, FUS-mediated gene transfer, and enhanced drug delivery are discussed. Currently, breast-conserving surgery remains the gold standard for breast cancer treatment. PMID:18351348

  4. Direct Digital Demultiplexing of Analog TDM Signals for Cable Reduction in Ultrasound Imaging Catheters.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Thomas M; Rashid, M Wasequr; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven; Degertekin, F Levent

    2016-08-01

    In real-time catheter-based 3-D ultrasound imaging applications, gathering data from the transducer arrays is difficult, as there is a restriction on cable count due to the diameter of the catheter. Although area and power hungry multiplexing circuits integrated at the catheter tip are used in some applications, these are unsuitable for use in small sized catheters for applications, such as intracardiac imaging. Furthermore, the length requirement for catheters and limited power available to on-chip cable drivers leads to limited signal strength at the receiver end. In this paper, an alternative approach using analog time-division multiplexing (TDM) is presented, which addresses the cable restrictions of ultrasound catheters. A novel digital demultiplexing technique is also described, which allows for a reduction in the number of analog signal processing stages required. The TDM and digital demultiplexing schemes are demonstrated for an intracardiac imaging system that would operate in the 4- to 11-MHz range. A TDM integrated circuit (IC) with an 8:1 multiplexer is interfaced with a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) through a microcoaxial catheter cable bundle, and processed with a field-programmable gate array register-transfer level simulation. Input signals to the TDM IC are recovered with -40-dB crosstalk between the channels on the same microcoax, showing the feasibility of this system for ultrasound imaging applications. PMID:27116738

  5. Computer analysis of mammography phantom images (CAMPI): an application to the measurement of microcalcification image quality of directly acquired digital images.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, D P

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply the recently developed CAMPI (computer analysis of mammography phantom images) method to a Fischer Mammotest Stereotactic Digital Biopsy machine. Another aim was to further elucidate the nature of the empirically introduced CAMPI measures. Images of an American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom centered on the largest two speck groups were obtained on this machine under a variety of x-ray conditions. An additional measure, alternative SNR (ASNR) is introduced which is complementary to the SNR measure. Analyses of the Mammotest images revealed that the mAs and kVp dependencies of the CAMPI measures could be understood from basic imaging physics principles. It is shown that: (1) the measures reflect the expected linearity of the digital detector and Poisson photon statistics; (2) under automatic exposure control (AEC) conditions the signal (SIG) measure is proportional to subject contrast; and (3) under AEC conditions the noise (NOI) measure is proportional to the square root of the average absorbed photon energy. Correspondence with basic imaging physics principles shows that the measures are significantly free of artifacts. Precision of the CAMPI measures exceeds that of human observers by orders of magnitude. CAMPI measures are expected to be more relevant to clinical mammography than Fourier metrics as the measurements are done on objects of arbitrary shape and size that were designed by the manufacturer to resemble various detection tasks in mammography. It is concluded that CAMPI can perform objective and highly precise evaluations of phantom image quality in mammography. It could be used as a sophisticated quality control tool, as a replacement for the current ACR/MQSA phantom evaluation program, and to evaluate the rapidly evolving digital mammography technology. PMID:9284251

  6. TU-F-18C-02: Increasing Amorphous Selenium Thickness in Direct Conversion Flat-Panel Imagers for Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Scaduto, DA; Hu, Y-H; Zhao, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Contrast-enhanced (CE) breast imaging using iodinated contrast agents requires imaging with x-ray spectra at energies greater than those used in mammography. Optimizing amorphous selenium (a-Se) flat panel imagers (FPI) for this higher energy range may increase lesion conspicuity. Methods: We compare imaging performance of a conventional FPI with 200 μm a-Se conversion layer to a prototype FPI with 300 μm a-Se layer. Both detectors are evaluated in a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using low-energy (W/Rh 28 kVp) and high-energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) x-ray spectra. Detectability of iodinated lesions in dual-energy images is evaluated using an iodine contrast phantom. Effects of beam obliquity are investigated in projection and reconstructed images using different reconstruction methods. The ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio is used as a figure-of-merit to predict the optimal a-Se thickness for CE lesion detectability without compromising conventional full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and DBT performance. Results: Increasing a-Se thickness from 200 μm to 300 μm preserves imaging performance at typical mammographic energies (e.g. W/Rh 28 kVp), and improves the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for high energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) by 30%. While the more penetrating high-energy x-ray photons increase geometric blur due to beam obliquity in the FPI with thicker a-Se layer, the effect on lesion detectability in FBP reconstructions is negligible due to the reconstruction filters employed. Ideal observer SNR for CE objects shows improvements in in-plane detectability with increasing a-Se thicknesses, though small lesion detectability begins to degrade in oblique projections for a-Se thickness above 500 μm. Conclusion: Increasing a-Se thickness in direct conversion FPI from 200 μm to 300 μm improves lesion detectability in CE breast imaging with virtually no cost to conventional FFDM and DBT. This work was partially

  7. Estimation of Contaminants for Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Constraint on the Stellar Distribution Model with both NIR and Deep Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Shibai, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Sudo, Jun; Samland, Matthias S.; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    There are faint contaminants near primary stars in the direct imaging of exoplanets. Our goal is to estimate statistically the ratio of exoplanets in the detected batch of point sources by calculating the fraction of contamination. In this study, we compared the detected number of stars with the number of contaminants predicted by our model. We found that the observed number of faint stars were fewer than the predicted results towards the Pleiades and GOODS-South field when the parameters of the conventional stellar distribution models were employed. We thus estimated new model parameters in correspondence to the results of the observations.

  8. Direct imaging of molecular symmetry by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleff, Carsten; Gasecka, Alicja; Ferrand, Patrick; Rigneault, Hervé; Brasselet, Sophie; Duboisset, Julien

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical methods, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, are able to perform label-free imaging, with chemical bonds specificity. Here we demonstrate that the use of circularly polarized light allows to retrieve not only the chemical nature but also the symmetry of the probed sample, in a single measurement. Our symmetry-resolved scheme offers simple access to the local organization of vibrational bonds and as a result provides enhanced image contrast for anisotropic samples, as well as an improved chemical selectivity. We quantify the local organization of vibrational bonds on crystalline and biological samples, thus providing information not accessible by spontaneous Raman and stimulated Raman scattering techniques. This work stands for a symmetry-resolved contrast in vibrational microscopy, with potential application in biological diagnostic.

  9. Direct imaging of molecular symmetry by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Cleff, Carsten; Gasecka, Alicja; Ferrand, Patrick; Rigneault, Hervé; Brasselet, Sophie; Duboisset, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, are able to perform label-free imaging, with chemical bonds specificity. Here we demonstrate that the use of circularly polarized light allows to retrieve not only the chemical nature but also the symmetry of the probed sample, in a single measurement. Our symmetry-resolved scheme offers simple access to the local organization of vibrational bonds and as a result provides enhanced image contrast for anisotropic samples, as well as an improved chemical selectivity. We quantify the local organization of vibrational bonds on crystalline and biological samples, thus providing information not accessible by spontaneous Raman and stimulated Raman scattering techniques. This work stands for a symmetry-resolved contrast in vibrational microscopy, with potential application in biological diagnostic. PMID:27189667

  10. Direct imaging of molecular symmetry by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Cleff, Carsten; Gasecka, Alicja; Ferrand, Patrick; Rigneault, Hervé; Brasselet, Sophie; Duboisset, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, are able to perform label-free imaging, with chemical bonds specificity. Here we demonstrate that the use of circularly polarized light allows to retrieve not only the chemical nature but also the symmetry of the probed sample, in a single measurement. Our symmetry-resolved scheme offers simple access to the local organization of vibrational bonds and as a result provides enhanced image contrast for anisotropic samples, as well as an improved chemical selectivity. We quantify the local organization of vibrational bonds on crystalline and biological samples, thus providing information not accessible by spontaneous Raman and stimulated Raman scattering techniques. This work stands for a symmetry-resolved contrast in vibrational microscopy, with potential application in biological diagnostic. PMID:27189667

  11. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry for direct tissue analysis: a new frontier for molecular histology

    PubMed Central

    Rauser, Sandra; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Höfler, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful tool for investigating the distribution of proteins and small molecules within biological systems through the in situ analysis of tissue sections. MALDI-IMS can determine the distribution of hundreds of unknown compounds in a single measurement and enables the acquisition of cellular expression profiles while maintaining the cellular and molecular integrity. In recent years, a great many advances in the practice of imaging mass spectrometry have taken place, making the technique more sensitive, robust, and ultimately useful. In this review, we focus on the current state of the art of MALDI-IMS, describe basic technological developments for MALDI-IMS of animal and human tissues, and discuss some recent applications in basic research and in clinical settings. PMID:18618129

  12. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery. PMID:23254802

  13. Imaging-Genetics in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Advances, Translational Impact, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ameis, Stephanie H.; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are unified by impairments in reciprocal social communication and a pattern of inflexible behaviors. Recent genetic advances have resolved some of the complexity of the genetic architecture underlying ASD by identifying several genetic variants that contribute to the disorder. Different etiological pathways associated with ASD may converge through effects on common molecular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, neuronal motility, and axonal guidance. Recently, with more sophisticated techniques, neuroimaging, and neuropathological studies have provided some consistency of evidence that altered structure, activity, and connectivity within complex neural networks is present in ASD, compared to typically developing children. The imaging-genetics approach promises to help bridge the gap between genetic variation, resultant biological effects on the brain, and production of complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we review recent findings from the developing field of imaging-genetics applied to ASD. Studies to date have indicated that relevant risk genes are associated with alterations in circuits that mediate socio-emotional, visuo-spatial, and language processing. Longitudinal studies ideally focused on early development, in conjunction with investigation for gene–gene, and gene–environment interactions may move the promise of imaging-genetics in ASD closer to the clinical domain. PMID:22615702

  14. Direct imaging of haloes and truncations in face-on nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan; Peters, Stephan; van der Kruit, Piet; Trujillo, Ignacio; Fliri, Juergen; Cisternas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    We use ultra-deep imaging from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and co-added SDSS/Stripe82 imaging allows us to probe the galaxy down to 29-30 r‧-magnitudes/arcsec2 and thus reach into the very faint outskirts of the galaxies. We find extended stellar haloes in over half of our sample galaxies, and truncations in three of them. The presence of stellar haloes and truncations is mutually exclusive, and we argue that the presence of a stellar halo can hide a truncation. We find that the onset of the halo and the truncation scales tightly with galaxy size. Interestingly, the fraction of light does not correlate with dynamic mass. We highlight the importance of a proper analysis of the extended wings of the point spread function (PSF), finding that around half the light at the faintest levels is from the inner regions, though not the nucleus, of a galaxy, re-distributed to the outskirts by the PSF. We discuss implications of this effect for future deep imaging surveys, such as with the LSST.

  15. An activatable multimodal/multifunctional nanoprobe for direct imaging of intracellular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Rajendra N.; Doshi, Mona; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tyus, Jessica C.; Bengtsson, Niclas; Fletcher, Steven; Page, Brent D. G.; Turkson, James; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Gunning, Patrick T.; Walter, Glenn A.; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2011-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles integrated with imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance and optical) and therapeutic drugs are promising candidates for future cancer diagnostics and therapy. While targeted drug delivery and imaging of tumor cells have been the major focus in engineering nanoparticle probes, no extensive efforts have been made towards developing sensing probes that can confirm and monitor intra-cellular drug release events. Here, we present quantum dot (Qdot)-iron oxide (IO) based multimodal/multifunctional nanocomposite probe that is optically and magnetically imageable, targetable and capable of reporting on intra-cellular drug release events. Specifically, the probe consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core (IONP) decorated with satellite CdS:Mn/ZnS Qdots where the Qdots themselves are further functionalized with STAT3 inhibitor (an anti-cancer agent), vitamin folate (as targeting motif) and m-polyethylene glycol (m-PEG, a hydrophilic dispersing agent). The Qdot luminescence is quenched in this nanocomposite probe (“OFF” state) due to combined electron/energy transfer mediated quenching processes involving IONP, folate and STAT3 agents. Upon intracellular uptake, the probe is exposed to the cytosolic glutathione (GSH) containing environment resulting in restoration of the Qdot luminescence (“ON” state), which reports on uptake and drug release. Probe functionality was validated using fluorescence and MR measurements as well as in vitro studies using cancer cells that overexpress folate receptors. PMID:22078810

  16. Direct imaging of planetary systems with a ground-based radio telescope array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    1994-01-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's proposed Millimeter Array (MMA) will bring unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution, and image dynamic range to the millimeter wavelength region of the spectrum. An obvious question is whether such an instrument could be used to detect planets orbiting nearby stars. The techniques of aperture synthesis imaging developed for centimeter wavelength radio arrays are capable of producing images whose dynamic ranges greatly exceed the brightness ratio of a solar-type star and a Jupiter-like planet at sub-millimeter or millimeter wavelengths. The angular resolution required to separate a star and planet at a few pc distance can be obtained with baselines of several km. The greatest challenge is sensitivity. At the highest possible observing frequencies (approximately 300 GHz for typical high, dry sites, and approximately 900 GHz from the Antarctic plateau), the proposed MMA will be unable to detect the thermal emission from a Jupiter-like planet a few pc away. An upgraded MMA operating near 300 GHz with twice the currently proposed number of antennas, a 20% fractional bandwidth, and improved receivers could detect Jupiter at 4 pc in a few months. Building such an array on the Antarctic plateau and operating at approximately 900 GHz would allow Jupiter at 4 pc to be detected in approximately one day of observing time.

  17. Diagnosis and preoperative imaging of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Taïeb, David; Kebebew, Electron; Castinetti, Fréderic; Chen, Clara C; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel

    2014-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the RET protooncogene and is characterized by a strong penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma (all subtypes) and is often accompanied by pheochromocytoma (MEN2A/2B) and primary hyperparathyroidism (MEN2A). The evaluation and management of MEN2-related tumours is often different from that of sporadic counterparts. This review article provides an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and surgical management of MEN2 patients. This review also presents applications of the most up-to-date imaging modalities to MEN2 patients that are tightly linked to the clinical management and aims to guide physicians towards a rationale for the use of imaging prior to prophylactic thyroidectomy, initial surgery and reoperations for persistent/recurrent disease. This review also concludes that, in the near future, it is expected that these patients will indeed benefit from newly developed positron emission tomography approaches which will target peptide receptors and protein kinases. Identification of MEN2-specific radiopharmaceuticals will also soon arise from molecular profiling studies. Furthermore, subtotal (cortical-sparing) adrenalectomy, which is a valid option in MEN2 for avoiding long-term steroid replacement, will benefit from an accurate estimation through imaging of differential adrenocortical function. PMID:24889858

  18. Lessons of ALS imaging: Pitfalls and future directions — A critical review

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Peter; Hardiman, Orla

    2014-01-01

    Background While neuroimaging in ALS has gained unprecedented momentum in recent years, little progress has been made in the development of viable diagnostic, prognostic and monitoring markers. Objectives To identify and discuss the common pitfalls in ALS imaging studies and to reflect on optimal study designs based on pioneering studies. Methods A “PubMed”-based literature search on ALS was performed based on neuroimaging-related keywords. Study limitations were systematically reviewed and classified so that stereotypical trends could be identified. Results Common shortcomings, such as relatively small sample sizes, statistically underpowered study designs, lack of disease controls, poorly characterised patient cohorts and a large number of conflicting studies, remain a significant challenge to the field. Imaging data of ALS continue to be interpreted at a group-level, as opposed to meaningful individual-patient inferences. Conclusions A systematic, critical review of ALS imaging has identified stereotypical shortcomings, the lessons of which should be considered in the design of future prospective MRI studies. At a time when large multicentre studies are underway a candid discussion of these factors is particularly timely. PMID:24624329

  19. A new high definition zoom method based on compounded direct pixel beamforming for medical ultrasound imaging: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungsoo; Lee, Jongpil; Chang, Jin Ho; Song, Tai-Kyong; Yoo, Yangmo

    2013-03-01

    Conventional ultrasound imaging based on scan conversion suffers from blurring artifacts caused by interpolation[1]. Especially, when zooming an image for enlarging lesions during scan conversion (i.e., read-zoom), this blurring artifact becomes severe. To reduce blurring artifacts, a write-zoom method was previously proposed. However, it still presents blurring artifacts and lowers the frame rate due to increased line density. In this paper, a new high definition zoom method based on compounded direct pixel beamforming (CDPB) capable enhancing the detail and boundary of lesions is presented. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated with phantom and in vivo experiments by measuring the information entropy contrast (IEC). The radio-frequency channel data were acquired by using a 3.5-MHz convex array transducer with the SonixTouch research platform (Ultrasonix Medical Corp., Vancouver, BC, Canada). The enlarged images using a new high-definition zoom method based on CDPB (i.e., HDZ-CDPB) with 128 transmit scanlines were reconstructed along with read- and write zoom (RZ and WZ) images based on scan conversion by using 128 and 256 transmit scanlines, respectively. From the phantom experiments, the IEC value with the proposed HDZCDPB method was enhanced by maximally 42% and 29% compared to the RZ and WZ methods, respectively. This preliminary results indicate that the proposed HDZ-CDPB method would be useful for generating a high definition ultrasound zoom image with improved image quality compared to the conventional scan conversion based methods (i.e., RZ and WZ) while achieving the high frame rate.

  20. Investigation of a one-step spectral CT reconstruction algorithm for direct inversion into basis material images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilat Schmidt, Taly; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2015-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors with pulse-height analysis have shown promise for improved spectral CT imaging. This study investigated a novel spectral CT reconstruction method that directly estimates basis-material images from the measured energy-bin data (i.e., `one-step' reconstruction). The proposed algorithm can incorporate constraints to stabilize the reconstruction and potentially reduce noise. The algorithm minimizes the error between the measured energy-bin data and the data estimated from the reconstructed basis images. A total variation (TV) constraint was also investigated for additional noise reduction. The proposed one-step algorithm was applied to simulated data of an anthropomorphic phantom with heterogeneous tissue composition. Reconstructed water, bone, and gadolinium basis images were compared for the proposed one-step algorithm and the conventional `two-step' method of decomposition followed by reconstruction. The unconstrained algorithm provided a 30% to 60% reduction in noise standard deviation compared to the two-step algorithm. The fTV =0.8 constraint provided a small reduction in noise (˜ 1%) compared to the unconstrained reconstruction. Images reconstructed with the fTV =0.5 constraint demonstrated 77% to 94% standard deviation reduction compared to the two-step reconstruction, however with increased blurring. There were no significant differences in the mean values reconstructed by the investigated algorithms. Overall, the proposed one-step spectral CT reconstruction algorithm provided three-material-decomposition basis images with reduced noise compared to the conventional two-step approach. When using a moderate TV constraint factor (fTV = 0.8), a 30%-60% reduction in noise standard deviation was achieved while preserving the edge profile for this simulated phantom.

  1. Topmetal-II-: a direct charge sensor for high energy physics and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Huang, G.; Sun, X.

    2016-01-01

    Topmetal-II-, a direct charge sensor, was manufactured in an XFAB 350 nm CMOS process. The Topmetal-II- sensor features a 72 × 72 pixel array with an 83 μm pixel pitch which collects and measures charge directly from the surrounding media. We introduce the implementation of the circuitry in the sensor including an analogue readout channel and a column based digital readout channel. The analogue readout channel allows the access to the full waveform from each pixel through a time-shared multiplexing. The digital readout channel records hits identified by an individually settable threshold in each pixel. Some simulation and preliminary test results are also discussed.

  2. Rapid Geometric Correction of SSC Terrasar-X Images with Direct Georeferencing, Global dem and Global Geoid Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilaki, D. I.; Stamos, A. A.; Ioannidis, C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a process for rapid geometric correction of slant range SAR images is presented. The process is completely independent of ground control information thanks to the direct georeferencing method capabilities offered by the TerraSAR-X sensor. The process is especially rapid due to the use of readily available global DEMs and global geoid models. An additional advantage of this process is its flexibility. If a more accurate local DEM or local geoid model is readily available it can be used instead of the global DEM or global geoid model. The process is applied to geometrically correct a SSC TerraSAR-X image over a sub-urban mountainous area using the SRTM and the ASTER global DEMs and the EGM2008 global geoid model. Additionally two local, more accurate DEMs, are used. The accuracy of the process is evaluated by independent check points.

  3. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S.

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  4. In Vivo Imaging of Flavoprotein Fluorescence During Hypoxia Reveals the Importance of Direct Arterial Oxygen Supply to Cerebral Cortex Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, K I; Ida, K K; Davies, A L; Papkovsky, D B; Singer, M; Dyson, A; Tachtsidis, I; Duchen, M R; Smith, K J

    2016-01-01

    Live imaging of mitochondrial function is crucial to understand the important role played by these organelles in a wide range of diseases. The mitochondrial redox potential is a particularly informative measure of mitochondrial function, and can be monitored using the endogenous green fluorescence of oxidized mitochondrial flavoproteins. Here, we have observed flavoprotein fluorescence in the exposed murine cerebral cortex in vivo using confocal imaging; the mitochondrial origin of the signal was confirmed using agents known to manipulate mitochondrial redox potential. The effects of cerebral oxygenation on flavoprotein fluorescence were determined by manipulating the inspired oxygen concentration. We report that flavoprotein fluorescence is sensitive to reductions in cortical oxygenation, such that reductions in inspired oxygen resulted in loss of flavoprotein fluorescence with the exception of a preserved 'halo' of signal in periarterial regions. The findings are consistent with reports that arteries play an important role in supplying oxygen directly to tissue in the cerebral cortex, maintaining mitochondrial function. PMID:26782217

  5. Directly imaged L-T transition exoplanets in the mid-infrared {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Close, Laird M.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Defrere, Denis; Follette, Katherine B.; Males, Jared R.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Marley, Mark S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Saumon, Didier; Briguglio, Runa; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Hill, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Gas-giant planets emit a large fraction of their light in the mid-infrared (≳3 μm), where photometry and spectroscopy are critical to our understanding of the bulk properties of extrasolar planets. Of particular importance are the L- and M-band atmospheric windows (3-5 μm), which are the longest wavelengths currently accessible to ground-based, high-contrast imagers. We present binocular LBT adaptive optics (AO) images of the HR 8799 planetary system in six narrow-band filters from 3 to 4 μm, and a Magellan AO image of the 2M1207 planetary system in a broader 3.3 μm band. These systems encompass the five known exoplanets with luminosities consistent with L → T transition brown dwarfs. Our results show that the exoplanets are brighter and have shallower spectral slopes than equivalent temperature brown dwarfs in a wavelength range that contains the methane fundamental absorption feature (spanned by the narrow-band filters and encompassed by the broader 3.3 μm filter). For 2M1207 b, we find that thick clouds and non-equilibrium chemistry caused by vertical mixing can explain the object's appearance. For the HR 8799 planets, we present new models that suggest the atmospheres must have patchy clouds, along with non-equilibrium chemistry. Together, the presence of a heterogeneous surface and vertical mixing presents a picture of dynamic planetary atmospheres in which both horizontal and vertical motions influence the chemical and condensate profiles.

  6. Direct optical imaging and flux mapping of CH4 in landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gålfalk, M.; Olofsson, G.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a very potent greenhouse gas with many and diverse natural and anthropogenic emission sources such as wetlands, animals, biogas production, waste and sewage management systems. It has increased 2.5-fold since 1750 and is expected to continue to rise, with possible large implications for future climates. Although many individual sources have unknown fluxes, and distributions could be both hotspots or continuous, measurements are mostly made on either a very small scale (chambers or flux towers) with point-like or uncertain footprints, or on the very large scale of satellites with km-sized footprints. There is thus a missing intermediate scale, a scale which would allow both pin-pointing of individual CH4 emission sources and mapping a large enough area to cover a whole landscape. A general such method would be beneficial for connecting scattered local measurements and integrated large scale estimates. Remote sensing is a tool that is often used to map surface materials and the atmosphere from space. This technique, optimized for ground-based or near-ground, sensitive CH4 detection using high spectral resolution, could be a future method for detecting and mapping CH4 sources and fluxes in the environment. We present a new camera system with the ability to both detect and quantify CH4 at low levels in landscapes using remote sensing. Detection is made through thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy, using the heat radiation of objects in a scene to provide background light (e.g. tree leaves, rocks, grass or the sky). Using spectroscopic and radiative transfer modelling for each pixel (spectrum) in an image, we can calculate a CH4 distribution map from the measured spectra. The system uses imaging at high frequency (hundreds of Hz) to build the spectra - this also enables us to make simultaneous CH4 flux movies that can be used to calculate flows. Our method has broad applications and we will present examples from different environments.

  7. ExoEarth Yield Estimates for a Future Large Aperture Direct Imaging Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Robinson, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric that will constrain the required aperture of a future exoplanet-imaging mission. I will present a numerically efficient method for maximizing the yield of exoEarth candidates by simultaneously optimizing the exposure time of every star, number of visits per star, and delay time between visits, while maximally adapting the target list to the mission's capabilities. This method can potentially double the exoEarth candidate yield compared to previous methods. I will show how the yield scales with mission parameters, including aperture size and high level coronagraph parameters, and address the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on exoEarth yield.

  8. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B.; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S.; Rowlands, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs). We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se) has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF) and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the HARP has been

  9. Self-assembly and structure of directly imaged inorganic-anion monolayers on a gold nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Neyman, Alevtina; Arkhangelsky, Elizabeth; Gitis, Vitaly; Meshi, Louisa; Weinstock, Ira A

    2009-12-01

    Cryogenic "trapping" was used to obtain the first TEM images of self-assembled monolayers of inorganic anions on a gold nanoparticle. This unique structural information makes it possible to study the formation of a protecting-ligand shell at an unprecedented level of detail. The protecting ligands are polyoxometalates (POMs; alpha-X(n+)W(12)O(40)((8-n)-), X(n+) = Al(3+) and "2H(+)", and alpha-X(n+)W(11)O(39)((12-n)-), X(n+) = P(5+), Si(4+), and Al(3+)) with large negative charges for association with the gold surface and W atoms (Z = 74) for TEM imaging. The POM-anion shells were obtained by ligand exchange from citrate-protected 13.8 nm gold nanoparticles. Replacement of the organic (citrate) by inorganic (tungsten-oxide) ligand shells results in substantial changes in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By correlating cryo-TEM images with changes in the SPR, degrees of surface coverage were reliably quantified by UV-visible spectroscopy. Then, the kinetics and thermodynamics of ligand-shell formation were investigated by systematically varying POM structure and charge. Rates of POM association with the gold surface ("nucleation") are inhibited by the electric-potential barrier of the citrate-stabilized particles, while binding affinities increase linearly with the charges (from 5- to 9-) of structurally different POM anions, suggesting that no single orientation ("lattice matching") is required for monolayer self-assembly. Time-dependent cryo-TEM images reveal that monolayer growth occurs via "islands", a mechanism that points to cation-mediated attraction between bound POMs. Complete ligand shells comprised of 330 molecules of alpha-AlW(11)O(39)(9-) (1) possess small net charges (29e from zeta-potential measurements) and short Debye lengths (kappa(-1) = 1.0 nm), which indicate that approximately 99% of the 2970 K(+) counter cations lie within ca. 1.5 nm (approximately 3 hydrated K(+) ion diameters) from the outer surface of the POM shell. Energetic analysis of

  10. Direct visualization of the trimeric structure of the ASIC1a channel, using AFM imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carnally, Stewart M.; Dev, Harveer S.; Stewart, Andrew P.; Barrera, Nelson P.; Van Bemmelen, Miguel X.; Schild, Laurent; Henderson, Robert M.; Edwardson, J.Michael

    2008-08-08

    There has been confusion about the subunit stoichiometry of the degenerin family of ion channels. Recently, a crystal structure of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a revealed that it assembles as a trimer. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image unprocessed ASIC1a bound to mica. We detected a mixture of subunit monomers, dimers and trimers. In some cases, triple-subunit clusters were clearly visible, confirming the trimeric structure of the channel, and indicating that the trimer sometimes disaggregated after adhesion to the mica surface. This AFM-based technique will now enable us to determine the subunit arrangement within heteromeric ASICs.

  11. Amorphous and polycrystalline photoconductors for direct conversion flat panel x-ray image sensors.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S; Rowlands, John A

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs). We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se) has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF) and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI(2) and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the HARP has been

  12. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation–maximization reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Casey, Michael E.; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the tracer influx rate K i as a complimentary metric to the semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). The resulting K i images may suffer from high noise due to the need for short acquisition frames. Meanwhile, a generalized Patlak (gPatlak) WB post-reconstruction method had been suggested to limit K i bias of sPatlak analysis at regions with non-negligible 18F-FDG uptake reversibility; however, gPatlak analysis is non-linear and thus can further amplify noise. In the present study, we implemented, within the open-source software for tomographic image reconstruction platform, a clinically adoptable 4D WB reconstruction framework enabling efficient estimation of sPatlak and gPatlak images directly from dynamic multi-bed PET raw data with substantial noise reduction. Furthermore, we employed the optimization transfer methodology to accelerate 4D expectation–maximization (EM) convergence by nesting the fast image-based estimation of Patlak parameters within each iteration cycle of the slower projection-based estimation of dynamic PET images. The novel gPatlak 4D method was initialized from an optimized set of sPatlak ML-EM iterations to facilitate EM convergence. Initially, realistic simulations were conducted utilizing published 18F-FDG kinetic parameters coupled with the XCAT phantom. Quantitative analyses illustrated enhanced K i target-to-background ratio (TBR) and especially contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance for the 4D versus the indirect methods and static SUV. Furthermore, considerable convergence acceleration was observed for the nested algorithms involving 10–20 sub-iterations. Moreover, systematic reduction in K i % bias and improved TBR were

  13. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation-maximization reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Casey, Michael E; Lodge, Martin A; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the tracer influx rate K i as a complimentary metric to the semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). The resulting K i images may suffer from high noise due to the need for short acquisition frames. Meanwhile, a generalized Patlak (gPatlak) WB post-reconstruction method had been suggested to limit K i bias of sPatlak analysis at regions with non-negligible (18)F-FDG uptake reversibility; however, gPatlak analysis is non-linear and thus can further amplify noise. In the present study, we implemented, within the open-source software for tomographic image reconstruction platform, a clinically adoptable 4D WB reconstruction framework enabling efficient estimation of sPatlak and gPatlak images directly from dynamic multi-bed PET raw data with substantial noise reduction. Furthermore, we employed the optimization transfer methodology to accelerate 4D expectation-maximization (EM) convergence by nesting the fast image-based estimation of Patlak parameters within each iteration cycle of the slower projection-based estimation of dynamic PET images. The novel gPatlak 4D method was initialized from an optimized set of sPatlak ML-EM iterations to facilitate EM convergence. Initially, realistic simulations were conducted utilizing published (18)F-FDG kinetic parameters coupled with the XCAT phantom. Quantitative analyses illustrated enhanced K i target-to-background ratio (TBR) and especially contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance for the 4D versus the indirect methods and static SUV. Furthermore, considerable convergence acceleration was observed for the nested algorithms involving 10-20 sub-iterations. Moreover, systematic reduction in K i % bias and improved TBR were

  14. Underwater imaging using a hybrid Kirchhoff migration: direction of arrival method and a sparse surface sensor array.

    PubMed

    Dord, Jean-Francois; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of imaging a complex object submerged in shallow waters using a sparse surface sensor array and a hybrid signal processing method. This method is constructed by refining the Kirchhoff migration technique to incorporate a zoning of the sensors and an analysis of multiple reflections, and combining it with the direction of arrival estimation method. Its performance is assessed and analyzed with the shape identification of a mockup submarine by numerical simulation. The obtained numerical results highlight the potential of this approach for identifying underwater intruders. PMID:20707441

  15. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Bradford; Stephen Holbrook; Scott B. Smithson

    2004-12-09

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPL's specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  16. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method. PMID:26716724

  17. Time-resolved imaging of near-fields in THz antennas and direct quantitative measurement of field enhancements.

    PubMed

    Werley, Christopher A; Fan, Kebin; Strikwerda, Andrew C; Teo, Stephanie M; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D; Nelson, Keith A

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the interaction between terahertz waves and resonant antennas with sub-cycle temporal and λ/100 spatial resolution. Depositing antennas on a LiNbO₃ waveguide enables non-invasive electro-optic imaging, quantitative field characterization, and direct measurement of field enhancement (up to 40-fold). The spectral response is determined over a bandwidth spanning from DC across multiple resonances, and distinct behavior is observed in the near- and far-field. The scaling of enhancement and resonant frequency with gap size and antenna length agrees well with simulations. PMID:22513564

  18. In vivo nanomechanical imaging of blood-vessel tissues directly in living mammals using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youdong; Sun, Quanmei; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Qi; Han, Li; Jiang, Lei; Han, Dong

    2009-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is difficult to achieve in living mammals but is necessary for understanding mechanical properties of tissues in their native form in organisms. Here we report in vivo nanomechanical imaging of blood-vessel tissues directly in living mammalians by AFM combined with surgical operations. Nanomechanical heterogeneity of blood vessels is observed across the diverse microenvironments of the same tissues in vivo. This method is further used to measure the counteractive nanomechanical changes in real time during drug-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction in vivo, demonstrating appealing potential in characterization of in vivo nanomechanical dynamics of native tissues.

  19. Direct imaging of electron recombination and transport on a semiconductor surface by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Keiki Yamada, Yuki; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Onda, Ken

    2014-02-03

    Much effort has been devoted to the development of techniques to probe carrier dynamics, which govern many semiconductor device characteristics. We report direct imaging of electron dynamics on semiconductor surfaces by time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy using femtosecond laser pulses. The experiments utilized a variable-repetition-rate femtosecond laser system to suppress sample charging problems. The recombination of photogenerated electrons and the lateral motion of the electrons driven by an external electric field on a GaAs surface were visualized. The mobility was estimated from a linear relationship between the drift velocity and the potential gradient.

  20. Geometric evaluation of SPOT5 image using rigorous sensor model and simple polynomial direct location model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Fenfei; Kou, Tianyou; Chen, Shirong

    2010-11-01

    With the start tracker and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), SPOT5 satellite point positioning error is lower than 50m. In this paper, two terrains, mountainous areas and plain areas, are defined by terrain gradient. The ground check points are chosen on these terrains with the geometric error and the elevation error both lower than 1m. The coordinate in UTM of each point is calculated both in the Rigorous Sensor Model and the Simple Polynomial Direct Location Model, and the differences between the computed coordinates and the surveyed coordinates are discussed. According to the experiment results, the two models have their own advantage in different circumstances. In mountainous areas, the Rigorous Sensor Model can get higher location accuracy. In plain areas, the two models can locate with same accuracy, but the Simple Polynomial Direct Location Model performs better in the aspect of speed and the simplicity.

  1. Principles and prospects of direct high resolution electron image acquisition with CMOS detectors at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruqi, A. R.

    2009-08-01

    Two types of direct electron detectors, potentially useful in low energy electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) experiments, are reviewed in this paper. Hybrid pixel detectors, using a silicon sensor and based on Medipix2 offer a high detective quantum efficiency, due to an essentially noiseless readout, but are technically challenging. Backthinned monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) are not noise-free but have other advantages as discussed in this review.

  2. Maximizing the ExoEarth candidate yield from a future direct imaging mission

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-11-10

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  3. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  4. Object Based Image Analysis to Support Environmental Monitoring Under the European Habitat Directive: a Case Study from Decover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, O.; Peter, B.; Völker, A.; Donning, A.

    2011-09-01

    DeCOVER serves as a national extension of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. It was initiated to develop land cover information services adapted to German user needs. One of its three service developments pillars is the application of Remote Sensing to support environmental monitoring schemes under the European Habitats Directive.Within two DeCOVER test sites located in North-Rhine Westphalia/Germany an object-based indicator classification approach is currently being developed to monitor heath habitats of importance under the Habitats Directive. While many previous Remote Sensing projects have focused on the discrete classification of habitat types to replace fieldwork, our approach is embedded in a strong operational context to a) focus and direct fieldwork efforts by pre-field visit assessment of habitat changes (change detection) and b) support fieldwork by contributing quality parameters and GIS-ready geometries. Using Geoeye satellite data (VHR component) and RapidEye satellite images (Multi-temporal HR component) together with existing habitat and biotope maps (knowledge and post-classification component) an image analysis approach is rea