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Sample records for direct oxygen sensor

  1. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  2. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  3. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  4. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  5. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  6. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  7. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  8. Integrated-Optic Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Compact optical oxygen sensors with self-calibration capabilities are undergoing development. A sensor of this type features a single-chip, integrated-optic design implemented by photolithographic fabrication of optical waveguides in a photosensitive porous glass. The porosity serves as both a matrix for retention of an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent indicator chemical and a medium for diffusion of oxygen to the chemical from the ambient air to be monitored. Each sensor includes at least one such waveguide exposed to the atmosphere and at least one covered with metal for isolation from the atmosphere. The covered one serves as a reference channel. In operation, the concentration of oxygen is deduced from the intensity and lifetime of the fluorescence in the exposed channel, with the help of calibration data acquired via the reference channel. Because the sensory chemical is placed directly in and throughout the cross section of the light path, approximately 99 percent of the light in the waveguide is available for interaction with the chemical, in contradistinction to only about 1 percent of the light in an optical sensor that utilizes evanescentwave coupling. Hence, a sensor of this type is significantly more sensitive.

  9. Benthic microbial fuel cell as direct power source for an acoustic modem and seawater oxygen/temperature sensor system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanming; Radachowsky, Sage E; Wolf, Michael; Nielsen, Mark E; Girguis, Peter R; Reimers, Clare E

    2011-06-01

    Supported by the natural potential difference between anoxic sediment and oxic seawater, benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) promise to be ideal power sources for certain low-power marine sensors and communication devices. In this study a chambered BMFC with a 0.25 m(2) footprint was used to power an acoustic modem interfaced with an oceanographic sensor that measures dissolved oxygen and temperature. The experiment was conducted in Yaquina Bay, Oregon over 50 days. Several improvements were made in the BMFC design and power management system based on lessons learned from earlier prototypes. The energy was harvested by a dynamic gain charge pump circuit that maintains a desired point on the BMFC's power curve and stores the energy in a 200 F supercapacitor. The system also used an ultralow power microcontroller and quartz clock to read the oxygen/temperature sensor hourly, store data with a time stamp, and perform daily polarizations. Data records were transmitted to the surface by the acoustic modem every 1-5 days after receiving an acoustic prompt from a surface hydrophone. After jump-starting energy production with supplemental macroalgae placed in the BMFC's anode chamber, the average power density of the BMFC adjusted to 44 mW/m(2) of seafloor area which is better than past demonstrations at this site. The highest power density was 158 mW/m(2), and the useful energy produced and stored was ≥ 1.7 times the energy required to operate the system. PMID:21545151

  10. Dragonfly directional sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, Joe; Blackwell, Lisa; Edwards, Tim; Dargie, Mike

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the concept and hardware development of an all fiber-based, solid state, coherent array directional sensor that can locate and track bright objects against a darker background. This sensor is not an imager. It relies on the inherent structure of the global fiber distribution. Methods for characterizing and calibrating hardware embodiments are also presented.

  11. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  12. Silver electrodes for reversible oxygen sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We report a single oxygen atomic sensor based on a scanning tunneling microscope break-junction (STM-BJ) technique by using silver electrodes at room temperature. The oxygen concentration was adjusted with argon gas in a glove box. An oxygen atom was inserted in the gap of the Ag electrodes after the Ag metal point contact had been ruptured during stretching of the Ag atomic junctions by moving a piezo. We successfully measured the conductance of a single oxygen atom by forming a series with the Ag contact, Ag-O-Ag bond. We found that the probability of Ag-O-Ag junction formation increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Furthermore, we observed that the peak height in the oxygen conductance histogram was changed reversibly depending on the oxygen concentration in a glove box. It confirms that our STM-BJ can be used for atomic sensor applications in the future.

  13. Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.

  14. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  15. Determining Performance Acceptability of Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed to screen commercial electrochemical oxygen sensors to reduce the failure rate. There are three aspects to the method: First, the sensitivity over time (several days) can be measured and the rate of change of the sensitivity can be used to predict sensor failure. Second, an improvement to this method would be to store the sensors in an oxygen-free (e.g., nitrogen) environment and intermittently measure the sensitivity over time (several days) to accomplish the same result while preserving the sensor lifetime by limiting consumption of the electrode. Third, the second time derivative of the sensor response over time can be used to determine the point in time at which the sensors are sufficiently stable for use.

  16. High Temperature Langasite SAW Oxygen Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Chin, Tao-Lun; Greve, David; Oppenheim, Irving; Malone, Vanessa; Cao, Limin

    2011-08-01

    High-temperature langasite SAW oxygen sensors using sputtered ZnO as a resistive gas-sensing layer were fabricated and tested. Sensitivity to oxygen gas was observed between 500°C to 700°C, with a sensitivity peak at about 625°C, consistent with the theoretical predictions of the acoustoelectric effect.

  17. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  18. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO NPs film was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500, 600, and 800°C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors. PMID:25191652

  19. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO NPs film was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500, 600, and 800°C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors. PMID:25191652

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, E. A.; Mahig, J.; Schaeper, H. R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A reliable and low cost gas sensor was investigated for instantaneously detecting H2 in N2, H2 in air, and O2 in N2. The major portion of the research was spent in developing a sensor which would instantaneously detect H2 to + or - 50 ppm even in the presence of trace amounts of other gases. The experimental procedures used to provide the performance characteristics for the various oscillators are discussed describing the equipment with help of schematics and photographs where applicable. The resulting performance is given in graphical form. In some cases both hydrogen and helium may be present and since both of them effect gas sensors similarly, a method was found to determine the concentration of each. The methods developed are grouped into the following four broad categories: pure metal response, variation in heat conductivity, reduction methods, and exotic processes. From the above it was decided for the present to use a copper oxide reduction process as this process was demonstrated to be capable of determining the concentrations of hydrogen and helium respectively in a gas mixture with air or nitrogen.

  1. Multi-Directional Environmental Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement multi-directional environmental sensors. In one embodiment, a multi-directional environmental sensor includes: an inner conductive element that is substantially symmetrical about three orthogonal planes; an outer conductive element that is substantially symmetrical about three orthogonal planes; and a device that measures the electrical characteristics of the multi-directional environmental sensor, the device having a first terminal and a second terminal; where the inner conductive element is substantially enclosed within the outer conductive element; where the inner conductive element is electrically coupled to the first terminal of the device; and where the outer conductive element is electrically coupled to the second terminal of the device.

  2. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  3. Nanofiber Based Optical Sensors for Oxygen Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ruipeng

    Oxygen sensors based on luminescent quenching of nanofibers were developed for measurement of both gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Electrospinning was used to fabricate "core-shell" fiber configurations in which oxygen-sensitive transition metal complexes are embedded into a polymer 'core' while a synthetic biocompatible polymer provides a protective 'shell.' Various matrix polymers and luminescent probes were studied in terms of their sensitivity, linear calibration, reversibility, response time, stability and probe-matrix interactions. Due to the small size and high surface area of these nanofibers, all samples showed rapid response and a highly linear response to oxygen. The sensitivity and photostability of the sensors were controlled by the identity of both the probe molecule and the polymer matrix. Such nanofiber sensor forms are particularly suitable in biological applications due to the fact that they do not consume oxygen, are biocompatible and biomimetic and can be easily incorporated into cell culture. Applications of these fibers in cancer cell research, wound healing, breath analysis and waste water treatment were explored.

  4. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  5. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  6. A water-soluble luminescence oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Castellano, F N; Lakowicz, J R

    1998-02-01

    We developed a water-soluble luminescent probe for dissolved oxygen. This probe is based on (Ru[dpp(SO3Na)2]3) cl2, which is a sulfonated analogue of the well-known oxygen probe (Ru[dpp]3)cl2. The compound dpp is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and dpp(SO3Na)2 is a disulfonated derivative of the same ligand. In aqueous solution in the absence of oxygen (Ru[dpp(SO3Na)2]3)cl2 displays a lifetime of 3.7 microseconds that decreases to 930 ns on equilibrium with air and 227 ns on equilibrium with 100% oxygen. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant is 11,330 M-1. This high oxygen-quenching constant means that the photoluminescence of Ru(dpp[SO3Na]2)3cl2 is 10% quenched at an oxygen concentration of 8.8 x 10(-6) M, or equilibration with 5.4 torr of oxygen. The oxygen probe dissolved in water displays minimal interactions with lipid vesicles composed of dipalmityl-L-alpha-phosphatidyl glycerol but does appear to interact with human serum albumin. The absorption maximum near 480 nm, long lifetime and large Stokes' shift allow this probe to be used with simple instrumentation based on a light-emitting diode light source, allowing low-cost oxygen sensing in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first practical water-soluble oxygen sensor. PMID:9487796

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide as an Oxygen Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance Although oxygen (O2)-sensing cells and tissues have been known for decades, the identity of the O2-sensing mechanism has remained elusive. Evidence is accumulating that O2-dependent metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is this enigmatic O2 sensor. Recent Advances The elucidation of biochemical pathways involved in H2S synthesis and metabolism have shown that reciprocal H2S/O2 interactions have been inexorably linked throughout eukaryotic evolution; there are multiple foci by which O2 controls H2S inactivation, and the effects of H2S on downstream signaling events are consistent with those activated by hypoxia. H2S-mediated O2 sensing has been demonstrated in a variety of O2-sensing tissues in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, including smooth muscle in systemic and respiratory blood vessels and airways, carotid body, adrenal medulla, and other peripheral as well as central chemoreceptors. Critical Issues Information is now needed on the intracellular location and stoichometry of these signaling processes and how and which downstream effectors are activated by H2S and its metabolites. Future Directions Development of specific inhibitors of H2S metabolism and effector activation as well as cellular organelle-targeted compounds that release H2S in a time- or environmentally controlled way will not only enhance our understanding of this signaling process but also provide direction for future therapeutic applications. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 377–397. “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” —Theodosius Dobzhansky (29) PMID:24801248

  8. Nanomaterial-based robust oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Alam, Maksudul; Tseng, Derek; Majumdar, Arun K.; Kazemi, Alex A.

    2007-09-01

    Since the TWA flight 800 accident in July 1996, significant emphasis has been placed on fuel tank safety. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has focused research to support two primary methods of fuel tank protection - ground-based and on-board - both involving fuel tank inerting. Ground-based fuel tank inerting involves some combination of fuel scrubbing and ullage washing with Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) while the airplane is on the ground (applicable to all or most operating transport airplanes). On-board fuel tank inerting involves ullage washing with OBIGGS (on-board inert gas generating system), a system that generates NEA during aircraft operations. An OBIGGS generally encompasses an air separation module (ASM) to generate NEA, a compressor, storage tanks, and a distribution system. Essential to the utilization of OBIGGS is an oxygen sensor that can operate inside the aircraft's ullage and assess the effectiveness of the inerting systems. OBIGGS can function economically by precisely knowing when to start and when to stop. Toward achieving these goals, InnoSense LLC is developing an all-optical fuel tank ullage sensor (FTUS) prototype for detecting oxygen in the ullage of an aircraft fuel tank in flight conditions. Data would be presented to show response time and wide dynamic range of the sensor in simulated flight conditions and fuel tank environment.

  9. New electrolyte may increase life of polarographic oxygen sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.

    1967-01-01

    Electrolyte increases life on oxygen sensors in a polarograph used for measuring the partial pressure of oxygen in a gas mixture. It consists of a solution of lithium chloride, dimethyl acetamide and water.

  10. Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Compensation for Variations in Ambient Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, research toward painless glucose sensing continues. Oxygen sensitive phosphors with glucose oxidase (GOx) can be used to determine glucose levels indirectly by monitoring oxygen consumption. This is an attractive combination because of its speed and specificity. Packaging these molecules together in “smart materials” for implantation will enable non-invasive glucose monitoring. As glucose levels increase, oxygen levels decrease; consequently, the luminescence intensity and lifetime of the phosphor increase. Although the response of the sensor is dependent on glucose concentration, the ambient oxygen concentration also plays a key role. This could lead to inaccurate glucose readings and increase the risk of hyper- or hypoglycemia. To mitigate this risk, the dependence of hydrogel glucose sensor response on oxygen levels was investigated and compensation methods explored. Sensors were calibrated at different oxygen concentrations using a single generic logistic equation, such that trends in oxygen-dependence were determined as varying parameters in the equation. Each parameter was found to be a function of oxygen concentration, such that the correct glucose calibration equation can be calculated if the oxygen level is known. Accuracy of compensation will be determined by developing an overall calibration, using both glucose and oxygen sensors in parallel, correcting for oxygen fluctuations in real time by intentionally varying oxygen, and calculating the error in actual and predicted glucose levels. While this method was developed for compensation of enzymatic glucose sensors, in principle it can also be implemented with other kinds of sensors utilizing oxidases. PMID:26257458

  11. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S.; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Bright, Frank V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+) encapsulated within sol–gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors. PMID:24493909

  12. Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

  13. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  14. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Djeghelian, Hagop; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Andrews, Mark; Therriault, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gel-derived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2) responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED) excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100%) of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multi-sensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  15. An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.

  16. A Pyrene@Micelle Sensor for Fluorescent Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan-xia; Peng, Hong-shang; Ping, Jian-tao; Wang, Xiao-hui; You, Fang-tian

    2015-01-01

    For most fluorescent oxygen sensors developed today, their fabrication process is either time-consuming or needs specialized knowledge. In this work, a robust fluorescent oxygen sensor is facilely constructed by dissolving pyrene molecules into CTAB aqueous solution. The as-prepared pyrene@micelle sensors have submicron-sized diameter, and the concentration of utilized pyrene can be reduced as low as 0.8 mM but still can exhibit dominant excimer emission. The excimer fluorescence is sensitive to dissolved oxygen in both intensity and lifetime, and the respective Stern-Volmer plot follows a nonlinear behavior justified by a two-site model. Because of the merits of large Stokes shift (~140 nm), easy fabrication, and robustness, the pyrene@micelle sensors are very attractive for practical determination of oxygen. PMID:26539471

  17. Quantum dots as a possible oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółczyk, Paulina; Kur-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Przybyt, Małgorzata; Miller, Ewa

    Results of studies on optical properties of low toxicity quantum dots (QDs) obtained from copper doped zinc sulfate are discussed in the paper. The effect of copper admixture concentration and solution pH on the fluorescence emission intensity of QDs was investigated. Quenching of QDs fluorescence by oxygen was reported and removal of the oxygen from the environment by two methods was described. In the chemical method oxygen was eliminated by adding sodium sulfite, in the other method oxygen was removed from the solution using nitrogen gas. For elimination of oxygen by purging the solution with nitrogen the increase of fluorescence intensity with decreasing oxygen concentration obeyed Stern-Volmer equation indicating quenching. For the chemical method Stern-Volmer equation was not fulfilled. The fluorescence decays lifetimes were determined and the increase of mean lifetimes at the absence of oxygen support hypothesis that QDs fluorescence is quenched by oxygen.

  18. Group scheduling problems in directional sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Alok; Rossi, André

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of scheduling a set of groups of directional sensors arising as a result of applying an exact or a heuristic approach for solving a problem involving directional sensors. The problem seeks a schedule for these groups that minimizes the total energy consumed in switching from one group to the next group in the schedule. In practice, when switching from a group to the next one, active sensors in the new group have to rotate in order to face their working direction. These rotations consume energy, and the problem is to schedule the groups so as to minimize the total amount of energy consumed by all the sensor rotations, knowing the initial angular positions of all the sensors. In this article, it is assumed that energy consumption is proportional to the angular movement for all the sensors. Another problem version is also investigated that seeks to minimize the total time during which the sensor network cannot cover all the targets because active sensors are rotating. Both problems are proved to be ?-hard, and a lower bound for the first problem is presented. A greedy heuristic and a genetic algorithm are also proposed for addressing the problem of minimizing total rotation in the general case. Finally, a local search is also proposed to improve the solutions obtained through a genetic algorithm.

  19. Nanoporous nanocrystalline monoclinic zirconia for luminescent oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelus, Janusz D.; Zhou, Wuzong; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 with large free volumen open towards the nanocrystals surface dedicated for optical oxygen sensors. Nanoporous zirconia nanopowder was fabricated in hydrothermal microwave-driven process followed by annealing at 800°C. Metal-coated optical fibers are proposed as a light carrier when the working temperature exceeds 500°C. The obtained results may also find application in luminescent fiber optic oxygen sensors.

  20. Calibration Of Partial-Pressure-Of-Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yount, David W.; Heronimus, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Report and analysis of, and discussion of improvements in, procedure for calibrating partial-pressure-of-oxygen sensors to satisfy Spacelab calibration requirements released. Sensors exhibit fast drift, which results in short calibration period not suitable for Spacelab. By assessing complete process of determining total drift range available, calibration procedure modified to eliminate errors and still satisfy requirements without compromising integrity of system.

  1. Thin film devices used as oxygen partial pressure sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canady, K. S.; Wortman, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of zinc oxide films to be used in an oxygen partial pressure sensor is measured as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and other atmospheric constituents. Time response following partial pressure changes is studied as a function of temperature and environmental changes.

  2. Oxygen profiling of the unsaturated zone using direct push drilling.

    PubMed

    Sopilniak, A; Elkayam, R; Lev, O; Elad, T

    2015-09-01

    A methodology for oxygen profile measurements in the unsaturated zone is developed based on direct push drilling using sampling liners equipped with homemade silicone septa. The oxygen measurement is carried out by puncturing the septum with a commercial retractable optode needle fitted with a fluorescent tip. Metrological characteristics and method validation were carried out under laboratory conditions using different levels of oxygen and various water contents. The relative standard deviations under dry and water saturated soil conditions were less than 0.3% and 5% for 0.5 mg L(-1) of oxygen and less than 2% and 3% for 9 mg L(-1). Field demonstrations in a calcareous-sandstone soil aquifer treatment system with a layered clayey, marl and sandstone lithology of widely different water contents provided down to 30 m deep profiles of the dissolved oxygen level with less than 1.5 m spatial resolution. A single sensor was used for over 50 field measurements, though recalibration was required after approximately 30 measurements due to the deterioration of the fluorescent tip. PMID:26245519

  3. Optical Oxygen Sensors for Applications in Microfluidic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    The presence and concentration of oxygen in biological systems has a large impact on the behavior and viability of many types of cells, including the differentiation of stem cells or the growth of tumor cells. As a result, the integration of oxygen sensors within cell culture environments presents a powerful tool for quantifying the effects of oxygen concentrations on cell behavior, cell viability, and drug effectiveness. Because microfluidic cell culture environments are a promising alternative to traditional cell culture platforms, there is recent interest in integrating oxygen-sensing mechanisms with microfluidics for cell culture applications. Optical, luminescence-based oxygen sensors, in particular, show great promise in their ability to be integrated with microfluidics and cell culture systems. These sensors can be highly sensitive and do not consume oxygen or generate toxic byproducts in their sensing process. This paper presents a review of previously proposed optical oxygen sensor types, materials and formats most applicable to microfluidic cell culture, and analyzes their suitability for this and other in vitro applications. PMID:22163408

  4. Directionally Sensitive Silicon Radiation Sensor (VCELL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Koy B.

    2002-01-01

    Sensors are a mission critical element in many NASA programs and require some very unique properties such as small size, low power, high reliability, low weight. Low cost sensors offer the possibility of technology transfer to the public domain for commercial applications. One sensor application that is important to many NASA programs is the ability to point at a radiation source, such as the sun. Such sensors may be an integral part of the guidance and control systems in space platforms and in remote exploratory vehicles. Sun/solar pointing is also important for ground-based systems such as solar arrays. These systems are not required to be small and lightweight. However, if a sensor with a sun pointing capability was developed that is very small, rugged, lightweight and at the same time low cost, it certainly could be used in existing and perhaps many new ground based applications, The objective of the VCELL (Directionally Sensitive Silicon Radiation Sensor) research is to develop a new and very unique silicon based directionally sensitive radiation sensor which can be fabricated using conventional monolithic IC technologies and which will meet the above requirements. The proposed sensor is a novel silicon chip that is directionally sensitive to incident radiation, providing azimuth and elevation information on the incident radiation. The resulting sensor chip will be appropriate for integration into a silicon IC or useful in a hybrid structure to be interfaced with a standard IEEE 1451 bus interface IC to create an Intelligent Sensor. It is presently estimated that it will require about three man-years of effort to complete the VCELL research and development. This includes the optical, electrical, mechanical and silicon fabrication and testing as well as computer simulations and theoretical analysis and modeling including testing in simulated space environments, This report summarizes the sensor research completed this summer as part of the Summer Faculty

  5. Pulse oximetry optical sensor using oxygen-bound haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Z J V; Haxha, S; Aggoun, A

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report a unique approach to measuring oxygen saturation levels by utilising the wavelength of the haemoglobin instead of the conventional absorption difference. Two experiments are set up to measure the wavelength of the haemoglobin bound to oxygen at different oxygen saturation levels with the help of a spectrometer. We report a unique low cost and robust wavelength monitoring SpO2 sensor that measures the SpO2 by using the colour of the blood and not the absorption difference of oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin. With use of a spectrometer, we show that the wavelength of the oxygen-bound haemoglobin has a relation to the oxygen saturation level. The proposed device is designed and experimentally implemented with a colour sensor to measure the SpO2 level of the blood. PMID:27137621

  6. Applications of quantum dots in optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Pedro A. S.; Mayeh, Mona; Benrashid, Ramazan; Caldas, Paulo; Santos, José L.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-06-01

    The potential applications of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals to optical oxygen sensing are explored. The suitability of quantum dots to provide a reference signal in luminescence-based chemical sensors is addressed. A CdSe-ZnS nanocrystal, with an emission peak at 520 nm, is used to provide a reference signal. Measurements of oxygen concentration, which are based on the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of a ruthenium complex, are performed. Both the dye and the nanocrystal are immobilized in a solgel matrix and are excited by a blue LED. Experimental results show that the ratio between the reference and the sensor signals is highly insensitive to fluctuations of the excitation optical power. The use of CdTe, near-infrared quantum dots with an emission wavelength of 680 nm, in combination with a ruthenium complex to provide a new mechanism for oxygen sensing, is investigated. The possibility of creating oxygen sensitivity in different spectral regions is demonstrated. The results obtained clearly show that this technique can be applied to develop a wavelength division multiplexed system of oxygen sensors.

  7. Applications of quantum dots in optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensors.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Pedro A S; Mayeh, Mona; Benrashid, Ramazan; Caldas, Paulo; Santos, José L; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-06-01

    The potential applications of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals to optical oxygen sensing are explored. The suitability of quantum dots to provide a reference signal in luminescence-based chemical sensors is addressed. A CdSe-ZnS nanocrystal, with an emission peak at 520 nm, is used to provide a reference signal. Measurements of oxygen concentration, which are based on the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of a ruthenium complex, are performed. Both the dye and the nanocrystal are immobilized in a solgel matrix and are excited by a blue LED. Experimental results show that the ratio between the reference and the sensor signals is highly insensitive to fluctuations of the excitation optical power. The use of CdTe, near-infrared quantum dots with an emission wavelength of 680 nm, in combination with a ruthenium complex to provide a new mechanism for oxygen sensing, is investigated. The possibility of creating oxygen sensitivity in different spectral regions is demonstrated. The results obtained clearly show that this technique can be applied to develop a wavelength division multiplexed system of oxygen sensors. PMID:16724134

  8. Report of the direct infrared sensors panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, Craig; Bharat, R.; Capps, R.; Forrest, W.; Hoffman, A.; Mcmurray, R.; Moseley, H.; Reine, M.; Richards, P.; Smith, D.

    1991-01-01

    The direct infrared sensors panel considered a wide range of options for technologies relevant to the science goals of the Astrotech 21 mission set. Among the technologies assessed are: large format arrays; photon counting detectors; higher temperature 1 to 10 micro-m arrays; impurity band conduction (IBC) or blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors; readout electronics; and adapting the Space Infrared Telescope Facility and Hubble Space Telescope. Detailed development plans were presented for each of these technology areas.

  9. Predicting Transitions in Oxygen Saturation Using Phone Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Juen, Joshua; Hsu-Lumetta, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Widespread availability of mobile devices is revolutionizing health monitoring. Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is unknown what vital signs can be monitored with medical quality. Oxygen saturation is a standard measure of health status. We have shown phone sensors can accurately measure walking patterns. Subjects and Methods: Twenty cardiopulmonary patients performed 6-min walk tests in pulmonary rehabilitation at a regional hospital. They wore pulse oximeters and carried smartphones running our MoveSense software, which continuously recorded saturation and motion. Continuous saturation defined categories corresponding to status levels, including transitions. Continuous motion was used to compute spatiotemporal gait parameters from sensor data. Our existing gait model was then trained with these data and used to predict transitions in oxygen saturation. For walking variation, 10-s windows are units for classifying into status categories. Results: Oxygen saturation clustered into three categories, corresponding to pulmonary function Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 and GOLD 2, with a Transition category where saturation varied around the mean rather than remaining steady with low standard deviation. This category indicates patients who are not clinically stable. The gait model predicted status during each measured window of free walking, with 100% accuracy for the 20 subjects, based on majority voting. Conclusions: Continuous recording of oxygen saturation can predict cardiopulmonary status, including patients in transition between status levels. Gait models using phone sensors can accurately predict these saturation categories from walking motion. This suggests medical devices for predicting clinical stability from passive monitoring using carried smartphones.

  10. Phosphorescent oxygen sensors based on nanostructured polyolefin substrates.

    PubMed

    Gillanders, Ross N; Arzhakova, Olga V; Hempel, Andreas; Dolgova, Alla; Kerry, Joe P; Yarysheva, Larisa M; Bakeev, Nikolai F; Volynskii, Alexander L; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2010-01-15

    New phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive materials based on nanostructured high density polyethylene and polypropylene films are described. The polymer substrates undergo treatment by a solvent crazing process to create a well-developed network of controlled, nanometer-size pores. Indicator dye molecules are then embedded by physical entrapment in such nanostructures which subsequently can be healed. Such sensors demonstrate improved working characteristics and allow simple, cost-efficient production and disposable use. They are well suited for large-scale applications such as nondestructive control of residual oxygen and "smart" packaging. PMID:20038091

  11. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  12. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  13. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further

  14. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOEpatents

    Routbort, Jules L.; Singh, Dileep; Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Spirig, John V.; Akbar, Sheikh

    2011-11-15

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  15. Development of metalloporphyrin-derived interference-free oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuanzheng

    The main aim of this thesis is to develop novel highly sensitive, membrane-free, inexpensive one-way oxygen sensors that work in neutral solutions at or near 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl to avoid interference from oxidizing or reducing agents in water or blood samples. The theoretical background is to use chemically-modified electrodes with metalloporphyrins as catalysts for dioxygen reduction at or near 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Three approaches are employed to prepare metalloporphyrin-derived electrodes. 1. The first approach is based on a traditional chemical modification technique and commercial voltammetric electrodes. Iron(III)-tetra(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl) porphyrin chloride (FeTMHPP) is dip-coated, dropwise-coated, and electrochemically-polymerized on four different bare electrodes: glassy carbon (GCE), graphite (GE), gold (AuE), and platinum electrodes (PtE), respectively. Their electrocatalytic properties for dioxygen reduction are characterized and compared. These chemically-modified electrodes demonstrate different electrocatalytic behavior for dioxygen reduction in PBS pH7.0. It is demonstrated for the first time that only eletrochemically polymerized poly-FeTMHPP film on bare PtE has a highly electrocatalytic property for dioxygen reduction in PBS pH7.0 with a cathode peak potential, Esb{pc}, ranging from 0 mV to +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl which is controlled by the polymeric film thickness. The kinetic results show that this system has a four electron transfer mechanism for dioxygen reduction. The results are transferred to a thick film chip oxygen sensor. The poly-FeTMHPP/Pt chip oxygen sensor shows clearly that it has a potential to be a practical oxygen sensor. The dynamic range of the poly-FeTMHPP/Pt oxygen sensor between 50 and 350 muM covers the normal dissolved oxygen range of waste water and blood samples. The detection limit of 337 pM for dissolved oxygen in PBS pH7.0 allows a highly sensitive measurement. 2. In order to improve the stability of the sensor, we also

  16. An Optical Oxygen Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Perfused Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, F. G.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Anderson, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    For long-term growth of man1ITlalian cells in perfused bioreactors, it is essential to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium to quantitate and control level of DO. Continuous measurement of the amount of DO in the cell culture medium in-line under sterile conditions in NASA's perfused bioreactor requires that the oxygen sensor provide increased sensitivity and be sterilizable and nontoxic. Additionally, long-term cell culture experiments require that the calibration be maintained several weeks or months. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An optical oxygen sensor (BOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. Tris( 4,7 -diphenyl-l, 1 O-phenanthroline )ruthenium(II) chloride is employed as the fluorescent dye indicator. The sensing element consists of a glass capillary (OD 4.0 mm; ID 2.0 mm) coated internally with a thin layer of the fluorescent dye in silicone matrix and overlayed with a black shielding layer. Irradiation of the sensing element with blue light (blue LED with emission maximum at 475 nm) generates a red fluorescence centered at 626 nm. The fluorescence intensity is correlated to the concentration of DO present in the culture medium, following the modified non-linear Stern-Volmer equation. By using a pulsed irradiating light source, the problem of dye-bleaching, which is often encountered in long-term continuous measurements of tIns type, 'is minimized. To date we achieved sensor resolution of 0.3 mmHg at 50 mmHg p02, and 0.6 mmHg at 100 mmHg p02, with a response time of about one minute. Calibration was accomplished in sterile phosphate-buffered saline with a blood-gas analyzer (BGA) measurement as reference. Stand-alone software was also developed to control the sensor and bioreactor as well as to

  17. Oxygen fugacities directly measured in magmatic gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, M.; Wright, T.L.

    1966-01-01

    An electrochemical device was used to measure the fugacity of oxygen (fO2) in holes drilled through the crust of Makaopuhi lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Results obtained within 6 months of the lake formation show that log fO2 normally varies linearly with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature, and that chemical changes occurring in the cooling tholeiitic basalt are reflected in the fO2 values measured in the holes.

  18. Oxygen saturation in free-diving whales: optical sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Anderson, Rox; Zapol, Warren; Franco, Walfre

    2013-02-01

    Mass stranding of live whales has been explained by proposing many natural or human-related causes. Recent necropsy reports suggest a link between the mass stranding of beaked whales and the use of naval mid-frequency sonar. Surprisingly, whales have experienced symptoms similar to those caused by inert gas bubbles in human divers. Our goal is to develop a compact optical sensor to monitor the consumption of the oxygen stores in the muscle of freely diving whales. To this end we have proposed the use of a near-infrared phase-modulated frequency-domain spectrophotometer, in reflectance mode, to probe tissue oxygenation. Our probe consists of three main components: radiofrequency (RF) modulated light sources, a high-bandwidth avalanche photodiode with transimpedance amplifier, and a RF gain and phase detector. In this work, we concentrate on the design and performance of the light sensor, and its corresponding amplifier unit. We compare three state-of-the-art avalanche photodiodes: one through-hole device and two surface-mount detectors. We demonstrate that the gain due to the avalanche effect differs between sensors. The avalanche gain near maximum bias of the through-hole device exceeds by a factor of 2.5 and 8.3 that of the surface-mount detectors. We present the behavior of our assembled through-hole detector plus high-bandwidth transimpedance amplifier, and compare its performance to that of a commercially available module. The assembled unit enables variable gain, its phase noise is qualitatively lower, and the form factor is significantly smaller. Having a detecting unit that is compact, flexible, and functional is a milestone in the development of our tissue oxygenation tag.

  19. Apparatus and method for a light direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides a light direction sensor for determining the direction of a light source. The system includes an image sensor; a spacer attached to the image sensor, and a pattern mask attached to said spacer. The pattern mask has a slit pattern that as light passes through the slit pattern it casts a diffraction pattern onto the image sensor. The method operates by receiving a beam of light onto a patterned mask, wherein the patterned mask as a plurality of a slit segments. Then, diffusing the beam of light onto an image sensor and determining the direction of the light source.

  20. Field comparison of optical and clark cell dissolved-oxygen sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.; Garcia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Three multi-parameter water-quality monitors equipped with either Clark cell type or optical type dissolved-oxygen sensors were deployed for 30 days in a brackish (salinity <10 parts per thousand) environment to determine the sensitivity of the sensors to biofouling. The dissolved-oxygen sensors compared periodically to a hand-held dissolved oxygen sensor, but were not serviced or cleaned during the deployment. One of the Clark cell sensors and the optical sensor performed similarly during the deployment. The remaining Clark cell sensor was not aged correctly prior to deployment and did not perform as well as the other sensors. All sensors experienced substantial biofouling that gradually degraded the accuracy of the dissolved-oxygen measurement during the last half of the deployment period. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  1. High-temperature oxygen sensors for glass-forming melts.

    PubMed

    Baucke, F G

    1996-09-01

    Electrochemical sensors are reported for the on-line measurement of oxygen partial pressures of oxidic glass-forming melts on a laboratory and technical scale. Based on the principle of solid electrolyte cells without transference, they are principally simple units. The extreme chemical and temperature conditions of their applications, however, demanded extensive fundamental investigations and resulted in specific forms of reference and measuring electrodes, a thermo-dynamic procedure of verifying the correct functioning of such cells, and a method of measuring thermoelectric voltages of non-isothermal glass melts. PMID:15048355

  2. A new generation of high temperature oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, John V.

    Potentiometric internal reference oxygen sensors were created by embedding a metal/metal oxide mixture within an yttria-stabilized zirconia oxygen-conducting ceramic superstructure. A static internal reference oxygen pressure was produced inside the reference chamber of the sensor at the target application temperature. The metal/metal oxide-containing reference chamber was sealed within the stabilized zirconia ceramic superstructure by a high pressure (3-6 MPa) and high temperature (1200-1300°C) bonding method that initiated grain boundary sliding between the ceramic components. The bonding method created ceramic joints that were pore-free and indistinguishable from the bulk ceramic. The oxygen sensor presented in this study is capable of long-term operation and is resistant to the strains of thermal cycling. The temperature ceiling of this device was limited to 800°C by the glass used to seal the sensor package where the lead wire breached the inner-to-outer environment. Were it possible to create a gas-tight joint between an electron carrier and stabilized zirconia, additional sealing agents would not be necessary during sensor construction. In order to enable this enhancement it is necessary to make a gas-tight joint between two dissimilar materials: a ceramic electrolyte and an efficient ceramic electron carrier. Aluminum-doped lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, La0.77Sr 0.20Al0.9Mn0.1O3, was joined to stabilized tetragonal zirconia polymorph YTZP (ZrO2)0.97(Y 2O3)0.03 by a uniaxial stress (3-6 MPa) and high-temperature (1250-1350°C) bonding method that initiated grain-boundary sliding between the ceramic components. An analysis of reactivity between different Al-dopings of LaxSr1-xAlyMn1-yO3 indicated that the Al:Mn ratio must be high to diminish the reaction between LaxSr1-xAlyMn1-yO3 and stabilized zirconia. While the resulting compound, La0.77Sr 0.20Al0.9Mn0.1O3, was an inefficient electron carrier, the successful bond between an aluminum

  3. Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Akl, Tony; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to develop an implantable optical perfusion and oxygenation sensor, based on multiwavelength reflectance pulse oximetry, we investigate the effect of source detector separation and other source-detector characteristics to optimize the sensor s signal to background ratio using Monte Carlo (MC) based simulations and in vitro phantom studies. Separations in the range 0.45 to 1.25 mm were found to be optimal in the case of a point source. The numerical aperture (NA) of the source had no effect on the collected signal while the widening of the source spatial profile caused a shift in the optimal source-detector separation. Specifically, for a 4.5 mm flat beam and a 2.4 mm 2.5 mm photodetector, the optimal performance was found to be when the source and detector are adjacent to each other. These modeling results were confirmed by data collected from in vitro experiments on a liver phantom perfused with dye solutions mimicking the absorption properties of hemoglobin for different oxygenation states.

  4. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Mark A.; King, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  5. Quantifying oxygen in paper-based cell cultures with luminescent thin film sensors.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Matthew W; Kenney, Rachael M; Truong, Andrew S; Lockett, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for generating 3D tissue-like cultures because paper is readily available and does not require specialized equipment to pattern, cut, or use. By controlling the exchange of fresh culture medium with the paper-based scaffolds, we can engineer diffusion-dominated environments similar to those found in spheroids or solid tumors. Oxygen tension directly regulates cellular phenotype and invasiveness through hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and also has chemotactic properties. To date, gradients of oxygen generated in the paper-based cultures have relied on cellular response-based readouts. In this work, we prepared a luminescent thin film capable of quantifying oxygen tensions in apposed cell-containing paper-based scaffolds. The oxygen sensors, which are polystyrene films containing a Pd(II) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin dye, are photostable, stable in culture conditions, and not cytotoxic. They have a linear response for oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 160 mmHg O2, and a Stern-Volmer constant (K sv) of 0.239 ± 0.003 mmHg O2 (-1). We used these oxygen-sensing films to measure the spatial and temporal changes in oxygen tension for paper-based cultures containing a breast cancer line that was engineered to constitutively express a fluorescent protein. By acquiring images of the oxygen-sensing film and the fluorescently labeled cells, we were able to approximate the oxygen consumption rates of the cells in our cultures. Graphical Abstract Schematic of a paper-based culture seeded with fluorescent cells, and an oxygen-sensitive film. PMID:26667655

  6. Ultra-sensitive optical oxygen sensors for characterisation of nearly anoxic systems

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Philipp; Staudinger, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen quantification in trace amounts is essential in many fields of science and technology. Optical oxygen sensors proved invaluable tools for oxygen measurements in a broad concentration range but until now neither optical nor electrochemical oxygen sensors were able to quantify oxygen in the sub-nanomolar concentration range. Herein we present new optical oxygen sensing materials with unmatched sensitivity. They rely on the combination of ultra-long decaying (several hundred milliseconds lifetime) phosphorescent boron- and aluminium-chelates and highly oxygen-permeable and chemically stable perfluorinated polymers. The sensitivity of the new sensors is improved up to 20-fold compared to state-of-the-art analogues. The limits of detection are as low as 5 parts per billion, volume in gas phase under atmospheric pressure or 7 picomolar in solution. The sensors enable completely new applications for monitoring of oxygen in previously inaccessible concentration ranges. PMID:25042041

  7. Ultra-sensitive optical oxygen sensors for characterization of nearly anoxic systems.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Philipp; Staudinger, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen quantification in trace amounts is essential in many fields of science and technology. Optical oxygen sensors proved invaluable tools for oxygen measurements in a broad concentration range, but until now neither optical nor electrochemical oxygen sensors were able to quantify oxygen in the sub-nanomolar concentration range. Herein we present new optical oxygen-sensing materials with unmatched sensitivity. They rely on the combination of ultra-long decaying (several 100 ms lifetime) phosphorescent boron- and aluminium-chelates, and highly oxygen-permeable and chemically stable perfluorinated polymers. The sensitivity of the new sensors is improved up to 20-fold compared with state-of-the-art analogues. The limits of detection are as low as 5 p.p.b., volume in gas phase under atmospheric pressure or 7 pM in solution. The sensors enable completely new applications for monitoring of oxygen in previously inaccessible concentration ranges. PMID:25042041

  8. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging for direct in vivo tissue oxygen monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qi; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissue may provide physicians with essential information about the physiological state of tissue. However, currently available methods for measuring or imaging tissue pO2 have significant limitations, preventing them from being widely used in clinics. Recently, we have reported a direct and noninvasive in vivo imaging modality based on the photoacoustic lifetime which overcomes certain drawbacks of the existing methods. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflecting the spatial and temporal distributions of tissue oxygen. Here, we present two studies which apply photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) to monitor changes of tissue oxygen induced by external modulations. The first study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen a normal mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change in oxygen level with respect to normal, oxygen-rich, and oxygen-poor breathing conditions. The second study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hindlimb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of tissue pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were tracked and observed by PALI. PMID:25748857

  9. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging for direct in vivo tissue oxygen monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2015-03-01

    Measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissue may provide physicians with essential information about the physiological state of tissue. However, currently available methods for measuring or imaging tissue pO2 have significant limitations, preventing them from being widely used in clinics. Recently, we have reported a direct and noninvasive in vivo imaging modality based on the photoacoustic lifetime which overcomes certain drawbacks of the existing methods. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflecting the spatial and temporal distributions of tissue oxygen. Here, we present two studies which apply photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) to monitor changes of tissue oxygen induced by external modulations. The first study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen a normal mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change in oxygen level with respect to normal, oxygen-rich, and oxygen-poor breathing conditions. The second study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hindlimb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of tissue pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were tracked and observed by PALI.

  10. Bio-Inspired Miniature Direction Finding Acoustic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, Daniel; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-01-01

    A narrowband MEMS direction finding sensor has been developed based on the mechanically coupled ears of the Ormia Ochracea fly. The sensor consists of two wings coupled at the middle and attached to a substrate using two legs. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. Thus, the directional response of the sensor is symmetric about the normal axis making the determination of the direction ambiguous. To overcome this shortcoming two sensors were assembled with a canted angle similar to that employed in radar bearing locators. The outputs of two sensors were processed together allowing direction finding with no requirement of knowing the incident sound pressure level. At the bending resonant frequency of the sensors (1.69 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The angle uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3° close to the normal axis (0°) to 3.4° at the limits of coverage (±60°) based on the 30° canted angle used. These findings indicate the great potential to use dual MEMS direction finding sensor assemblies to locate sound sources with high accuracy. PMID:27440657

  11. Bio-Inspired Miniature Direction Finding Acoustic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmott, Daniel; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-07-01

    A narrowband MEMS direction finding sensor has been developed based on the mechanically coupled ears of the Ormia Ochracea fly. The sensor consists of two wings coupled at the middle and attached to a substrate using two legs. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. Thus, the directional response of the sensor is symmetric about the normal axis making the determination of the direction ambiguous. To overcome this shortcoming two sensors were assembled with a canted angle similar to that employed in radar bearing locators. The outputs of two sensors were processed together allowing direction finding with no requirement of knowing the incident sound pressure level. At the bending resonant frequency of the sensors (1.69 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The angle uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3° close to the normal axis (0°) to 3.4° at the limits of coverage (±60°) based on the 30° canted angle used. These findings indicate the great potential to use dual MEMS direction finding sensor assemblies to locate sound sources with high accuracy.

  12. Bio-Inspired Miniature Direction Finding Acoustic Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wilmott, Daniel; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-01-01

    A narrowband MEMS direction finding sensor has been developed based on the mechanically coupled ears of the Ormia Ochracea fly. The sensor consists of two wings coupled at the middle and attached to a substrate using two legs. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. Thus, the directional response of the sensor is symmetric about the normal axis making the determination of the direction ambiguous. To overcome this shortcoming two sensors were assembled with a canted angle similar to that employed in radar bearing locators. The outputs of two sensors were processed together allowing direction finding with no requirement of knowing the incident sound pressure level. At the bending resonant frequency of the sensors (1.69 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The angle uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3° close to the normal axis (0°) to 3.4° at the limits of coverage (±60°) based on the 30° canted angle used. These findings indicate the great potential to use dual MEMS direction finding sensor assemblies to locate sound sources with high accuracy. PMID:27440657

  13. High Throughput Micropatterning of Optical Oxygen Sensor for Single Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haixin; Tian, Yanqing; Bhushan, Shivani; Su, Fengyu; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present our results from process development and characterization of optical oxygen sensors that are patterned by traditional UV lithography. An oxygen sensitive luminescent probe, platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), was encapsulated in commercially purchased photoresist (AZ5214) to form uniform thin sensor films on fused silica substrates. Plasticizer ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (SR454) was added to the dye-photoresist sensor mixtures to improve the oxygen sensitivity. The optimum sensor mixture composition that can be patterned with maximum sensitivity was identified. The microfabrication process conditions, cell adherence and oxygen sensitivity results from patterned structures were characterized in detail. Down to 3 µm features have been fabricated on fused silica substrates using the developed techniques. The result implies the developed methods can provide a feasible way to miniaturize the optical sensor system for single cell analysis with precise control of sensor volume and response PMID:23066352

  14. Indoor Navigation using Direction Sensor and Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    A system for indoor navigation of a mobile robot includes (1) modulated infrared beacons at known positions on the walls and ceiling of a room and (2) a cameralike sensor, comprising a wide-angle lens with a position-sensitive photodetector at the focal plane, mounted in a known position and orientation on the robot. The system also includes a computer running special-purpose software that processes the sensor readings to obtain the position and orientation of the robot in all six degrees of freedom in a coordinate system embedded in the room.

  15. Performance Evaluation of an Oxygen Sensor as a Function of the Samaria Doped Ceria Film Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Jiang, Weilin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

    2010-12-01

    The current demand in the automobile industry is in the control of air-fuel mixture in the combustion engine of automobiles. Oxygen partial pressure can be used as an input parameter for regulating or controlling systems in order to optimize the combustion process. Our goal is to identify and optimize the material system that would potentially function as the active sensing material for such a device that monitors oxygen partial pressure in these systems. We have used thin film samaria doped ceria (SDC) as the sensing material for the sensor operation, exploiting the fact that at high temperatures, oxygen vacancies generated due to samarium doping act as conducting medium for oxygen ions which hop through the vacancies from one side to the other contributing to an electrical signal. We have recently established that 6 atom % Sm doping in ceria films has optimum conductivity. Based on this observation, we have studied the variation in the overall conductivity of 6 atom % samaria doped ceria thin films as a function of thickness in the range of 50 nm to 300 nm at a fixed bias voltage of 2 volts. A direct proportionality in the increase in the overall conductivity is observed with the increase in sensing film thickness. For a range of oxygen pressure values from 1 mTorr to 100 Torr, a tolerable hysteresis error, good dynamic response and a response time of less than 10 seconds was observed

  16. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  17. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  18. Dual fluorescence sensor for trace oxygen and temperature with unmatched range and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baleizão, Carlos; Nagl, Stefan; Schäferling, Michael; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2008-08-15

    An optical dual sensor for oxygen and temperature is presented that is highly oxygen sensitive and covers a broad temperature range. Dual sensing is based on luminescence lifetime measurements. The novel sensor contains two luminescent compounds incorporated into polymer films. The temperature-sensitive dye (ruthenium tris-1,10-phenanthroline) has a highly temperature-dependent luminescence and is incorporated in poly(acrylonitrile) to avoid cross-sensitivity to oxygen. Fullerene C70 was used as the oxygen-sensitive probe owing to its strong thermally activated delayed fluorescence at elevated temperatures that is extremely oxygen sensitive. The cross-sensitivity of C70 to temperature is accounted for by means of the temperature sensor. C70 is incorporated into a highly oxygen-permeable polymer, either ethyl cellulose or organosilica. The two luminescent probes have different emission spectra and decay times, and their emissions can be discriminated using both parameters. Spatially resolved sensing is achieved by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging. The response times of the sensor to oxygen are short. The dual sensor exhibits a temperature operation range between at least 0 and 120 degrees C, and detection limits for oxygen in the ppbv range, operating for oxygen concentrations up to at least 50 ppmv. These ranges outperform all dual oxygen and temperature sensors reported so far. The dual sensor presented in this study is especially appropriate for measurements under extreme conditions such as high temperatures and ultralow oxygen levels. This dual sensor is a key step forward in a number of scientifically or commercially important applications including food packaging, for monitoring of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, in space technology, and safety and security applications in terms of detection of oxygen leaks. PMID:18651755

  19. Advances towards the qualification of an aircraft fuel tank inert environment fiber optic oxygen sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian; Susko, Kenneth; Goglia, John

    2011-06-01

    An all optical pressure and temperature compensated fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSenseTM) system is under qualification for use in the in-situ closed-loop-control of the inert atmosphere environment inside fuel tanks of military and commercial aircraft. The all-optical oxygen environment control sensor is a passive, intrinsically safe, fiber-optic sensor device with no electrical connections leading to the sensors installed within the fuel tanks of an aircraft. To control the fuel tank environment, an array of multiple sensors is deployed throughout the fuel tanks of an aircraft, and a remote multi-channel optoelectronic system is used to monitor the status of all the sensors in real time to provide feedback oxygen environment information to the on-board inert gas generating system (OBIGS). Qualification testing of the all optical sensor have demonstrated the ability to monitor the oxygen environment inside a simulated fuel tank environment in the oxygen range from 0% to 21% oxygen concentrations, temperatures from (-) 40°C to (+) 60°C, and altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet. Fiber optic oxygen sensors with built-in temperature compensation as well as the conduit fiber optic cables have passed DO-160E including acoustic noise and burn test.

  20. Dragonfly directional sensor versus rocket-propelled grenades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, Joseph; Blackwell, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    The Dragonfly directional sensor was deployed at the Army's Yuma Proving Grounds for preliminary field tests against rocket-propelled grenades. This wide-field (nonimaging) sensor's purpose was to angularly locate the latter's launch plume. These tests successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept.

  1. Optical triple sensor for measuring pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Holobar, Andrej; Trettnak, Wolfgang; Klimant, Ingo; Kraus, H.; O'Leary, Paul; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1993-04-01

    A triple sensor unit consisting of opto-chemical sensors for measurement of pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide is presented. The pH sensor and the CO2 sensor are based on the color change of a pH-sensitive dye immobilized on a polymeric support. The resulting changes in absorption are monitored through optical fibers at one or two analytical wavelengths. The oxygen sensor is based on the quenching of the fluorescence of a metalorganic dye. The operation principle and the performance of all three sensors are described thoroughly with respect to their application in bioreactors. All three sensors are fully LED compatible. The chemical and mechanical stability, especially against common sterilization methods, are described in some detail. A calibration and measurement software comprising fit routines for the sensors and a mathematical treatment of the results are presented as well.

  2. Sensor for direct measurement of interaction forces in probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degertekin, F. L.; Onaran, A. G.; Balantekin, M.; Lee, W.; Hall, N. A.; Quate, C. F.

    2005-11-01

    We introduce a sensor for direct measurement of tip-sample interaction forces in probe microscopy. The sensor uses a micromachined membrane structure built on a transparent substrate with an integrated diffraction grating for optical interferometric detection, and a built-in electrostatic actuator. To demonstrate our concept for this sensor, we measured the force curves between an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tip and a micromachined aluminum sensor membrane built on a quartz substrate. We also measured transient interaction forces exerted on the sensor membrane during each cycle of the vibrating AFM cantilever. These agree well with the temporal response of the sensor to a short force pulse applied by our integrated electrostatic actuator. With the addition of an integrated tip, this structure may be used for scanning probe microscopy with a bandwidth limited by the membrane dynamics.

  3. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.

    2009-04-28

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  4. Grating vibration sensor with digital direction identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuge, Jingchang; Zeng, Zhoumo; Li, Shuqing; Zhang, Yu; Zhan, Xianglin

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of direction identification in digital signal processing for seismic wave is introduced. Traditional direction identification method is replaced by a new digital direction identification method without making use of direction identification circuit. For judging whether the direction of vibration changes or not, the relative differences of the amplitude ratio and frequency change of Moire fringe signals at the turning points are two main determining conditions. According to the characteristics of current Moire fringe signals, we can predict the range of relative differences of the amplitude ratio and frequency change of Moire fringe signals at the next turning point. If the Moire fringe signals satisfy any one of two conditions, the possibility of vibration direction changed is extremely large. In order to avoid misinformation, the determination of vibration direction will be made after the confirmation process. Once the change of vibration direction is determined, the turning point will be picked out accurately. Experiments result shows that the solution has advantages of high resolution, high precision, wide dynamic range and low error.

  5. Direct Mapping of Magnetic and Structural Profiles of Electric Field Moderated Oxygen Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Kirby, Brian J.; Borchers, Julie A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Liu, Kai

    Recent studies on metal/oxide heterostructures have demonstrated control of interfacial magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetization in ultrathin (5 ML) Co films through electric-field controlled oxygen migration. This approach presents a promising route to realizing next-generation, ultralow power sensor and data-storage technologies. Here we demonstrate magnetoelectric coupling moderated by electrically-driven oxygen migration in much thicker AlOx(1 um)/GdOx(2 nm)/Co (15 nm) heterostructures. Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we present direct, quantitative depth profiling of the magnetization and oxygen concentration in these systems. Electro-thermal conditioning moves oxygen from AlOx and GdOx base-layers throughout the entire thickness of the 15 nm Co layer, resulting in a suppressed magnetization. Switching the electric field polarity semi-reversibly ejects oxygen preferentially from the GdOX/Co interface, partially recovering the magnetization and establishing a practical limit to this approach. First order reversal curve diagrams show that the conditioned samples exhibit two distinct magnetic phases, while the as-grown samples are single phase, suggesting that the treatments alters the Co film microstructure. X-ray spectroscopy confirms the oxidation states of the Co and Gd, and suggest that the GdOX acts to transmit oxygen but does not source or sink it.

  6. Three Magnetic Direct-Current Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Stagg, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Three direct-current-measuring circuits based on magnetic (transformer) coupling, with periodic reset of magnetic flux to reverse saturation. Unidirectional and bidirectional versions demonstrated. Offers greater realibility and lower power consumption.

  7. Leaf water oxygen isotope measurement by direct equilibration.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Barbour, Margaret M

    2016-08-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of leaf water imparts a signal to a range of molecules in the atmosphere and biosphere, but has been notoriously difficult to measure in studies requiring a large number of samples as a consequence of the labour-intensive extraction step. We tested a method of direct equilibration of water in fresh leaf samples with CO2 , and subsequent oxygen isotope analysis on an optical spectrometer. The oxygen isotope composition of leaf water measured by the direct equilibration technique was strongly linearly related to that of cryogenically extracted leaf water in paired samples for a wide range of species with differing anatomy, with an R(2) of 0.95. The somewhat more enriched values produced by the direct equilibration method may reflect lack of full equilibration with unenriched water in the vascular bundles, but the strong relationship across a wide range of species suggests that this difference can be adequately corrected for using a simple linear relationship. PMID:27147584

  8. Miniature dissolved oxygen and turbulence optical sensor for river and coastal environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Lombardi, Gabrial; Butman, Jerry; Babb, Ivar

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes an innovative miniature optical sensor for predicting dissolved oxygen concentrations and measuring turbulence in river and littoral water columns. The dissolved oxygen and turbulence sensor consists of a single-frequency laser transmitter and a photodetector on which the scattered light from the turbulent water at the base of a dam or spillway is coherently mixed with a sample of the transmitted beam. This miniature sensor could be used both upstream and downsteam of dams and weirs to predict the amount of dissolved oxygen and turbulence in these waters. It could also be used on mobile platforms, such as unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV's), to monitor the edges of biological or chemical plumes or for wake follow platforms, schools of fish or marine mammals or on stationary unattended underwater sensors to monitor natural aeration and turbulence in littoral and riverine waters. Arrays of fixed unattended sensors could be used to detect the wake of transiting submerged vehicles, scuba divers, marine mammals or large schools of fish. A mobile platform equipped with a miniature sensor could to be cued to the general location and depth of an underwater target and then the platform could use this small aperture sensor to acquire and follow the wake. This dissolved oxygen and turbulence sensor system could be miniaturized and packaged into a very small volume; approximately the size of a wristwatch.

  9. Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, N.; Harris, J. A.; Glover, K.

    2013-09-01

    Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air-fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (X_{O_2 }). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict λ and X_{O_2 } based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict λ, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of X_{O_2 }. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of λ and X_{O_2 }, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model.

  10. Direct measurement of oxygen consumption rates from attached and unattached cells in a reversibly sealed, diffusionally isolated sample chamber

    PubMed Central

    Strovas, Timothy J.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Anderson, Judy B.; Nandakumar, Vivek; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen consumption is a fundamental component of metabolic networks, mitochondrial function, and global carbon cycling. To date there is no method available that allows for replicate measurements on attached and unattached biological samples without compensation for extraneous oxygen leaking into the system. Here we present the Respiratory Detection System, which is compatible with virtually any biological sample. The RDS can be used to measure oxygen uptake in microliter-scale volumes with a reversibly sealed sample chamber, which contains a porphyrin-based oxygen sensor. With the RDS, one can maintain a diffusional seal for up to three hours, allowing for the direct measurement of respiratory function of samples with fast or slow metabolic rates. The ability to easily measure oxygen uptake in small volumes with small populations or dilute samples has implications in cell biology, environmental biology, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:21546993

  11. A plastic optical fiber sensor for the dual sensing of temperature and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Yu-Lung; Chu, Chen-Shane

    2008-04-01

    This study presents a low-cost plastic optical fiber sensor for the dual sensing of temperature and oxygen. The sensor features a commercially available epoxy glue coated on the side-polished fiber surface for temperature sensing and a fluorinated xerogel doped with platinum tetrakis pentrafluoropheny porphine (PtTFPP) coated on the fiber end for oxygen sensing. The temperature and oxygen indicators are both excited using a UV LED light source with a wavelength of 380 nm. The luminescence emission spectra of the two indicators are well resolved and exhibit no cross-talk effects. Overall, the results indicate that the dual sensor presented in this study provides an ideal solution for the non-contact, simultaneous sensing of temperature and oxygen in general biological and medical applications.

  12. Fiber Optic Raman Sensor to Monitor Concentration Ratio of Nitrogen and Oxygen in a Cryogenic Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.; SaintCyr, William

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor is developed for a specific need of NASA/SSC for long-term detection and monitoring of the quality of liquid oxygen (LOX) in the delivery line during ground testing of rocket engines. The sensor performance was tested in the laboratory and with different excitation light sources. To evaluate the sensor performance with different excitation light sources for the LOX quality application, we have used the various mixtures of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen as samples. The study of the sensor performance shows that this sensor offers a great deal of flexibility and provides a cost effective solution for the application. However, an improved system response time is needed for the real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in harsh environment.

  13. Development of a directional sensitive pressure and shear sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Dee, Jeffrey; Ledoux, William; Sangeorzan, Bruce; Reinhall, Per G.

    2002-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that impacts the lives of millions of people around the world. Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Shear stress is thought to be a major contributing factor to ulcer development, but due in part to technical difficulties with transducing shear stress, there is no widely used shear measurement sensor. As such, we are currently developing a directionally sensitive pressure/shear sensor based on fiber optic technology. The pressure/shear sensor consists of an array of optical fibers lying in perpendicular rows and columns separated by elastomeric pads. A map of pressure and shear stress is constructed based on observed macro bending through the intensity attenuation from the physical deformation of two adjacent perpendicular fibers. The sensor has been shown to have low noise and responded linearly to applied loads. The smallest detectable force on each sensor element based on the current setup is ~0.1 lbs. (0.4N). The smallest area we have resolved in our mesh sensor is currently ~1 cm2.

  14. Development of sensors for monitoring oxygen and free radicals in plant physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Prachee

    Oxygen plays a critical role in the physiology of photosynthetic organisms, including bioenergetics, metabolism, development, and stress response. Oxygen levels affect photosynthesis, respiration, and alternative oxidase pathways. Likewise, the metabolic rate of spatially distinct plant cells (and therefore oxygen flux) is known to be affected by biotic stress (e.g., herbivory) and environmental stress (e.g., salt/nutrient stress). During aerobic metabolism, cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by product. Plants also produce ROS during adaptation to stress (e.g., abscisic acid (ABA) mediated stress responses). If stress conditions are prolonged, ROS levels surpass the capacity of detoxifying mechanisms within the cell, resulting in oxidative damage. While stress response pathways such as ABA-mediated mechanisms have been well characterized (e.g., water stress, inhibited shoot growth, synthesis of storage proteins in seeds), the connection between ROS production, oxygen metabolism and stress response remains unknown. In part, this is because details of oxygen transport at the interface of cell(s) and the surrounding microenvironment remains nebulous. The overall goal of this research was to develop oxygen and Free radical sensors for studying stress signaling in plants. Recent developments in nanomaterials and data acquisition systems were integrated to develop real-time, non-invasive oxygen and Free radical sensors. The availability of these sensors for plant physiologists is an exciting opportunity to probe the functional realm of cells and tissues in ways that were not previously possible.

  15. Direct Oxygen Abundances for the Lowest Luminosity LVL Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle; Skillman, E. D.; Marble, A. R.; van Zee, L.; Engelbracht, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present new MMT spectroscopic observations of HII regions in 42 of the lowest luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey. For 31 of the galaxies in our sample we were able to measure the [OIII] ? auroral line at a strength of 4σ or greater, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the direct method. Direct oxygen abundances were compared to B-band luminosity, 4.5 μm luminosity, and stellar mass to characterize the luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) and mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationships at low-luminosity. We examined a "Combined Select” sample composed of 38 objects, from the present sample and the literature, with direct oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (based on the tip of the red giant branch or Cepheid variables). The B-band and 4.5 μm L-Z relationships were found to be 12+log(O/H) = (6.19±0.07) + (-0.12±0.01)MB and 12+log(O/H) = (5.93±0.11) + (-0.11±0.01)M[4.5] with dispersions of σ = 0.17 and σ = 0.14 respectively. Since the slope of the L-Z relationship doesn't seem to vary from the optical to the near-IR, as has been observed in studies of more luminous galaxies, we propose that less extinction due to dust is created in the lowest luminosity galaxies. We subsequently derived a M-Z relationship of 12+log(O/H) = (5.49±0.23) + (0.31±0.03)log M*, with a dispersion of σ = 0.16. None of the relationships seem to hold an advantage with respect to dispersion, supporting the idea of minimized dust. Additionally, the trend of N/O abundance with respect to B-V color and oxygen abundance was examined. Similar to the conclusions of van Zee & Haynes (2006), we find a positive correlation between N/O ratio and B-V color: log(N/O) = 0.92 (B-V) - 1.83. Furthermore, there are no objects with high N/O ratio below 12+log(O/H)=7.9.

  16. Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

  17. DIRECT OXYGEN ABUNDANCES FOR LOW-LUMINOSITY LVL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Marble, Andrew R.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Calzetti, Daniela; Dale, Daniel A.; Johnson, Benjamin D. E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: amarble@nso.edu E-mail: jlee@stsci.edu E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu

    2012-08-01

    We present MMT spectroscopic observations of H II regions in 42 low luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey. For 31 of the 42 galaxies in our sample, we were able to measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line at a strength of 4{sigma} or greater, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the 'direct' method. Our results provide the first 'direct' estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 of these galaxies. 'Direct' oxygen abundances were compared to B-band luminosities, 4.5 {mu}m luminosities, and stellar masses in order to characterize the luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relationships at low luminosity. We present and analyze a 'Combined Select' sample composed of 38 objects (drawn from a sub-set of our parent sample and the literature) with 'direct' oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (based on the tip of the red giant branch or Cepheid variables). Consistent with previous studies, the B band and 4.5 {mu}m luminosity-metallicity relationships for the 38 objects were found to be 12 + log(O/H) = (6.27 {+-} 0.21) + (- 0.11 {+-} 0.01)M{sub B} and 12 + log(O/H) = (6.10 {+-} 0.21) + (- 0.10 {+-} 0.01)M{sub [4.5]} with dispersions of {sigma} = 0.15 and 0.14, respectively. The slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships have been reported to be different for galaxies with luminosities greater than that of the LMC. However, the similarity of the slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships for our sample probably reflects little influence by dust extinction in the low luminosity galaxies. For this sample, we derive a mass-metallicity relationship of 12 + log(O/H) = (5.61 {+-} 0.24) + (0.29 {+-} 0.03)log (M{sub *}), which agrees with previous studies; however, the dispersion ({sigma} = 0.15) is not significantly lower than that of the L-Z relationships. Because of the low dispersions in these relationships, if an accurate distance is available, the luminosity of a low luminosity galaxy is

  18. Moving target tracking through distributed clustering in directional sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Enayet, Asma; Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2014-01-01

    The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target's location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works. PMID:25529205

  19. In vitro performance of a perfusion and oxygenation optical sensor using a unique liver phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; Ericson, M. N.; Wilson, Mark A.; McShane, Michael J.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-03-01

    Between the years 1999 and 2008, on average 2,052 people died per year on the waiting list for liver transplants. Monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs in the 7 to 14 days period post-transplant can enhance graft and patient survival rates, and resultantly increase the availability of organs. In this work, we present in vitro results using a unique liver phantom that support the ability of our sensor to detect perfusion changes in the portal vein at low levels (50 mL/min . 4.5% of normal level). Our sensor measures diffuse reflection from three wavelengths (735, 805 and 940 nm) around the hemoglobin isobestic point (805 nm) to determine perfusion and oxygenation separately. To assess the sensitivity of our sensor to flow changes in the low range, we used two peristaltic pumps to pump a dye solution mimicking the optical properties of oxygenated blood, at various rates, through a PDMS based phantom mimicking the optical properties of liver tissue. The collected pulsatile signal increased by 120% (2.2X) for every 100 mL/min flow rise for all three wavelengths in the range 50 to 500 mL/min. In addition, we used different dye mixtures to mimic oxygenation changes at constant perfusion/flow levels. The optical properties of the dye mixtures mimic oxygen saturations ranging between 0 and 100%. The sensor was shown to be sensitive to changes in oxygen saturations above 50%.

  20. Polydimethylsiloxane Core-Polycaprolactone Shell Nanofibers as Biocompatible, Real-Time Oxygen Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Xu, Joshua; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time, continuous monitoring of local oxygen contents at the cellular level is desirable both for the study of cancer cell biology and in tissue engineering. In this paper, we report the successful fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanofibers containing oxygen-sensitive probes by electrospinning and the applications of these fibers as optical oxygen sensors for both gaseous and dissolved oxygen. A protective ‘shell’ layer of polycaprolactone (PCL) not only maintains the fiber morphology of PDMS during the slow curing process but also provides more biocompatible surfaces. Once this strategy was perfected, tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(dpp)) and platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) were dissolved in the PDMS core and the resulting sensing performance established. These new core-shell sensors containing different sensitivity probes showed slight variations in oxygen response but all exhibited excellent Stern-Volmer linearity. Due in part to the porous nature of the fibers and the excellent oxygen permeability of PDMS, the new sensors show faster response (<0.5 s) −4–10 times faster than previous reports – than conventional 2D film-based oxygen sensors. Such core-shell fibers are readily integrated into standard cell culture plates or bioreactors. The photostability of these nanofiber-based sensors was also assessed. Culture of glioma cell lines (CNS1, U251) and glioma-derived primary cells (GBM34) revealed negligible differences in biological behavior suggesting that the presence of the porphyrin dyes within the core carries with it no strong cytotoxic effects. The unique combination of demonstrated biocompatibility due to the PCL ‘shell’ and the excellent oxygen transparency of the PDMS core makes this particular sensing platform promising for sensing in the context of biological environments. PMID:25006274

  1. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen (O₂) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O₂ measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) generated by the introduction of O₂ in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O₂ sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O₂ versus CO₂ (each 0-15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O₂ measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO₂. For the O₂ in situ measurement in silage, all O₂ sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O₂ depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O₂ penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O₂ concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  2. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  3. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-03-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  4. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  5. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Miniaturized Series-Connected Potentiometric Oxygen Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Virkar, Anil V.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Dunham, Glen C.; Marina, Olga A.

    2005-03-28

    Miniaturization of potentiometric sensors facilitates connecting many sensors in series to amplify the output. Miniaturized series-connected potentiometric sensors were developed on a silicon wafer by microfabrication techniques. The sensors consist of a thin film yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and Pt electrodes. The reference oxygen partial pressure is determined by a nickel - nickel oxide (Ni-NiO) mixture. The open circuit voltage (OCV) was tested in air at 300oC and was found to be lower than expected. The output of the net sensor increased almost linearly by connecting 10 sensors in series. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the electrolyte and electrolyte/electrode interfaces using a two electrode configuration.

  6. Development of a compact multipass oxygen sensor used for gas diffusion studies in opaque media.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jim; Mei, Liang; Lundin, Patrik; Bood, Joakim; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-20

    A highly scattering porous ceramic sample is employed as a miniature random-scattering multipass gas cell for monitoring of oxygen content in opaque media, that is, wood materials in the present work. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy is used by employing a 760 nm near-infrared laser diode to probe the absorption of molecular oxygen enclosed in the pores of the ceramic material working as the multipass gas cell, with a porosity of 75%. A path length enhancement of approximately 26 times and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 60 were obtained for the ceramic sample used in this work. The gas sensor was then used in a case study of the gas diffusion in wood materials, namely, oak, spruce, and mahogany samples. Differences depending on whether gas diffusion was studied longitudinal or radial to the tree annual rings are demonstrated, with very little gas diffusing in the radial direction. We can also observe that the gas diffusion for the densest material-oak-had the fastest diffusion time, and mahogany, which had the lowest density, showed the slowest diffusion time. PMID:26836536

  7. Skeletal muscle and glioma oxygenation by carbogen inhalation in rats: a longitudinal study by EPR oximetry using single-probe implantable oxygen sensors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Lariviere, Jean; Hodge, Sassan; Chen, Eunice Y; Jarvis, Lesley A; Eastman, Alan; Williams, Benjamin B; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Swartz, Harold M

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of EPR oximetry using a single-probe implantable oxygen sensor (ImOS) was tested for repeated measurement of pO₂ in skeletal muscle and ectopic 9L tumors in rats. The ImOS (50 mm length) were constructed using nickel-chromium alloy wires, with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc, oximetry probe) crystals loaded in the sensor loop and coated with AF 2400(®) Teflon. These ImOS were implanted into the skeletal muscle in the thigh and subcutaneous 9L tumors. Dynamic changes in tissue pO₂ were assessed by EPR oximetry at baseline, during tumor growth, and repeated hyperoxygenation with carbogen breathing. The mean skeletal muscle pO₂ of normal rats was stable and significantly increased during carbogen inhalation in experiments repeated for 12 weeks. The 9L tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO₂ of 12.8 ± 6.4 mmHg on day 1; however, the response to carbogen inhalation varied among the animals. A significant increase in the glioma pO₂ was observed during carbogen inhalation on day 9 and day 14 only. In summary, EPR oximetry with ImOS allowed direct and longitudinal oxygen measurements in deep muscle tissue and tumors. The heterogeneity of 9L tumors in response to carbogen highlights the need to repeatedly monitor pO₂ to confirm tumor oxygenation so that such changes can be taken into account in planning therapies and interpreting results. PMID:24729220

  8. Smart Capture Modules for Direct Sensor-to-FPGA Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A

    2015-01-01

    Direct sensor-digital device interfaces measure time dependent variables of simple circuits to implement analog-to-digital conversion. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are devices whose hardware can be reconfigured to work in parallel. They usually do not have analog-to-digital converters, but have many general purpose I/O pins. Therefore, direct sensor-FPGA connection is a good choice in complex systems with many sensors because several capture modules can be implemented to perform parallel analog data acquisition. The possibility to work in parallel and with high frequency clock signals improves the bandwidth compared to sequential devices such as conventional microcontrollers. The price to pay is usually the resolution of measurements. This paper proposes capture modules implemented in an FPGA which are able to perform smart acquisition that filter noise and achieve high precision. A calibration technique is also proposed to improve accuracy. Resolutions of 12 effective number of bits are obtained for the reading of resistors in the range of an example piezoresistive tactile sensor. PMID:26694403

  9. A Fiber Optic Catalytic Sensor for Neutral Atom Measurements in Oxygen Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zaplotnik, Rok; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The presented sensor for neutral oxygen atom measurement in oxygen plasma is a catalytic probe which uses fiber optics and infrared detection system to measure the gray body radiation of the catalyst. The density of neutral atoms can be determined from the temperature curve of the probe, because the catalyst is heated predominantly by the dissipation of energy caused by the heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral atoms. The advantages of this sensor are that it is simple, reliable, easy to use, noninvasive, quantitative and can be used in plasma discharge regions. By using different catalyst materials the sensor can also be applied for detection of neutral atoms in other plasmas. Sensor design, operation, example measurements and new measurement procedure for systematic characterization are presented. PMID:22666005

  10. Revisiting direct electron transfer in nanostructured carbon laccase oxygen cathodes.

    PubMed

    Adam, Catherine; Scodeller, Pablo; Grattieri, Matteo; Villalba, Matías; Calvo, Ernesto J

    2016-06-01

    The biocatalytic electroreduction of oxygen has been studied on large surface area graphite and Vulcan® carbon electrodes with adsorbed Trametes trogii laccase. The electrokinetics of the O2 reduction reaction (ORR) was studied at different electrode potentials, O2 partial pressures and concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Even though the overpotential at 0.25 mA·cm(-2) for the ORR at T1Cu of the adsorbed laccase on carbon is 0.8 V lower than for Pt of similar geometric area, the rate of the reaction and thus the operative current density is limited by the enzyme reaction rate at the T2/T3 cluster site for the adsorbed enzyme. The transition potential for the rate determining step from the direct electron transfer (DET) to the enzyme reaction shifts to higher potentials at higher oxygen partial pressure. Hydrogen peroxide produced by the ORR on bare carbon support participates in an inhibition mechanism, with uncompetitive predominance at high H2O2 concentration, non-competitive contribution can be detected at low inhibitor concentration. PMID:26883057

  11. Evaluation of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Jarvis, Michele; Chiles, Harry R.

    1999-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) was a propulsion flight experiment for advanced space vehicles such as the X-33 and reusable launch vehicle. A linear aerospike rocket engine was integrated into a semi-span of an X-33-like lifting body shape (model), and carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Because no flight data existed for aerospike nozzles, the primary objective of the LASRE flight experiment was to evaluate flight effects on the engine performance over a range of altitudes and Mach numbers. Because it contained a large quantity of energy in the form of fuel, oxidizer, hypergolics, and gases at very high pressures, the LASRE propulsion system posed a major hazard for fire or explosion. Therefore, a propulsion-hazard mitigation system was created for LASRE that included a nitrogen purge system. Oxygen sensors were a critical part of the nitrogen purge system because they measured purge operation and effectiveness. Because the available oxygen sensors were not designed for flight testing, a laboratory study investigated oxygen-sensor characteristics and accuracy over a range of altitudes and oxygen concentrations. Laboratory test data made it possible to properly calibrate the sensors for flight. Such data also provided a more accurate error prediction than the manufacturer's specification. This predictive accuracy increased confidence in the sensor output during critical phases of the flight. This paper presents the findings of this laboratory test.

  12. A dual sensor for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqiang; Su, Fengyu; Buizer, Sean; Lu, Hongguang; Gao, Weimin; Tian, Yanqing; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    A dual glucose and oxygen sensor in a polymer format was developed. The dual sensor composed of a blue emitter as the glucose probe, a red emitter as an oxygen probe, and a yellow emitter as a built-in reference probe which does not respond to either glucose or oxygen. All the three probes were chemically immobilized in a polyacrylamide-based matrix. Therefore, the dual sensor possesses three well separated emission colors and ratiometric approach is applicable for analysis of the glucose and oxygen concentration at biological conditions. The sensor was applied for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen consumption of bacterial cells, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), and mammalian cells of mouse macrophage J774 and human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. On the other hand, in order to achieve satisfactory sensing performance for glucose, compositions of the matrices among poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), polyacrylamide, and poly(6-aminohexyl methacrylamide) which is a linker polymer for grafting the glucose probe, were optimized. PMID:24090834

  13. A dual sensor for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqiang; Su, Fengyu; Buizer, Sean; Lu, Hongguang; Gao, Weimin; Tian, Yanqing; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    A dual glucose and oxygen sensor in a polymer format was developed. The dual sensor composed of a blue emitter as the glucose probe, a red emitter as an oxygen probe, and a yellow emitter as a built-in reference probe which does not respond to either glucose or oxygen. All the three probes were chemically immobilized in a polyacrylamide-based matrix. Therefore, the dual sensor possesses three well separated emission colors and ratiometric approach is applicable for analysis of the glucose and oxygen concentration at biological conditions. The sensor was applied for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen consumption of bacterial cells, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), and mammalian cells of mouse macrophage J774 and human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. On the other hand, in order to achieve satisfactory sensing performance for glucose, compositions of the matrices among poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), polyacrylamide, and poly(6-aminohexyl methacrylamide) which is a linker polymer for grafting the glucose probe, were optimized. PMID:24090834

  14. Reversible potentiometric oxygen sensors based on polymeric and metallic film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yim, H S; Meyerhoff, M E

    1992-09-01

    Various materials and sensor configurations that exhibit reversible potentiometric responses to the partial pressure of oxygen at room temperature in neutral pH solution are examined. In one arrangement, platinum electrodes are coated with plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) films doped with a cobalt(II) tetraethylene pentamine complex. For such sensors, potentiometric oxygen response is attributed to a mixed potential originating from the underlying platinum electrode surface as well as a change in redox potential of the Co(II)-tetren-doped film as the complex binds oxygen reversibly. The response due to the platinum surface is prolonged by the presence of the Co(II)-tetren/PVC film. Alternately, thin films of metallic copper, electrochemically deposited on platinum and/or sputtered or vapor deposited on a single crystal silicon substrate, may be used for reversible oxygen sensing. The long-term reversibility and potentiometric stability of such copper film-based sensors is enhanced (up to 1 month) by preventing the formation of cuprous oxide on the surfaces via the application of an external nonpolarizing cathodic current through the working electrode or by specifically using sputtered copper films that have [100] preferred crystal structures as determined by X-ray diffraction. The implications of these findings in relation to fabricating analytically useful potentiometric oxygen sensors are discussed. PMID:1416035

  15. Flight Hydrogen Sensor for use in the ISS Oxygen Generation Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MSadoques, George, Jr.; Makel, Darby B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the hydrogen sensor Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) used on the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), to be operated on the International Space Station (ISS). The hydrogen sensor ORU is being provided by Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) to monitor the oxygen outlet for the presence of hydrogen. The hydrogen sensor ORU is a triple redundant design where each sensor converts raw measurements to actual hydrogen partial pressure that is reported to the OGA system controller. The signal outputs are utilized for system shutdown in the event that the hydrogen concentration in the oxygen outlet line exceeds the specified shutdown limit. Improvements have been made to the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensing element, screening, and calibration process to meet OGA operating requirements. Two flight hydrogen sensor ORUs have successfully completed the acceptance test phase. This paper also describes the sensor s performance during acceptance testing, additional tests planned to extend the operational performance calibration cycle, and integration with the OGA system.

  16. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Fibreoptic distributed temperature sensor with spectral filtration by directional fibre couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Babin, Sergei A.; Shelemba, Ivan S.

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a Raman-based all-fibre temperature sensor utilising a pulsed erbium fibre laser. The sensor is made of a standard single-mode telecom fibre, SMF-28, and includes a number of directional couplers as band-pass filters. The temperature profile along a 7-km fibreoptic line is measured with an accuracy of 2oC and a spatial resolution of 10 m. In data processing, we take into account the difference in attenuation between the spectral components of the backscatter signal.

  17. Evaluation of the electro-optic direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. R.; Salomon, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of a no-moving-parts single-axis star tracker called an electro-optic direction sensor (EODS) concept is described and the results are given in detail. The work involved experimental evaluation of a breadboard sensor yielding results which would permit design of a prototype sensor for a specific application. The laboratory work included evaluation of the noise equivalent input angle of the sensor, demonstration of a technique for producing an acquisition signal, constraints on the useful field-of-view, and a qualitative evaluation of the effects of stray light. In addition, the potential of the silicon avalanche-type photodiode for this application was investigated. No benefit in noise figure was found, but the easily adjustable gain of the avalanche device was useful. The use of mechanical tuning of the modulating element to reduce voltage requirements was also explored. The predicted performance of EODS in both photomultiplier and solid state detector configurations was compared to an existing state-of-the-art star tracker.

  18. Regulatory Implications of Structural Changes in Tyr201 of the Oxygen Sensor Protein FixL.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Takeo; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizuno, Misao; Nakamura, Hiro; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-07-26

    FixL is a heme-based oxygen-sensing histidine kinase that induces the expression of nitrogen fixation genes under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen dissociation from heme iron in the sensor domain of FixL initiates protein conformational changes that are transmitted to the histidine kinase domain, activating autophosphorylation activity. Conversely, oxygen binding inhibits FixL kinase activity. It is essential to elucidate the changes that occur in the protein structure upon this oxygen dissociation for understanding of the allosteric transduction mechanism. We measured ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra of FixL and its mutants for deoxy, oxy, and carbonmonoxy forms to examine the changes in protein structure upon oxygen dissociation. The observed spectral changes indicated that Tyr201 and its neighboring residues undergo structural changes upon oxygen dissociation. Kinase assays showed that substitution of Tyr201 significantly decreased the inhibition of kinase activity upon oxygen binding. These data mean that weakening of the hydrogen bond of Tyr201 that is induced by oxygen dissociation is essential for inhibition of kinase activity. We also observed spectral changes in Tyr residues in the kinase domain upon oxygen dissociation from FixL, which is the first observation of oxygen-dependent structural changes in the kinase domain of FixL. The observed structural changes support the allosteric transduction pathway of FixL which we proposed previously [ Yano, S., Ishikawa, H., Mizuno, M., Nakamura, H., Shiro, Y., and Mizutani, Y. ( 2013 ) J. Phys. Chem. B 117 , 15786 - 15791 ]. PMID:27367650

  19. Smart Capture Modules for Direct Sensor-to-FPGA Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A.; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct sensor–digital device interfaces measure time dependent variables of simple circuits to implement analog-to-digital conversion. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are devices whose hardware can be reconfigured to work in parallel. They usually do not have analog-to-digital converters, but have many general purpose I/O pins. Therefore, direct sensor-FPGA connection is a good choice in complex systems with many sensors because several capture modules can be implemented to perform parallel analog data acquisition. The possibility to work in parallel and with high frequency clock signals improves the bandwidth compared to sequential devices such as conventional microcontrollers. The price to pay is usually the resolution of measurements. This paper proposes capture modules implemented in an FPGA which are able to perform smart acquisition that filter noise and achieve high precision. A calibration technique is also proposed to improve accuracy. Resolutions of 12 effective number of bits are obtained for the reading of resistors in the range of an example piezoresistive tactile sensor. PMID:26694403

  20. Methane-oxygen electrochemical coupling in an ionic liquid: a robust sensor for simultaneous quantification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Guo, Min; Baker, Gary A; Stetter, Joseph R; Lin, Lu; Mason, Andrew J; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2014-10-21

    Current sensor devices for the detection of methane or natural gas emission are either expensive and have high power requirements or fail to provide a rapid response. This report describes an electrochemical methane sensor utilizing a non-volatile and conductive pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte and an innovative internal standard method for methane and oxygen dual-gas detection with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. At a platinum electrode in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2)-based ILs, methane is electro-oxidized to produce CO2 and water when an oxygen reduction process is included. The in situ generated CO2 arising from methane oxidation was shown to provide an excellent internal standard for quantification of the electrochemical oxygen sensor signal. The simultaneous quantification of both methane and oxygen in real time strengthens the reliability of the measurements by cross-validation of two ambient gases occurring within a single sample matrix and allows for the elimination of several types of random and systematic errors in the detection. We have also validated this IL-based methane sensor employing both conventional solid macroelectrodes and flexible microfabricated electrodes using single- and double-potential step chronoamperometry. PMID:25093213

  1. Fiber-optic fluorescence-quenching oxygen partial pressure sensor using platinum octaethylporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John J; Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2016-07-20

    The development and bench testing of a fiber-optic oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is designed for measurement of tissue oxygen levels in the mucosa of the digestive tract. The materials and construction are optimized for insertion through the mouth for measurement in the lower esophagus. An oxygen-sensitive fluorescence-quenching film was applied as a solution of platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and dichloromethane and dip coated onto the distal tip of the fiber. The sensor was tested by comparing relative fluorescence when immersed in liquid water at 37°C, at a range of partial pressures (0-101 kPa). Maximum relative fluorescence at most oxygen concentrations was seen when the PtOEP concentration was 0.1  g.L-1, four layers of coating solution were applied, and a fiber core radius of 600 μm was selected, giving a Stern-Volmer constant of 0.129  kPa-1. The performance of the sensor is suitable for many in vivo applications, particularly mucosal measurements. It has sufficient sensitivity, is sterilizable, and is sufficiently flexible and robust for insertion via the mouth without damage to the probe or risk of harm to the patient. PMID:27463913

  2. A Two-Axis Direct Fluid Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, Edward E.; Scott, Michael A.; Bajikar, Sateesh S.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is a miniature or micro sized semiconductor sensor design that provides two axis direct non-intrusive measurement of skin friction or wall shear stress in fluid flow. The sensor is fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, enabling small size and low cost reproductions. The sensors have been fabricated by utilizing MEMS fabrication processes to bond a sensing element wafer to a fluid coupling wafer. This layering technique provides for an out of plane dimension that is on the same order of length as the inplane dimensions. The sensor design has the following characteristics: a shear force collecting plate with dimensions that can be tailored to various application specific requirements such as spatial resolution, temporal resolution and shear force range and resolution. This plate is located coplanar to both the sensor body and flow boundary, and is connected to a dual axis gimbal structure by a connecting column or lever arm. The dual axis gimbal structure has torsional hinges with embedded piezoresistive torsional strain gauges which provide a voltage output that is correlated to the applied shear stress (and excitation current) on force collection plate that is located on the flow boundary surface (hence the transduction method). This combination of design elements create a force concentration and resolution structure that enables the generation of a large stress on the strain gauge from the small shear stress on the flow boundary wall. This design as well as the use of back side electrical contacts establishes a non-intrusive method to quantitatively measure the shear force vector on aerodynamic bodies.

  3. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  4. Direct UV-written planar Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Christopher; Gates, James C.; Carpenter, Lewis G.; Rogers, Helen L.; Parker, Richard M.; Cooper, Peter A.; Chaotan, Sima; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal R.; Gawith, Corin B. E.; Smith, Peter G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Integrated photonics is a proven platform for physical and chemical sensing. It offers miniaturised solutions that are suited for use in extreme environments, including strong EM-fields, EM-pulses and contact with flammable materials, often far exceeding electronic sensors in this regard. This review looks into direct UV-written planar Bragg grating technology and its application to integrated photonic sensors. The platform has been demonstrated widely for measurement of physical properties such as temperature, pressure and strain. In addition, by using an evanescent interaction, refractive index can be measured allowing for chemical and biochemical detection. Further to this, the platform has recently been utilised in quantum information processing, where quantum gate operations and single photon detection has been shown.

  5. A New Crosslinkable Oxygen Sensor Covalently Bonded into Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-CO-Polyacrylamide Thin Film for Dissolved Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2010-01-01

    A new oxygen sensor, compound 2, was synthesized through a chemical modification of a popularly used oxygen sensor of platinum(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (PtTFPP). The new sensor compound 2 possesses four crosslinkable methacrylate functional moieties, enabling it to be polymerized and crosslinked with other monomers for polymer sensing film (also called membrane) preparation. Using this characteristic, compound 2 was covalently bonded to hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polyacrylamide (referred to as PHEMA to simplify) and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) films. To better understand the advantages and disadvantages of chemical crosslinking approaches and the influence of polymer matrices on sensing performance, PtTFPP was physically incorporated into the same PHEMA and PS matrices to compare. Response to dissolved oxygen (DO), leaching of the sensor molecules from their matrices, photostability of the sensors, and response time to DO changes were studied. It was concluded that the chemical crosslinking of the sensor compound 2 in polymer matrices: (i) alleviated the leaching problem of sensor molecules which usually occurred in the physically doped sensing systems and (ii) significantly improved sensors’ photostability. The PHEMA matrix was demonstrated to be more suitable for oxygen sensing than PS, because for the same sensor molecule, the oxygen sensitivity in PHEMA film was higher than that in PS and response time to DO change in the PHEMA film was faster than that in PS. It was the first time oxygen sensing films were successfully prepared using biocompatible hydrophilic PHEMA as a matrix, which does not allow leaching of the sensor molecules from the polymer matrix, has a faster response to DO changes than that of PS, and does not present cytotoxicity to human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). It is expected that the new sensor compound 2 and its similar compounds with chemically crosslinking

  6. An irradiation system for photodynamic therapy with a fiber-optic sensor for measuring tissue oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, L.; Fabila, D.; Stolik, S.; de la Rosa, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a well known treatment based on the interaction of light of specific wavelength with a photosensitizing drug. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the illumination of the photosensitizer can activate the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the death of target cells within the treated tissue. In order to obtain the best therapy response, the tissue oxygen concentration should be measured to adjust the therapy parameters before and during the treatment. In this work, an irradiation system for 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy is presented. It allows the application of visible light radiation of 630 nm using as a light source a high-brightness light emitting diode with an optical-power automatic control considering a light depth-distribution model. A module to measure the tissue oxygen saturation has been implemented into the system. It is based on two light emitting diodes of 660 nm and 940 nm as light sources, a photodiode as a detector and a new handheld fiber optic reflectance pulse oximetry sensor for estimating the blood oxygen saturation within the tissue. The pulse oximetry sensor was modeled through multilayered Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of the sensor with changes in skin thickness and melanin content.

  7. Direct monitoring of organic vapours with amperometric enzyme gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, Martin; Hilgert, Karin; Achmann, Sabine; Moos, Ralf

    2010-02-15

    In this study, amperometric enzyme gas sensors for direct monitoring of organic vapours (formaldehyde, ethanol and phenol) are presented using exemplarily different sensing strategies: NADH detection, H(2)O(2) detection and direct substrate recycling, respectively. The presented sensor configurations allow the selective, continuous, online monitoring of organic vapours without prior accumulation or sampling of the analyte. The gaseous samples are provided as headspace above aqueous solutions. The concentration in the gas phase was calculated from the concentration in solution at room temperature according to the respective Henry constants given in the literature. The enzymes employed are NAD-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase [EC 1.2.1.46] from Pseudomonas putida, alcohol oxidase [EC 1.1.3.13] from Pichia pastoris, and tyrosinase [EC 1.14.18.1] from mushroom. The gas diffusion working electrodes used in the sensors are based on a porous, hydrophobic PTFE membrane (exposed geometric electrode area: 1.77 cm(2)) covered with a porous layer of gold, platinum or graphite/Teflon. Detection limit, sensitivity, and measuring range are 34 microM (6.5 ppb), 117 nA/mM, and 0.46-66.4 mM for formaldehyde, 9.9 microM (55 ppb), 3.43 microA/mM, and 0.1-30 mM for ethanol, and 0.89 microM (0.36 ppb), 2.4 microA/mM, and 0.01-1 mM for phenol, respectively. Further sensor characteristics such as response time and stability are also determined: t(90%) (formaldehyde: 4.5 min; ethanol: 69 s; phenol: 27 min), stability at permanent exposure (formaldehyde: 63%, 15 h @ 2.62 mM; ethanol: 86%, 18 @ 1 mM; phenol: 86%, 16.5 h @ 0.1 M). PMID:19926472

  8. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Andrea; Traverso, Federico; Crocco, Marco

    2015-01-01

    For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed). In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches. PMID:26066987

  9. The Heme-Based Oxygen-Sensor Phosphodiesterase Ec DOS (DosP): Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli Direct Oxygen Sensor (Ec DOS, also known as Ec DosP) is a heme-based O2-sensing phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli that catalyzes the conversion of cyclic-di-GMP to linear di-GMP. Cyclic-di-GMP is an important second messenger in bacteria, highlighting the importance of understanding structure-function relationships of Ec DOS. Ec DOS is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound O2-sensing PAS domain and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase catalytic domain. Notably, its activity is markedly enhanced by O2 binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in the PAS sensor domain. X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic and catalytic characterization of the wild-type and mutant proteins have provided important structural and functional clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of intramolecular catalytic regulation by O2 binding. This review summarizes the intriguing findings that have obtained for Ec DOS. PMID:25586128

  10. Validation of a spectroscopic sensor for the continuous, noninvasive measurement of muscle oxygen saturation and pH.

    PubMed

    Ellerby, G E C; Smith, C P; Zou, F; Scott, P; Soller, B R

    2013-08-01

    New patient monitoring technologies can noninvasively and directly provide an assessment of the adequacy of tissue perfusion through the simultaneous determination of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and muscle pH (pHm). Non-pulsatile near infrared spectroscopy is used to determine these microvascular parameters. Two separate studies were conducted using an isolated perfused swine limb preparation to widely vary venous blood oxygen saturation (SviO2) and pH (pHvi) to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive sensor with the capability to simultaneously measure both parameters. The isolated limb model is necessary to establish equilibrium between the venous output of the perfusion circuit and the venule measurement of the spectroscopic sensor. The average absolute difference between SmO2 and SviO2 determined over 50 conditions of SviO2 between 13% and 83% on 3 pig limbs was 3.8% and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.95. The average absolute difference between pHm and pHvi determined over 69 conditions of pHvi between pHvi 6.9 and pHvi 7.5 on 3 pig limbs was 0.045 pH units with an R(2) of 0.92. Measured accuracy was acceptable to support clinically relevant decision making for the assessment of impaired tissue perfusion and acidosis. Sensors were also evaluated on human subjects. There was no statistical difference in SmO2 by gender or location when multiple sensors were evaluated on the right and left calf, deltoid, and thigh of resting men and women (N = 33). SmO2 precision for subjects at rest was 5.6% over the six locations with four different sensors. PMID:23859848

  11. Amperometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum nanoparticle-modified polycrystalline boron doped diamond disk electrode.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Laura; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2009-02-01

    Pt nanoparticle (NP)-modified polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) disk electrodes have been fabricated and employed as amperometric sensors for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solution. pBDD columns were cut using laser micromachining techniques and sealed in glass, in order to make disk electrodes which were then characterized electrochemically. Electrodeposition of Pt onto the diamond electrodes was optimized so as to give the maximum oxygen reduction peak current with the lowest background signal. Pt NPs, >0-10 nm diameter, were found to deposit randomly across the pBDD electrode, with no preference for grain boundaries. The more conductive grains were found to promote the formation of smaller nanoparticles at higher density. With the use of potential step chronoamperometry, in which the potential was stepped to a diffusion-limited value, a four electron oxygen reduction process was found to occur at the Pt NP-modified pBDD electrode. Furthermore the chronoamperometric response scaled linearly with dissolved oxygen concentration, varied by changing the oxygen/nitrogen ratio of gas flowed into solution. The sensor was used to detect dissolved oxygen concentrations with high precision over the pH range 4-10. PMID:19117391

  12. The Preliminary Study Of Giant Magnetoresistance Sensor For Detection Of Oxygen In Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Ramli; Muhtadi, Almas Hilman; Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi; Haryanto, Freddy; Khairurrijal; Djamal, Mitra

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, there has been great progress for applications of nanomaterials in medicine field. Human body consists of many atoms and they can be treated like as nanomaterials. One of them is oxygen. Oxygen is always found in the human blood. Its concentration in human blood gives information about the metabolism in the body. The purpose of this study was to look for a possibility for developing tool to detect the concentration of oxygen in blood. In this study, the giant-magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor is implemented. The GMR sensor has many attractive features, for example: reduced size, low-power consumption, low price, as compared to other magnetic sensors and its electric and magnetic properties can be varied in very wide range. In this experiment, we developed the structure of GMR materials NiCoFe/Cu/NiCoFe sandwich as a GMR sensor. The NiCoFe/Cu/NiCoFe sandwiches were grown onto Si (111) substrates by the dc-opposed target magnetron sputtering (dc-OTMS) technique. The sputtering targets were NiCoFe and Cu. To achieve the aims of this study, the blood transports in human will be simulated using a simple experimental model. This model has some parameters representing those in blood transport. Furthermore, the nanomagnetic material will be made as a contaminant particle in blood. Using this material some properties of the transport will be investigated.

  13. Development of a biochemical oxygen demand sensor using gold-modified boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Saepudin, Endang; Wardah, Habibah; Harmesa; Dewangga, Netra; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-11-20

    Gold-modified boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were examined for the amperometric detection of oxygen as well as a detector for measuring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181. An optimum potential of -0.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was applied, and the optimum waiting time was observed to be 20 min. A linear calibration curve for oxygen reduction was achieved with a sensitivity of 1.4 μA mg(-1) L oxygen. Furthermore, a linear calibration curve in the glucose concentration range of 0.1-0.5 mM (equivalent to 10-50 mg L(-1) BOD) was obtained with an estimated detection limit of 4 mg L(-1) BOD. Excellent reproducibility of the BOD sensor was shown with an RSD of 0.9%. Moreover, the BOD sensor showed good tolerance against the presence of copper ions up to a maximum concentration of 0.80 μM (equivalent to 50 ppb). The sensor was applied to BOD measurements of the water from a lake at the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia, with results comparable to those made using a standard method for BOD measurement. PMID:23088708

  14. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensor For The Measurement Of Partial Pressure Of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Klainer, Stanley M.; Tokar, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The estimation of partial pressure of oxygen in gaseous samples, aqueous samples and biological fluids has very important ramifications in environmental, medicinal and analytical chemistry. We have devised a fiber optic chemical sensor for the determination of oxygen concentration based on the dynamic luminescence quenching of a fluorophore bx oxygen. Ruthenium(II)tris(bipyridine), [Ru(bpy)3]4+, has been employed in our studies as the oxygen sensitive dye. The emission of Ru(bpy)32+ is centered at 610 nm and has a lifetime of 685 ns in argon purged aqueous solution. Our fiber optic chemical sensor consists of a custom built spectrometer containing argon ion laser light source, detector and associated electronics. A fiber optic cable is employed to guide light into and out of the spectrometer. A known amount of the sensing material in solution is used in a specially designed cell which has a gas permeable membrane at one end and the other end is coupled with the long cable to the spectrometer. Further research is being continued in improving the sensor chemistry and its dynamic detection range.

  15. A New Optical Oxygen Sensor Reveals Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dissolved Oxygen at Ecohydrological Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Vieweg, M.; Harjung, A.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) at highly reactive aquatic interfaces, e.g. in the hyporheic zone (HZ), is a primary indicator of redox and interlinked biogeochemical zonations. However, continuous measuring of DO over time and depths is challenging due to the dynamic and potentially heterogenic nature of the HZ. We further developed a novel technology for spatially continuous in situ vertical oxygen profiling based on optical sensing (Vieweg et al, 2013). Continuous vertical measurements to a depth of 50 cm are obtained by the motor-controlled insertion of a side-firing Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) into tubular DO probes. Our technology allows minimally invasive DO measurements without DO consumption at high spatial resolution in the mm range. The reduced size of the tubular probe (diameter 5 mm) substantially minimizes disturbance of flow conditions. We tested our technology in situ in the HZ of an intermittent stream during the drying period. Repeated DO measurements were taken over a total duration of six weeks at two locations up- and downstream of a pool-cascade sequence. We were able to precisely map the spatial DO distribution which exhibited sharp gradients and rapid temporal changes as a function of changing hydrologic conditions. Our new vertical oxygen sensing technology will help to provide new insights to the coupling of transport of DO and biogeochemical reactions at aquatic interfaces. Vieweg, M., Trauth, N., Fleckenstein, J. H., Schmidt, C. (2013): Robust Optode-Based Method for Measuring in Situ Oxygen Profiles in Gravelly Streambeds. Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/es401040w

  16. Response of electrochemical oxygen sensors to inert gas-air and carbon dioxide-air mixtures: measurements and mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P T; Gant, S E; Dowker, K P; Batt, R

    2011-02-15

    Electrochemical oxygen gas sensors are widely used for monitoring the state of inertisation of flammable atmospheres and to warn of asphyxiation risks. It is well established but not widely known by users of such oxygen sensors that the response of the sensor is affected by the nature of the diluent gas responsible for the decrease in ambient oxygen concentration. The present work investigates the response of electrochemical sensors, with either acid or alkaline electrolytes, to gas mixtures comprising air with enhanced levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon or helium. The measurements indicate that both types of sensors over-read the oxygen concentrations when atmospheres contain high levels of helium. Sensors with alkaline electrolytes are also shown to underestimate the severity of the hazard in atmospheres containing high levels of carbon dioxide. This deviation is greater for alkaline electrolyte sensors compared to acid electrolyte sensors. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict the response of an alkaline electrolyte, electrochemical gas sensor. Differences between predicted and measured sensor responses are less than 10% in relative terms for nearly all of the gas mixtures tested, and in many cases less than 5%. Extending the model to simulate responses of sensors with acid electrolytes would be straightforward. PMID:21112151

  17. A direction detective asymmetrical twin-core fiber curving sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Maowei; Geng, Tao; Yang, Wenlei; Zeng, Hongyi; Li, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPFGs), which can couple the core mode to the forward propagating cladding modes of a fiber and have the advantage of small additional loss, no backward reflection, small size, which is widely used in optical fiber sensors and optical communication systems. LPFG has different fabricating methods, in order to write gratings on the twin-core at the same time effectively, we specially choose electric heating fused taper system to fabricate asymmetric dual-core long period fiber grating, because this kind of method can guarantee the similarity of gratings on the twin cores and obtain good geometric parameters of LPFG, such as cycle, cone waist. Then we use bending test platform to conduct bending test for each of the core of twin-core asymmetric long period fiber grating. Experiments show that: the sensitivity of asymmetrical twin-core long period fiber grating's central core under bending is -5.47nm·m, while the sensitivity of asymmetric twin-core long period fiber grating partial core changed with the relative position of screw micrometer. The sensitivity at 0°, 30°, 90° direction is -4.22nm·m, -9.84nm·m, -11.44nm·m respectively. The experiment results strongly demonstrate the properties of rim sensing of asymmetrical twin-core fiber gratings which provides the possibility of simultaneously measuring the bending magnitude and direction and solving the problem of cross sensing when multi-parameter measuring. In other words, we can detect temperature and bend at the same time by this sensor. As our knowledge, it is the first time simultaneously measuring bend and temperature using this structure of fiber sensors.

  18. Enhanced directional sensitivity of a biomimetic MEMS acoustic localization sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Danny; Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Yu, Miao

    2010-04-01

    We present an improved microfabricated sound localization sensor for unobtrusive surveillance systems inspired by the tympanic membranes of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea. The device consists of two silicon diaphragms mechanically coupled by a suspended beam that amplifies the difference in time response, dependent on the incident angle of the sound source. Fabrication techniques were modified to reduce residual stresses and improve device uniformity. Enhanced acoustic cues for devices with central pivoting anchors were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry. Device responses to weak excitations demonstrated good sensitivity over environmental noise. An order of magnitude in time difference amplification was measured at 90° incident angles with a directional sensitivity of .39μs/degree. These results provide a foundation for realizing an accurate bio-inspired MEMS directional microphone.

  19. Experimental studies on brain hematoma detection and oxygenation monitoring using PRM/NIR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liu; Lee, Hyo Sang; Wilson, David A.; Hanley, Daniel F.; Lokos, Sandor; Kim, Jin

    1997-08-01

    Real time noninvasive head injury detection is needed in critical care facilities and triage site with limited resources. One tool missing right now is a small and fast noninvasive sensor which can help urgent care workers to (1) diagnose the location and severity of the injury, (2) to perform on site pre-hospital treatment if necessary, and (3) to make a decision on what kind of further medical action is needed. On the other hand, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is also needed in intensive care unit and in operation rooms. Pseudo-random modulation/near infrared sensor (PRM/NIR sensor) is developed to address these issues. It relies on advanced techniques in diode laser cw modulation and time resolved spectroscopy to perform fast and noninvasive brain tissue diagnostics. Phantom experiments have been conducted to study the feasibility of the sensor. Brain's optical properties are simulated with solutions of intralipid and ink. Hematomas are simulated with bags of paint and hemoglobin immersed in the solution of varies sizes, depths, and orientations. Effects of human skull and hair are studied experimentally. In animal experiment, the sensor was used to monitor the cerebral oxygenation change due to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and hyperventilation. Good correlations were found between NIR measurement parameters and physiological changes induced to the animals.

  20. Investigation of the electrode kinetics in a solid oxide fuel cell and an oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Rajesh

    This dissertation investigates the electrode kinetics in a solid oxide fuel cell and an oxygen sensor. The first chapter describes the basics of fuel cell and motivation behind the studies. The second chapter investigates the dependence of cathodic charge transfer reaction resistance (Rct), on three-phase boundary length (lTPB) at various temperatures and oxygen partial pressures ( pO2 ). Impedance spectra were obtained using three-electrode configuration on discs having cathodes with definite lTPB to investigate the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM)-Y 0.16Zr0.84O2 (YSZ), platinum (Pt)-YSZ and La 0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC)-Ce0.8Sm0.2 O2 (SDC) half cell reactions at temperatures between 650--800°C and pO2 between 10-3 to 1 atm. For LSM-YSZ and Pt-YSZ, 1/Rct varies linearly with lTPB. LSC-SDC system did not show any specific dependence between R ct and lTPB. The third chapter examines the use of an electrolyte supported cell with externally applied voltage to determine the single electrode overpotential and extending the parameters derived to that of an anode supported fuel cell having thin film electrolyte operating under a chemical potential gradient. Spatial distributions of the electrochemical potential of electrons (ϕ) and oxygen ions ( m˜O-2 ), and chemical potential of oxygen ( mO2 ) for these two cases were obtained. Under fuel cell operating conditions, ϕ, m˜O-2 and mO2 , decreases monotonically from higher value to lower value. For electrolyte supported cell under externally applied voltage mO2 does not vary monotonically; it reaches values above or below that of the boundary values, leading to development of internal electromotive forces (EMFs), which can in turn affect the activity of the interface. The fourth chapter describes design microfabrication and characterization of a series connected potentiometric oxygen sensor. A drawback of potentiometric sensors in general is that the output signal is low when the ratio of the partial pressures at the two electrodes is low

  1. Direct optical excitation of singlet oxygen in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, I. V.; Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Sosnov, E. N.

    2014-04-01

    Efficient excitation of singlet oxygen is demonstrated for several organic solvents (CS2, CCl4, and C6F14) that are irradiated using LED in the visible spectral range in the absorption bands of the O2-O2 collision complexes at the corresponding cooperative transitions. It is shown that the two-photon interaction of the pumping radiation in the Herzberg I band of molecular oxygen with its excitation to the 3Σ{/u +} state and the subsequent collisional relaxation to the 1Σ g and 1Δ g singlet states contributes to the excitation of singlet oxygen.

  2. Measurement of atomic oxygen in the middle atmosphere using solid electrolyte sensors and catalytic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart, M.; Löhle, S.; Steinbeck, A.; Binder, T.; Fasoulas, S.

    2015-09-01

    The middle- and upper-atmospheric energy budget is largely dominated by reactions involving atomic oxygen (O). Modeling of these processes requires detailed knowledge about the distribution of this oxygen species. Understanding the mutual contributions of atomic oxygen and wave motions to the atmospheric heating is the main goal of the rocket project WADIS (WAve propagation and DISsipation in the middle atmosphere). It includes, amongst others, our instruments for the measurement of atomic oxygen that have both been developed with the aim of resolving density variations on small vertical scales along the trajectory. In this paper the instrument based on catalytic effects (PHLUX: Pyrometric Heat Flux Experiment) is introduced briefly. The experiment employing solid electrolyte sensors (FIPEX: Flux φ(Phi) Probe Experiment) is presented in detail. These sensors were laboratory calibrated using a microwave plasma as a source of atomic oxygen in combination with mass spectrometer reference measurements. The spectrometer was in turn calibrated for O with a method based on methane. In order to get insight into the horizontal variability, the rocket payload had instrument decks at both ends. Each housed several sensor heads measuring during both the up- and downleg of the trajectory. The WADIS project comprises two rocket flights during different geophysical conditions. Results from WADIS-1 are presented, which was successfully launched in June 2013 from the Andøya Space Center, Norway. FIPEX data were sampled at 100 Hz and yield atomic oxygen density profiles with a vertical resolution better than 9 m. This allows density variations to be studied on very small spatial scales. Numerical simulations of the flow field around the rocket were done at several points of the trajectory to assess the influence of aerodynamic effects on the measurement results. Density profiles peak at 3 × 1010 cm-3 at altitudes of 93.6 and 96 km for the up- and downleg, respectively.

  3. Measurement of atomic oxygen in the middle atmosphere using solid electrolyte sensors and catalytic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart, M.; Löhle, S.; Steinbeck, A.; Binder, T.; Fasoulas, S.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric energy budget is largely dominated by reactions involving atomic oxygen (O). Modeling of these processes requires detailed knowledge about the distribution of this oxygen species. Understanding the mutual contributions of atomic oxygen and wave motions to the atmospheric heating is the main goal of the rocket campaign WADIS. It includes, amongst others, two of our instruments for the measurement of atomic oxygen that have both been developed with the aim of resolving density variations on small vertical scales along the trajectory. In this paper the instrument based on catalytic effects (PHLUX) is introduced briefly. The experiment employing solid electrolyte sensors (FIPEX) is presented in detail. These sensors were laboratory calibrated using a microwave plasma as a source for atomic oxygen in combination with mass spectrometer reference measurements. The spectrometer was in turn calibrated for O with a method based on methane. In order to get insight into the horizontal variability the rocket payload had instrument decks at both ends. Each housed several sensor heads measuring during both the up- and downleg of the trajectory. The WADIS campaign comprises two rocket flights during different geophysical conditions. Results from WADIS-1 are presented which was successfully launched in June 2013 from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway. FIPEX data was sampled with 100 Hz and yield atomic oxygen density profiles with a vertical resolution better than 10 m. Numerical simulations of the flow field around the rocket were done at several points of the trajectory to assess the influence of aerodynamic effects on the measurement results. Density profiles peak at 3 × 1010 cm-3 at altitudes of 93.6 and 96 km for up- and downleg respectively.

  4. Development and Performance of the Oxygen Sensor in the CSA-CP Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    A combustion products analyzer (CPA) was built for use on Shuttle in response to several thermodegradation incidents that had occurred during early flights. The CPA contained sensors that measured carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen fluoride. These marker compounds, monitored by the CPA, were selected based upon the likely products to be released in a spacecraft fire. When the Toxicology Laboratory group at Johnson Space Center (JSC) began to assess the air quality monitoring needs for the International Space Station (ISS), the CPA was the starting point for design of an instrument to monitor the atmosphere following a thermodegradation event. The final product was significantly different from the CPA and was named the compound specific analyzer-combustion products (CSA-CP). The major change from the CPA that will be the focus of this paper was the replacement of an unreliable hydrogen fluoride (HF) sensor with an oxygen sensor. A reliable HF sensor was not commercially available, but as the toxicology group reviewed the overall monitoring strategy for ISS, it appeared that a portable oxygen sensor to backup the major constituent analyzer was needed. Therefore, an oxygen sensor replaced the HF sensor in the new instrument. This paper will describe the development, deployment, and performance of the CSA-CP oxygen sensor on both Shuttle and ISS. Also, data for CSA-CP oxygen sensor accuracy at nominal and reduced pressures will be presented.

  5. Heme-based Globin-coupled Oxygen Sensors: Linking Oxygen Binding to Functional Regulation of Diguanylate Cyclase, Histidine Kinase, and Methyl-accepting Chemotaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Markéta; Kitanishi, Kenichi; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    An emerging class of novel heme-based oxygen sensors containing a globin fold binds and senses environmental O2 via a heme iron complex. Structure-function relationships of oxygen sensors containing a heme-bound globin fold are different from those containing heme-bound PAS and GAF folds. It is thus worth reconsidering from an evolutionary perspective how heme-bound proteins with a globin fold similar to that of hemoglobin and myoglobin could act as O2 sensors. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of heme-based oxygen sensors containing a globin fold in an effort to shed light on the O2-sensing properties and O2-stimulated catalytic enhancement observed for these proteins. PMID:23928310

  6. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  7. A flexoelectricity effect-based sensor for direct torque measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Xu, Minglong; Liu, Kaiyuan; Shen, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a direct torque sensor based on the flexoelectricity generated by un-polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) via electromechanical coupling is developed as a novel torque measurement mechanism that does not require external electric power excitation. The sensing method is developed based on the shear strain gradient and the shear flexoelectric response of PVDF. A theoretical analysis is primarily presented for the design of the sensing structure. Then the structure of the PVDF sensing module is discussed and designed. The radius ratio of the sensing module is defined and then discussed according to the load, the strain gradient, the electrode area and the general electric charge output. The finite element method is used to analyze the mechanical properties of the designed PVDF sensing module. Then the theoretical sensitivity of the sensor is predicated as 0.9441 pC Nm-1. The experiment system setup is developed, and the sensing properties of the measurement mechanism are tested at frequencies of 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 1.5 Hz and 2 Hz using identical modules. The measurement range of the designed sensor is 0-1.68 Nm and the average sensitivity is measured as 0.8950 pC Nm-1. The experimental results agree well with the theoretically predicted results. These results prove that the torque sensing method based on un-polarized PVDF is suitable for measurement of dynamic torque loads with a flexoelectricity-based mechanism. When using this method, external electric power excitation of the sensing module is no longer required.

  8. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation: tissue oxygen sensor for regulation of coronary flow.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, E M; Wilson, D F; Erecińska, M

    1984-01-01

    The observation that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vivo is dependent on oxygen tension throughout the physiological range (Wilson et al., 1979a , 1979b ) has made this metabolic pathway the most probable candidate for the tissue oxygen sensor in the regulation of local blood flow. We have utilized the oxygen dependent regulatory system for coronary blood flow to examine this possibility. Alterations in coronary flow were induced by: 1. Varied work load; 2. Infusion of Amytal (an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration); 3. Infusion of DNP; 4. Hypoxia. Increased work load caused increased coronary flow with no decrease in effluent oxygen tension while Amytal infusion and hypoxia caused vasodilation with increased and decreased O2 tension respectively. This indicates that oxygen tension per se cannot be responsible for the observed vasodilation. Tissue energy metabolism was evaluated by measuring metabolite levels in hearts which were freeze-clamped in each state of perfusion. In all four methods of vasodilation, a decrease in cellular energy state ratio ([ATP]f/[ADP]f[Pi]) expressed as the calculated ratio of free adenine nucleotides, was observed for conditions which increased flow. Systematic variation of work load, Amytal or DNP concentration resulted in quantitatively the same correlation between tissue [ATP]f/[ADP]f[Pi] and coronary flow. It is concluded that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the oxygen sensor for the regulation of coronary blood flow by tissue oxygen tension. Infusion of adenosine, a known coronary vasodilator, induced vasodilation which was completely blocked by theophylline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6731096

  9. Flexible Sheet-Type Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Cellular Oxygen Metabolism on a Culture Dish.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Mari; Takehara, Hiroaki; Akagi, Takanori; Shiono, Hirofumi; Ichiki, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    A novel flexible sensor was developed for the noninvasive oxygen metabolism measurement of cultivated cells and tissues. This device is composed of a transparent double-layered polymer sheet of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) having an array of microhole structures of 90 μm diameter and 50 μm depth on its surface. All the microhole structures were equipped with a 1-μm-thick optical chemical sensing layer of platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer on their bottom. The three-dimensional microstructures of the sensor were fabricated by a newly developed simple and low-cost production method named self-aligned hot embossing. The device was designed to be attached slightly above the cells cultivated on a dish to form a temporarily closed microspace over the target cells during measurement. Since the change in oxygen concentration is relatively fast in the microcompartmentalized culture medium, a rapid evaluation of the oxygen consumption rate is possible by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of the platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer. The combined use of the device and an automated optical measurement system enabled the high-throughput sensing of cellular oxygen consumption (100 points/min). We monitored the oxygen metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 on a Petri dish and evaluated the oxygen consumption rate to be 0.72 ± 0.12 fmol/min/cell. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the developed sensing system, we demonstrated the mapping of the oxygen consumption rate of rat brain slices and succeeded in visualizing a clear difference among the layer structures of the hippocampus, i.e., the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG). PMID:26624889

  10. Flexible Sheet-Type Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Cellular Oxygen Metabolism on a Culture Dish

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takanori; Shiono, Hirofumi; Ichiki, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    A novel flexible sensor was developed for the noninvasive oxygen metabolism measurement of cultivated cells and tissues. This device is composed of a transparent double-layered polymer sheet of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) having an array of microhole structures of 90 μm diameter and 50 μm depth on its surface. All the microhole structures were equipped with a 1-μm-thick optical chemical sensing layer of platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer on their bottom. The three-dimensional microstructures of the sensor were fabricated by a newly developed simple and low-cost production method named self-aligned hot embossing. The device was designed to be attached slightly above the cells cultivated on a dish to form a temporarily closed microspace over the target cells during measurement. Since the change in oxygen concentration is relatively fast in the microcompartmentalized culture medium, a rapid evaluation of the oxygen consumption rate is possible by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of the platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer. The combined use of the device and an automated optical measurement system enabled the high-throughput sensing of cellular oxygen consumption (100 points/min). We monitored the oxygen metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 on a Petri dish and evaluated the oxygen consumption rate to be 0.72 ± 0.12 fmol/min/cell. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the developed sensing system, we demonstrated the mapping of the oxygen consumption rate of rat brain slices and succeeded in visualizing a clear difference among the layer structures of the hippocampus, i.e., the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG). PMID:26624889

  11. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-01

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional λ-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen® sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen® at nominal sensor temperature TS = 680° C resulted in a sensor current according to IS = bṡpO20ṡ8±0ṡ05 I[μA] in the operation range between ptot = 1ṡ10-3 to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to ptot = aṡRPWM0ṡ107±0ṡ005 thus enlarging the operation range to ptot = 1ṡ10-3 to 1ṡ105Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at ptot = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  12. Sensitivity enhancement of carbon nanotube based ammonium ion sensors through surface modification by using oxygen plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Sanghak; Woong Jang, Chi; Lee, Seok; Min Jhon, Young; Choi, Changrok

    2013-02-18

    We have shown that the sensitivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) based sensors can be enhanced as high as 74 times through surface modification by using the inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition method with oxygen. The plasma treatment power was maintained as low as 10 W within 20 s, and the oxygen plasma was generated far away from the sensors to minimize the plasma damage. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we found that the concentration of oxygen increased with the plasma treatment time, which implies that oxygen functional groups or defect sites were generated on the CNT surface.

  13. Fabrication of directional sound sensor by silicon micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touse, Michael; Catterlin, Jeffrey; Sinibaldi, Jose; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2009-03-01

    A directional sound sensor based on the operational principle of the Ormia ochracea fly's hearing organism [1] was fabricated using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The fly uses coupled bars hinged at the center to achieve directional sound sensing by monitoring the difference in their vibration amplitudes. The MEMS design employed in this work consisted of a 1x2 square millimeter polysilicon membrane hinged at the center and positioned about 1 micrometer above the substrate using a sacrificial silicon dioxide layer. Finite element analysis of the device shows two primary vibrational mode frequencies, one corresponding to a rocking mode which is highly dependent on angle of incidence, and the other to a bending motion which remains constant through all angles. Using a laser vibrometer to measure response, rocking and bending modes were observed at driving frequencies of 3.0 and 11.4 kHz, respectively, and angular dependence was in close agreement with modeling. [1] R.N. Miles, R. Robert, and R. R. Hoy, ``Mechanically coupled ears for directional hearing in the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 98 (6), Dec. 1995

  14. Nitrite reductase function of deoxymyoglobin: oxygen sensor and regulator of cardiac energetics and function.

    PubMed

    Rassaf, Tienush; Flögel, Ulrich; Drexhage, Christine; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike; Kelm, Malte; Schrader, Jürgen

    2007-06-22

    Although the primary function of myoglobin (Mb) has been considered to be cellular oxygen storage and supply, recent studies have suggested to classify Mb as a multifunctional allosteric enzyme. In the heart, Mb acts as a potent scavenger of nitric oxide (NO) and contributes to the attenuation of oxidative damage. Here we report that a dynamic cycle exists in which a decrease in tissue oxygen tension drives the conversion of Mb from being an NO scavenger in normoxia to an NO producer in hypoxia. The NO generated by reaction of deoxygenated Mb with nitrite is functionally relevant and leads to a downregulation of cardiac energy status, which was not observed in mice lacking Mb. As a consequence, myocardial oxygen consumption is reduced and cardiac contractility is dampened in wild-type mice. We propose that this pathway represents a novel homeostatic mechanism by which a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in muscle is translated into the fractional increase of deoxygenated Mb exhibiting enhanced nitrite reductase activity. Thus, Mb may act as an oxygen sensor which through NO can adjust muscle energetics to limited oxygen supply. PMID:17495223

  15. A new layered sensor for simultaneous measurement of EMG, MMG and oxygen consumption at the same position.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Akira; Yamada, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    A new layered sensor for simultaneous measurement of electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG) and oxygen consumption based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at the same position of the muscle is presented. The proposed sensor is a layered structure of a thin stainless-steel electrode, a PVDF film with transparent electrodes and optical sensors. EMG, MMG and oxygen consumption based on NIRS are measured by the stainless-steel electrodes, PVDF film and optical sensors, respectively. Using the three types of data, muscular activity can be analyzed in more detail. Additionally, the proposed sensor system reduces the constraint of the sensors arranged on the skin in measurements at multiple points because three types of information, previously obtained with three types of general sensors, are detected by a pair of proposed sensors. In an experiment, simultaneous measurement of EMG, MMG and oxygen consumption via NIRS at the forearm was demonstrated using the proposed sensor under fluorescent light. The performance of the layered sensor was evaluated. PMID:25300403

  16. A micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for detection of hydrogen and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Chul; Yoon, Seung-Il; Lee, Chung-il; Kim, Yong-Jun; Song, Soonho

    2009-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication and performance of a micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for an effective and inexpensive gas analysis system. The proposed micro-thermoelectric gas sensor was fabricated by using a surface micromachining technique. The sensing mechanism, consisting of thermoelectric material and a novel metal catalyst, was fabricated on the highly thermally resistive layer for reduced heat transfer to the substrate allowing for a simple fabrication process. The micro-thermoelectric gas sensor detects target gas species by measuring the reaction heat of the catalytic reaction between the target gas and a novel metal catalyst using Cu-Bi thermopiles. The catalytic reaction occurs only on the hot junction of the sensing thermopile where the metal catalyst is deposited. In order to reduce the external thermal noise, a difference between the output voltage of the sensing and the reference thermopiles was measured by using a differential amplifier. The response of the fabricated sensor was linear to temperature difference. The fabricated sensor can be used to detect various concentrations of hydrogen and atomic oxygen, where the output voltage linearly increased with the gas concentration. PMID:19173043

  17. Impact of lunar oxygen production on direct manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy M., Jr.; Tucker, William B.

    1992-01-01

    A manned Mars program made up of six missions is evaluated to determine the impact of using lunar liquid oxygen (LOX) as a propellant. Two departure and return nodes, low Earth orbit and low lunar orbit, are considered, as well as two return vehicle configurations, a full 70,000-kg vehicle and a 6800-kg capsule. The cost of lunar LOX delivered to orbit is expressed as a ratio of Earth launch cost.

  18. Fiber-optic dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide sensors using fluorophores encapsulated in sol gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeog-Chan

    Fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved CO2 sensing using thin films of fluorophores encapsulated in sol-gel matrices were made and tested. The DO/O2 sensor used ruthenium(II) tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) perchlorate (Ru(Ph 2Phen)Cl2) as the oxygen sensitive fluorophore and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) sol-gel as the encapsulating matrix material. For the DCO2 sensor, 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) co-doped with sodium bicarbonate was used as the DCO2 sensitive fluorophore-chemical system and diisobutoxy-alumino triethoxysilane (ASE) sol-gel was used as the encapsulating matrix material. It was found that oxygen quenches the excited state Ru(Ph2Phen)Cl 2 by diffusing through the MTMS matrix. Continuous excitation of Ru(Ph 2Phen)Cl2 during MTMS drying resulted in long, single exponential lifetimes of the metal complex and increased sensor sensitivity. When the sensor was field tested, it was found to have an excellent match compared to conventional titration method for determining dissolved oxygen concentrations and had fast response times. It was determined that this sensor measured the vapor pressure of oxygen rather than the absolute concentration of dissolved oxygen. For DCO2 sensing, it was found that the dynamic response of the senor could be tuned by varying the HPTS to NaHCO3 ratios. The sensor had fast response times compared to other fiber optic DCO 2 sensors reported which typically have response times of minutes.

  19. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  20. Methods and Best Practice to Intercompare Dissolved Oxygen Sensors and Fluorometers/Turbidimeters for Oceanographic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Schiano, M. Elisabetta; Ntoumas, Manolis; Potiris, Emmanouil; Frangoulis, Constantin; Podaras, Dimitrios; Petihakis, George

    2016-01-01

    In European seas, ocean monitoring strategies in terms of key parameters, space and time scale vary widely for a range of technical and economic reasons. Nonetheless, the growing interest in the ocean interior promotes the investigation of processes such as oxygen consumption, primary productivity and ocean acidity requiring that close attention is paid to the instruments in terms of measurement setup, configuration, calibration, maintenance procedures and quality assessment. To this aim, two separate hardware and software tools were developed in order to test and simultaneously intercompare several oxygen probes and fluorometers/turbidimeters, respectively in the same environmental conditions, with a configuration as close as possible to real in-situ deployment. The chamber designed to perform chlorophyll-a and turbidity tests allowed for the simultaneous acquisition of analogue and digital signals of several sensors at the same time, so it was sufficiently compact to be used in both laboratory and onboard vessels. Methodologies and best practice committed to the intercomparison of dissolved oxygen sensors and fluorometers/turbidimeters have been used, which aid in the promotion of interoperability to access key infrastructures, such as ocean observatories and calibration facilities. Results from laboratory tests as well as field tests in the Mediterranean Sea are presented. PMID:27196908

  1. Methods and Best Practice to Intercompare Dissolved Oxygen Sensors and Fluorometers/Turbidimeters for Oceanographic Applications.

    PubMed

    Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Schiano, M Elisabetta; Ntoumas, Manolis; Potiris, Emmanouil; Frangoulis, Constantin; Podaras, Dimitrios; Petihakis, George

    2016-01-01

    In European seas, ocean monitoring strategies in terms of key parameters, space and time scale vary widely for a range of technical and economic reasons. Nonetheless, the growing interest in the ocean interior promotes the investigation of processes such as oxygen consumption, primary productivity and ocean acidity requiring that close attention is paid to the instruments in terms of measurement setup, configuration, calibration, maintenance procedures and quality assessment. To this aim, two separate hardware and software tools were developed in order to test and simultaneously intercompare several oxygen probes and fluorometers/turbidimeters, respectively in the same environmental conditions, with a configuration as close as possible to real in-situ deployment. The chamber designed to perform chlorophyll-a and turbidity tests allowed for the simultaneous acquisition of analogue and digital signals of several sensors at the same time, so it was sufficiently compact to be used in both laboratory and onboard vessels. Methodologies and best practice committed to the intercomparison of dissolved oxygen sensors and fluorometers/turbidimeters have been used, which aid in the promotion of interoperability to access key infrastructures, such as ocean observatories and calibration facilities. Results from laboratory tests as well as field tests in the Mediterranean Sea are presented. PMID:27196908

  2. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-13

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional {lambda}-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen registered sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen registered at nominal sensor temperature T{sub S} = 680 deg. C resulted in a sensor current according to I{sub S} = b{center_dot}p{sub O2}{sup 0{center_dot}8{+-}0{center_dot}05} I[{mu}A] in the operation range between p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to p{sub tot} = a{center_dot}RPWM{sup 0{center_dot}107{+-}0{center_dot}005} thus enlarging the operation range to p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 1{center_dot}10{sup 5} Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at p{sub tot} = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  3. Toward Microbioreactor Arrays: A Slow-Responding Oxygen Sensor for Monitoring of Microbial Cultures in Standard 96-Well Plates.

    PubMed

    Glauche, Florian; John, Gernot T; Arain, Sarina; Knepper, Andreas; Neubauer, Antje; Goelling, Detlef; Lang, Christine; Violet, Norman; King, Rudibert; Neubauer, Peter

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a slow-responding chemo-optical sensor for dissolved oxygen (DO) integrated into a 96-well plate was developed. The slow response time ensures that the measured oxygen value does not change much during plate transport to the microplate reader. The sensor therefore permits at-line DO measurement of microbial cultures. Moreover, it eliminates the necessity of individual optical measurement systems for each culture plate, as many plates can be measured successively. Combined with the 96-well format, this increases the experimental throughput enormously. The novel sensor plate (Slow OxoPlate) consists of fluorophores suspended in a polymer matrix that were placed into u-bottom 96-well plates. Response time was measured using sodium sulfite, and a t90 value of 9.7 min was recorded. For application, DO values were then measured in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures grown under fed-batch-like conditions. Depending on the DO sensor's response time, different information on the oxygenation state of the culture plate was obtained: a fast sensor variant detects disturbance through sampling, whereas the slow sensor indicates oxygen limitation during incubation. A combination of the commercially available OxoPlate and the Slow OxoPlate enables operators of screening facilities to validate their cultivation procedures with regard to oxygen availability. PMID:25720599

  4. Long-term in vivo experience of an electrochemical sensor using the potential step technique for measurement of mixed venous oxygen pressure.

    PubMed

    Holmström, N; Nilsson, P; Carlsten, J; Bowald, S

    1998-12-01

    An implantable amperometric blood oxygen sensor was developed to improve rate adaptation of heart pacemakers. Two different working electrode materials in direct contact with the blood were tested, smooth glassy carbon and gold. Reference electrodes of Ag/AgCl and porous pyrolytic carbon were evaluated. A counter electrode being the titanium housing of the pulse generator was partly coated with carbon. An implantable pacemaker system with chronocoulometric oxygen detection was developed. Heart synchronous potential steps were periodically applied to the 7.5 mm2 working electrode in the atrium. Both single and double potential step techniques were evaluated. The oxygen diffusion limited current was used to calculate the stimulation rate. Bench tests and studies on 31 animals were performed to evaluate long-term stability and biocompatibility. In five dogs, the AV node was destroyed by RF ablation to create a realistic animal model of a pacemaker patient. Sensor stability and response to exercise was followed up to a maximum implantation time of 4 years. Post-mortem examinations of the electrode surfaces and tissue response were performed. The results show that a gold electrode is more stable than glassy carbon. The Ag/AgCl reference was found not to be biocompatible, but activated carbon was stable enough for use as reference for the potentiostat. Double potential steps stabilize the sensor response in comparison to single steps. Blood protein adsorption on the gold surface decreased the oxygen transport but not the reaction efficacy. No adverse tissue reactions were observed. PMID:9883563

  5. Gas-potentiometric method with solid electrolyte oxygen sensors for the investigation of combustion.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, H; Tittmann, K; Sitzki, L; Trippler, S; Rau, H

    1996-09-01

    Gas-potentiometric analysis using oxide-ion-conducting solid electrolytes as stabilized zirconia is a worthwhile method for the investigation of combustion processes. In the case of gas and oil flames specific parameters like the flame contour, the degree of burn-out and mixing can be determined and information about flame turbulence and reaction density can be gained from the temporal resolution of the sensor signal. Measurements carried out with solid electrolyte oxygen sensors in a fluidized bed show that combustion processes of solid fuels are also analyzable. This analysis results in fuel specific burn-out curves finally leading to burn-out times and to parameters of a macrokinetics of the combustion process as well as to ideas about the burn-out mechanism. From the resulting constants of the effective reaction rate a reactivity relative to bituminous coal coke can be given for any solid fuel. PMID:15048356

  6. Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using a Carbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Frankie J; Hicks, Jacqueline; Dodd, Nicholas; Abate, Wondwossen; Garrett, David J; Yip, Nga; Fejer, Gyorgy; Downard, Alison J; Baronian, Kim H R; Jackson, Simon K; Mendes, Paula M

    2015-10-28

    Herein, we report a highly sensitive electrocatalytic sensor-cell construct that can electrochemically communicate with the internal environment of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) via the selective monitoring of a particular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide. The sensor, which is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an osmium electrocatalyst, enabled the unprecedented detection of a local intracellular "pulse" of ROS on a short second time scale in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-LPS) stimulation. Our studies have shown that this initial pulse of ROS is dependent on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The results suggest that bacteria can induce a rapid intracellular pulse of ROS in macrophages that initiates the classical innate immune response of these cells to infection. PMID:26438964

  7. Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using a Carbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a highly sensitive electrocatalytic sensor-cell construct that can electrochemically communicate with the internal environment of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) via the selective monitoring of a particular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide. The sensor, which is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an osmium electrocatalyst, enabled the unprecedented detection of a local intracellular “pulse” of ROS on a short second time scale in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-LPS) stimulation. Our studies have shown that this initial pulse of ROS is dependent on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The results suggest that bacteria can induce a rapid intracellular pulse of ROS in macrophages that initiates the classical innate immune response of these cells to infection. PMID:26438964

  8. Feature Identification and Filtering for Engine Misfire Detection (EMD) Using Zirconia Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Muhammad Zaim Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Fauzi Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Vehicles as transportation are popular and mainly use among peoples around the world for various kind of purpose either personal or not. Over hundreds of year internal combustion engines widely used because of high efficiency and low maintenance compare to new technology which are using cells of battery. Nevertheless, emission cause of incomplete combustion such engine misfire normally occurs as well. For instances, some mechanical, sensors or actuators failure and environmental condition contribute to the engine misfire. The importance of engine misfire detection (EMD) is to ensure engine emissions not harmful to the environments and avoid damage of catalytic converter. By using low cost narrowband oxygen sensor to acquire air to fuel ratio (AFR) signal behavior under misfire condition and analyst by digital signal processing method using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) algorithm for Digital Butterworth Filter designation is discussed in this paper.

  9. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  10. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    PubMed Central

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  11. Nanostructured Oxygen Sensor - Using Micelles to Incorporate a Hydrophobic Platinum Porphyrin

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fengyu; Alam, Ruhaniyah; Mei, Qian; Tian, Yanqing; Youngbull, Cody; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic platinum(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (PtTFPP) was physically incorporated into micelles formed from poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) to enable the application of PtTFPP in aqueous solution. Micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show an average diameter of about 140 nm. PtTFPP showed higher quantum efficiency in micellar solution than in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2). PtTFPP in micelles also exhibited higher photostability than that of PtTFPP suspended in water. PtTFPP in micelles exhibited good oxygen sensitivity and response time. This study provided an efficient approach to enable the application of hydrophobic oxygen sensors in a biological environment. PMID:22457758

  12. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  13. Two-Photon Absorbing Nanocrystal Sensors for Ratiometric Detection of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    McLaurin, Emily J.; Greytak, Andrew B.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Two nanocrystal-osmium(II) polypyridyl (NC-Os(II)PP) conjugates have been designed to detect oxygen in biological environments. Polypyridines appended with a single free amine were linked with facility to a carboxylic acid functionality of a semiconductor NC overlayer to afford a biologically stable amide bond. The Os(II)PP complexes possess broad absorptions that extend into the red spectral region; this absorption feature makes them desirable acceptors of energy from NC donors. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the NC to the Os(II)PP causes an enhanced Os(II)PP emission with a concomitant quenching of the NC emission. Owing to the large two-photon absorption cross-section of the NCs, FRET from NC to the Os(II)PP can be established under two-photon excitation conditions. In this way, two-photon processes of metal polypyridyl complexes can be exploited for sensing. The emission of the NC is insensitive to oxygen, even at 1 atm, whereas excited states of both osmium complexes are quenched in the presence of oxygen. The NC emission may thus be used as an internal reference to correct for fluctuations in the photoluminescence intensity signal. These properties taken together establish NC-Os(II)PP conjugates as competent ratiometric, two-photon oxygen sensors for application in biological microenvironments. PMID:19697933

  14. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  15. Resistive oxygen sensor using ceria-zirconia sensor material and ceria-yttria temperature compensating material for lean-burn engine.

    PubMed

    Izu, Noriya; Nishizaki, Sayaka; Shin, Woosuck; Itoh, Toshio; Nishibori, Maiko; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Temperature compensating materials were investigated for a resistive oxygen sensor using Ce(0.9)Zr(0.1)O(2) as a sensor material for lean-burn engines. The temperature dependence of a temperature compensating material should be the same as the sensor material; therefore, the Y concentration in CeO(2)-Y(2)O(3) was optimized. The resistance of Ce(0.5)Y(0.5)O(2-δ) was independent of the air-to-fuel ratio (oxygen partial pressure), so that it was confirmed to function as a temperature compensating material. Sensor elements comprised of Ce(0.9)Zr(0.1)O(2) and Ce(0.5)Y(0.5)O(2-δ) were fabricated and the output was determined to be approximately independent of the temperature in the wide range from 773 to 1,073 K. PMID:22291542

  16. Study of ultrasonic sensor that is effective for all direction using an electromagnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Kazuki; Murayama, Riichi; Hirayama, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Non-destructive inspection using ultrasonic sensors is widely utilized to guarantee the safety of large structures. However, there is the problem that it will take a very long time to complete. Therefore, it was decided to develop a sensor capable of testing a wide range of structures at a high inspection speed. The ultrasonic wave that the ultrasonic sensor can generate must be equally emitted in any direction and the ultrasonic wave returned from any direction be detected. To attain this objective, an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) consisting of a circular-shaped magnet and an electric induction coil (EM) has been developed, because it is impossible to fabricate such a special ultrasonic sensor using a commercial-type ultrasonic sensor with a piezoelectric element, and it is convenient to automatically scan over the surface of the structure. First, the detail specifications of the new ultrasonic sensor have been determined by changing many of the parameters, for example, the impedance and the size of the EM coil, the size of the magnet, etc. The performance of the new sensor was then tested under different conditions. Based on the results of the experimental tests, it was demonstrated that the new sensor could generate ultrasonic waves in any direction and detect them from any direction. However, the performance was not high enough to apply the new sensor to a real structure. The new sensor has been improved to increase the performance by adding a new concept.

  17. Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, T. J.; King, T. J.; Long, R.; Baba, J. S.; McShane, M. J.; Ericson, M. N.; Wilson, M. A.; Coté, G. L.

    2011-03-01

    Each year thousands of patients are added to the waiting list for liver transplants. The first 7-10 days after transplant have proven to be the most critical in patient recovery and it is hypothesized that monitoring organ vital signals in this period can increase patient and graft survival rates. An implantable sensor to monitor the organ perfusion and oxygenation signals following surgery is being developed by our group. The sensor operates based on measuring diffuse reflection from three light emitting diodes (735, 805 and 940 nm). In this work the optimal source detector spacing to maximize oxygenation signal level is investigated for a portal vein model. Monte Carlo simulations provided signal levels and corresponding penetration depths as a function of separation between a point optical source and detector. The modeling results indicated a rapid decay in the optical signal with increasing distance. Through further analysis, it was found that there exists an optimal range of point source to detector spacing, between roughly 1 and 2 mm, in which the blood signal from the simulated portal vein was maximized. Overall, these results are being used to guide the placement and configuration of our probe for in vivo animal studies.

  18. Using soil oxygen sensors to inform understanding of soil greenhouse gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarecke, K. M.; Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.; Franz, T. E.; Rubol, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hot spots and hot moments of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes can contribute significantly to overall GHG budgets. Hot spots and hot moments occur when dynamic soil hydrology triggers important shifts in soil biogeochemical and physical processes that control GHG emissions. Soil oxygen (O2), a direct control on biogenic GHG production (i.e., nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and methane-CH4), may serve as both an important proxy for determining sudden shifts in subsurface biogenic GHG production, as well as the physical transport of soil GHG to the atmosphere. Recent technological advancements offer opportunities to link in-situ, near-continuous measurements of soil O2 concentration to soil biogeochemical processes and soil gas transport. Using high frequency data, this study asked: Do soil O2 dynamics correspond to changes in soil GHG concentrations and GHG surface fluxes? We addressed this question using precipitation event-based and weekly sampling (19 months in duration) data sets from a restored riparian wetland in Ohio, USA. During and after precipitation events, changes in subsurface (10 and 20 cm) CO2 and N2O concentrations were inversely related to short-term (< 48 h) changes in soil O2 concentrations. Subsurface CH4 concentrations changes during precipitation events, however, did not change in response to soil O2 dynamics. Changing subsurface GHG concentrations did not necessarily translate into altered surface (soil to atmosphere) GHG fluxes; soil O2 dynamics at 10 cm did not correspond with changes in surface N2O and CH4 fluxes. However, changes in soil O2 concentration at 10 cm had a significant positive linear relationship with change in surface CO2­ flux. We used a random forest approach to identify the soil sensor data (O2, temperature, moisture) which contribute the most to predicting weekly GHG fluxes. Our study suggests that monitoring near-continuous soil O2 concentration under dynamic soil hydrology may lead to greater understanding of GHG

  19. Modeling the Effect of Oxygen on the Amperometric Response of Immobilized Organoselenium-Based S-Nitrosothiol Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Höfler, Lajos; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Amperometric detection of S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) at sub-micromolar levels in blood samples is of potential importance for monitoring endothelial function and other disease states that involve changes in physiological nitric oxide (NO) production. It is shown here that the elimination of dissolved oxygen from samples is critical when using covalently attached diselenocystamine-based amperometric RSNO sensors for practical RSNO measurements. The newest generation of RSNO sensors utilizes an amperometric NO gas sensor with a thin organoselenium modified dialysis membrane mounted at the distal sensing tip. Sample RSNOs are catalytically reduced to NO within the dialysis membrane by the immobilized organoselenium species. In the presence of oxygen the sensitivity of these sensors for measuring low levels of RSNOs (< μM) is greatly reduced. It is demonstrated that the main scavenger of the generated nitric oxide is not the dissolved oxygen, but rather superoxide anion radical generated from the reaction of the reduced organoselenium species (the reactive species in the catalytic redox cycle) and dissolved oxygen. Computer simulations of the response of the RSNO sensor using rate constants and diffusion coefficients for the reactions involved, known from the literature or estimated from fitting to the observed amperometric response curves, as well as the specific geometric dimensions of the RSNO sensor, further support that nitric oxide and superoxide anion radical quickly react resulting in near zero sensor sensitivity toward RSNO concentrations in the sub-micromolar concentration range. Elimination of oxygen from samples helps improve sensor detection limits to ca. 10 nM levels of RSNOs. PMID:21230000

  20. Optical PEBBLE nanosensors and fiber optic sensors for real-time intracellular imaging and analysis of magnesium and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Edwin J.

    A highly selective magnesium fluorescent optical nanosensor, made possible by PEBBLE (Probe Encapsulated By Biologically Localized Embedding) technology is presented. Ratiometric sensors were prepared, via a microemulsion polymerization process, by co-immobilizing a highly selective magnesium dye with a reference dye inside a polymer matrix. The resultant spherical sensors are ˜40 nm in diameter. Several dyes were investigated with coumarin 343 (C343) providing the best selectivity towards Mg2+ vs. ions such as Ca 2+, Na+, and K+. The dynamic range of the sensors was 1 to 30 mM (linear from 1 to 10 mM) with a response time of less than 4 s. The fully reversible sensors exhibit minimal leaching and photobleaching. In vitro intracellular changes in Mg2+ concentration were monitored in C6 Glioma cells. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the capability of these sensors thus they were used to investigate the PhoP/Q transmembrane protein system on the internal membrane of salmonella . The sensors were used to monitor the magnesium levels inside salmonella containing vacuoles. Previously believed hypotheses on changes in magnesium concentration are challenged with the newly obtained results. The selectivity for Mg2+ along with the biocompatibility of the matrix of these sensors provides a new and reliable tool for intracellular magnesium measurements. A second sensor platform was developed for the detection of intracellular dissolved oxygen, using a fiber optic probe. The design and fabrication of an oxygen fiber optic sensor based on the fluorescence quenching properties of the oxygen sensitive platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) is presented. Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP) or bodipy maleimide 577/618, was also entrapped, as a reference dye, in a polyvinyl chloride matrix including the plasticizing agent bis 2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS). The multi mode fibers were pulled down to submicron dimensions and a dip coating procedure was used to apply the sensing

  1. Tuning the dynamic range and sensitivity of optical oxygen-sensors by employing differently substituted polystyrene-derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Klaus; Hutter, Lukas; Enko, Barbara; Pein, Andreas; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Ten different polystyrene-derivatives were tested with respect to their potential use as matrix materials for optical oxygen sensors in combination with the platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin as indicator dye. Either halogen atoms or bulky residues were introduced as substituents on the phenyl ring. A fine-tuning of the sensor sensitivity was achieved, without compromising solubility of the indicator in the matrix by providing a chemical environment very similar to polystyrene (PS), a standard matrix in optical oxygen sensors. To put the results into perspective, the studied materials were compared to PS regarding sensitivity of the sensor, molecular weight and glass-transition temperature. The materials promise to be viable alternatives to PS with respect to the requirements posed in various sensor application fields. Some of the polymers (e.g. poly(2,6-dichlorostyrene)) promise to be of use in applications requiring measurements from 0 to 100% oxygen due to linearity across this range. Poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) and poly(2,6-fluorostyrene), on the other hand, yield sensors with increased sensitivity. Sensor stability was evaluated as a function of the matrix, a topic which has not received a lot of interest so far. PMID:23576846

  2. Variability of Transcutaneous Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Pressure Measurements Associated with Sensor Location.

    PubMed

    Górska, K; Korczyński, P; Maskey-Warzęchowska, M; Chazan, R; Krenke, R

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure (PtcO2 and PtcCO2) is useful in gas exchange monitoring. However, the relationship between PtcO2, pulse oximetry (SaO2) and arterial blood gases (ABG) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare PtcO2 and PtcCO2 with SaO2 and ABG, to evaluate the effect of sensor location on the results and stability of PtcO2 and PtcCO2, and to assess the impact of body composition on PtcO2 and PtcCO2. PtcO2 and PtcCO2 were measured in 20 healthy volunteers at three locations: right second intercostal space, lateral surface of the abdomen, and the inner surface of the left arm. The results were recorded 10, 15, and 20 min after sensor fixation and compared with SaO2 and ABG measured 20 min after electrode placement on the chest. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance. The findings were that PtcO2 was stable on the chest; but on the arm and abdomen it increased and reached maximum at 20 min. Transcutaneous PCO2 stabilized at 10 min in all the three locations. No significant correlations between PtcO2 and SaO2 or PaO2 were found. Transcutaneous PCO2 correlated with PaCO2. Both PtcO2 and PtcCO2 were not influenced by body composition. We conclude that the value of PtcO2 in monitoring of blood oxygenation was not unequivocally confirmed; PtcCO2 reliably reflects PaCO2, irrespective of sensor location. Body composition does not affect PtcO2 and PtcCO2. PMID:25820668

  3. A Novel Thermal Sensor for the Sensitive Measurement of Chemical Oxygen Demand

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Na; Liu, Zhuan; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yikai; Xie, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A novel rapid methodology for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a thermal sensor with a flow injection analysis system was proposed and experimentally validated. The ability of this sensor to detect and monitor COD was based on the degree of enthalpy increase when sodium hypochlorite reacted with the organic content in water samples. The measurement results were correlated with COD and were compared against the conventional method using potassium dichromate. The assay required only 5–7 min rather than the 2 h required for evaluation by potassium dichromate. The linear range was 5–1000 mg/L COD, and the limit of detection was very low, 0.74 mg/L COD. Moreover, this method exhibited high tolerance to chloride ions; 0.015 mol/L chloride ions had no influence on the response. Finally, the sensor was used to detect the COD of different water samples; the results were verified by the standard dichromate method. PMID:26295397

  4. Real-time frequency domain temperature and oxygen sensor with a single optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Liao, S C; Xu, Z; Izatt, J A; Alcala, J R

    1997-11-01

    The combined excited-state phosphorescence life-times of an alexandrite crystal and platinum tetraphenylporphyrin Pt(TPP) in a single-fiber sensor are used to monitor temperature and oxygen concentration in the physiological range from 15-45 degrees C and 0-50% O2 with precision of 0.24 degree C and 0.15% O2 and accuracy of 0.28 degree C and 0.2% O2. A 500-micron cubic alexandrite crystal bound to the distal end of a 750-micron-diameter optical fiber core and the Pt(TPP) coated circumferentially with a length of 1 cm from the end of the same fiber are excited with pulsed super-bright blue LED light. This apparatus uses a 125-kHz sampler for data acquisition and frequency domain methods for signal processing. The instrument amplifies both the dc and ac components of the photomultiplier output and band limits the signal to 20 kHz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is set to 488.3 Hz and the highest harmonic used is the 35th. This bandlimited signal is sampled and averaged over a few hundred cycles in the time domain. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio of each sampled harmonic are then computed. At least four log-spaced harmonic phases or modulations are averaged before decoding the two lifetimes of temperature and oxygen phosphorescent sensors. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the excitation backscatter leakage through optical interference filters seen by the photodetector. Linear and second-order empirical polynomials are employed to compute the temperatures and oxygen concentrations from the inverse lifetimes. In the situation of constant oxygen concentration, the lifetime of Pt(TPP) changes with temperature but can be compensated using the measured temperature lifetime. The system drift is 0.24 degree C for the temperature measurement and 0.59% for the oxygen concentration measurement over 30 h of continuous operation

  5. Yeast-based Biochemical Oxygen Demand Sensors Using Gold-modified Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Harmesa; Saepudin, Endang; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    A gold nanoparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode was developed as a transducer for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181 was immobilized in a sodium alginate matrix, and used as a biosensing agent. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to study the oxygen reduction reaction at the electrode, while amperometry was employed to detect oxygen, which was not consumed by the microorganisms. The optimum waiting time of 25 min was observed using 1-mm thickness of yeast film. A comparison against the system with free yeast cells shows less sensitivity of the current responses with a linear dynamic range (R(2) = 0.99) of from 0.10 mM to 0.90 mM glucose (equivalent to 10 - 90 mg/L BOD) with an estimated limit of detection of 1.90 mg/L BOD. However, a better stability of the current responses could be achieved with an RSD of 3.35%. Moreover, less influence from the presence of copper ions was observed. The results indicate that the yeast-immobilized BOD sensors is more suitable to be applied in a real condition. PMID:26179128

  6. Direct measurements of in-stream nitrate uptake with automated high frequency sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Hensley, Robert; Brase, Lisa; Borchardt, Dietrich; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Decades of nutrient studies have unveiled the importance of river networks in nutrient cycling. Still, direct methods to quantify instream removal in defined reaches have so far been limited to small streams. In rivers, where isotope tracer additions have been impracticable, uptake rates could only very rarely be measured and therefore have been mostly modelled by upscaling. Recently, the expanding availability of high resolution stream solute signals from automated sensors offers new possibilities for uptake kinetic studies. Cohen et al (2012) assessed assimilation and denitrification rates based on daily nitrate amplitudes and longitudinal concentration gradients in spring- fed chemostatic rivers. In higher order streams, overlapping of network, onsite and upstream signals require additional conceptual and methodological adaptation. Here we present a new combined longitudinal lagrangian and mass balance approach with continuous measurements of nitrate uptake rates in the German lowland river Weiße Elster, to our knowledge the first direct measurement of nitrate kinetics with continues high frequency sensors. We used 10 minutes time step NO3-N, pH, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and chlorophyl-a measurements and supplementing low frequency 15N isotope manual sampling. Longitudinal lagrangian measurements were conducted during day and night. Our data from two morphologically highly contrasting reaches indicate that local, seasonal or even day to day changes in uptake kinetics can be of several orders of magnitude and that the disregard of intermediate storage and dispersion can lead to high errors. The natural river reach revealed considerably higher N uptake than the channelized river reach. Furthermore, river bottom related N-uptake rates were in the same order than those found in agricultural head water streams. Besides depicting prospects and limits, we also provide important considerations for the set-up of measurement stations and for

  7. Physico-Mathematical Simulation of a Homogeneous Thermal Field of Multichannel Raster Matrixes for Sensors of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Kotovskyi, Vitalij; Dzhezherya, Yurii; Dovzhenko, Aleksandr; Višniakov, Nikolaj; Šešok, Andžela

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, an opportunity for the development of multichannel transcutaneous raster matrixes for sensors of oxygen on the basis of an electrochemical cell sensor is described. An analysis of the influence of heat sources on the distribution of the temperature pattern of a raster matrix for sensors of oxygen had been carried out, and their optimum configuration had been found. The application of such matrixes will enable one to obtain information about the distribution of the partial pressure of oxygen from the skin cover of the object of research in dynamics, to assess its functional health pattern in a more comprehensive way and to control the effect of possible remedial actions. PMID:25591170

  8. Physico-mathematical simulation of a homogeneous thermal field of multichannel raster matrixes for sensors of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Kotovskyi, Vitalij; Dzhezherya, Yurii; Dovzhenko, Aleksandr; Višniakov, Nikolaj; Šešok, Andžela

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, an opportunity for the development of multichannel transcutaneous raster matrixes for sensors of oxygen on the basis of an electrochemical cell sensor is described. An analysis of the influence of heat sources on the distribution of the temperature pattern of a raster matrix for sensors of oxygen had been carried out, and their optimum configuration had been found. The application of such matrixes will enable one to obtain information about the distribution of the partial pressure of oxygen from the skin cover of the object of research in dynamics, to assess its functional health pattern in a more comprehensive way and to control the effect of possible remedial actions. PMID:25591170

  9. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kruglik, Sergei G; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2007-05-01

    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR(3) measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron-ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron-histidine band around 217 cm(-1) as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the "oxygen cage" properties of this oxygen sensor protein. PMID:17446273

  10. Studies of Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation with a Ratiometric and Reversible Sensor of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amandeep; Jankowska, Karolina; Pilgrim, Chelsea; Fraser, Stuart T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Chronic elevations in cellular redox state are known to result in the onset of various pathological conditions, but transient increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are necessary for signal transduction and various physiological functions. There is a distinct lack of reversible fluorescent tools that can aid in studying and unraveling the roles of ROS/RNS in physiology and pathology by monitoring the variations in cellular ROS levels over time. In this work, we report the development of ratiometric fluorescent sensors that reversibly respond to changes in mitochondrial redox state. Results: Photophysical studies of the developed flavin–rhodamine redox sensors, flavin–rhodamine redox sensor 1 (FRR1) and flavin–rhodamine redox sensor 2 (FRR2), confirmed the reversible response of the probes upon reduction and re-oxidation over more than five cycles. The ratiometric output of FRR1 and FRR2 remained unaltered in the presence of other possible cellular interferants (metals and pH). Microscopy studies indicated clear mitochondrial localization of both probes, and FRR2 was shown to report the time-dependent increase of mitochondrial ROS levels after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in macrophages. Moreover, it was used to study the variations in mitochondrial redox state in mouse hematopoietic cells at different stages of embryonic development and maturation. Innovation: This study provides the first ratiometric and reversible probes for ROS, targeted to the mitochondria, which reveal variations in mitochondrial ROS levels at different stages of embryonic and adult blood cell production. Conclusions: Our results suggest that with their ratiometric and reversible outputs, FRR1 and FRR2 are valuable tools for the future study of oxidative stress and its implications in physiology and pathology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 667–679. PMID:26865422

  11. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  12. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  13. Two-Axis Direct Fluid Shear Stress Sensor for Aerodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; Scott, Michael A.; Adcock, Edward E.

    2011-01-01

    This miniature or micro-sized semiconductor sensor design provides direct, nonintrusive measurement of skin friction or wall shear stress in fluid flow situations in a two-axis configuration. The sensor is fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology, enabling small size and multiple, low-cost reproductions. The sensors may be fabricated by bonding a sensing element wafer to a fluid-coupling element wafer. Using this layered machine structure provides a truly three-dimensional device.

  14. Direct method gas-phase oxygen abundances of four Lyman break analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2014-09-10

    We measure the gas-phase oxygen abundances in four Lyman break analogs using auroral emission lines to derive direct abundances. The direct method oxygen abundances of these objects are generally consistent with the empirically derived strong-line method values, confirming that these objects are low oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation defined by star forming Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find slightly anomalous excitation conditions (Wolf-Rayet features) that could potentially bias the empirical estimates toward high values if caution is not exercised in the selection of the strong-line calibration. The high rate of star formation and low oxygen abundance of these objects is consistent with the predictions of the fundamental metallicity relation, in which the infall of relatively unenriched gas simultaneously triggers an episode of star formation and dilutes the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  15. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit: Application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  16. Spectral dependence of the efficiency of direct optical excitation of molecular oxygen in tetrachloromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Bagrov, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral dependence of the efficiency of direct optical excitation of an oxygen molecule in tetrachloromethane using cw LED sources with different wavelengths and an optical parametric oscillator with single-shot output radiation (tuning range of 415-670 nm) has been studied by recording the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen at the O2(1Δg)-O2(3Σg) transition (λ = 1270 nm). The results show that single-shot irradiation of tetrachloromethane in the short-wavelength spectral range leads to efficient quenching of singlet- oxygen phosphorescence by the products of photolytic decomposition of solvent.

  17. Characterization of a dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber coated with ruthenium-incorporated solgel.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fenghong; Yang, Junjie; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Fang, Zujie

    2009-01-10

    A dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber as the substrate and dichlorotris (1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium as a fluorescence indicator is studied. Oxygen quenching characteristics of both intensity and phase were measured; the obtained characteristics showed deviation from the linear relation described by the Stern-Volmer equation. A two-layer model is proposed to explain the deviation, and main parameters can be deduced with the model. PMID:19137045

  18. Ultrafast ligand rebinding in the heme domain of the oxygen sensors FixL and Dos: general regulatory implications for heme-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Ursula; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Negrerie, Michel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2002-10-01

    Heme-based oxygen sensors are part of ligand-specific two-component regulatory systems, which have both a relatively low oxygen affinity and a low oxygen-binding rate. To get insight into the dynamical aspects underlying these features and the ligand specificity of the signal transduction from the heme sensor domain, we used femtosecond spectroscopy to study ligand dynamics in the heme domains of the oxygen sensors FixL from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FixLH) and Dos from Escherichia coli (DosH). The heme coordination with different ligands and the corresponding ground-state heme spectra of FixLH are similar to myoglobin (Mb). After photodissociation, the excited-state properties and ligand-rebinding kinetics are qualitatively similar for FixLH and Mb for CO and NO as ligands. In contrast to Mb, the transient spectra of FixLH after photodissociation of ligands are distorted compared with the ground-state difference spectra, indicating differences in the heme environment with respect to the unliganded state. This distortion is particularly marked for O(2). Strikingly, heme-O(2) recombination occurs with efficiency unprecedented for heme proteins, in approximately 5 ps for approximately 90% of the dissociated O(2). For DosH-O(2), which shows 60% sequence similarity to FixLH, but where signal detection and transmission presumably are quite different, a similarly fast recombination was found with an even higher yield. Altogether these results indicate that in these sensors the heme pocket acts as a ligand-specific trap. The general implications for the functioning of heme-based ligand sensors are discussed in the light of recent studies on heme-based NO and CO sensors. PMID:12271121

  19. Directional Migration of MDA-MB-231 Cells Under Oxygen Concentration Gradients.

    PubMed

    Yahara, D; Yoshida, T; Enokida, Y; Takahashi, E

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the initial mechanism of hematogenous metastasis of cancer cells, we hypothesized that cancer cells migrate toward regions with higher oxygen concentration such as intratumor micro vessels along the oxygen concentration gradient. To produce gradients of oxygen concentration in vitro, we devised the gap cover glass (GCG). After placing a GCG onto cultured MDA-MB-231 cells (a metastatic breast cancer cell line), the migration of individual cells under the GCG was tracked up to 12 h at 3 % oxygen in the micro incubator. We quantified the migration of individual cells using forward migration index (FMI). The cell migration perpendicular to the oxygen gradients was random in the direction whereas FMIs of the cell located at 300, 500, 700, and 1500 μm from the oxygen inlet were positive (p < 0.05) indicating a unidirectional migration toward the oxygen inlet. Present results are consistent with our hypothesis that MDA-MB-231 cells migrate toward regions with higher oxygen concentration. PMID:27526134

  20. Direct measurement of local dissolved oxygen concentration spatial profiles in a cell culture environment.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Controlling local dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in media is critical for cell or tissue cultures. Various biomaterials and culture methods have been developed to modulate DO. Direct measurement of local DO in cultures has not been validated as a method to test DO modulation. In the present study we developed a DO measurement system equipped with a Clark-type oxygen microelectrode manipulated with 1 μm precision in three-dimensional space to explore potential applications for tissue engineering. By determining the microelectrode tip position precisely against the bottom plane of culture dishes with rat or human cardiac cells in static monolayer culture, we successfully obtained spatial distributions of DO in the medium. Theoretical quantitative predictions fit the obtained data well. Based on analyses of the variance between samples, we found the data reflected "local" oxygen consumption in the vicinity of the microelectrode and the detection of temporal changes in oxygen consumption rates of cultured cells was limited by the diffusion rate of oxygen in the medium. This oxygen measuring system monitors local oxygen consumption and production with high spatial resolution, and can potentially be used with recently developed oxygen modulating biomaterials to design microenvironments and non-invasively monitor local DO dynamics during culture. PMID:25565074

  1. Light-addressable amperometric electrodes for enzyme sensors based on direct quantum dot-electrode contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Göbel, G.; Parak, W. J.; Lisdat, F.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots allow the generation of charge carriers upon illumination. When these particles are attached to an electrode a photocurrent can be generated. This allows their use as a light-switchable layer on the surface. The QDs can not only exchange electronics with the electrode, but can also interact with donor or acceptor compounds in solution providing access to the construction of signal chains starting from an analytic molecule. The magnitude and the direction of the photocurrent depend on several factors such as electrode polarization, solution pH and composition. These defined dependencies have been evaluated with respect to the combination of QD-electrodes with enzyme reactions for sensorial purpose. CdSe/ZnS-QD-modified electrodes can be used to follow enzymatic reactions in solution based on the oxygen sensitivity. In order to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor, e.g. glucose oxidase is immobilized on the CdSe/ZnS-electrode. One immobilization strategy applies the layer-by-layer-technique of GOD and a polyelectrolyte. Photocurrent measurements of such a sensor show a clear concentration dependent behavior. The principle of combing QD oxidase. The sensitivity of quantum dot electrodes can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be demonstrated that direct electron transfer from excited quantum dots can be achieved with the redox protein cytochrome c. This allows the detection of the protein, but also interaction partners such as a enzymes or superoxide.

  2. Optimization of self-directed target coverage in wireless multimedia sensor network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Yufei; Pi, Dechang; Wang, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Video and image sensors in wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) have directed view and limited sensing angle. So the methods to solve target coverage problem for traditional sensor networks, which use circle sensing model, are not suitable for WMSNs. Based on the FoV (field of view) sensing model and FoV disk model proposed, how expected multimedia sensor covers the target is defined by the deflection angle between target and the sensor's current orientation and the distance between target and the sensor. Then target coverage optimization algorithms based on expected coverage value are presented for single-sensor single-target, multisensor single-target, and single-sensor multitargets problems distinguishingly. Selecting the orientation that sensor rotated to cover every target falling in the FoV disk of that sensor for candidate orientations and using genetic algorithm to multisensor multitargets problem, which has NP-complete complexity, then result in the approximated minimum subset of sensors which covers all the targets in networks. Simulation results show the algorithm's performance and the effect of number of targets on the resulting subset. PMID:25136667

  3. Two-axis direct fluid shear stress sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajikar, Sateesh (Inventor); Scott, Michael A. (Inventor); Adcock, Edward E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A micro sized multi-axis semiconductor skin friction/wall shear stress induced by fluid flow. The sensor design includes a shear/strain transduction gimble connected to a force collecting plate located at the flow boundary surface. The shear force collecting plate is interconnected by an arm to offset the tortional hinges from the fluid flow. The arm is connected to the shear force collecting plate through dual axis torsional hinges with piezoresistive torsional strain gauges. These gauges are disposed on the tortional hinges and provide a voltage output indicative of applied shear stress acting on the force collection plate proximate the flow boundary surface. Offsetting the torsional hinges creates a force concentration and resolution structure that enables the generation of a large stress on the strain gauge from small shear stress, or small displacement of the collecting plate. The design also isolates the torsional sensors from exposure to the fluid flow.

  4. An intracellular redox sensor for reactive oxygen species at the M3-M4 linker of GABAAρ1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Gasulla, Javier; Calvo, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally involved in cell oxidative stress but also play a role as cellular messengers in redox signalling; for example, modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, the direct actions of ROS on GABAA receptors were not previously demonstrated. In the present work, we studied the effects of ROS on GABAAρ1 receptor function. Experimental Approach GABAAρ1 receptors were expressed in oocytes and GABA-evoked responses electrophysiologically recorded in the presence or absence of ROS. Chemical protection of cysteines by selective sulfhydryl reagents and site-directed mutagenesis studies were used to identify protein residues involved in ROS actions. Key Results GABAAρ1 receptor-mediated responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by H2O2. Potentiating effects were attenuated by a free radical scavenger, lipoic acid or an inhibitor of the Fenton reaction, deferoxamine. Each ρ1 subunit contains only three cysteine residues, two extracellular at the Cys-loop (C177 and C191) and one intracellular (C364) at the M3-M4 linker. Mutant GABAAρ1 receptors in which C364 was exchanged by alanine were completely insensitive to modulation, implying that this site, rather than a cysteine in the Cys-loop, is essential for ROS modulation. Conclusion and Implications Our results show that the function of GABAAρ1 receptors is enhanced by ROS and that the intracellular C364 is the sensor for ROS actions. PMID:24428763

  5. A Phase Shift Demodulation Technique: Verification and Application in Fluorescence Phase Based Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chuanwu; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-06-01

    A phase shift demodulation technique based on subtraction capable of measuring 0.03 phase degree limit between sinusoidal signals is presented in this paper. A self-gain module and a practical subtracter act the kernel parts of the phase shift demodulation system. Electric signals in different phases are used to verify the performance of the system. In addition, a new designed optical source, laser fiber differential source (LFDS), capable of generating mini phase is used to further verify the system reliability. R-square of 0.99997 in electric signals and R-square of 0.99877 in LFDS are achieved, and 0.03 degree measurement limit is realized in experiments. Furthermore, the phase shift demodulation system is applied to the fluorescence phase based oxygen sensors to realize the fundamental function. The experimental results reveal that a good repetition and better than 0.02% oxygen concentration measurement accuracy are realized. In addition, the phase shift demodulation system can be easily integrated to other applications.

  6. Iridium-Based High-Sensitivity Oxygen Sensors and Photosensitizers with Ultralong Triplet Lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Jianchun; Guo, Xinyan; Zhao, Dahui; Ma, Yuguo

    2016-02-17

    The photophysics of a series of bichromophoric molecules featuring an intramolecular triplet energy transfer between a triscyclometalated iridium(III) complex and covalently linked organic group are studied. By systematically varying the energy gap (0.1-0.3 eV) between the donor (metal complex) and acceptor (pyrene unit), reversible triplet energy transfer processes with equilibrium constant K ranging from ca. 500 to 40 000 are established. Unique photophysical consequences of such large K values are observed. Because of the highly imbalanced forward and backward energy transfer rates, triplet excitons dominantly populate the acceptor moiety in the steady state, giving rise to ultralong luminescence lifetimes up to 1-4 ms. Because the triscyclometalated Ir and triplet pyrene groups both impart relatively small nonradiative energy loss, decent phosphorescence quantum yields (Φ = 0.1-0.6) are attained in spite of the exceptionally prolonged excited states. By virtue of such precious combination of long-lived triplet state and high Φ, these bichromophoric molecules can serve as highly sensitive luminescent sensors for detecting trace amount of O2 and as potent photosensitizers for producing singlet oxygen even under low-oxygen content conditions. PMID:26592255

  7. Temperature Effects on the Wind Direction Measurement of 2D Solid Thermal Wind Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bei; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Yi, Zhenxiang; Qin, Ming; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-01-01

    For a two-dimensional solid silicon thermal wind sensor with symmetrical structure, the wind speed and direction information can be derived from the output voltages in two orthogonal directions, i.e., the north-south and east-west. However, the output voltages in these two directions will vary linearly with the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this paper, a temperature model to study the temperature effect on the wind direction measurement has been developed. A theoretical analysis has been presented first, and then Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations have been performed. It is found that due to symmetrical structure of the thermal wind sensor, the temperature effects on the output signals in the north-south and east-west directions are highly similar. As a result, the wind direction measurement of the thermal wind sensor is approximately independent of the ambient temperature. The experimental results fit the theoretical analysis and simulation results very well. PMID:26633398

  8. Nanosized TiO[subscript 2] for Photocatalytic Water Splitting Studied by Oxygen Sensor and Data Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ruinan; Liu, Song; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting by semiconductor photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. In this experiment, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO[subscript 2]) particles are used to photocatalytically split water, which is then monitored by an oxygen sensor. Sacrificial reagents such as organics (EDTA) and metal…

  9. Direct detection of singlet oxygen generated by UVA irradiation in human cells and skin.

    PubMed

    Baier, Jürgen; Maisch, Tim; Maier, Max; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    UVA light produces deleterious biological effects in which singlet oxygen plays a major role. These effects comprise a significant risk of carcinogenesis in the skin and cataract formation of the eye lens. Singlet oxygen is generated by UVA light absorption in endogenous molecules present in the cells. To elucidate the primary processes and sources of singlet oxygen in tissue, it is a major goal to uncover the hidden process of singlet oxygen generation, in particular in living tissue. When exposing keratinocytes or human skin in vivo to UVA laser light (355 nm) at 6 J/cm2, we measured the luminescence of singlet oxygen at 1,270 nm. This is a positive and direct proof of singlet oxygen generation in cells and skin by UVA light. Moreover, a clear signal of singlet oxygen luminescence was detected in phosphatidylcholine suspensions (water or ethanol) irradiated by UVA. Oxidized products of phosphatidylcholine are the likely chromophores because phosphatidylcholine itself does not absorb at 355 nm. The signal intensity was reduced by mannitol or super oxide dismutase. Additionally, the monochromatic UVA irradiation at 355 nm leads to upregulation of the key cytokine IL-12. This affects the balance of UV radiation on the immune system, which is comparable to effects of broadband UVA irradiation. PMID:17363921

  10. The role of oxygen in hydrogen sensing by a platinum-gate silicon carbide gas sensor: An ultrahigh vacuum study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Lu, Wei; Tobin, R. G.; Loloee, Reza; Ghosh, Ruby N.

    2009-03-01

    We report several experiments under ultrahigh vacuum conditions that elucidate the role of oxygen in the functioning of silicon carbide field-effect gas sensors with nonporous platinum gates. The devices studied are shown to be sensitive both to hydrogen and to propene. All of the results are consistent with oxygen acting through its surface reactions with hydrogen. Three specific aspects are highlighted: the need, under some conditions, for oxygen to reset the device to a fully hydrogen-depleted state; competition between hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen diffusion to metal/oxide interface sites, leading to steplike behavior as a function of the oxygen:hydrogen ratio (λ-sensing); and the removal of sulfur contamination by oxygen.

  11. The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot production in direct-injection diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Mueller, Charles J.; Martin, Glen M.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2003-06-01

    A combined experimental and kinetic modeling study of soot formation in diesel engine combustion has been used to study the addition of oxygenated species to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. This work indicates that the primary role of oxygen atoms in the fuel mixture is to reduce the levels of carbon atoms available for soot formation by fixing them in the form of CO or COz. When the structure of the oxygenate leads to prompt and direct formation of CO2, the oxygenate is less effective in reducing soot production than in cases when all fuel-bound 0 atoms produce only CO. The kinetic and molecular structure principles leading to this conclusion are described.

  12. Topmetal-II-: a direct charge sensor for high energy physics and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Huang, G.; Sun, X.

    2016-01-01

    Topmetal-II-, a direct charge sensor, was manufactured in an XFAB 350 nm CMOS process. The Topmetal-II- sensor features a 72 × 72 pixel array with an 83 μm pixel pitch which collects and measures charge directly from the surrounding media. We introduce the implementation of the circuitry in the sensor including an analogue readout channel and a column based digital readout channel. The analogue readout channel allows the access to the full waveform from each pixel through a time-shared multiplexing. The digital readout channel records hits identified by an individually settable threshold in each pixel. Some simulation and preliminary test results are also discussed.

  13. A self-decoupling piezoresistive sensor for measuring microforce in horizontal and vertical directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Rong, Weibin; Wang, Lefeng; Gao, Peng; Sun, Lining

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and calibration of a novel two-dimension microforce sensor with nano-Newton resolution. The sensor, mainly composed of a clamped–clamped beam (horizontal detecting beam), an overhanging beam (vertical detecting beam) and a half-folded beam, is highly sensitive to microforces in the horizontal (parallel to the probe of the designed sensor) and vertical (perpendicular to the wafer surface) directions. The four vertical sidewall surface piezoresistors (horizontal piezoresistors) and two surface piezoresistors (vertical piezoresistors) were fabricated to achieve the requirements of two-dimension microforce measurements. Combining the sensor structure with Wheatstone bridge configurations, the microforce decoupling among the x, y, and z direction can be realized. Accordingly, the sensor is capable of detecting microforces in the horizontal and vertical directions independently. The calibration results verified that the sensor sensitivities at room temperature are 210.58 V N‑1and 159.2 V N‑1 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Additionally, the sensor’s corresponding force resolutions are estimated at 2 nN and 3 nN in theory, respectively. The sensor can be used to measure the contact force between manipulating tools and micro-objects, in fields such as microassembly and biological assays.

  14. Modeling of a three-source perfusion and blood oxygenation sensor for transplant monitoring using multilayer Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Lee, Seungjoon; Ericson, M. Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    A Multi-Layer Monte Carlo (MLMC) model was developed to predict the results of in vivo blood perfusion and oxygenation measurement of transplanted organs as measured by an indwelling optical sensor. A sensor has been developed which uses three-source excitation in the red and infrared ranges (660, 810, 940 nm). In vitro data was taken using this sensor by changing the oxygenation state of whole blood and passing it through a single-tube pump system wrapped in bovine liver tissue. The collected data showed that the red signal increased as blood oxygenation increased and infrared signal decreased. The center wavelength of 810 nanometers was shown to be quite indifferent to blood oxygenation change. A model was developed using MLMC code that sampled the wavelength range from 600-1000 nanometers every 6 nanometers. Using scattering and absorption data for blood and liver tissue within this wavelength range, a five-layer model was developed (tissue, clear tubing, blood, clear tubing, tissue). The theoretical data generated from this model was compared to the in vitro data and showed good correlation with changing blood oxygenation.

  15. Direct Image-To Registration Using Mobile Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehl, C.; Buckley, S. J.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Viola, I.; Howell, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Adding supplementary texture and 2D image-based annotations to 3D surface models is a useful next step for domain specialists to make use of photorealistic products of laser scanning and photogrammetry. This requires a registration between the new camera imagery and the model geometry to be solved, which can be a time-consuming task without appropriate automation. The increasing availability of photorealistic models, coupled with the proliferation of mobile devices, gives users the possibility to complement their models in real time. Modern mobile devices deliver digital photographs of increasing quality, as well as on-board sensor data, which can be used as input for practical and automatic camera registration procedures. Their familiar user interface also improves manual registration procedures. This paper introduces a fully automatic pose estimation method using the on-board sensor data for initial exterior orientation, and feature matching between an acquired photograph and a synthesised rendering of the orientated 3D scene as input for fine alignment. The paper also introduces a user-friendly manual camera registration- and pose estimation interface for mobile devices, based on existing surface geometry and numerical optimisation methods. The article further assesses the automatic algorithm's accuracy compared to traditional methods, and the impact of computational- and environmental parameters. Experiments using urban and geological case studies show a significant sensitivity of the automatic procedure to the quality of the initial mobile sensor values. Changing natural lighting conditions remain a challenge for automatic pose estimation techniques, although progress is presented here. Finally, the automatically-registered mobile images are used as the basis for adding user annotations to the input textured model.

  16. Intra-breath arterial oxygen oscillations detected by a fast oxygen sensor in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, F.; Chen, R.; McPeak, H.; Murison, P. J.; Matejovic, M.; Hahn, C. E. W.; Farmery, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in oxygen partial pressure (Po2) monitoring in physiology, and in tracking Po2 changes dynamically when it varies rapidly. For example, arterial Po2 (PaO2) can vary within the respiratory cycle in cyclical atelectasis (CA), where PaO2 is thought to increase and decrease during inspiration and expiration, respectively. A sensor that detects these PaO2 oscillations could become a useful diagnostic tool of CA during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods We developed a fibreoptic Po2 sensor (<200 µm diameter), suitable for human use, that has a fast response time, and can measure Po2 continuously in blood. By altering the inspired fraction of oxygen (FIO2) from 21 to 100% in four healthy animal models, we determined the linearity of the sensor's signal over a wide range of PaO2 values in vivo. We also hypothesized that the sensor could measure rapid intra-breath PaO2 oscillations in a large animal model of ARDS. Results In the healthy animal models, PaO2 responses to changes in FIO2 were in agreement with conventional intermittent blood-gas analysis (n=39) for a wide range of PaO2 values, from 10 to 73 kPa. In the animal lavage model of CA, the sensor detected PaO2 oscillations, also at clinically relevant PaO2 levels close to 9 kPa. Conclusions We conclude that these fibreoptic PaO2 sensors have the potential to become a diagnostic tool for CA in ARDS. PMID:25631471

  17. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging. PMID:20728336

  18. Hair sensor using a photoelectronic principle for sensing airflow and its direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Huang, Chien-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Many organisms have diverse hair cells to instantaneously perceive the change of surroundings so that they can keep away from threats. These organs can precisely detect the tiny variations of airflow, water flow, sound, or pressure, and also resolve their affecting directions. Through this brilliant inspiration by the insects' cilia, we decided to design and develop a hair sensor for detecting two-dimensional airflow and pressure waves by using photoelectronic principles. The hair sensor inherently consists of an artificial cilium supported by an elastic membrane. A light-emitting diode and a quadrant photodiode are used as the photoelectronic sensor. The airflow or pressure wave directly stimulates the cilium to sway, and this motion contributes to let the projected light beam shift over the quadrant photodiode, whose four photodiodes produce then corresponding output signals. Because of dynamic and high-sensitive properties of the photoelectronic sensor, the hair sensor we developed possesses a high measurement resolution to be able to detect very tiny stimulation and its affecting direction. According to its multifaceted characteristics and simple structure, the hair sensor can be applied in numerous potential application fields, such as intrusion alarm system, noise detection system, as well as a tactile sensor.

  19. Experimental investigation of the effect of polymer matrices on polymer fibre optic oxygen sensors and their time response characteristics using a vacuum testing chamber and a liquid flow apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; McPeak, Hanne; Obeid, Andrew N.; Hahn, Clive; Farmery, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Very fast sensors that are able to track rapid changes in oxygen partial pressure (PO2) in the gas and liquid phases are increasingly required in scientific research – particularly in the life sciences. Recent interest in monitoring very fast changes in the PO2 of arterial blood in some respiratory failure conditions is one such example. Previous attempts to design fast intravascular electrochemical oxygen sensors for use in physiology and medicine have failed to meet the criteria that are now required in modern investigations. However, miniature photonic devices are capable of meeting this need. In this article, we present an inexpensive polymer type fibre-optic, oxygen sensor that is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional electrochemical oxygen sensors. It is constructed with biologically inert polymer materials and is both sufficiently small and robust for direct insertion in to a human artery. The sensors were tested and evaluated in both a gas testing chamber and in a flowing liquid test system. The results showed a very fast T90 response time, typically circa 20 ms when tested in the gas phase, and circa 100 ms in flowing liquid. PMID:26726286

  20. Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gai-Xiu; Sun, Yong-Ming; Kong, Xiao-Ying; Zhen, Feng; Li, Ying; Li, Lian-Hua; Lei, Ting-Zhou; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Guan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the construction of a real-time BOD measurement system. Further, the effects of anodic pH and organic concentration on SCMFC performance were examined, and the correlation between BOD concentration and its response time was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the SCMFC exhibited a stable voltage after 132 min following the addition of synthetic WW (BOD concentration: 200 mg/L). Notably, the response signal increased with an increase in BOD concentration (range: 5-200 mg/L) and was found to be directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher BOD concentrations (>120 mg/L) the response signal remained unaltered. Furthermore, we optimized the SCMFC using synthetic WW, and tested it with real WW. Upon feeding real WW, the BOD values exhibited a standard deviation from 2.08 to 8.3% when compared to the standard BOD5 method, thus demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed system to real treatment effluents. PMID:24225089

  1. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues. PMID:27070601

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues. PMID:27070601

  3. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit; application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, as it is described, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a co-rotating atmosphere. The LDEF orientation, uncorrected for a co-rotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 minus/plus 0.4 deg from its nominal attitude, with an estimated minus/plus 0.35 deg oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and co-rotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a co-rotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  4. A fibre optic oxygen sensor that detects rapid PO2 changes under simulated conditions of cyclical atelectasis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico; Chen, Rongsheng; McPeak, Hanne; Matejovic, Martin; Farmery, Andrew D; Hahn, Clive E W

    2014-01-15

    Two challenges in the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome are the difficulty in diagnosing cyclical atelectasis, and in individualising mechanical ventilation therapy in real-time. Commercial optical oxygen sensors can detect [Formula: see text] oscillations associated with cyclical atelectasis, but are not accurate at saturation levels below 90%, and contain a toxic fluorophore. We present a computer-controlled test rig, together with an in-house constructed ultra-rapid sensor to test the limitations of these sensors when exposed to rapidly changing [Formula: see text] in blood in vitro. We tested the sensors' responses to simulated respiratory rates between 10 and 60 breaths per minute. Our sensor was able to detect the whole amplitude of the imposed [Formula: see text] oscillations, even at the highest respiratory rate. We also examined our sensor's resistance to clot formation by continuous in vivo deployment in non-heparinised flowing animal blood for 24h, after which no adsorption of organic material on the sensor's surface was detectable by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24184746

  5. Fabrication of micro accelerometer and magnetoresistive sensor directly on a ceramic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Seiji

    2012-06-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have movable parts: thus, it is difficult to handle them at fabrication because of the possibility of fracture. If a MEMS sensor could be fabricated not only on a silicon substrate but also on a ceramic substrate, which can be used for a package of the end product, the above-mentioned problem about handling would be solved, and its fabrication cost would be reduced. In this presentation, as demonstrations of the sensors directly fabricated on a ceramic package, an accelerometer and a magnetoresistive (MR) sensor are focused on. A micro accelerometer is proposed, which consists of a proof mass and ferroelectric substrate under it. A screen-printed barium titanate (BTO) film on an alumina substrate was employed as ferroelectrics. The sensitivity of the fabricated accelerometer was 0.1 pF g‑1. A triaxis MR sensor is proposed, which detects not only x- and y-axes' magnetic field intensities but also that of the z-axis. Namely, not only azimuth but also angle of elevation of the sensor can be detected from triaxis components of the geomagnetic field. A permalloy (FeNi) plate is stood aside from the MR element. The plate distorts magnetic field and generates the x- (or y-) component from the originally z-directional field. A triaxis geomagnetic field was successfully detected by the fabricated sensor.

  6. Design principle of integrated direct digital sensor of rotation rate and torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Geng, Chunming; Fu, Yongling

    2006-11-01

    Based on measuring technique of ordinary sensor of rotation rate and torque, this article mainly studied the sensing element of CMF (Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter), and designed for the prototype an IDDSRT (Integrated Direct Digital Sensor of Rotation Rate and Torque) that consists of torsion-bar spring, measuring fluted disc, and photoelectric sensing device. The sensor measures with high-frequency pulse. This design reduces the factors that affect the measuring, completely realizes non-contact digital measurement, greatly improves the anti-jamming ability and the measuring stability, and therefore increases measuring accuracy.

  7. A Polygon Model for Wireless Sensor Network Deployment with Directional Sensing Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Chung, Yeh-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The modeling of the sensing area of a sensor node is essential for the deployment algorithm of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a polygon model is proposed for the sensor node with directional sensing area. In addition, a WSN deployment algorithm is presented with topology control and scoring mechanisms to maintain network connectivity and improve sensing coverage rate. To evaluate the proposed polygon model and WSN deployment algorithm, a simulation is conducted. The simulation results show that the proposed polygon model outperforms the existed disk model and circular sector model in terms of the maximum sensing coverage rate. PMID:22303159

  8. Fibreoptic distributed temperature sensor with spectral filtration by directional fibre couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A G; Babin, Sergei A; Shelemba, Ivan S

    2009-11-30

    We demonstrate a Raman-based all-fibre temperature sensor utilising a pulsed erbium fibre laser. The sensor is made of a standard single-mode telecom fibre, SMF-28, and includes a number of directional couplers as band-pass filters. The temperature profile along a 7-km fibreoptic line is measured with an accuracy of 2{sup o}C and a spatial resolution of 10 m. In data processing, we take into account the difference in attenuation between the spectral components of the backscatter signal. (optical fibres and fibreoptic sensors)

  9. Superconducting Nuclear Recoil Sensor for Directional Dark Matter Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Ann; Baldwin, Kevin; Hehlen, Markus; Lafler, Randy; Loomba, Dinesh; Phan, Nguyen; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina

    The Universe consists of 72% dark energy, 23% dark matter and only 5% of ordinary matter. One of the greatest challenges of the scientific community is to understand the nature of dark matter. Current models suggest that dark matter is made up of slowly moving, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). But detecting WIMPs is challenging, as their expected signals are small and rare compared to the large background that can mimic the signal. The largest and most robust unique signature that sets them apart from other particles is the day-night variation of the directionality of dark matter on Earth. This modulation could be observed with a direction-sensitive detector and hence, would provide an unambiguous signature for the galactic origin of WIMPs. There are many studies underway to attempt to detect WIMPs both directly and indirectly, but solid-state WIMP detectors are widely unexplored although they would present many advantages to prevalent detectors that use large volumes of low pressure gas. We present first results of a novel multi-layered architecture, in which WIMPs would interact primarily with solid layers to produce nuclear recoils that then induce measureable voltage pulses in adjacent superconductor layers. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  10. DIRECT: Dynamic Key Renewal Using Secure Cluster Head Election in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gicheol; Song, Kang-Suk; Cho, Gihwan

    In modern sensor networks, key management is essential to transmit data from sensors to the sink securely. That is, sensors are likely to be compromised by attackers, and a key management scheme should renew the keys for communication as frequently as possible. In clustered sensor networks, CHs (Cluster Heads) tend to become targets of compromise attack because they collect data from sensors and deliver the aggregated data to the sink. However, existing key renewal schemes do not change the CH role nodes, and thus they are vulnerable to the compromise of CHs. Our scheme is called DIRECT (DynamIc key REnewal using Cluster head elecTion) because it materializes the dynamic key renewals through secure CH elections. In the scheme, the network is divided into sectors to separate CH elections in each sector from other sectors. Then, sensors establish pairwise keys with other sensors in their sector for intra-sector communication. Every CH election round, all sensors securely elect a CH in their sector by defeating the malicious actions of attackers. Therefore, the probability that a compromised node is elected as a CH decreases significantly. The simulation results show that our approach significantly improves the integrity of data, energy efficiency, and network longevity.

  11. Validation of Sensor-Directed Spatial Simulated Annealing Soil Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Elia; Lesch, Scott M; Corwin, Dennis L

    2016-07-01

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomic and environmental processes at field and landscape scales, including site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial variability because their measurements serve as a proxy for many soil properties, provided a sensor-soil calibration is conducted. A viable means of calibrating sensor measurements over soil properties is through linear regression modeling of sensor and target property data. In the present study, two sensor-directed, model-based, sampling scheme delineation methods were compared to validate recent applications of soil apparent electrical conductivity (EC)-directed spatial simulated annealing against the more established EC-directed response surface sampling design (RSSD) approach. A 6.8-ha study area near San Jacinto, CA, was surveyed for EC, and 30 soil sampling locations per sampling strategy were selected. Spatial simulated annealing and RSSD were compared for sensor calibration to a target soil property (i.e., salinity) and for evenness of spatial coverage of the study area, which is beneficial for mapping nontarget soil properties (i.e., those not correlated with EC). The results indicate that the linear modeling EC-salinity calibrations obtained from the two sampling schemes provided salinity maps characterized by similar errors. The maps of nontarget soil properties show similar errors across sampling strategies. The Spatial Simulated Annealing methodology is, therefore, validated, and its use in agronomic and environmental soil science applications is justified. PMID:27380070

  12. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirk, Aislinn H. C.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    When considering the construction of a lunar base, the high cost ($ 100,000 a kilogram) of transporting materials to the surface of the moon is a significant barrier. Therefore in-situ resource utilization will be a key component of any lunar mission. Oxygen gas is a key resource, abundant on earth and absent on the moon. If oxygen could be produced on the moon, this provides a dual benefit. Not only does it no longer need to be transported to the surface for breathing purposes; it can also be used as a fuel oxidizer to support transportation of crew and other materials more cheaply between the surface of the moon, and lower earth orbit (approximately $20,000/kg). To this end a stable, robust (lightly manned) system is required to produce oxygen from lunar resources. Herein, we investigate the feasibility of producing oxygen, which makes up almost half of the weight of the moon by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith thus achieving the generation of usable oxygen gas while producing primarily iron and silicon at the cathode from the tightly bound oxides. The silicate mixture (with compositions and mechanical properties corresponding to that of lunar regolith) is melted at temperatures near 1600 C. With an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. The effect of anode material, sweep rate, and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior was investigated and implications for scale-up are considered. The activity and stability of the candidate anode materials as well as the effect of the electrolyte composition were determined. Additionally, ex-situ capture and analysis of the anode gas to calculate the current efficiency under different voltages, currents and melt chemistries was carried out.

  13. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23736976

  14. Distributed microbend optical sensor with directional swelling and optimal bending frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Antonio; Rosas Molina, Armando T.; Marquez Lucero, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    This work describes the performance of a new optical distributed sensor. This new sensor is capable of detecting and locating liquid hydrocarbon leakage on long pipelines. It is an improvement over the current fiber bending distributed sensors that use a polymeric filament that interacts with an optical fiber by means of a helicoidal wire. When a liquid or gas compatible with the polymeric filament within this type of sensor comes in contact with it, the liquid is absorbed and causes the swelling of the filament and the concomitant compression of the optical fiber against the helicoidal wire. This phenomena cause the fiber to bend and generate an increase on the optical attenuation signal that travels through the fiber. The signal attenuation permits the detection of a specific liquid presence in the vicinity of the sensor and the reflection of the same signal allows to pinpoint the location of this event. The new sensor has the following advantages over similar devices: a) the swelling of the polymeric filament is conducted in a preferential direction permitting to concentrate the osmotic pressure towards the optical fiber. This improves significantly the response speed of the sensor. b) The fiber is placed within a capillary channel located eccentrically in the polymer filament; therefore, no additional protection is needed to prevent damage to the fiber. Of even greater importance, the signal attenuation provoked by stress and deformations due to direct contact of the fiber with the helicoidal wire is avoided. And finally, c) an optimal bending period that take in count the polymer nature to improve the sensor response was found and employed. An experimental prototype of this sensor was fabricated using a multimode optical fiber attached to a polybutadiene filament. The experimental results confirm the benefits of this new design.

  15. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Miniaturized Series-Connected Potentiometric Oxygen Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Virkar, Anil V.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Dunham, Glen C.; Marina, Olga A.

    2004-07-24

    Miniaturization of potentiometric sensors facilitates connecting many sensors in series to amplify the output. Miniaturized series-connected potentiometric sensors were developed on silicon (Si) wafer by microfabrication techniques. The sensors consist of a thin nickel-nickel oxide (Ni-NiO) mixture. The open circuit voltage (OCV) was tested in air at 300 C and was found to be lower than expected. The output of the net sensor increased almost linearly by connecting 10 sensors in series. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the electrolyte and electrolyte-electrode interfaces using a two electrode configuration.

  16. A Target Coverage Scheduling Scheme Based on Genetic Algorithms in Directional Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Joon-Min; Han, Youn-Hee

    2011-01-01

    As a promising tool for monitoring the physical world, directional sensor networks (DSNs) consisting of a large number of directional sensors are attracting increasing attention. As directional sensors in DSNs have limited battery power and restricted angles of sensing range, maximizing the network lifetime while monitoring all the targets in a given area remains a challenge. A major technique to conserve the energy of directional sensors is to use a node wake-up scheduling protocol by which some sensors remain active to provide sensing services, while the others are inactive to conserve their energy. In this paper, we first address a Maximum Set Covers for DSNs (MSCD) problem, which is known to be NP-complete, and present a greedy algorithm-based target coverage scheduling scheme that can solve this problem by heuristics. This scheme is used as a baseline for comparison. We then propose a target coverage scheduling scheme based on a genetic algorithm that can find the optimal cover sets to extend the network lifetime while monitoring all targets by the evolutionary global search technique. To verify and evaluate these schemes, we conducted simulations and showed that the schemes can contribute to extending the network lifetime. Simulation results indicated that the genetic algorithm-based scheduling scheme had better performance than the greedy algorithm-based scheme in terms of maximizing network lifetime. PMID:22319387

  17. Can IBEX Detect Interstellar Neutral Helium or Oxygen from Anti-ram Directions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Park, J.; Kucharek, H.; Möbius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Swaczyna, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-10-01

    To better constrain the parameters of the interstellar neutral flow, we searched the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX)-Lo database for helium and oxygen from the interstellar medium in the anti-ram direction in the three years (2009-2011) with the lowest background rates. We found that IBEX-Lo cannot observe interstellar helium from the anti-ram direction because the helium energy is too low for indirect detection by sputtering off the IBEX-Lo conversion surface. Our results show that this sputtering process has a low energy threshold between 25 and 30 eV, whereas the energy of the incident helium is only 10 eV for these observations. Interstellar oxygen, on the other hand, could in principle be detected in the anti-ram hemisphere, but the expected magnitude of the signal is close to the detection limit imposed by counting statistics and by the magnetospheric foreground.

  18. Systematic description of direct push sensor systems: A conceptual framework for system decomposition as a basis for the optimal sensor system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Paasche, Hendrik; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Systematic decomposition and evaluation of existing sensor systems as well as the optimal design of future generations of direct push probes are of high importance for optimized geophysical experiments since the employed equipment is a constrain on the data space. Direct push technologies became established methods in the field of geophysical, geotechnical, hydrogeological, and environmental sciences for the investigation of the near subsurface. By using direct push sensor systems it is possible to measure in-situ parameters with high vertical resolution. Such information is frequently used for quantitative geophysical model calibration of interpretation of geotechnical and hydrological subsurface conditions. Most of the available direct push sensor systems are largely based on empirical testing and consecutively evaluated under field conditions. Approaches suitable to identify specific characteristics and problems of direct push sensor systems have not been established, yet. We develop a general systematic approach for the classification, analysis, and optimization of direct push sensor systems. First, a classification is presented for different existing sensor systems. The following systematic description, which is based on the conceptual decomposition of an existing sensor system into subsystems, is a suitable way to analyze and explore the transfer behavior of the system components and therefore of the complete system. Also, this approach may serve as guideline for the synthesis and the design of new and optimized direct push sensor systems.

  19. Patterned electrode-based amperometric gas sensor for direct nitric oxide detection within microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cha, Wansik; Tung, Yi-Chung; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Takayama, Shuichi

    2010-04-15

    This article describes a thin amperometric nitric oxide (NO) sensor that can be microchannel embedded to enable direct real-time detection of NO produced by cells cultured within the microdevice. A key for achieving the thin ( approximately 1 mm) planar sensor configuration required for sensor-channel integration is the use of gold/indium-tin oxide patterned electrode directly on a porous polymer membrane (pAu/ITO) as the base working electrode. The electrochemically deposited Au-hexacyanoferrate layer on pAu/ITO is used to catalyze NO oxidation to nitrite at lower applied potentials (0.65-0.75 V vs Ag/AgCl) and stabilize current output. Furthermore, use of a gas-permeable membrane to separate internal sensor compartments from the sample phase imparts excellent NO selectivity over common interfering agents (e.g., nitrite, ascorbate, ammonia, etc.) present in culture media and biological fluids. The optimized sensor design reversibly detects NO down to the approximately 1 nM level in stirred buffer and <10 nM in flowing buffer when integrated within a polymeric microfluidic device. We demonstrate utility of the channel-embedded sensor by monitoring NO generation from macrophages cultured within non-gas-permeable microchannels, as they are stimulated with endotoxin. PMID:20329749

  20. An evaluation of direct pressure sensors for monitoring the aluminum die casting process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project Die Cavity Instrumentation. One objective of that project was to evaluate thermal, pressure, and gas flow process monitoring sensors in or near the die cavity as a means of securing improved process monitoring and control and better resultant part quality. The objectives of this thesis are to (1) evaluate a direct cavity pressure sensor in a controlled production campaign at the GM Casting Advanced Development Center (CADC) at Bedford, Indiana; and (2) develop correlations between sensor responses and product quality in terms of the casting weight, volume, and density. A direct quartz-based pressure sensor developed and marked by Kistler Instrument Corp. was acquired for evaluating as an in-cavity liquid metal pressure sensor. This pressure sensor is designed for use up to 700 C and 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). It has a pressure overload capacity up to 2,500 bars (36,250 psi).

  1. Kinetics of nitric oxide and oxygen gases on porous Y-stabilized ZrO2-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Killa, Sajin; Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P; Mainardi, Daniela S

    2013-01-01

    Using impedance spectroscopy the electrical response of sensors with various porous Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) microstructures was measured for gas concentrations containing 0-100 ppm NO with 10.5%O2 at temperatures ranging from 600-700 °C. The impedance response increased substantially as the sensor porosity increased from 46%-50%. Activation energies calculated based on data from the impedance measurements increased in magnitude (97.4-104.9 kJ/mol for 100 ppm NO) with respect to increasing YSZ porosity. Analysis of the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the sensors suggested that dissociative adsorption was the dominant rate limiting. The PWC/DNP theory level was used to investigate the gas-phase energy barrier of the 2NO+O2 → 2NO2 reaction on a 56-atom YSZ/Au model cluster using Density Functional Theory and Linear Synchronous Transit/Quadratic Synchronous Transit calculations. The reaction path shows oxygen surface reactions that begin with NO association with adsorbed O2 on a Zr surface site, followed by O2 dissociative adsorption, atomic oxygen diffusion, and further NO2 formation. The free energy barrier was calculated to be 181.7 kJ/mol at PWC/DNP. A qualitative comparison with the extrapolated data at 62% ± 2% porosity representing the YSZ model cluster indicates that the calculated barriers are in reasonable agreement with experiments, especially when the RPBE functional is used. PMID:23959196

  2. Fiber optic Raman sensor to monitor the concentration ratio of nitrogen and oxygen in a cryogenic mixture.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vidhu S; Kalluru, Rajamohan R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P; Cyr, William St; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2007-06-01

    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor was developed for a specific need of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for long-term detection and monitoring of the purity of liquid oxygen (LO(2)) in the oxidizer feed line during ground testing of rocket engines. The Raman peak intensity ratios for liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and LO(2) with varied weight ratios (LN(2)/LO(2)) were analyzed for their applicability to impurity sensing. The study of the sensor performance with different excitation light sources has helped to design a miniaturized, cost-effective system for this application. The optimal system response time of this miniaturized sensor for LN(2)/LO(2) measurement was found to be in the range of a few seconds. It will need to be further reduced to the millisecond range for real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in a harsh environment. PMID:17514292

  3. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  4. The frequency-dependent directivity of a planar fabry-perot polymer film ultrasound sensor.

    PubMed

    Cox, Benjamin T; Beard, Paul C

    2007-02-01

    A model of the frequency-dependent directivity of a planar, optically-addressed, Fabry-Perot (FP), polymer film ultrasound sensor is described and validated against experimental directivity measurements made over a frequency range of 1 to 15 MHz and angles from normal incidence to 80 degrees. The model may be used, for example, as a predictive tool to improve sensor design, or to provide a noise-free response function that could be deconvolved from sound-field measurements in order to improve accuracy in high-frequency metrology and imaging applications. The specific question of whether effective element sizes as small as the optical-diffraction limit can be achieved was investigated. For a polymer film sensor with a FP cavity of thickness d, the minimum effective element radius was found to be about 0.9 d, and that an illumination spot radius of less than d/4 is required to achieve it. PMID:17328336

  5. An oxidase-based electrochemical fluidic sensor with high-sensitivity and low-interference by on-chip oxygen manipulation.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Nitin; Park, Jongwon; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide). Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc.) to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems. PMID:23012527

  6. Oxygen-independent FbFP: Fluorescent sentinel and oxygen sensor component in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Eichhof, Isabel; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-07-01

    FMN-binding fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) outperform GFP and its derivatives because of their oxygen-independence, small size and rapid maturation. FbFPs have been used successfully as reliable reporters of gene expression in the cytoplasm of pro- and eukaryotes. Here we extend previous findings on the codon-adapted CaFbFP variant, which functions in the apathogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. In both fungal species, CaFbFP could be targeted to the nucleus and the cell wall by endogenous signals (H2B-/Aga2-fusions) demonstrating its use as a fluorescent beacon in these relevant cellular locations. Transformants of both fungal species producing a CaFbFP-YFP fusion (YFOS) showed variable energy transfer from CaFbFP to YFP (FRET) that depended in its extent on external O2 concentrations. Applications as fluorescent sentinel and oxygen biosensor expand the FbFP toolbox to study oxygen-independent cellular processes under hypoxia. PMID:27126475

  7. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  8. Investigation into Oxygen-Enriched Bottom-Blown Stibnite and Direct Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Luo, Honglin; Qing, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongxing; Yang, Kang; Han, Junwei

    2014-08-01

    The direct oxidation of stibnite (Sb2S3) using a gas mixture of nitrogen-oxygen was investigated in a pilot plant. Steady-state pilot operation of 5 and 10 t/d was normally observed during the pilot test of 100 days, and a cleaning experiment of high-antimony molten slag from oxygen-enriched bottom-blown was tested by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. Autogenous smelting was achieved without adding any other fuel, which guaranteed the feasibility and advantage of oxygen-enriched bottom-blown stibnite. Through analysis and calculation, the sulfur dioxide concentration in offgas was more than 8 pct, which meets the requirement for the preparation of sulfuric acid. In the reduction experiment, the effects of added CaO, the ratio of coal ( ω = actual weight of coal/theoretical weight of coal), and the slag type on the reduction procedure were considered. The residual slag obtained after reduction averaged less than 1 g/ton Au and less than 1 wt pct Sb. The metal phase contained iron less than 3 wt pct, and the recoveries of Au in the metal phase were more than 98 pct. This process shows significant environmental and economic benefits compared with previous processes.

  9. Photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with controlled defects as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Taku; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Ito, Tsuyohito

    2016-07-01

    Conductance of photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with various defects has been investigated in oxygen. ZnO nanoparticles, which show strong photoluminescence peaks originating from interstitial zinc atom (Zni) and singly charged oxygen vacancy (VO+), show oxygen-pressure-dependent conductance changes caused by photoexcitation. Herein, a model is proposed to simulate the conductance changes.

  10. Highly distributed multi-point, temperature and pressure compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensors (FOxSense) for aircraft fuel tank environment and safety monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress towards the development and qualification of a highly distributed, multi-point, all optical pressure and temperature compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSense™) system for closed-loop monitoring and safety of the oxygen ullage environment inside fuel tanks of military and commercial aircraft. The alloptical FOxSense™ system uses a passive, multi-parameter (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensor probe with no electrical connections leading to the sensors install within the fuel tanks of an aircraft. The all optical sensor consists of an integrated multi-parameter fiber optic sensor probe that integrates a fuel insensitive fluorescence based optical oxygen optrode with built-in temperature and pressure optical optrodes for compensation of temperature and pressure variants induced in the fluorescence response of the oxygen optrode. The distributed (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensors installed in the fuel tanks of the aircraft are connected to the FOxSense optoelectronic system via a fiber optic cable conduit reaching to each fuel tank in the aircraft. A multichannel frequency-domain fiber optic sensor read-out (FOxSense™) system is used to interrogate the optical signal of all three sensors in real-time and to display the fuel tank oxygen environment suitable for aircraft status and alarm applications. Preliminary testing of the all optical fiber optic oxygen sensor have demonstrated the ability to monitor the oxygen environment inside a simulated fuel tank in the range of 0% O2 to 40% O2 concentrations, temperatures from (-) 40°C to (+) 60°C, and altitudes from 0-ft to 40,000-ft.

  11. ESTIMATION OF SOYBEAN ROOT LENGTH DENSITY DISTRIBUTION WITH DIRECT AND SENSOR BASED MEASUREMENTS OF CLAYPAN MORPHOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic and morphological properties of claypan landscapes cause variability in soybean root and shoot biomass. This study was conducted to develop predictive models of soybean root length density distribution (RLDd) using direct measurements and sensor based estimators of claypan morphology. A c...

  12. Geometrical gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.

  13. Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes on LDEF, including oxygen on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on MOOO2-1 which resides on the three faces of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by scattered or direct ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained. All honeycomb outgassing holes have a small discoloration ring around them that varies in color. The shadow cast by a suspended wire on the earth face surface is not easily explained by either solar photons or by ram flux. The shadows and the dark/light regions cannot be explained consistently by the process of solar ultraviolet paint-darkening modulated by ram flux oxygen bleaching of the paint.

  14. Direct Measurements of Oxygen Gradients in Spheroid Culture System Using Electron Parametric Resonance Oximetry.

    PubMed

    Langan, Laura M; Dodd, Nicholas J F; Owen, Stewart F; Purcell, Wendy M; Jackson, Simon K; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2016-01-01

    Advanced in vitro culture from tissues of different origin includes three-dimensional (3D) organoid micro structures that may mimic conditions in vivo. One example of simple 3D culture is spheroids; ball shaped structures typically used as liver and tumour models. Oxygen is critically important in physiological processes, but is difficult to quantify in 3D culture: and the question arises, how small does a spheroid have to be to have minimal micro-environment formation? This question is of particular importance in the growing field of 3D based models for toxicological assessment. Here, we describe a simple non-invasive approach modified for the quantitative measurement and subsequent evaluation of oxygen gradients in spheroids developed from a non-malignant fish cell line (i.e. RTG-2 cells) using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry. Sonication of the paramagnetic probe Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) allows for incorporation of probe particulates into spheroid during its formation. Spectra signal strength after incorporation of probe into spheroid indicated that a volume of 20 μl of probe (stock solution: 0.10 mg/mL) is sufficient to provide a strong spectra across a range of spheroid sizes. The addition of non-toxic probes (that do not produce or consume oxygen) report on oxygen diffusion throughout the spheroid as a function of size. We provide evidence supporting the use of this model over a range of initial cell seeding densities and spheroid sizes with the production of oxygen distribution as a function of these parameters. In our spheroid model, lower cell seeding densities (∼2,500 cells/spheroid) and absolute size (118±32 μm) allow control of factors such as pre-existing stresses (e.g. ∼ 2% normoxic/hypoxic interface) for more accurate measurement of treatment response. The applied methodology provides an elegant, widely applicable approach to directly characterize spheroid (and other organoid) cultures in biomedical and toxicological

  15. Direct Measurements of Oxygen Gradients in Spheroid Culture System Using Electron Parametric Resonance Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Laura M.; Dodd, Nicholas J. F.; Owen, Stewart F.; Purcell, Wendy M.; Jackson, Simon K.; Jha, Awadhesh N.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced in vitro culture from tissues of different origin includes three-dimensional (3D) organoid micro structures that may mimic conditions in vivo. One example of simple 3D culture is spheroids; ball shaped structures typically used as liver and tumour models. Oxygen is critically important in physiological processes, but is difficult to quantify in 3D culture: and the question arises, how small does a spheroid have to be to have minimal micro-environment formation? This question is of particular importance in the growing field of 3D based models for toxicological assessment. Here, we describe a simple non-invasive approach modified for the quantitative measurement and subsequent evaluation of oxygen gradients in spheroids developed from a non-malignant fish cell line (i.e. RTG-2 cells) using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry. Sonication of the paramagnetic probe Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) allows for incorporation of probe particulates into spheroid during its formation. Spectra signal strength after incorporation of probe into spheroid indicated that a volume of 20 μl of probe (stock solution: 0.10 mg/mL) is sufficient to provide a strong spectra across a range of spheroid sizes. The addition of non-toxic probes (that do not produce or consume oxygen) report on oxygen diffusion throughout the spheroid as a function of size. We provide evidence supporting the use of this model over a range of initial cell seeding densities and spheroid sizes with the production of oxygen distribution as a function of these parameters. In our spheroid model, lower cell seeding densities (∼2,500 cells/spheroid) and absolute size (118±32 μm) allow control of factors such as pre-existing stresses (e.g. ∼ 2% normoxic/hypoxic interface) for more accurate measurement of treatment response. The applied methodology provides an elegant, widely applicable approach to directly characterize spheroid (and other organoid) cultures in biomedical and toxicological

  16. Simple hybrid wire-wireless fiber laser sensor by direct photonic generation of beat signal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengchun; Gao, Liang; Yin, Zuowei; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xiangfei; Cheng, Jianchun

    2011-04-20

    Based on direct photonic generation of a beat signal, a simple hybrid wire-wireless fiber laser sensor is proposed. In the sensor, an improved multilongitudinal modes fiber laser cavity is set up by only a fiber Bragg grating, a section of erbium-doped fiber, and a broadband reflector. A photodetector is used to detect the electrical beat signal. Next, the beat signal including the sensor information can access the wireless network through the wireless transmission. At last, a frequency spectrum analyzer is used to demodulate the sensing information. With this method, the long-distance real-time monitor of the fiber sensor can be realized. The proposed technique offers a simple and cheap way for sensing information of the fiber sensor to access the wireless sensor network. An experiment was implemented to measure the strain and the corresponding root mean square deviation is about -5.7 με at 916 MHz and -3.8 με at 1713 MHz after wireless transmission. PMID:21509073

  17. Study on the fast optimal direction determination for missile-borne star sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Kong, Long-tao; Xiong, Kai

    2013-12-01

    To ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of missile-borne star sensor for attitude determination, its optical axis direction must be adjusted in real time to avoid the stray light effectively and obtain star image with high-quality. In this paper, a fast optimal direction determination method that can be applied online in engineering is studied. Take the range of missile maneuver into consider, the proposed method solves the optimal direction of optical axis which can make star sensor obtain the best star image for star identification within the visible sky that avoids stray light. In the optical axis optimization model established, for a star sensor with given specification, the optimization indexes include the stars number and their mean magnitude of a star image obtained at a given direction, the control cost to reach the optimal direction from current status. The constraints include invisible sky, stray light etc. For such a complex nonlinear optimization problem without analytical solutions, the combination of enumeration method and table look-up method is employed to obtain solution rapidly for engineering applications. The stray light model is validated by comparing the simulation results with Satellite Tool Kit (STK). Simulation results show that the optimal direction determined by the proposed method can significantly improve the star image's quality and the optimization speed is fast enough to meet the requirement of online applications.

  18. Fabrication and laser patterning of polystyrene optical oxygen sensor films for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Grist, S M; Oyunerdene, N; Flueckiger, J; Kim, J; Wong, P C; Chrostowski, L; Cheung, K C

    2014-11-21

    We present a novel and simple method for patterning oxygen-sensitive polystyrene thin films and demonstrate its potential for integration with microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. Optical oxygen sensing films composed of polystyrene with an embedded luminescent oxygen-sensitive dye present a convenient option for the measurement of oxygen levels in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices; however, patterning and integrating the films with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices has proven difficult due to a residue after dry etch patterning that inhibits subsequent PDMS bonding. Our new method uses mask-less laser ablation by a commercial laser ablation system to define the outline of the structures and subsequent bulk film removal by aqueous lift-off. Because the bulk film is peeled or lifted off of the substrate rather than etched, the process is compatible with standard PDMS plasma bonding. We used ToF-SIMS analysis to investigate how laser ablation facilitates this fabrication process as well as why dry etching polystyrene inhibits PDMS plasma bonding. The results of this analysis showed evidence of chemical species formed during the laser ablation and dry etching processes that can produce these effects. Our new method's mask-less nature, simplicity, speed, and compatibility with PDMS bonding make it ideally suited for single-use lab-on-a-chip applications. To demonstrate the method's compatibility with PDMS microfluidics, we also present a demonstration of the sensors' integration into a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator device. PMID:25230092

  19. Automated and Angular Time-Synchronized Directional Gamma-Ray Scintillation Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Kronenberg; George J. Brucker

    1998-12-31

    The authors' previous research resulted in directional sensors for gamma rays and X rays that have a 4{pi} solid angle of acceptance and, at the same time, a high angular resolution that is limited only by our ability to measure small angles. Angular resolution of {approx}1 s of arc was achieved. These sensors are capable of operating and accurately detecting high and very low intensity radiation patterns. Such a system can also be used to image broad area sources and their scattering patterns.

  20. Collision recognition and direction changes for small scale fish robots by acceleration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Seung Y.; Shin, Daejung; Kim, Jin Y.; Lee, Bae-Ho

    2005-05-01

    Typical obstacles are walls, rocks, water plants and other nearby robots for a group of small scale fish robots and submersibles that have been constructed in our lab. Sonar sensors are not employed to make the robot structure simple enough. All of circuits, sensors and processor cards are contained in a box of 9 x 7 x 4 cm dimension except motors, fins and external covers. Therefore, image processing results are applied to avoid collisions. However, it is useful only when the obstacles are located far enough to give images processing time for detecting them. Otherwise, acceleration sensors are used to detect collision immediately after it happens. Two of 2-axes acceleration sensors are employed to measure the three components of collision angles, collision magnitudes, and the angles of robot propulsion. These data are integrated to calculate the amount of propulsion direction change. The angle of a collision incident upon an obstacle is the fundamental value to obtain a direction change needed to design a following path. But there is a significant amount of noise due to a caudal fin motor. Because caudal fin provides the main propulsion for a fish robot, there is a periodic swinging noise at the head of a robot. This noise provides a random acceleration effect on the measured acceleration data at the collision. We propose an algorithm which shows that the MEMS-type accelerometers are very effective to provide information for direction changes in spite of the intrinsic noise after the small scale fish robots have made obstacle collision.

  1. An integrated laser Raman optical sensor for fast detection of nitrogen and oxygen in a cryogenic mixture.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vidhu S; Luanje, Appolinaire T; Kalluru, Rajamohan R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2011-04-01

    An integrated fiber optic Raman sensor was designed for real-time, nonintrusive detection of liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) in liquid oxygen (LO(2)) at high pressures and high flow rates. This was intended to monitor the quality of LO(2) in oxidizer feed lines during the ground testing of rocket engines. Various issues related to optical diagnosis of cryogenic fluids (LN(2)/LO(2)) in supercritical environment of rocket engine test facility, such as fluorescence from impurity in optical window of feed line, signal-noise ratio, and fast data acquisition time, etc., are well addressed. The integrated sensor employed a frequency doubled 532-nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser as an excitation light source. The other optical components included were InPhotonics Raman probes, spectrometers, and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The spectrometer was used to collect the Raman spectrum of LN(2) and LO(2). The PMT detection unit was integrated with home-built LABVIEW software for fast monitoring of concentration ratios LN(2) and LO(2). Prior to designing an integrated sensor system, its optical components were also tested with gaseous nitrogen (GN(2)) and oxygen (GO(2)). PMID:21528996

  2. Highly directional receivers using various combinations of scalar, vector, and dyadic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, James A.

    2003-10-01

    The generalized theory of directional sensors is presented in the form of the Taylor series expansion of the acoustic pressure about a point in space. If the expansion is truncated to second order, the analysis of scalar, vector, and dyadic sensors can be made and corresponds to the zeroth-, first-, and second-order gradient of the acoustic pressure. This translates into using a sufficient number of omni-directional hydrophones or a multimode hydrophone in conjunction with the appropriate finite-differencing operations to achieve the desired beam patterns. Using the linearized Euler equation, the formulation can be recast in terms of the zeroth-order gradient of the acoustic pressure along with the zeroth- and first-order gradient of the particle acceleration. In this case, the zeroth-order terms can be measured directly with an omni-directional hydrophone and a neutrally buoyant accelerometer. The gradient of the particle acceleration can be measured indirectly using finite differences or directly by measuring the angular acceleration akin to a Rayleigh disk. Of particular interest is the use of scalar, vector, and dyadic sensors to localize sources of sound using arc-tangent-squared processing and cardioid-squared processing as opposed to conventional arc-tangent and cardioid processing. [Work supported by ONR 321SS.

  3. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  4. Low-Power Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Modem Architecture for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, C; Elgorriaga, I; McConaghy, C

    2001-07-03

    Emerging CMOS and MEMS technologies enable the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed microsensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors should operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. This paper presents a direct-sequence spread-spectrum modem architecture that provides robust communications for wireless sensor networks while dissipating very low power. The modem architecture has been verified in an FPGA implementation that dissipates only 33 mW for both transmission and reception. The implementation can be easily mapped to an ASIC technology, with an estimated power performance of less than 1 mW.

  5. Bi-directional fast flow sensor with a large dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bree, Hans-Elias; Jansen, Henri V.; Lammerink, Theo S. J.; Krijnen, Gijs J. M.; Elwenspoek, Miko

    1999-06-01

    In this article an extended mass-flow sensor is presented. Apart from the magnitude of the flow, as an add-on to the traditional anemometer, this sensor also measures the direction of the flow. This is of interest for the flow sensor market in general, and more in particular for the safety monitoring of low over-pressure systems like surgeries and cleanrooms where the risk of reverse flow needs to be avoided at all times. It detects the smallest amount of gas-flow, down to approximately 100 µm s-1 airflow up to high flow levels of 1 m s-1. The response time is of the order of milliseconds.

  6. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events

  7. Direct and dissolved oxygen involved photodegradation of MeO-PBDEs in water.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weifeng; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Qing

    2016-04-15

    Photodegradation has been proved to be a crucial way of elimination for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs). However, it is still unknown whether methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) can also undergo photodegradation. In this study, 4'-MeO-BDE-17, 5-MeO-BDE-47, 5'-MeO-BDE-99, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-85 were selected as targets to investigate their photodegradation in water. Meanwhile, the effects of dissolved oxygen on the photoreactions of MeO-PBDEs were also unveiled. Simulated sunlight experiments indicate that 6-MeO-BDE-47 resisted photodegradation for 20h, while other MeO-PBDEs underwent relatively fast photodegradation, which was greatly susceptible to the substitution patterns of methoxyl and bromine. Photo-excited MeO-PBDEs (except 6-MeO-BDE-47) can sensitize dissolved oxygen to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)). The generated (1)O2 cannot degrade the MeO-PBDEs, whereas O2(-) was reactive with MeO-PBDEs. The contribution of dissolved oxygen to the photodegradation of 4'-MeO-BDE-17 and 6-MeO-BDE-85 was negligible; while the negative contribution was observed for 5-MeO-BDE-47 and 5'-MeO-BDE-99. Hydrodebromination was a crucial photodegradation pathway for MeO-PBDEs (excluding 4'-MeO-BDE-17 and 6-MeO-BDE-47). Eventually, direct photolysis half-lives of MeO-PBDEs except 6-MeO-BDE-47 in the surface waters at 40 N latitude were calculated to be 1.35-3.46d in midsummer and 6.39-17.47d in midwinter. PMID:26802632

  8. Direct growth of flower-like manganese oxide on reduced graphene oxide towards efficient oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Guo, Chunxian; Zhang, Lianying; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-07-18

    Three-dimensional manganese oxide is directly grown on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets, exhibiting comparable catalytic activity, higher selectivity and better stability towards oxygen reduction reaction than those of the commercial Pt/XC-72 catalyst. PMID:23745182

  9. Algorithm Determines Wind Speed and Direction from Venturi-Sensor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zysko, Jan A.; Perotti, Jose M.; Randazzo, John

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm computes the velocity of wind from the readings of an instrument like the one described in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: The sensor has no moving parts and is a compact, rugged means of measuring wind vectors having magnitudes of as much as 300 mph (134 m/s). The sensor includes a Venturi gap bounded by a curved upper and a curved lower surface that are axisymmetric with respect to a vertical axis and mirror-symmetric with respect to a horizontal midplane. One of the curved surfaces is instrumented with multiple ports for measuring dynamic pressures. The sensor also incorporates auxiliary sensors for measuring temperature, relative humidity, and static atmospheric pressure. The design and operation of the sensor are based on the concepts of (1) using Bernoulli's equation (which expresses the relationship among variations of speed, density, and pressure along a streamline) to calculate the speed of the wind from differences among the pressure readings at the various ports; and (2) calculating the direction of the wind from the angular positions of ports selected according to comparisons among their pressure readings. The present algorithm performs these calculations.

  10. Effective number of resolution bits in direct sensor-to-microcontroller interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverter, Ferran; Pallàs-Areny, Ramon

    2004-10-01

    Microcontrollers with embedded timers can directly measure resistive and capacitive sensors by determining the charging or discharging time of an RC circuit that includes the sensor. This time-to-digital conversion is affected by the quantization of the timer and the trigger noise, which limit the resolution to an effective number of bits (ENOB). This paper analyses the standard uncertainty and the ENOB of that time-to-digital conversion. When interfacing resistive sensors and the capacitor C is small, quantization effects predominate over trigger noise effects, and ENOB increases for increasing C. But, for capacitor values larger than a given C, trigger noise effects predominate and the ENOB remains constant regardless of C. Therefore, an optimal time constant yields the best speed-ENOB trade-off. This type of sensor interface was implemented by using an AVR microcontroller with an embedded 16-bit timer connected to a resistor simulating a Pt1000-type temperature sensor. The experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. If the time was determined from a single observation, the optimal time constant was about 2-3 ms and the ENOB was about 11.5 b, which corresponds to a 0.22 OHgr resolution. By averaging ten observations, that resolution improved to 13.5 b (0.05 OHgr).

  11. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  12. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Grist, Samantha M; Schmok, Jonathan C; Liu, Meng-Chi Andy; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  13. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hairong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiaxin; Sun, Quantao; Zhao, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor's output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required. PMID:25192312

  14. Did IBEX detect interstellar neutral helium or oxygen from anti-ram direction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Wurz, Peter; Park, Jeewoo; Kucharek, Harald; Möbius, Eberhard; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokól, Justyna M.; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, Pawel; Fuselier, Stephen A.; McComas, Dave J.

    2015-04-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) directly measures the inflow of interstellar neutral (ISN) matter into the heliosphere. Inverting the signal strength and location of the neutral species (mainly helium, hydrogen, and oxygen) measured from Earth orbit allows to determine the flow velocity, direction, and temperature of the interstellar matter. So far, only observations from ram-directions when IBEX was moving toward the inflow direction (February and March of each year) showed a clear interstellar signal. Inverting these observations represents a partially degenerate problem; a unique solution for flow velocity, direction, and temperature cannot be found, and the uncertainty of the various fit parameters depends on each other. The detection of the anti-ram signal in October and November, when IBEX is moving away from the interstellar signal, would narrow the range of possible parameters of the interstellar neutral flow. This study presents a rigorous search for the fall signal during the first three years of IBEX data. The absence of an unambiguous fall signal translates into an upper observational limit with implications on the interstellar flow.

  15. Material gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This method can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical (size and shape) and indirect material (resistivity) effects of creep. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as the sum of geometrical and material parts. Initially, subtle material changes produce weak electric anisotropy via reversible and irreversible piezoresistivity due to elastic and plastic strains, respectively. At high temperature, much stronger irreversible resistivity changes also occur due to preferentially aligned clusters of cavities developing along grain boundaries approximately perpendicular to the applied stress and subsequent cracks forming between these cavities. The ensuing electric anisotropy is detected by the directional sensor. Although the material effects remain smaller than the geometrical ones up to the initiation of preferentially oriented cracks, later the material gauge factor sharply increases and close to rupture can reach a value of more than 10.

  16. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications. PMID:27479000

  17. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M.; Saufi Rosmi, Mohamad; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  18. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  19. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  20. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  1. Wireless Capacitive Pressure Sensor With Directional RF Chip Antenna for High Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, M. C.; Jordan, J. L.; Ponchak, G. E.; Zorman, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a wireless capacitive pressure sensor with directional RF chip antenna that is envisioned for the health monitoring of aircraft engines operating in harsh environments. The sensing system is characterized from room temperature (25 C) to 300 C for a pressure range from 0 to 100 psi. The wireless pressure system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator design with a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor located in the LC-tank circuit of the oscillator. Therefore, as the pressure of the aircraft engine changes, so does the output resonant frequency of the sensing system. A chip antenna is integrated to transmit the system output to a receive antenna 10 m away.The design frequency of the wireless pressure sensor is 127 MHz and a 2 increase in resonant frequency over the temperature range of 25 to 300 C from 0 to 100 psi is observed. The phase noise is less than minus 30 dBcHz at the 1 kHz offset and decreases to less than minus 80 dBcHz at 10 kHz over the entire temperature range. The RF radiation patterns for two cuts of the wireless system have been measured and show that the system is highly directional and the MEMS pressure sensor is extremely linear from 0 to 100 psi.

  2. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a < 15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  3. Development of self-tuning residential oil-burner. Oxygen sensor assessment and early prototype system operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available. BNL has continued to investigate all types of sensor technologies associated with combustion systems including all forms of oxygen measurement techniques. In these studies the development of zirconium oxide oxygen sensors has been considered over the last decade. The development of these sensors for the automotive industry has allowed for cost reductions based on quantity of production that might not have occurred otherwise. This report relates BNL`s experience in testing various zirconium oxide sensors, and the results of tests intended to provide evaluation of the various designs with regard to performance in oil-fired systems. These tests included accuracy when installed on oil-fired heating appliances and response time in cyclic operating mode. An evaluation based on performance criteria and cost factors was performed. Cost factors in the oil heat industry are one of the most critical issues in introducing new technology.

  4. Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godshall, F.A.; Cory, R.L.; Phinney, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods. With chemical thermometers average water temperature for the two week period was found to be equal to average water temperature measured with thermocouples plus or minus 1.0 C. The slow diffusion of oxygen through the semipermiable sides of plastic bottles permitted the use of water filled bottles to obtain averaged oxygen measurements. Oxygen measurements for two week averaging times using 500 ml polyethylene bottles were found to vary from conventionally measured and averaged dissolved oxygen by about 1.8 mg/l. ?? 1974 Estuarine Research Federation.

  5. Sm3+ doped TiO2 as optical oxygen sensor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltermann, Marko; Utt, Kathriin; Lange, Sven; Jaaniso, Raivo

    2016-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Sm3+ in sol-gel-made nanostructural TiO2 were shown to depend on surrounding gas environment. Both the intensity and lifetime of the luminescence increased with increasing oxygen content varied between 0% and 100% in the O2/N2 mixture at normal pressure. The luminescence decay kinetics after pulsed excitation at 355 nm followed the stretched exponential function with the value of stretching exponent equal to 0.4-0.5. The mechanism of oxygen sensitivity was interpreted as resonant excitation energy transfer from Sm3+ to the acceptor defects, the latter being switched on and off the resonance by electron exchange with surface-adsorbed oxygen. Oxygen vacancy related defects were proposed as most likely candidates of energy acceptors. The studied material can be used for luminescence lifetime based oxygen sensing.

  6. Effect of depletion layer width on electrical properties of semiconductive thin film gas sensor: a numerical study based on the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianqiao; Lu, Yiting; Cui, Xiao; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia

    2016-03-01

    The effects of depletion layer width on the semiconductor gas sensors were investigated based on the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model, which provided numerical descriptions for the sensor properties. The potential barrier height, sensor resistance, and response to target gases were simulated to reveal their dependences on the depletion layer width. According to the simulation, it was possible to improve the sensor response by enlarging the width of depletion layer without changing the resistance of the gas sensor under the special circumstance. The different performances between resistance and response could provide a bright expectation that the design and fabrication of gas sensing devices could be economized. The simulation results were validated by the experimental performances of SnO2 thin film gas sensors, which were prepared by the sol-gel technique. The dependences of sensor properties on depletion layer width were observed to be in agreement with the simulations.

  7. Transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskite oxides as promising functional materials for oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sunasira

    2012-07-01

    Modern industries employ several gases as process fluids. Leakage of these gases in the operating area could lead to undesirable consequences. Even in chemical industries, which use large quantities of inert gases in confined areas, accidental leakage of these process gases would result in the reduction of oxygen partial pressure in atmospheric air. For instance, large amounts of gaseous nitrogen and argon are used in pharmaceutical industries, gas filling/bottling plants, operating area of Fast Breeder reactors, etc. Fall of concentration of oxygen in air below 17% could lead to life risk (Asphyxiation) of the working personnel that has to be checked well in advance. Further, when the leaking gas is of explosive nature, its damage potential would be very high if its concentration level in air increases beyond its lower explosive limit. Surveillance of the ambient within these industries at the critical areas and also in the environment around them for oxygen therefore becomes highly essential. Sensitive and selective gas sensors made of advanced materials are required to meet this demand of monitoring environmental pollution. The perovskite class of oxides (ABO3) is chemically stable even at high temperatures and can tolerate large levels of dopants without phase transformations. The electronic properties of this parent functional material can be tailored by adding appropriate dopants that exhibit different valence states. Aliovalent transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskites are good mixed ionic and electronic conductors and potential candidates for sensing oxygen at percentage level exploiting their oxygen pressure dependent electrical conductivity. This paper presents the preparation, study of electrical conductivity and oxygen-sensing characteristics of iron and cobalt substituted SrTiO3.

  8. Geometric evaluation of SPOT5 image using rigorous sensor model and simple polynomial direct location model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Fenfei; Kou, Tianyou; Chen, Shirong

    2010-11-01

    With the start tracker and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), SPOT5 satellite point positioning error is lower than 50m. In this paper, two terrains, mountainous areas and plain areas, are defined by terrain gradient. The ground check points are chosen on these terrains with the geometric error and the elevation error both lower than 1m. The coordinate in UTM of each point is calculated both in the Rigorous Sensor Model and the Simple Polynomial Direct Location Model, and the differences between the computed coordinates and the surveyed coordinates are discussed. According to the experiment results, the two models have their own advantage in different circumstances. In mountainous areas, the Rigorous Sensor Model can get higher location accuracy. In plain areas, the two models can locate with same accuracy, but the Simple Polynomial Direct Location Model performs better in the aspect of speed and the simplicity.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation Measured by EPR Oximetry Using a Highly Sensitive Polymer-Encapsulated Paramagnetic Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hou, H; Khan, N; Nagane, M; Gohain, S; Chen, E Y; Jarvis, L A; Schaner, P E; Williams, B B; Flood, A B; Swartz, H M; Kuppusamy, P

    2016-01-01

    We have incorporated LiNc-BuO, an oxygen-sensing paramagnetic material, in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is an oxygen-permeable, biocompatible, and stable polymer. We fabricated implantable and retrievable oxygen-sensing chips (40 % LiNc-BuO in PDMS) using a 20-G Teflon tubing to mold the chips into variable shapes and sizes for in vivo studies in rats. In vitro EPR measurements were used to test the chip's oxygen response. Oxygen induced linear and reproducible line broadening with increasing partial pressure (pO2). The oxygen response was similar to that of bare (unencapsulated) crystals and did not change significantly on sterilization by autoclaving. The chips were implanted in rat femoris muscle and EPR oximetry was performed repeatedly (weekly) for 12 weeks post-implantation. The measurements showed good reliability and reproducibility over the period of testing. These results demonstrated that the new formulation of OxyChip with 40 % LiNc-BuO will enable the applicability of EPR oximetry for long-term measurement of oxygen concentration in tissues and has the potential for clinical applications. PMID:27526163

  10. High performance distributed acoustic sensor using cyclic pulse coding in a direct detection coherent-OTDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muanenda, Yonas; Oton, Claudio J.; Faralli, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a Distributed Acoustic Sensor exploiting cyclic Simplex coding in a phase-sensitive OTDR on standard single mode fibers based on direct detection. Suitable design of the source and use of cyclic coding is shown to improve the SNR of the coherent back-scattered signal by up to 9 dB, reducing fading due to modulation instability and enabling accurate long-distance measurement of vibrations with minimal post-processing.

  11. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''

    2015-11-01

    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  12. Sun-Direction Estimation Using a Partially Underdetermined Set of Coarse Sun Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-09-01

    A comparison of different methods to estimate the sun-direction vector using a partially underdetermined set of cosine-type coarse sun sensors (CSS), while simultaneously controlling the attitude towards a power-positive orientation, is presented. CSS are commonly used in performing power-positive sun-pointing and are attractive due to their relative inexpensiveness, small size, and reduced power consumption. For this study only CSS and rate gyro measurements are available, and the sensor configuration does not provide global triple coverage required for a unique sun-direction calculation. The methods investigated include a vector average method, a combination of least squares and minimum norm criteria, and an extended Kalman filter approach. All cases are formulated such that precise ground calibration of the CSS is not required. Despite significant biases in the state dynamics and measurement models, Monte Carlo simulations show that an extended Kalman filter approach, despite the underdetermined sensor coverage, can provide degree-level accuracy of the sun-direction vector both with and without a control algorithm running simultaneously. If no rate gyro measurements are available, and rates are partially estimated from CSS, the EKF performance degrades as expected, but is still able to achieve better than 10∘ accuracy using only CSS measurements.

  13. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joel A.; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M.; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J.; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Scadden, David T.; Lin, Charles P.

    2014-04-01

    Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (<32 mm Hg) despite very high vascular density. We further uncovered heterogeneities in local pO2, with the lowest pO2 (~9.9 mm Hg, or 1.3%) found in deeper peri-sinusoidal regions. The endosteal region, by contrast, is less hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change markedly after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment.

  14. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory-direct simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300-900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  15. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory–direct simulation Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-15

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300–900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  16. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Joel A.; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M.; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J.; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Scadden, David T.; Lin, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for therapeutic manipulation of stem cells1. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types2–4. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis5, expression of HIF-1 and related genes6, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (e.g. pimonidazole)6–8. Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow (BM) of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM), we determined the absolute pO2 of the BM to be quite low (<32 mmHg) despite very high vascular density. We further uncovered heterogeneities in local pO2, with the lowest pO2 (~9.9 mmHg, or 1.3%) found in deeper peri-sinusoidal regions. The endosteal region, by contrast, is less hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change dramatically after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment. PMID:24590072

  17. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Joel A; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P

    2014-04-10

    Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (<32 mm Hg) despite very high vascular density. We further uncovered heterogeneities in local pO2, with the lowest pO2 (∼9.9 mm Hg, or 1.3%) found in deeper peri-sinusoidal regions. The endosteal region, by contrast, is less hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change markedly after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment. PMID:24590072

  18. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface

    PubMed Central

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A.; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor. PMID:26840321

  19. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface.

    PubMed

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A

    2016-01-01

    Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor. PMID:26840321

  20. Automated and angular time-synchronized directional gamma-ray scintillation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    The authors` previous research resulted in directional sensors for gamma rays and X rays that have a 4{pi} solid angle of acceptance and, at the same time, a high angular resolution that is limited only by their ability to measure small angles. Angular resolution of {approximately}1 s of arc was achieved. These sensors are capable of operating and accurately detecting high and very low intensity radiation patterns. Such a system can also be used to image broad area sources and their scattering patterns. The principle of operation and design of directional sensors used in this study was described elsewhere; however, for convenience, a part of that text is repeated here. It was shown analytically that the angular distribution of radiation incident on the sensor is proportional to the first derivative of the scan data, that is, of the events` count rate versus orientation of the detector. The previously published results were obtained with a annual operating system. The detector assembly was set at a specific angle, and a pulse rate count was made. This was repeated at numerous other angles of orientation, a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Recently, the authors automated this system, which is based on the detection of scintillations. The detector, which consists of a stack of plates of Lucite, plastic scintillator, and lead foils, rotates by means of a motor in front of a stationary photomultiplier tube (PMT). One revolution per second was chosen for the motor. At time zero, a trigger indicates that a revolution has started. The angle of orientation of the detector in the laboratory system is proportional to the time during one revolution. The process repeats itself a desired number of times. The trigger signal initiates a scan of a multichannel scalar (MCS). The detector assembly is allowed to rotate in the radiation field, and the MCS scans are repeated in an accumulated mode of operation until enough events are collected for the location of the

  1. Direct Comparison of Electrochemical and Spectrochemical Kinetics for Catalytic Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wasylenko, Derek J.; Rodriguez, Carlos; Pegis, Michael L.; Mayer, James M.

    2014-09-10

    We describe here a direct comparison of electrochemical and spectrochemical experiments to determine rates and selectivity of oxygen reduction catalyzed by iron 5,10,15,20-meso-tetraphenylporphyrin chloride. Strong agreement was found between the two methods suggesting the same mechanism is occurring under both conditions, with the same overall third order rate constant kcat = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 106 M-2 s-1. This report provides a rare example of characterization of a redox catalytic process by two common but very different methods. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

  2. In situ measurement of atomic oxygen flux using a silver film sensor onboard "TianTuo 1" nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yun; Chen, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Research into the measurement of atomic oxygen (AO) flux in a low Earth orbit (LEO) is highly significant for the development of spacecraft surface materials as well as for enhancing the reliability of space instruments. In the present study, we studied a silver film resistance method for AO flux measurement and we established a quantitative calculation model. Moreover, we designed a silver film sensor for space flight tests with a mass of about 100 g and a peak power consumption of less than 0.2 W. The effect of AO on the silver film was demonstrated in a ground-based simulation experiment and compared with the Kapton-mass-loss method. For the space flight test, the AO flux was estimated by monitoring the change in the resistance in the linear part of the silver/AO reaction regime. Finally, the sensor was carried onboard our nanosatellite "TianTuo 1" to obtain in situ measurements of the AO flux during a 476 km sun synchronous orbit. The result was critically compared with theoretical predictions, which validated the design of this sensor.

  3. Direct single-molecule observation of calcium-dependent misfolding in human neuronal calcium sensor-1.

    PubMed

    Heidarsson, Pétur O; Naqvi, Mohsin M; Otazo, Mariela R; Mossa, Alessandro; Kragelund, Birthe B; Cecconi, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are strongly linked to protein misfolding, and crucial to their explication is a detailed understanding of the underlying structural rearrangements and pathways that govern the formation of misfolded states. Here we use single-molecule optical tweezers to monitor misfolding reactions of the human neuronal calcium sensor-1, a multispecific EF-hand protein involved in neurotransmitter release and linked to severe neurological diseases. We directly observed two misfolding trajectories leading to distinct kinetically trapped misfolded conformations. Both trajectories originate from an on-pathway intermediate state and compete with native folding in a calcium-dependent manner. The relative probability of the different trajectories could be affected by modulating the relaxation rate of applied force, demonstrating an unprecedented real-time control over the free-energy landscape of a protein. Constant-force experiments in combination with hidden Markov analysis revealed the free-energy landscape of the misfolding transitions under both physiological and pathological calcium concentrations. Remarkably for a calcium sensor, we found that higher calcium concentrations increased the lifetimes of the misfolded conformations, slowing productive folding to the native state. We propose a rugged, multidimensional energy landscape for neuronal calcium sensor-1 and speculate on a direct link between protein misfolding and calcium dysregulation that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:25157171

  4. Growth of indium oxide nanowalls on patterned conducting substrates: towards direct fabrication of gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changlong; Wei, Yuling; Sun, Guoxin; Shao, Baiqi

    2012-05-01

    Nanowall materials are ideal two-dimensional structures with high surface-to-volume ratios and open edge geometries. We first report on the growth and characterization of indium oxide nanowalls on transparent and conducting indium tin oxide substrates. The nanosheets that compose the nanowalls are single-crystalline and are approximately 8 nm in thickness. The density and the lateral dimensions of the nanosheets on the substrate can be controlled by the growth time. Adopting a bridgework-like strategy, we directly construct indium oxide nanowall gas sensors on the patterned indium tin oxide substrates. The pattern lines on the substrates are etched using transparent plastic adhesive tape as shadow mask, which is both simple and cheap in comparison with the conventional photolithography technique. The sensors exhibit fast response/recovery behavior and good reproducibility to NO(2) gas under mild testing conditions, such as room temperature, ambient pressure, dry air background, and 1.5 V dc bias, and can achieve a detection limit as low as 50 ppb. We propose an assumption that the gas adsorption is composed of deep adsorption and probe adsorption to explain the interesting gas-sensing behavior of the indium oxide nanowalls. We suggest that the work reported herein, including the facile growth of indium oxide nanowalls, the bridgework-like strategy to directly construct electronic devices, and the high gas-sensing performance of the indium oxide nanowalls sensors, is a significant step towards the real applications of novel semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:22328146

  5. Direct single-molecule observation of calcium-dependent misfolding in human neuronal calcium sensor-1

    PubMed Central

    Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Naqvi, Mohsin M.; Otazo, Mariela R.; Mossa, Alessandro; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Cecconi, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are strongly linked to protein misfolding, and crucial to their explication is a detailed understanding of the underlying structural rearrangements and pathways that govern the formation of misfolded states. Here we use single-molecule optical tweezers to monitor misfolding reactions of the human neuronal calcium sensor-1, a multispecific EF-hand protein involved in neurotransmitter release and linked to severe neurological diseases. We directly observed two misfolding trajectories leading to distinct kinetically trapped misfolded conformations. Both trajectories originate from an on-pathway intermediate state and compete with native folding in a calcium-dependent manner. The relative probability of the different trajectories could be affected by modulating the relaxation rate of applied force, demonstrating an unprecedented real-time control over the free-energy landscape of a protein. Constant-force experiments in combination with hidden Markov analysis revealed the free-energy landscape of the misfolding transitions under both physiological and pathological calcium concentrations. Remarkably for a calcium sensor, we found that higher calcium concentrations increased the lifetimes of the misfolded conformations, slowing productive folding to the native state. We propose a rugged, multidimensional energy landscape for neuronal calcium sensor-1 and speculate on a direct link between protein misfolding and calcium dysregulation that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:25157171

  6. In Vivo Imaging of Flavoprotein Fluorescence During Hypoxia Reveals the Importance of Direct Arterial Oxygen Supply to Cerebral Cortex Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, K I; Ida, K K; Davies, A L; Papkovsky, D B; Singer, M; Dyson, A; Tachtsidis, I; Duchen, M R; Smith, K J

    2016-01-01

    Live imaging of mitochondrial function is crucial to understand the important role played by these organelles in a wide range of diseases. The mitochondrial redox potential is a particularly informative measure of mitochondrial function, and can be monitored using the endogenous green fluorescence of oxidized mitochondrial flavoproteins. Here, we have observed flavoprotein fluorescence in the exposed murine cerebral cortex in vivo using confocal imaging; the mitochondrial origin of the signal was confirmed using agents known to manipulate mitochondrial redox potential. The effects of cerebral oxygenation on flavoprotein fluorescence were determined by manipulating the inspired oxygen concentration. We report that flavoprotein fluorescence is sensitive to reductions in cortical oxygenation, such that reductions in inspired oxygen resulted in loss of flavoprotein fluorescence with the exception of a preserved 'halo' of signal in periarterial regions. The findings are consistent with reports that arteries play an important role in supplying oxygen directly to tissue in the cerebral cortex, maintaining mitochondrial function. PMID:26782217

  7. Raman-based Oxygen and Nitrogen Sensor for Monitoring Empty Airplane Fuel Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a Raman-based method for detecting oxygen and nitrogen in empty fuel tanks. The need for such a method comes from the potential danger of allowing explosive oxygen-fuel mixtures to accumulate in empty airplane fuel tanks. An explosion resulting from such a mixture is believed to have caused the Flight TWA 800 disaster in 1996. Recently, (e.g., February 17,2004 press release) the FAA announced its intentions to make fuel tank inerting mandatory. One potential solution to this problem is to use an inert gas such as nitrogen to flood the empty fue1 tanks in order to reduce the concentration of oxygen.

  8. Medical applications of wireless sensor networks - current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Krešimir; Zagar, Drago; Križanović, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    In recent years a significant development of BASN (Body Area Sensor Networks) as a special subclass of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) has emerged. These networks have enabled a rapid development of telemedicine systems, which provide remote monitoring of patients and their vital parameters. The article gives a short overview of the BASN networks. Furthermore, a general system architecture of telemedicine systems is proposed. The proposed architecture includes a local sensory area, a communication network area and an institutional network area. It also provides the security and privacy of patient-related data. Furthermore, the article surveys some existing telemedicine systems. Finally, some current problems are explained and the directions for the future development of the telemedicine systems are given. PMID:22634904

  9. A mitochondrial redox oxygen sensor in the pulmonary vasculature and ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Hong, Zhigang G; Xiong, Ping Y; Del Paggio, Joseph C; Herr, Julia E; Johri, Amer M; Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian homeostatic oxygen sensing system (HOSS) initiates changes in vascular tone, respiration, and neurosecretion that optimize oxygen uptake and tissue oxygen delivery within seconds of detecting altered environmental or arterial PO2. The HOSS includes carotid body type 1 cells, adrenomedullary cells, neuroepithelial bodies, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in pulmonary arteries (PAs), ductus arteriosus (DA), and fetoplacental arteries. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes ventilation-perfusion matching. In utero, HPV diverts placentally oxygenated blood from the non-ventilated lung through the DA. At birth, increased alveolar and arterial oxygen tension dilates the pulmonary vasculature and constricts the DA, respectively, thereby transitioning the newborn to an air-breathing organism. Though modulated by endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors, O2 sensing is intrinsic to PASMCs and DASMCs. Within the SMC's dynamic mitochondrial network, changes in PO2 alter the reduction-oxidation state of redox couples (NAD(+)/NADH, NADP(+)/NADPH) and the production of reactive oxygen species, ROS (e.g., H2O2), by complexes I and III of the electron transport chain (ETC). ROS and redox couples regulate ion channels, transporters, and enzymes, changing intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and calcium sensitivity and eliciting homeostatic responses to hypoxia. In PASMCs, hypoxia inhibits ROS production and reduces redox couples, thereby inhibiting O2-sensitive voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, depolarizing the plasma membrane, activating voltage-gated calcium channels (CaL), increasing [Ca(2+)]i, and causing vasoconstriction. In DASMCs, elevated PO2 causes mitochondrial fission, increasing ETC complex I activity and ROS production. The DASMC's downstream response to elevated PO2 (Kv channel inhibition, CaL activation, increased [Ca(2+)]i, and rho kinase activation) is similar to the PASMC's hypoxic response. Impaired O2 sensing contributes to

  10. Structural adaptation of microvessel diameters in response to metabolic stimuli: where are the oxygen sensors?

    PubMed

    Reglin, Bettina; Secomb, Timothy W; Pries, Axel R

    2009-12-01

    Maintenance of functional vascular networks requires structural adaptation of vessel diameters in response to hemodynamic and metabolic conditions. The mechanisms by which diameters respond to the metabolic state are not known, but may involve the release of vasoactive substances in response to low oxygen by tissue ("tissue signaling", e.g., CO2, adenosine), by vessel walls ("wall signaling", e.g., prostaglandins, adenosine), and/or by red blood cells (RBCs) ("RBC signaling", e.g., ATP and nitric oxide). Here, the goal was to test the potential of each of these locations of oxygen-dependent signaling to control steady-state vascular diameters and tissue oxygenation. A previously developed theoretical model of structural diameter adaptation based on experimental data on microvascular network morphology and hemodynamics was used. Resulting network characteristics were analyzed with regard to tissue oxygenation (Oxdef; percentage of tissue volume with PO2<1 Torr) and the difference between estimated blood flow velocities and corresponding experimental data [velocity error (Verr); root mean square deviation of estimated vs. measured velocity]. Wall signaling led to Oxdef<1% and to the closest hemodynamic similarity (Verr: 0.60). Tissue signaling also resulted in a low oxygen deficit, but a higher Verr (0.73) and systematic diameter deviations. RBC signaling led to widespread hypoxia (Oxdef: 4.7%), unrealistic velocity distributions (Verr: 0.81), and shrinkage of small vessels. The results suggest that wall signaling plays a central role in structural control of vessel diameters in microvascular networks of given angioarchitecture. Tissue-derived and RBC-derived signaling of oxygen levels may be more relevant for the regulation of angiogenesis and/or smooth muscle tone. PMID:19783778

  11. Structural adaptation of microvessel diameters in response to metabolic stimuli: where are the oxygen sensors?

    PubMed Central

    Reglin, Bettina; Secomb, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of functional vascular networks requires structural adaptation of vessel diameters in response to hemodynamic and metabolic conditions. The mechanisms by which diameters respond to the metabolic state are not known, but may involve the release of vasoactive substances in response to low oxygen by tissue (“tissue signaling”, e.g., CO2, adenosine), by vessel walls (“wall signaling”, e.g., prostaglandins, adenosine), and/or by red blood cells (RBCs) (“RBC signaling”, e.g., ATP and nitric oxide). Here, the goal was to test the potential of each of these locations of oxygen-dependent signaling to control steady-state vascular diameters and tissue oxygenation. A previously developed theoretical model of structural diameter adaptation based on experimental data on microvascular network morphology and hemodynamics was used. Resulting network characteristics were analyzed with regard to tissue oxygenation (Oxdef; percentage of tissue volume with Po2 < 1 Torr) and the difference between estimated blood flow velocities and corresponding experimental data [velocity error (Verr); root mean square deviation of estimated vs. measured velocity]. Wall signaling led to Oxdef < 1% and to the closest hemodynamic similarity (Verr: 0.60). Tissue signaling also resulted in a low oxygen deficit, but a higher Verr (0.73) and systematic diameter deviations. RBC signaling led to widespread hypoxia (Oxdef: 4.7%), unrealistic velocity distributions (Verr: 0.81), and shrinkage of small vessels. The results suggest that wall signaling plays a central role in structural control of vessel diameters in microvascular networks of given angioarchitecture. Tissue-derived and RBC-derived signaling of oxygen levels may be more relevant for the regulation of angiogenesis and/or smooth muscle tone. PMID:19783778

  12. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  13. Fiber optic spectroscopy of blood for oxygen saturation sensor development: hematocrit effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles D.; Wlodarczyk, Marek T.

    1993-05-01

    We present experimental results from fiberoptic spectroscopy apparatus measuring whole blood's optical attenuation over a continuous wavelength range of 0.6 - 1.0 micrometers . Relative optical density (OD) spectra at a number of hematocrit values and oxygenation levels is obtained. The role of hematocrit in affecting spectral shape is discussed based upon relatively simple relationships derived from experimental data. A specific partial differential equation emerges from the analysis. This equation relates scatter-dependent experimental OD to oxygen saturation, hematocrit and purely absorbing, nonscattering constituents--and is obeyed over an extended wavelength range. A three-wavelength algorithm using experimental absorbances at LED-compatible wavelengths accurately provides both hematocrit and oxygen saturation values, for hematocrit levels between 0.2 and 0.6 in the presence of oxygenated and reduced Hb species. Optical system comparison between spectroscopic data and modeled LED behavior indicates the algorithm can be mapped to the design and implementation of discrete components for clinical use.

  14. A non-invasive fluorescence-based oxygen sensor and platform for studying cell responses to metabolic agents in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchapudi, Koutilya Reddy

    A fluorescence-based sensor in a transverse flow/stop measurement platform has been developed to determine real-time changes in oxygen consumption rates for cell metabolic studies. The oxygen sensitive fluorophore platinum octaethylporphyrin was embedded in a cellulose acetate matrix and affixed to a fiber optic bundle, which provided for transmission of the excitation and emission wavelengths of the film. The fiber optic bundle was sealed in a sensor head that can be used in standard 24-well plates common to research labs. The utility of the sensor and sensing platform were determined by measuring the changes in oxygen consumption rates of Candida albicans during 90/30 s flow/stop cycles. Exposure of these cells to metabolic antagonists and an enhancer showed the expected decrease and increase in oxygen consumption rates in real time. The applicability of the platform to biological studies is illustrated by determination of synergistic activities between antifungal drugs and fluoride exposure in Candida albicans. The robustness of the fluorophore film is demonstrated by perfusion with different media and analyte conditions in the absence of cells. For stop cycle time intervals less than 1 minute the sensor exhibited a rapid and fairly linear change in fluorescence intensity to changing oxygen concentrations in the measurement chamber. Flow cycle fluorescence intensities were used as a baseline correction for treating the stop cycle fluorescence peaks.

  15. MoS2 oxygen sensor with gate voltage stress induced performance enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yu; Lin, Zhenhua; Thong, John T. L.; Chan, Daniel S. H.; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently attracted wide attention and rapidly established themselves in various applications. In particular, 2D materials are regarded as promising building blocks for gas sensors due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, ease in miniaturization, and flexibility in enabling wearable electronics. Compared with other 2D materials, MoS2 is particularly intriguing because it has been widely researched and exhibits semiconducting behavior. Here, we have fabricated MoS2 resistor based O2 sensors with a back gate configuration on a 285 nm SiO2/Si substrate. The effects of applying back gate voltage stress on O2 sensing performance have been systematically investigated. With a positive gate voltage stress, the sensor response improves and the response is improved to 29.2% at O2 partial pressure of 9.9 × 10-5 millibars with a +40 V back-gate bias compared to 21.2% at O2 partial pressure of 1.4 × 10-4 millibars without back-gate bias; while under a negative gate voltage stress of -40 V, a fast and full recovery can be achieved at room temperature. In addition, a method in determining O2 partial pressure with a detectability as low as 6.7 × 10-7 millibars at a constant vacuum pressure is presented and its potential as a vacuum gauge is briefly discussed.

  16. Cell death induced by direct laser activation of singlet oxygen at 1270 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquez, F.; El Yazidi Belkoura, I.; Suret, P.; Randoux, S.; Courtade, E.

    2013-02-01

    Singlet oxygen plays a major role in many chemical and biological photo-oxidation processes. It has a high chemical reactivity, which is commonly harnessed for therapeutic issues. Indeed, singlet oxygen is recognized as the major cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. In this treatment of cancer, singlet oxygen is created, among other reactive species, by an indirect transfer of energy from light to molecular oxygen via excitation of a photosensitizer. In this paper, we show that the conventional singlet oxygen production scheme can be simplified. Production of singlet oxygen is achieved in living cells from photosensitizer-free 1270 nm laser excitation of the electronic ground state of molecular oxygen. The quantity of singlet oxygen produced in this way is sufficient to induce an oxidative stress leading to cell death. Other effects such as thermal stress are discriminated, and we conclude that cell death is only due to singlet oxygen creation. This new simplified scheme of singlet oxygen activation can be seen as a breakthrough for phototherapies of malignant diseases and/or as a non-invasive possibility to generate reactive oxygen species in a tightly controlled manner.

  17. A Method to Perform Direct Oxygen Analysis on Lunar Simulants and Other Complex Oxide Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    An essential requirement for making space travel and long term missions more efficient and affordable to NASA includes finding innovative ways to supply oxygen for life support and propulsion. In this experiment, carrier gas hot extraction was investigated as a possible method for measuring the oxygen from samples of lunar soil simulants before and after oxygen extraction. The determination of oxygen using the R0600 Oxygen Determinator is usually limited to oxides with low oxygen concentrations, but after the manipulation of certain furnace operating parameters such as analysis time and ramp rate, the R0600 was used to determine the oxygen content of high concentration oxides such as Fe 2O3 , Al2O3 , and SiO2.

  18. Longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail with bi-directional FBG strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Xie, Kaize; Shao, Liyang; Yan, Lianshan; Xu, Jingmang; Chen, Rong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new method has been proposed to accurately determine longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail (CWR) with bi-directional fiber Bragg grating (B-FBGs) strain sensors (vertically and longitudinally installed according to the axis of rail). The response of B-FBGs has been theoretically analyzed by binding on CWR under different restrained conditions, where the coefficient of strain sensitivity of FBG is calibrated by its temperature sensitivity. Then the proposed sensor structure has been installed at two elaborately selected points on the subgrade on a Chinese high-speed railway in field. The experiment lasts for about 23 h. During the experiment, the rail temperature varied by about 7.8 °C and the differentials of relative value of wavelength change of B-FBGs of two points were 1.7850 × 10-5 and 1.4969 × 10-5. The maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical results is 13.8 kN. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis very well. To guarantee the measurement accuracy of over 95%, the ratio of strain sensitivity coefficients of two FBG sensors of B-FBGs structure at one test point shall be within 0.78 ˜ 1.22.

  19. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  20. The Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Controls Dendritic Spines and Synapses via Modification of Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Inmaculada; Lange, Christian; Knevels, Ellen; Moskalyuk, Anastasiya; Pulizzi, Rocco; Eelen, Guy; Chaze, Thibault; Tudor, Cicerone; Boulegue, Cyril; Holt, Matthew; Daelemans, Dirk; Matondo, Mariette; Ghesquière, Bart; Giugliano, Michele; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neuronal function is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen levels, but how hypoxia affects dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis is unknown. Here we report that hypoxia, chemical inhibition of the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), and silencing of Phd2 induce immature filopodium-like dendritic protrusions, promote spine regression, reduce synaptic density, and decrease the frequency of spontaneous action potentials independently of HIF signaling. We identified the actin cross-linker filamin A (FLNA) as a target of PHD2 mediating these effects. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates the proline residues P2309 and P2316 in FLNA, leading to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In hypoxia, PHD2 inactivation rapidly upregulates FLNA protein levels because of blockage of its proteasomal degradation. FLNA upregulation induces more immature spines, whereas Flna silencing rescues the immature spine phenotype induced by PHD2 inhibition. PMID:26972007

  1. The Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Controls Dendritic Spines and Synapses via Modification of Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Segura, Inmaculada; Lange, Christian; Knevels, Ellen; Moskalyuk, Anastasiya; Pulizzi, Rocco; Eelen, Guy; Chaze, Thibault; Tudor, Cicerone; Boulegue, Cyril; Holt, Matthew; Daelemans, Dirk; Matondo, Mariette; Ghesquière, Bart; Giugliano, Michele; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-03-22

    Neuronal function is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen levels, but how hypoxia affects dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis is unknown. Here we report that hypoxia, chemical inhibition of the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), and silencing of Phd2 induce immature filopodium-like dendritic protrusions, promote spine regression, reduce synaptic density, and decrease the frequency of spontaneous action potentials independently of HIF signaling. We identified the actin cross-linker filamin A (FLNA) as a target of PHD2 mediating these effects. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates the proline residues P2309 and P2316 in FLNA, leading to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In hypoxia, PHD2 inactivation rapidly upregulates FLNA protein levels because of blockage of its proteasomal degradation. FLNA upregulation induces more immature spines, whereas Flna silencing rescues the immature spine phenotype induced by PHD2 inhibition. PMID:26972007

  2. Compact Reconfigurable Antenna with an Omnidirectional Pattern and Four Directional Patterns for Wireless Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Ying; Ding, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna can generate four directional radiation patterns and one omnidirectional radiation pattern. The main beam directions of the four directional modes are almost orthogonal and the four directional beams can jointly cover a 360° range in the horizontal plane, i.e., the main radiation plane of omnidirectional mode. The whole volume of the antenna and the control network is approximately 0.70 λ × 0.53 λ × 0.02 λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and small dimensions under the requirement that the directional radiation patterns can jointly cover the main radiation plane of the omnidirectional mode, therefore, it can be used in smart wireless sensor systems for different application scenarios. PMID:27092512

  3. Compact Reconfigurable Antenna with an Omnidirectional Pattern and Four Directional Patterns for Wireless Sensor Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Ying; Ding, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna can generate four directional radiation patterns and one omnidirectional radiation pattern. The main beam directions of the four directional modes are almost orthogonal and the four directional beams can jointly cover a 360° range in the horizontal plane, i.e., the main radiation plane of omnidirectional mode. The whole volume of the antenna and the control network is approximately 0.70 λ × 0.53 λ × 0.02 λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and small dimensions under the requirement that the directional radiation patterns can jointly cover the main radiation plane of the omnidirectional mode, therefore, it can be used in smart wireless sensor systems for different application scenarios. PMID:27092512

  4. Objectively Optimized Observation Direction System Providing Situational Awareness for a Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulov, O.; Lary, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is great utility in having a flexible and automated objective observation direction system for the decadal survey missions and beyond. Such a system allows us to optimize the observations made by suite of sensors to address specific goals from long term monitoring to rapid response. We have developed such a prototype using a network of communicating software elements to control a heterogeneous network of sensor systems, which can have multiple modes and flexible viewing geometries. Our system makes sensor systems intelligent and situationally aware. Together they form a sensor web of multiple sensors working together and capable of automated target selection, i.e. the sensors “know” where they are, what they are able to observe, what targets and with what priorities they should observe. This system is implemented in three components. The first component is a Sensor Web simulator. The Sensor Web simulator describes the capabilities and locations of each sensor as a function of time, whether they are orbital, sub-orbital, or ground based. The simulator has been implemented using AGIs Satellite Tool Kit (STK). STK makes it easy to analyze and visualize optimal solutions for complex space scenarios, and perform complex analysis of land, sea, air, space assets, and shares results in one integrated solution. The second component is target scheduler that was implemented with STK Scheduler. STK Scheduler is powered by a scheduling engine that finds better solutions in a shorter amount of time than traditional heuristic algorithms. The global search algorithm within this engine is based on neural network technology that is capable of finding solutions to larger and more complex problems and maximizing the value of limited resources. The third component is a modeling and data assimilation system. It provides situational awareness by supplying the time evolution of uncertainty and information content metrics that are used to tell us what we need to observe and the

  5. Detection of the position, direction and speed of sliding contact with a multi-layer compliant tactile sensor fabricated using direct-print technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza; Engeberg, Erik D.; Choi, Jae-Won

    2014-09-01

    A multi-layer resistance based compliant tactile sensor was fabricated using direct-print (DP) and soft molding processes. The sensor consists of two layers of embedded stretchable sensing elements sandwiched by three layers of a polyurethane rubber material. The sensing elements were created by the DP process using a photopolymer filled with multi-wall carbon nanotubes, which exhibit the property of piezoresistivity. The printed sensing elements were fully cured using ultraviolet light. The sensing elements within each layer of the sensor structure change in electrical resistance when external forces are applied. By processing the measured sensor signals, the fabricated sensor was able to detect the position of contact forces with a 3 mm spatial resolution, as well as their two-dimensional translation directions and speeds. Based on the results, it is concluded that the fabricated sensors are promising in robotic applications and the developed process and material can be a reliable and robust way to build highly stretchable tactile sensors.

  6. MoS{sub 2} oxygen sensor with gate voltage stress induced performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yu; Lin, Zhenhua; Thong, John T. L.; Chan, Daniel S. H.; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2015-09-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently attracted wide attention and rapidly established themselves in various applications. In particular, 2D materials are regarded as promising building blocks for gas sensors due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, ease in miniaturization, and flexibility in enabling wearable electronics. Compared with other 2D materials, MoS{sub 2} is particularly intriguing because it has been widely researched and exhibits semiconducting behavior. Here, we have fabricated MoS{sub 2} resistor based O{sub 2} sensors with a back gate configuration on a 285 nm SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The effects of applying back gate voltage stress on O{sub 2} sensing performance have been systematically investigated. With a positive gate voltage stress, the sensor response improves and the response is improved to 29.2% at O{sub 2} partial pressure of 9.9 × 10{sup −5} millibars with a +40 V back-gate bias compared to 21.2% at O{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 × 10{sup −4} millibars without back-gate bias; while under a negative gate voltage stress of −40 V, a fast and full recovery can be achieved at room temperature. In addition, a method in determining O{sub 2} partial pressure with a detectability as low as 6.7 × 10{sup −7} millibars at a constant vacuum pressure is presented and its potential as a vacuum gauge is briefly discussed.

  7. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform. PMID:26971805

  8. A Lab Assembled Microcontroller-Based Sensor Module for Continuous Oxygen Measurement in Portable Hypoxia Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Mathupala, Saroj P.; Kiousis, Sam; Szerlip, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-based cell culture experiments are routine and essential components of in vitro cancer research. Most laboratories use low-cost portable modular chambers to achieve hypoxic conditions for cell cultures, where the sealed chambers are purged with a gas mixture of preset O2 concentration. Studies are conducted under the assumption that hypoxia remains unaltered throughout the 48 to 72 hour duration of such experiments. Since these chambers lack any sensor or detection system to monitor gas-phase O2, the cell-based data tend to be non-uniform due to the ad hoc nature of the experimental setup. Methodology With the availability of low-cost open-source microcontroller-based electronic project kits, it is now possible for researchers to program these with easy-to-use software, link them to sensors, and place them in basic scientific apparatus to monitor and record experimental parameters. We report here the design and construction of a small-footprint kit for continuous measurement and recording of O2 concentration in modular hypoxia chambers. The low-cost assembly (US$135) consists of an Arduino-based microcontroller, data-logging freeware, and a factory pre-calibrated miniature O2 sensor. A small, intuitive software program was written by the authors to control the data input and output. The basic nature of the kit will enable any student in biology with minimal experience in hobby-electronics to assemble the system and edit the program parameters to suit individual experimental conditions. Results/Conclusions We show the kit’s utility and stability of data output via a series of hypoxia experiments. The studies also demonstrated the critical need to monitor and adjust gas-phase O2 concentration during hypoxia-based experiments to prevent experimental errors or failure due to partial loss of hypoxia. Thus, incorporating the sensor-microcontroller module to a portable hypoxia chamber provides a researcher a capability that was previously available

  9. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  10. Site-directed mutagenesis identifies a tyrosine radical involved in the photosynthesized oxygen-evolving system

    SciTech Connect

    Debus, R.J.; Barry, B.A.; Babcock, G.T.; McIntosh, L.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic oxygen evolution takes place in the thylakoid protein complex known as photosystem II. The reaction center core of this photosystem, where photochemistry occurs, is a heterodimer of homologous polypeptides called D1 and D2. Besides chlorophyll and quinone, photosystem II contains other organic cofactors, including two known as Z and D. Z transfers electrons from the site of water oxidation to the oxidized reaction center primary donor, P/sub 680//sup +/, while D /center dot//sup +/ gives rise to the dark-stable EPR spectrum known as signal II. D/center dot//sup +/ has recently been shown to be a tyrosine radical. Z is probably a second tyrosine located in a similar environment. Indirect evidence indicates that Z and D are associated with the D1 and E2 polypeptides, respectively. To identify the specific tyrosine residue corresponding to D, the authors have changed Tyr-160 of the D2 polypeptide to phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis of a psbD gene in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. The resulting mutant grows photosynthetically, but it lacks the EPR signal of D/center dot//sup +/. The authors conclude that D is Tyr-160 of the D2 polypeptide. They suggest that the C/sub 2/ symmetry in photosystem II extends beyond P/sub 680/ to its immediate electron donor and conclude that Z is Try-161 of the D1 polypeptide.

  11. Low temperature, atmospheric pressure, direct current microplasma jet operated in air, nitrogen and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Kolb, J. F.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-plasma jets in atmospheric pressure molecular gases (nitrogen, oxygen, air) were generated by blowing these gases through direct current microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs). The tapered discharge channel, drilled through two 100 to 200 μm thick molybdenum electrodes separated by a 200 μm thick alumina layer, is 150 to 450 μm in diameter in the cathode and has an opening of 100 to 300 μm in diameter in the anode. Sustaining voltages are 400 to 600 V, the maximum current is 25 mA. The gas temperature of the microplasma inside the microhollow cathode varies between ~2000 K and ~1000 K depending on current, gas, and flow rate. Outside the discharge channel the temperature in the jet can be reduced by manipulating the discharge current and the gas flow to achieve values close to room temperature. This cold microplasma jet can be used for surface treatment of heat sensitive substances, and for sterilization of contaminated areas.

  12. Direct observation of localized radial oxygen migration in functioning tantalum oxide memristors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kumar, Suhas; Graves, Catherine E.; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Arthur L. David Kilcoyne; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Nishi, Yoshio; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-02-02

    Oxygen migration in tantalum oxide, a promising next-generation storage material, is studied using in operando x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy and is used to microphysically describe accelerated evolution of conduction channel and device failure. Furthermore, the resulting ring-like patterns of oxygen concentration are modeled using thermophoretic forces and Fick diffusion, establishing the critical role of temperature-activated oxygen migration that has been under question lately.

  13. Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suhas; Graves, Catherine E; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Kilcoyne, Arthur L David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Nishi, Yoshio; Williams, R Stanley

    2016-04-13

    Oxygen migration in tantalum oxide, a promising next-generation storage material, is studied using in operando X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. This approach allows a physical description of the evolution of conduction channel and eventual device failure. The observed ring-like patterns of oxygen concentration are modeled using thermophoretic forces and Fick diffusion, establishing the critical role of temperature-driven oxygen migration. PMID:26833926

  14. Random and directed walk-based top-(k) queries in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, filter-based top-  query approaches are the state-of-the-art solutions and have been extensively researched in the literature, however, they are very sensitive to the network parameters, including the size of the network, dynamics of the sensors' readings and declines in the overall range of all the readings. In this work, a random walk-based top-  query approach called RWTQ and a directed walk-based top-  query approach called DWTQ are proposed. At the beginning of a top-  query, one or several tokens are sent to the specific node(s) in the network by the base station. Then, each token walks in the network independently to record and process the readings in a random or directed way. A strategy of choosing the "right" way in DWTQ is carefully designed for the token(s) to arrive at the high-value regions as soon as possible. When designing the walking strategy for DWTQ, the spatial correlations of the readings are also considered. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that RWTQ and DWTQ both are very robust against these parameters discussed previously. In addition, DWTQ outperforms TAG, FILA and EXTOK in transmission cost, energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:26016914

  15. Direct Measurement Sensor of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Kerenyi, Kornel; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Trease, Brian P.; Widholm, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The flow fields and boundary erosion that are associated with scour at bridge piers are very complex. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress and boundary pressure fluctuations in experimental scour research has always been a challenge and high spatial resolution and fidelity have been almost impossible. Most researchers have applied an indirect process to determine shear stress using precise measured velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry are common techniques used to accurately measure velocity profiles. These methods are based on theoretical assumptions to estimate boundary shear stress. In addition, available turbulence models cannot very well account for the effect of bed roughness which is fundamentally important for any CFD simulation. The authors have taken on the challenge to advance the magnitude level to which direct measurements of the shear stress in water flow can be performed. This paper covered the challenges and the efforts to develop a higher accuracy and small spatial resolution sensor. Also, preliminary sensor designs and test results are presented.

  16. Direct electron transfer type disposable sensor strip for glucose sensing employing an engineered FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yuki; Ferri, Stefano; Huynh, Mai Linh; Shimizu, Hitomi; Yamaoka, Hideaki; Sode, Koji

    2013-02-01

    The FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) from Burkholderia cepacia has several attractive features for glucose sensing. However, expanding the application of this enzyme requires improvement of its substrate specificity, especially decreasing its high activity toward maltose. A three-dimensional structural model of the FADGDH catalytic subunit was generated by homology modeling. By comparing the predicted active site with that of glucose oxidase, the two amino acid residues serine 326 and serine 365 were targeted for site-directed mutagenesis. The single mutations that produced the highest glucose specificity were combined, leading to the creation of the S326Q/S365Y double mutant, which was virtually nonreactive to maltose while retaining high glucose dehydrogenase activity. The engineered FADGDH was used to develop a direct electron transfer-type, disposable glucose sensor strip by immobilizing the enzyme complex onto a carbon screen-printed electrode. While the electrode employing wild-type FADGDH provided dangerously flawed results in the presence of maltose, the sensor employing our engineered FADGDH showed a clear glucose concentration-dependent response that was not affected by the presence of maltose. PMID:23273282

  17. A directional cylindrical anemometer with four sets of differential pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Du, L; Zhao, Z

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a solid-state directional anemometer for simultaneously measuring the speed and direction of a wind in a plane in a speed range 1-40 m/s. This instrument has a cylindrical shape and works by detecting the pressure differences across diameters of the cylinder when exposed to wind. By analyzing our experimental data in a Reynolds number regime 1.7 × 10(3)-7 × 10(4), we figure out the relationship between the pressure difference distribution and the wind velocity. We propose a novel and simple solution based on the relationship and design an anemometer which composes of a circular cylinder with four sets of differential pressure sensors, tubes connecting these sensors with the cylinder's surface, and corresponding circuits. In absence of moving parts, this instrument is small and immune of friction. It has simple internal structures, and the fragile sensing elements are well protected. Prototypes have been fabricated to estimate performance of proposed approach. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 0.5 W, and the sample rate is up to 31 Hz. The test results in a wind tunnel indicate that the maximum relative speed measuring error is 5% and the direction error is no more than 5° in a speed range 2-40 m/s. In theory, it is capable of measuring wind up to 60 m/s. When the air stream goes slower than 2 m/s, the measuring errors of directions are slightly greater, and the performance of speed measuring degrades but remains in an acceptable range of ±0.2 m/s. PMID:27036817

  18. A directional cylindrical anemometer with four sets of differential pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Du, L.; Zhao, Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a solid-state directional anemometer for simultaneously measuring the speed and direction of a wind in a plane in a speed range 1-40 m/s. This instrument has a cylindrical shape and works by detecting the pressure differences across diameters of the cylinder when exposed to wind. By analyzing our experimental data in a Reynolds number regime 1.7 × 103-7 × 104, we figure out the relationship between the pressure difference distribution and the wind velocity. We propose a novel and simple solution based on the relationship and design an anemometer which composes of a circular cylinder with four sets of differential pressure sensors, tubes connecting these sensors with the cylinder's surface, and corresponding circuits. In absence of moving parts, this instrument is small and immune of friction. It has simple internal structures, and the fragile sensing elements are well protected. Prototypes have been fabricated to estimate performance of proposed approach. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 0.5 W, and the sample rate is up to 31 Hz. The test results in a wind tunnel indicate that the maximum relative speed measuring error is 5% and the direction error is no more than 5° in a speed range 2-40 m/s. In theory, it is capable of measuring wind up to 60 m/s. When the air stream goes slower than 2 m/s, the measuring errors of directions are slightly greater, and the performance of speed measuring degrades but remains in an acceptable range of ±0.2 m/s.

  19. Characterization Of Station Quality From The CHILE RAMP Deployment - Direct Burial Sensor Installation And Its Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Slad, G.

    2010-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL supported a NSF-funded project to collect an open community dataset from a portable seismograph deployment following the magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 (an experiment of the Rapid Array Mobilization Program - RAMP). In part, due to logistical constraints, the broadband sensors (Guralp CMG3T) for this deployment were buried directly in soil. Direct burial refers to installation of a broadband sensor in a small hand-dug hole, encased in plastic bags, and ideally backfilled with well tamped and dampened sand. Field conditions did not provide ideal installations in all cases. Because of the variability in actual installation practices, the Chile RAMP data provide an opportunity to examine the impact of several factors on the direct burial data quality. Using McNamara and Boaz (2005) PQLX statistical analysis software, which calculates the power spectral density (PSD) and plots the probability density function (PDF)(McNamara and Buland, 2004), we characterize the background seismic noise levels and signal quality for 58 directly buried installations at the Chile RAMP. Data return and data quality during the deployment (April -September 2010) will be evaluated considering a variety of parameters including installation technique, site characteristics, and equipment performance. Preliminary results using data from two service runs (April - June), suggest variation in the data quality and recovery due to slightly different installation practices and/or possibly environmental factors. We seek to evaluate and characterize parameters that affect the resulting data recovery and their quality; this study is an important test case for future PASSCAL and RAMP installations. If possible we would like to compare data from other local networks to identify distinctive characteristics from different installation set-ups.

  20. Tetra(1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-6,7-tetralino)porphyrazine as a novel luminescence sensor of laser-induced singlet oxygen generation in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnovskii, A A; Schweitzer, C; Leismann, H; Tanielian, C; Luk'yanets, Evgenii A

    2000-05-31

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra and quantum yields of fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation were studied in air-saturated solutions of a newly synthesised dye, tetra(1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-6,7-tetralino)porphyrazine (TMTP), in benzene. Photophysical properties of TMTP are similar to those of previously studied tetra(4-tert-butyl) phthalocyanine (TBPc). However, the TMTP absorption and fluorescence bands are shifted to the longer wavelengths compared with those of TBPc. The laser-induced generation of singlet molecular oxygen {sup 1}O{sub 2} in TMTP solutions caused strong singlet oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence of the dye. The efficiency of singlet-oxygen-sensitised formation of excited TMTP molecules is two times higher than that of TBPc. It is shown that TMTP can serve as an efficient luminescence sensor of singlet oxygen. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  1. 76 FR 12556 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen Generators Installed in a Lavatory AGENCY: Federal... affected airplanes identified above. This AD requires modifying the chemical oxygen generators in...

  2. Low Power Resistive Oxygen Sensor Based on Sonochemical SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (STFO40).

    PubMed

    Stratulat, Alisa; Serban, Bogdan-Catalin; de Luca, Andrea; Avramescu, Viorel; Cobianu, Cornel; Brezeanu, Mihai; Buiu, Octavian; Diamandescu, Lucian; Feder, Marcel; Ali, Syed Zeeshan; Udrea, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The current paper reports on a sonochemical synthesis method for manufacturing nanostructured (typical grain size of 50 nm) SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (Sono-STFO40) powder. This powder is characterized using X ray-diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and results are compared with commercially available SrTi0.4Fe0.6O2.8 (STFO60) powder. In order to manufacture resistive oxygen sensors, both Sono-STFO40 and STFO60 are deposited, by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method, on an SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) micro-hotplate, employing a tungsten heater embedded within a dielectric membrane. Oxygen detection tests are performed in both dry (RH = 0%) and humid (RH = 60%) nitrogen atmosphere, varying oxygen concentrations between 1% and 16% (v/v), at a constant heater temperature of 650 °C. The oxygen sensor, based on the Sono-STFO40 sensing layer, shows good sensitivity, low power consumption (80 mW), and short response time (25 s). These performance are comparable to those exhibited by state-of-the-art O2 sensors based on STFO60, thus proving Sono-STFO40 to be a material suitable for oxygen detection in harsh environments. PMID:26205267

  3. Low Power Resistive Oxygen Sensor Based on Sonochemical SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (STFO40)

    PubMed Central

    Stratulat, Alisa; Serban, Bogdan-Catalin; de Luca, Andrea; Avramescu, Viorel; Cobianu, Cornel; Brezeanu, Mihai; Buiu, Octavian; Diamandescu, Lucian; Feder, Marcel; Ali, Syed Zeeshan; Udrea, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The current paper reports on a sonochemical synthesis method for manufacturing nanostructured (typical grain size of 50 nm) SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (Sono-STFO40) powder. This powder is characterized using X ray-diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and results are compared with commercially available SrTi0.4Fe0.6O2.8 (STFO60) powder. In order to manufacture resistive oxygen sensors, both Sono-STFO40 and STFO60 are deposited, by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method, on an SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) micro-hotplate, employing a tungsten heater embedded within a dielectric membrane. Oxygen detection tests are performed in both dry (RH = 0%) and humid (RH = 60%) nitrogen atmosphere, varying oxygen concentrations between 1% and 16% (v/v), at a constant heater temperature of 650 °C. The oxygen sensor, based on the Sono-STFO40 sensing layer, shows good sensitivity, low power consumption (80 mW), and short response time (25 s). These performance are comparable to those exhibited by state-of-the-art O2 sensors based on STFO60, thus proving Sono-STFO40 to be a material suitable for oxygen detection in harsh environments. PMID:26205267

  4. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Philippe; Lepot, Mathieu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report). Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests. PMID:22163635

  5. Micelle-Encapsulated Quantum Dot-Porphyrin Assemblies as in Vivo Two-Photon Oxygen Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Christopher M.; Karnas, Elizabeth; Han, Xiaoxing; Bruns, Oliver T.; Kempa, Thomas J.; Fukumura, Dai; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Duda, Dan G.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Micelles have been employed to encapsulate the supramolecular assembly of quantum dots with palladium(II) porphyrins for the quantification of O2 levels in aqueous media and in vivo. Förster resonance energy transfer from the quantum dot (QD) to the palladium porphyrin provides a means for signal transduction under both one- and two-photon excitation. The palladium porphyrins are sensitive to O2 concentrations in the range of 0–160 Torr. The micelle-encapsulated QD-porphyrin assemblies have been employed for in vivo multiphoton imaging and lifetime-based oxygen measurements in mice with chronic dorsal skinfold chambers or cranial windows. Our results establish the utility of the QD-micelle approach for in vivo biological sensing applications. PMID:26149349

  6. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. PMID:23863442

  7. A direct descending pathway informing locomotor networks about tactile sensor movement.

    PubMed

    Ache, Jan M; Haupt, S Shuichi; Dürr, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Much like visually impaired humans use a white-cane, nocturnal insects and mammals use antennae or whiskers for near-range orientation. Stick insects, for example, rely heavily on antennal tactile cues to find footholds and detect obstacles. Antennal contacts can even induce aimed reaching movements. Because tactile sensors are essentially one-dimensional, they must be moved to probe the surrounding space. Sensor movement is thus an essential cue for tactile sensing, which needs to be integrated by thoracic networks for generating appropriate adaptive leg movements. Based on single and double recordings, we describe a descending neural pathway comprising three identified ON- and OFF-type neurons that convey complementary, unambiguous, and short-latency information about antennal movement to thoracic networks in the stick insect. The neurons are sensitive to the velocity of antennal movements across the entire range covered by natural movements, regardless of movement direction and joint angle. Intriguingly, none of them originates from the brain. Instead, they descend from the gnathal ganglion and receive input from antennal mechanoreceptors in this lower region of the CNS. From there, they convey information about antennal movement to the thorax. One of the descending neurons, which is additionally sensitive to substrate vibration, feeds this information back to the brain via an ascending branch. We conclude that descending interneurons with complementary tuning characteristics, gains, input and output regions convey detailed information about antennal movement to thoracic networks. This pathway bypasses higher processing centers in the brain and thus constitutes a shortcut between tactile sensors on the head and the thorax. PMID:25740535

  8. A Coral Reef Algorithm Based on Learning Automata for the Coverage Control Problem of Heterogeneous Directional Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Coverage control is one of the most fundamental issues in directional sensor networks. In this paper, the coverage optimization problem in a directional sensor network is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. It takes into account the coverage rate of the network, the number of working sensor nodes and the connectivity of the network. The coverage problem considered in this paper is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events and heterogeneity of the sensor nodes in terms of sensing radius, field of angle and communication radius. To solve this multi-objective problem, we introduce a learning automata-based coral reef algorithm for adaptive parameter selection and use a novel Tchebycheff decomposition method to decompose the multi-objective problem into a single-objective problem. Simulation results show the consistent superiority of the proposed algorithm over alternative approaches. PMID:26690162

  9. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. PMID:25704155

  10. Enhanced ionic oxygen flow through mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes: Directional dependence, composite construction and the partial oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, Kirk R.

    Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting (MIEC) membranes transport ions and electrons in a crystalline matrix. Ionic transport occurs through MIEC materials in the presence of an applied ionic potential gradient. MIEC membranes form a special class of ionic conductors with primary applications as membrane separators, sensors, and components in solid oxide fuel cells. Current efforts focus on separation of oxygen from air for supply to high temperature reactions. One such reaction is the methane partial oxidation to synthesis gas (CO and H2). Certain MIEC membrane characteristics are required for a methane partial oxidation reactor: (1) the cost of the material must be economical on a tube cost per mol oxygen transported basis; (2) the membrane must be stable in steep oxygen partial pressure gradients and in the presence of reducing gases; (3) the membrane must be stable at temperatures exceeding 800°C without fracturing due to thermal stress. Two mechanisms govern the transport of oxygen through MIEC membranes: surface exchange at the MIEC/gas surface and ionic transport through the MIEC bulk. Most MIEC membranes conduct oxygen with a mixed transport mechanism, i.e., both surface exchange and bulk diffusion affect the total transport. We investigate the relative importance of bulk diffusion versus surface exchange in MIEC tubular and disk membranes made of La0.5Sr0.5Fe 0.8Ga0.2O3-delta. We propose a proof based on the currently accepted transport model for the directional dependence of ionic flow through a tubular MIEC. We qualitatively confirm directional dependence using a novel experimental system. Further, we propose a model for ionic flow in a composite membrane system consisting of a dense, tubular LSFG substrate with a thin, dense layer of SrCox Fe1-xO3-delta applied to the surface(s). Comparisons are made between the performance of the monolithic membrane tube and the layered composite membrane tube. A layered composite tubular membrane is constructed and tested

  11. Cutting Edge Technologies Presentation: An Overview of Developing Sensor Technology Directions and Possible Barriers to New Technology Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires the development of a range of chemical sensor technologies for such applications as leak detection, emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, environmental monitoring, and fire detection. A range of chemical sensors are being developed based on micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate microsensors with minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and the use of nanomaterials and structures to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity, However, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. These technologies and technical approaches have direct relevance to breath monitoring for clinical applications. This presentation gives an overview of developing cutting-edge sensor technology and possible barriers to new technology implementation. This includes lessons learned from previous microsensor development, recent work in development of a breath monitoring system, and future directions in the implementation of cutting edge sensor technology.

  12. Sensor for Direct Measurement of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution laser optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  13. Microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors based on nanopillar forests realized by an oxygen-plasma-stripping-of-photoresist technique.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haiyang; Wu, Wengang; She, Didi; Sun, Gongchen; Lv, Pengpeng; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-15

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed for real-time and highly repeatable detection of trace chemical and biological indicators. The sensor consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel cap and a nanopillar forest-based open SERS-active substrate. The nanopillar forests are fabricated based on a new oxygen-plasma-stripping-of-photoresist technique. The enhancement factor (EF) of the SERS-active substrate reaches 6.06 × 10(6) , and the EF of the SERS sensor is about 4 times lower due to the influence of the PDMS cap. However, the sensor shows much higher measurement repeatability than the open substrate, and it reduces the sample preparation time from several hours to a few minutes, which makes the device more reliable and facile for trace chemical and biological analysis. PMID:23606301

  14. Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dus, Monica; Lai, Jason Sih-Yu; Gunapala, Keith M; Min, Soohong; Tayler, Timothy D; Hergarden, Anne C; Geraud, Eliot; Joseph, Christina M; Suh, Greg S B

    2015-07-01

    Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homolog of the mammalian corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), were specifically activated by nutritive sugars. Flies in which the activity of these neurons or the expression of Dh44 was disrupted failed to select nutritive sugars. Manipulation of the function of Dh44 receptors had a similar effect. Notably, artificial activation of Dh44 receptor-1 neurons resulted in proboscis extensions and frequent episodes of excretion. Conversely, reduced Dh44 activity led to decreased excretion. Together, these actions facilitate ingestion and digestion of nutritive foods. We propose that the Dh44 system directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugars through a positive feedback loop. PMID:26074004

  15. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  16. An Optical Sensor for Measuring the Position and Slanting Direction of Flat Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ta; Huang, Yen-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Automated optical inspection is a very important technique. For this reason, this study proposes an optical non-contact slanting surface measuring system. The essential features of the measurement system are obtained through simulations using the optical design software Zemax. The actual propagation of laser beams within the measurement system is traced by using a homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), the skew-ray tracing method, and a first-order Taylor series expansion. Additionally, a complete mathematical model that describes the variations in light spots on photoelectric sensors and the corresponding changes in the sample orientation and distance was established. Finally, a laboratory prototype system was constructed on an optical bench to verify experimentally the proposed system. This measurement system can simultaneously detect the slanting angles (x, z) in the x and z directions of the sample and the distance (y) between the biconvex lens and the flat sample surface. PMID:27409619

  17. An Optical Sensor for Measuring the Position and Slanting Direction of Flat Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ta; Huang, Yen-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Automated optical inspection is a very important technique. For this reason, this study proposes an optical non-contact slanting surface measuring system. The essential features of the measurement system are obtained through simulations using the optical design software Zemax. The actual propagation of laser beams within the measurement system is traced by using a homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), the skew-ray tracing method, and a first-order Taylor series expansion. Additionally, a complete mathematical model that describes the variations in light spots on photoelectric sensors and the corresponding changes in the sample orientation and distance was established. Finally, a laboratory prototype system was constructed on an optical bench to verify experimentally the proposed system. This measurement system can simultaneously detect the slanting angles (x, z) in the x and z directions of the sample and the distance (y) between the biconvex lens and the flat sample surface. PMID:27409619

  18. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground

  19. Effect of Cu pad morphology on direct-Cu pillar formation in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Cui, Eunwha; Lee, Ukjae; Son, Hyung Bin; Hahn, Sang June; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-09-01

    We report the feasibility of forming Ni bumps directly on Cu pads in CMOS image sensor (CIS) logic elements formed by Cu wires with diameters of less than 65 nm. The direct Ni bump process proposed in this study simplifies the fabrication process and reduces costs by eliminating the need for Al pad process. In addition, this process can secure the margin of the final layer, enabling the realization of thin camera modules. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pad annealing on the direct formation of Ni bumps over Cu pads. The results suggest that the morphology of the Cu pad varies depending on the annealing sequence, and post-passivation annealing resulted in fewer defects than pad etch annealing. The shear stress of the Ni bumps was 57.77 mgf/m2, which is six times greater than the corresponding reference value. Furthermore, we evaluated the reliability of a chip with an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) and a non-conducting paste (NCP) by using high-temperature storage (HTS), thermal cycling (TC), and wet high-temperature storage (WHTS) reliability tests. The evaluation results suggest the absence of abnormalities in all samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Fabrication of cantilever based mass sensors integrated with CMOS using direct write laser lithography on resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsén, E.; Nilsson, S. G.; Carlberg, P.; Abadal, G.; Pérez-Murano, F.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; Figueras, E.; Campabadal, F.; Verd, J.; Montelius, L.; Barniol, N.; Boisen, A.

    2004-10-01

    A CMOS compatible direct write laser lithography technique has been developed for cantilever fabrication on pre-fabricated standard CMOS. We have developed cantilever based sensors for mass measurements in vacuum and air. The cantilever is actuated into lateral vibration by electrostatic excitation and the resonant frequency is detected by capacitive readout. The device is integrated on standard CMOS circuitry. In the work a new direct write laser lithography (DWL) technique is introduced. This laser lithography technique is based on direct laser writing on substrates coated with a resist bi-layer consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on lift-off resist (LOR). Laser writing evaporates the PMMA, exposing the LOR. A resist solvent is used to transfer the pattern down to the substrate. Metal lift-off followed by reactive ion etching is used for patterning the structural poly-Si layer in the CMOS. The developed laser lithography technique is compatible with resist exposure techniques such as electron beam lithography. We demonstrate the fabrication of sub-micrometre wide suspended cantilevers as well as metal lift-off with feature line widths down to approximately 500 nm.

  1. Non-hypoxic activation of the negative regulatory feedback loop of prolyl-hydroxylase oxygen sensors.

    PubMed

    Tug, Suzan; Delos Reyes, Buena; Fandrey, Joachim; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta

    2009-07-10

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) coordinate cellular responses towards hypoxia. HIFs are mainly regulated by a group of prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) that in the presence of oxygen, target the HIFalpha subunit for degradation. Herein, we studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating PHD activities under normoxic conditions. In the present study we show that different NO-donors initially inhibited endogenous PHD2 activity which led to accumulation of HIF-1alpha subsequently to enhance HIF-1 dependent increased PHD2 promoter activity. Consequently PHD2 abundance and activity were strongly induced which caused downregulation of HIF-1alpha. Interestingly, upregulation of endogenous PHD2 activity by NO was not found in cells that lack an intact pVHL dependent degradation pathway. Recovery of PHD activity required intact cells and was not observed in cell extracts or recombinant PHD2. In conclusion induction of endogenous PHD2 activity by NO is dependent on a feedback loop initiated despite normoxic conditions. PMID:19427832

  2. Carbon nanofiber multiplexed array and Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor for simultaneous detection of dissolved oxygen and dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Michael P.; Koehne, Jessica E.; Andrews, Russell J.; Meyyappan, M.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While the mechanism of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) remains poorly understood, previous studies have shown that it evokes release of neurochemicals and induces activation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent signal in distinct areas of the brain. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capabilities of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor system (WINCS) in conjunction with a carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array electrode as a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of DBS through the simultaneous detection of multiple bioactive-molecules. Methods Patterned CNF nanoelectrode arrays were prepared on a 4-inch silicon wafer where each device consists of 3 × 3 electrode pads, 200 μm square, that contain CNFs spaced at 1μm intervals. The multiplexed carbon nanofiber CNF electrodes were integrated with WINCS to detect mixtures of dopamine (DA) and oxygen (O2) using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in vitro. Results First, simultaneous detection of O2 at two spatially different locations, 200 um apart, was demonstrated. Second, simultaneous detection of both O2 and DA at two spatially different locations, using two different decoupled waveforms was demonstrated. Third, controlled studies demonstrated that the waveform must be interleaved to avoid electrode crosstalk artifacts in the acquired data. Conclusions Multiplexed CNF nanoelectrode arrays for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters show promise for the detection of multiple analytes with the application of time independent decoupled waveforms. Electrochemistry on CNF electrodes may be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of DBS, and may also provide the precision and sensitivity required for future applications in feedback modulated DBS neural control systems. PMID:24688800

  3. Characterization of a globin-coupled oxygen sensor with a gene-regulating function.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Liesbet; Vinck, Evi; Bolli, Alessandro; Trandafir, Florin; Wan, Xuehua; Hoogewijs, David; Coletta, Massimiliano; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Ascenzi, Paolo; Alam, Maqsudul; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2007-12-28

    Globin-coupled sensors (GCSs) are multiple-domain transducers, consisting of a regulatory globin-like heme-binding domain and a linked transducer domain(s). GCSs have been described in both Archaea and bacteria. They are generally assumed to bind O(2) (and perhaps other gaseous ligands) and to transmit a conformational change signal through the transducer domain in response to fluctuating O(2) levels. In this study, the heme-binding domain, AvGReg178, and the full protein, AvGReg of the Azotobacter vinelandii GCS, were cloned, expressed, and purified. After purification, the heme iron of AvGReg178 was found to bind O(2). This form was stable over many hours. In contrast, the predominant presence of a bis-histidine coordinate heme in ferric AvGReg was revealed. Differences in the heme pocket structure were also observed for the deoxygenated ferrous state of these proteins. The spectra showed that the deoxygenated ferrous derivatives of AvGReg178 and AvGReg are characterized by a penta-coordinate and hexa-coordinate heme iron, respectively. O(2) binding isotherms indicate that AvGReg178 and AvGReg show a high affinity for O(2) with P(50) values at 20 degrees C of 0.04 and 0.15 torr, respectively. Kinetics of CO binding indicate that AvGReg178 carbonylation conforms to a monophasic process, comparable with that of myoglobin, whereas AvGReg carbonylation conforms to a three-phasic reaction, as observed for several proteins with bis-histidine heme iron coordination. Besides sensing ligands, in vitro data suggest that AvGReg(178) may have a role in O(2)-mediated NO-detoxification, yielding metAvGReg(178) and nitrate. PMID:17925395

  4. Fiber optic oxygen sensor using fluorescence quenching for aircraft inerting fuel tank applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Allen

    2009-05-01

    On July 18, 2008, the FAA mandated that new aircraft are to include inerting technology to significantly reduce the potential for flammable vapor spaces in center wing fuel tanks. All passenger aircraft constructed since 1991 must also be retrofitted with this technology. This ruling is the result of 18 aircraft that have experienced fuel tank flammable vapor ignition incidents since 1960. Included in these are the TWA 800 and Avianca Flight 203 incidents that resulted in 337 total fatalities. Comprised of heavier hydrocarbon components, jet fuel is much less volatile, with Jet A having a flash point of approximately 100°F and JP-4 having a flash point of approximately 0°F. In contrast, straight-run gasoline has a flash point of approximately -40°F. The flash point is the minimum temperature where a liquid fuel can generate enough vapor to form a flammable mixture with air. If the temperature is below the flash point there isn't enough fuel evaporating to form a flammable fuel-air mixture. Since jet fuel and gasoline have similar flammable concentration limits, gasoline must produce much more vapor at a given temperature to have such a low flash point; hence gasoline is much more volatile than jet fuel. In this paper we explore Fluorescence Technology as applied to the design and development of O2 sensors that can be used for this application and discuss the various test and measurement techniques used to estimate the O2 gas concentration. We compare the various intensity based approaches and contrast them with the frequency domain techniques that measure phase to extract fluorescent lifetimes. The various inerting fuel tank requirements are explained and finally a novel compact measurement system using that uses the frequency heterodyning cross correlation technique that can be used for various applications is described in detail while the benefits are explored together with some test data collected.

  5. Gyroscopic sensing in the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the role of sensor location and directional sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Brian T; Morgansen, Kristi A

    2015-10-01

    The wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta are lined with mechanoreceptors called campaniform sensilla that encode wing deformations. During flight, the wings deform in response to a variety of stimuli, including inertial-elastic loads due to the wing flapping motion, aerodynamic loads, and exogenous inertial loads transmitted by disturbances. Because the wings are actuated, flexible structures, the strain-sensitive campaniform sensilla are capable of detecting inertial rotations and accelerations, allowing the wings to serve not only as a primary actuator, but also as a gyroscopic sensor for flight control. We study the gyroscopic sensing of the hawkmoth wings from a control theoretic perspective. Through the development of a low-order model of flexible wing flapping dynamics, and the use of nonlinear observability analysis, we show that the rotational acceleration inherent in wing flapping enables the wings to serve as gyroscopic sensors. We compute a measure of sensor fitness as a function of sensor location and directional sensitivity by using the simulation-based empirical observability Gramian. Our results indicate that gyroscopic information is encoded primarily through shear strain due to wing twisting, where inertial rotations cause detectable changes in pronation and supination timing and magnitude. We solve an observability-based optimal sensor placement problem to find the optimal configuration of strain sensor locations and directional sensitivities for detecting inertial rotations. The optimal sensor configuration shows parallels to the campaniform sensilla found on hawkmoth wings, with clusters of sensors near the wing root and wing tip. The optimal spatial distribution of strain directional sensitivity provides a hypothesis for how heterogeneity of campaniform sensilla may be distributed. PMID:26440705

  6. Field Calibration of Wind Direction Sensor to the True North and Its Application to the Daegwanryung Wind Turbine Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Wan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a field calibration technique for aligning a wind direction sensor to the true north. The proposed technique uses the synchronized measurements of captured images by a camera, and the output voltage of a wind direction sensor. The true wind direction was evaluated through image processing techniques using the captured picture of the sensor with the least square sense. Then, the evaluated true value was compared with the measured output voltage of the sensor. This technique solves the discordance problem of the wind direction sensor in the process of installing meteorological mast. For this proposed technique, some uncertainty analyses are presented and the calibration accuracy is discussed. Finally, the proposed technique was applied to the real meteorological mast at the Daegwanryung test site, and the statistical analysis of the experimental testing estimated the values of stable misalignment and uncertainty level. In a strict sense, it is confirmed that the error range of the misalignment from the exact north could be expected to decrease within the credibility level.

  7. Reactive oxygen species cause direct damage of Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Riedle, B.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and released into the extracellular spaces in numerous diseases and contribute to development and progression, for example, of inflammatory diseases, proteinuria, and tumor invasion. However, little is known about ROS-induced chemical changes of interstitial matrix proteins and their consequences for the integrity of the matrix meshwork. As basement membranes and other matrices are highly cross-linked and complex, the relatively simple matrix produced by Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) sarcoma, and proteins isolated therefrom, were incubated in vitro with defined concentrations of ROS that were generated by the Fenton or xanthine oxidase/xanthine reactions. This resulted in two counter-current effects. Although up to approximately 15% of the EHS matrix proteins were released into the supernatant in a ROS dose-response relationship, the residual insoluble matrix was partially cross-linked by ROS. Matrix proteins released into the supernatants were examined by rotary shadowing, quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and fluorospectrometry for loss of tryptophans and formation of bityrosine residues. At relatively low ROS concentrations, selective liberation of morphologically intact laminin/entactin was found that, however, failed to reassociate and showed oxidative damage of its tryptophan residues. At higher ROS concentrations, laminin and entactin were progressively disintegrated, partially fragmented, and eventually completely degraded. At this point oligomers of type IV collagen predominated in the supernatant, and proteoglycans were not encountered at any concentration of ROS. Similar gradual molecular changes were also obtained when fractions of isolated soluble EHS matrix proteins were incubated with graded concentrations of ROS. In these experiments, the formation of covalently linked oligomers and aggregates paralleled the ROS-dependent formation of cross

  8. Design and Characterization of a Sensorized Microfluidic Cell-Culture System with Electro-Thermal Micro-Pumps and Sensors for Cell Adhesion, Oxygen, and pH on a Glass Chip

    PubMed Central

    Bonk, Sebastian M.; Stubbe, Marco; Buehler, Sebastian M.; Tautorat, Carsten; Baumann, Werner; Klinkenberg, Ernst-Dieter; Gimsa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We combined a multi-sensor glass-chip with a microfluidic channel grid for the characterization of cellular behavior. The grid was imprinted in poly-dimethyl-siloxane. Mouse-embryonal/fetal calvaria fibroblasts (MC3T3-E1) were used as a model system. Thin-film platinum (Pt) sensors for respiration (amperometric oxygen electrode), acidification (potentiometric pH electrodes) and cell adhesion (interdigitated-electrodes structures, IDES) allowed us to monitor cell-physiological parameters as well as the cell-spreading behavior. Two on-chip electro-thermal micro-pumps (ETμPs) permitted the induction of medium flow in the system, e.g., for medium mixing and drug delivery. The glass-wafer technology ensured the microscopic observability of the on-chip cell culture. Connecting Pt structures were passivated by a 1.2 μm layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4). Thin Si3N4 layers (20 nm or 60 nm) were used as the sensitive material of the pH electrodes. These electrodes showed a linear behavior in the pH range from 4 to 9, with a sensitivity of up to 39 mV per pH step. The oxygen sensors were circular Pt electrodes with a sensor area of 78.5 μm2. Their sensitivity was 100 pA per 1% oxygen increase in the range from 0% to 21% oxygen (air saturated). Two different IDES geometries with 30- and 50-μm finger spacings showed comparable sensitivities in detecting the proliferation rate of MC3T3 cells. These cells were cultured for 11 days in vitro to test the biocompatibility, microfluidics and electric sensors of our system under standard laboratory conditions. PMID:26263849

  9. Direct visualization of quasi-ordered oxygen chain structures on Au(110)-(1 × 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebel, F.; Montemore, M. M.; Kaxiras, E.; Friend, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Au(110) surface offers unique advantages for atomically-resolved model studies of catalytic oxidation processes on gold. We investigate the adsorption of oxygen on Au(110) using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. We identify the typical (empty-states) STM contrast resulting from adsorbed oxygen as atomic-sized dark features of electronic origin. DFT-based image simulations confirm that chemisorbed oxygen is generally detected indirectly, from the binding-induced electronic structure modification of gold. STM images show that adsorption occurs without affecting the general structure of the pristine Au(110) missing-row reconstruction. The tendency to form one-dimensional structures is observed already at low coverage (< 0.05 ML), with oxygen adsorbing on alternate sides of the reconstruction ridges. Consistently, calculations yield preferred adsorption on the (111) facets of the reconstruction, on a 3-fold coordination site, with increased stability when adsorbed in chains. Gold atoms with two oxygen neighbors exhibit enhanced electronic hybridization with the O states. Finally, the species observed are reactive to CO oxidation at 200 K and desorption of CO2 leaves a clean and ordered gold surface.

  10. Direct Photocontrol of Peptidomimetics: An Alternative to Oxygen-Dependent Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Babii, Oleg; Afonin, Sergii; Garmanchuk, Liudmyla V; Nikulina, Viktoria V; Nikolaienko, Tetiana V; Storozhuk, Olha V; Shelest, Dmytro V; Dasyukevich, Olga I; Ostapchenko, Liudmyla I; Iurchenko, Volodymyr; Zozulya, Sergey; Ulrich, Anne S; Komarov, Igor V

    2016-04-25

    Conventional photodynamic treatment strategies are based on the principle of activating molecular oxygen in situ by light, mediated by a photosensitizer, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and thereby causes cell death. A diarylethene-derived peptidomimetic is presented that is suitable for photodynamic cancer therapy without any involvement of oxygen. This light-sensitive molecule is not a mediator but is itself the cytotoxic agent. As a derivative of the cyclic amphiphilic peptide gramicidin S, the peptidomimetic exists in two thermally stable photoforms that are interconvertible by light of different wavelengths. The isomer generated by visible light shows much stronger toxicity against tumor cells than the UV-generated isomer. First in vivo applications are demonstrated on a tumor animal model to illustrate how the peptidomimetic can be administered in the less toxic form and then activated locally in a solid tumor by visible light. PMID:27028784

  11. A radio-aware routing algorithm for reliable directed diffusion in lossy wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Pyo; Jung, Euihyun; Park, Yong-Jin

    2009-01-01

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), transmission errors occur frequently due to node failure, battery discharge, contention or interference by objects. Although Directed Diffusion has been considered as a prominent data-centric routing algorithm, it has some weaknesses due to unexpected network errors. In order to address these problems, we proposed a radio-aware routing algorithm to improve the reliability of Directed Diffusion in lossy WSNs. The proposed algorithm is aware of the network status based on the radio information from MAC and PHY layers using a cross-layer design. The cross-layer design can be used to get detailed information about current status of wireless network such as a link quality or transmission errors of communication links. The radio information indicating variant network conditions and link quality was used to determine an alternative route that provides reliable data transmission under lossy WSNs. According to the simulation result, the radio-aware reliable routing algorithm showed better performance in both grid and random topologies with various error rates. The proposed solution suggested the possibility of providing a reliable transmission method for QoS requests in lossy WSNs based on the radio-awareness. The energy and mobility issues will be addressed in the future work. PMID:22408493

  12. CMOS self-powered monolithic light-direction sensor with digitalized output.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyi; Luo, Tao; Lu, Zhijian; Song, Hongjiang; Christen, Jennifer Blain

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel self-powered chip to detect the direction of incident light. This chip directly provides digitized output without the need of any off-chip power supply or optical or mechanical components. The chip was implemented in a standard 0.5 μm CMOS process. A microscale metal baffle was created by stacking all metal layers, contacts, and vias available in the process to produce on-chip shadowing. N-well/p+ photodiode arrays are located on both sides of the baffle to sense light. The photocurrent generated by a photodiode depends on the size of the photodiode and the shadowing. The shadowed area depends on the incident angle of the light. A current mirror circuit is used to compare the currents generated by the photodiodes on the opposite sides of the baffle and, consequently, provide a digital signal to indicate the incident light angle. Compared with the ideal linear digital light-angle detector with the same resolution, the presented sensor achieved the maximum error of only 2 deg over 110 deg test range. PMID:24784060

  13. Random and Directed Walk-Based Top-k Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, filter-based top-k query approaches are the state-of-the-art solutions and have been extensively researched in the literature, however, they are very sensitive to the network parameters, including the size of the network, dynamics of the sensors’ readings and declines in the overall range of all the readings. In this work, a random walk-based top-k query approach called RWTQ and a directed walk-based top-k query approach called DWTQ are proposed. At the beginning of a top-k query, one or several tokens are sent to the specific node(s) in the network by the base station. Then, each token walks in the network independently to record and process the readings in a random or directed way. A strategy of choosing the “right” way in DWTQ is carefully designed for the token(s) to arrive at the high-value regions as soon as possible. When designing the walking strategy for DWTQ, the spatial correlations of the readings are also considered. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that RWTQ and DWTQ both are very robust against these parameters discussed previously. In addition, DWTQ outperforms TAG, FILA and EXTOK in transmission cost, energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:26016914

  14. Memristors: Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors (Adv. Mater. 14/2016).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suhas; Graves, Catherine E; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Kilcoyne, Arthur L David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Nishi, Yoshio; Williams, R Stanley

    2016-04-01

    As information bits of 0's and 1's are stored in crosspoint tantalum oxide memristors, or resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells, nanoscale-resolution in operando X-ray transmission spectromicroscopy is used by J. P. Strachan and co-workers, as reported on page 2772, to directly observe oxygen migration and clustering, revealing an important operation and failure mechanism of RRAM, a frontrunner technology for next-generation computer memory. PMID:27062166

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of new photoluminescent oxygen sensors for non-invasive intravascular pO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Forte, Eddy; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of oxygen and its rate of consumption are important factors playing a role in PDT and radiotherapy. One of the methods for measuring the tissular oxygen partial pressure (pO2) is based on the use of luminophores presenting an oxygen-dependent quenching of their phosphorescence. The time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of palladium (PdTCPP) or ruthenium (RuDPP) porphyrin complexes is used for this purpose. Unfortunately, these porphyrin derivatives are phototoxic and leak rapidly out of the blood vessels, making them unsuitable for measuring tissular and or intravascular pO2. Therefore, this research aimed at developing and testing new biocompatible, non-phototoxic oxygen sensors based on palladium complexes incorporated into oxygen permeable, polysaccharide-based nanoparticles appropriate for noninvasive in situ and in vivo measurements of the pO2. In vitro studies, performed with an optical fiber-based time-resolved spectrophotometer, showed that the incorporation of such pO2 probes in nanovectors reduces their sensitivity to oxygen as well as their photobleaching by less than one order of magnitude. However, in vivo biocompatibility studies performed on the chick's embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model demonstrated that the luminescence of those oxygen probes tends to be heterogeneously distributed within the vasculature. In addition, these probes induce a 'clumping tendency', resulting in a more or less decreased viability of the embryos.

  16. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (ΣNOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ΣNOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 μM (median=18.3 μM); while at the 100 site ΣNOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 μM over 40 hours (median = 25.1 μM). The 170 m site had the highest median ΣNOx level (25.8 μM) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 μM). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 μM in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics. PMID:26161958

  17. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D.; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (ΣNOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ΣNOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 μM (median=18.3 μM); while at the 100 site ΣNOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 μM over 40 hours (median = 25.1μM). The 170 m site had the highest median ΣNOx level (25.8 μM) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 μM). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 μM in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics. PMID:26161958

  18. Long-term performance of Aanderaa optodes and sea-bird SBE-43 dissolved-oxygen sensors bottom mounted at 32 m in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna; Butman, Bradford; Mickelson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A field evaluation of two new dissolved-oxygen sensing technologies, the Aanderaa Instruments AS optode model 3830 and the Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., model SBE43, was carried out at about 32-m water depth in western Massachusetts Bay. The optode is an optical sensor that measures fluorescence quenching by oxygen molecules, while the SBE43 is a Clark polarographic membrane sensor. Optodes were continuously deployed on bottom tripod frames by exchanging sensors every 4 months over a 19-month period. A Sea-Bird SBE43 was added during one 4-month deployment. These moored observations compared well with oxygen measurements from profiles collected during monthly shipboard surveys conducted by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The mean correlation coefficient between the moored measurements and shipboard survey data was >0.9, the mean difference was 0.06 mL L−1, and the standard deviation of the difference was 0.15 mL L−1. The correlation coefficient between the optode and the SBE43 was >0.9 and the mean difference was 0.07 mL L−1. Optode measurements degraded when fouling was severe enough to block oxygen molecules from entering the sensing foil over a significant portion of the sensing window. Drift observed in two optodes beginning at about 225 and 390 days of deployment is attributed to degradation of the sensing foil. Flushing is necessary to equilibrate the Sea-Bird sensor. Power consumption by the SBE43 and required pump was 19.2 mWh per sample, and the optode consumed 0.9 mWh per sample, both within expected values based on manufacturers’ specifications.

  19. A Limiting Current Oxygen Sensor Based on LSGM as a Solid Electrolyte and LSGMN ( N = Fe, Co) as a Dense Diffusion Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Xiang; He, Bei-Gang; Yu, Jing-Kun

    2016-07-01

    The La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Co x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMC x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25) and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Fe x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMF x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure, conductivity, thermal expansion behavior, and chemical compatibility were studied by XRD, dilatometry, and four-terminal method. A limiting current oxygen sensor was prepared with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 as a solid electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ as a dense diffusion barrier. The oxygen-sensitive characteristic was measured at different oxygen concentrations. The results show that the phase structure of samples is cubic, except La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ , which has a hexagonal structure. The change in activation energy for electrical conductivity and the increase in thermal expansion coefficient are confirmed to correlate with an increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. The limiting current oxygen sensor exhibits a good limiting current platform and the limiting current depends linearly on the oxygen concentration: I L(mA) = 12.8519 + 2.2667 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 3.31) at 750 °C, I L(mA) = 14.3222 + 3.5180 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.16) at 800 °C, and I L(mA) = 15.2872 + 5.0269x_{{{O}_{{2}} }}(mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.12) at 850 °C. The sensor has the best sensitivity at 850 °C. As the oxygen concentration increases, the interface resistance of the sensor decreases at 850 °C.

  20. A Limiting Current Oxygen Sensor Based on LSGM as a Solid Electrolyte and LSGMN (N = Fe, Co) as a Dense Diffusion Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Xiang; He, Bei-Gang; Yu, Jing-Kun

    2016-06-01

    The La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1-x Co x )0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGMC x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25) and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1-x Fe x )0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGMF x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure, conductivity, thermal expansion behavior, and chemical compatibility were studied by XRD, dilatometry, and four-terminal method. A limiting current oxygen sensor was prepared with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 as a solid electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3-δ as a dense diffusion barrier. The oxygen-sensitive characteristic was measured at different oxygen concentrations. The results show that the phase structure of samples is cubic, except La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3-δ , which has a hexagonal structure. The change in activation energy for electrical conductivity and the increase in thermal expansion coefficient are confirmed to correlate with an increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. The limiting current oxygen sensor exhibits a good limiting current platform and the limiting current depends linearly on the oxygen concentration: I L(mA) = 12.8519 + 2.2667 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 3.31) at 750 °C, I L(mA) = 14.3222 + 3.5180 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.16) at 800 °C, and I L(mA) = 15.2872 + 5.0269x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.12) at 850 °C. The sensor has the best sensitivity at 850 °C. As the oxygen concentration increases, the interface resistance of the sensor decreases at 850 °C.

  1. Manipulation based on sensor-directed control: An integrated end effector and touch sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hand/touch sensing system is described that, when mounted on a position-controlled manipulator, greatly expands the kinds of automated manipulation tasks that can be undertaken. Because of the variety of coordinate conversions, control equations, and completion criteria, control is necessarily dependent upon a small digital computer. The sensing system is designed both to be rugged and to sense the necessary touch and force information required to execute a wide range of manipulation tasks. The system consists of a six-axis wrist sensor, external touch sensors, and a pair of matrix jaw sensors. Details of the construction of the particular sensors, the integration of the end effector into the sensor system, and the control algorithms for using the sensor outputs to perform manipulation tasks automatically are discussed.

  2. Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Intractable Pulmonary Insufficiency: Practical Issues and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Delnoij, T. S. R.; Driessen, R.; Sharma, A. S.; Bouman, E. A.; Strauch, U.; Roekaerts, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) is a highly invasive method for organ support that is gaining in popularity due to recent technical advances and its successful application in the recent H1N1 epidemic. Although running a vv-ECMO program is potentially feasible for many hospitals, there are many theoretical concepts and practical issues that merit attention and require expertise. In this review, we focus on indications for vv-ECMO, components of the circuit, and management of patients on vv-ECMO. Concepts regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation and how they can be influenced are discussed. Day-to-day management, weaning, and most frequent complications are covered in light of the recent literature. PMID:27127794

  3. Directed evolution to produce sludge communities with improved oxygen uptake abilities.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Stephanie A; Pagilla, Krishna R; Stark, Benjamin C

    2015-12-01

    Two activated sludge cultures, seeded with activated sludge from the same source, were cultivated for 370 days in synthetic wastewater. Both cultures were transferred weekly to fresh medium; one culture was operated at high dissolved oxygen (DO) (near saturation) and the other at low DO (0.25 mg O2/L). There were significant changes in the abundances of bacterial species and phyla present in each culture throughout the 370-day operational period. In the low DO culture, over time, there was a continuously increasing proportion of cells of species known to encode truncated hemoglobins (Hbs). These are the types of Hbs which may enhance delivery of oxygen to the respiratory chain, to enhance ATP production, especially under low aeration conditions. The levels of heme b, the heme found in Vitreoscilla hemoglobin, increased in parallel to the increase in Hb-encoding species, to much higher levels in the low DO culture than in the high DO culture. Specific oxygen uptake rates increased by 3 % for the high DO culture near the end of the 370-day period, while those for the low DO culture increased steadily to a level 28 % higher than that of the starting culture. Thus, imposition of low DO conditions may, due to selection for Hb-expressing species, be useful in developing bacterial communities with enhanced ability to function efficiently in aerobic wastewater treatment, especially under low aeration conditions. PMID:26278534

  4. Oxygen activation in NO synthases: evidence for a direct role of the substrate.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Albane; Lang, Jérôme; Couture, Manon; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and the other reactive nitrogen species (RNOS) play crucial patho-physiological roles at the interface of oxidative stress and signalling processes. In mammals, the NO synthases (NOSs) are the source of these reactive nitrogen species, and so to understand the precise biological role of RNOS and NO requires elucidation of the molecular functioning of NOS. Oxygen activation, which is at the core of NOS catalysis, involves a sophisticated sequence of electron and proton transfers. While electron transfer in NOS has received much attention, the proton transfer processes has been scarcely investigated. Here, we report an original approach that combines fast-kinetic techniques coupled to resonance Raman spectroscopy with the use of synthetic analogues of NOS substrate. We characterise Fe(II)-O2 reaction intermediates in the presence of L-arginine (Arg), alkyl- and aryl-guanidines. The presence of new reaction intermediates, such as ferric haem-peroxide, that was formerly postulated, was tracked by analysing the oxygen activation reaction at different times and with different excitation wavelengths. Our results suggest that Arg is not a proton donor, but indirectly intervenes in oxygen activation mechanism by modulating the distal H-bond network and, in particular, by tuning the position and the role of the distal water molecule. This report supports a catalytic model with two proton transfers in step 1 (Arg hydroxylation) but only one proton transfer in step 2 (N(ω)-hydroxy-L-arginine oxidation). PMID:27419044

  5. A modular six-directional force sensor for prosthetic assessment: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J E; Miller, R A; Berglund, D N; Zachariah, S G

    1997-04-01

    A device designed to measure the forces and moments transmitted through prostheses of persons with lower limb amputation is presented. The sensing unit design is an advancement over previous prosthesis force measurement devices in that it is very thin (19 mm) and lightweight (527.5 g, including signal-conditioning instrumentation). The disk-shaped transducer fits between the socket and socket adapter of a standard modular prosthesis, measuring all six force and moment components at this location. Twelve strain gages were used, configured into six two-arm active Wheatstone bridge circuits. A 6X6 matrix was constructed from calibration data to relate the 6-component bridge-output vector to a 6-component force and moment vector. In a bench-test setting, the sensor was evaluated under typical load combinations encountered during the walking of a person with transtibial amputation (TTA) and shown to have errors less than 7.2% of the full-scale output for each direction. Data collected on a subject with TTA walking at different speeds are presented. PMID:9108346

  6. A direct sequence spread spectrum code acquisition circuit for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaisari, Jafar; Ferdosi, Arash

    2011-06-01

    Narrow band (NB), spread spectrum (SS), and ultra wide band (UWB) are three physical layer bandwidth types used in wireless sensor networks (WSN). SS and UWB technologies have many advantages over NB, which make them preferable for WSN. Synchronisation of different nodes in a WSN is an important task that is necessary to improve cooperation and lifetime of nodes. Code acquisition is the main step of a node's time synchronisation. In this article, a pseudo noise code generator and a code acquisition circuit are proposed, designed and tested using direct sequence SS technique. To investigate the properties of the designed circuits, simulations are carried out via Xilinx Foundation Series software in the real mode. The results demonstrate excellent performance of the proposed algorithms and circuits in all realistic conditions. The code acquisition circuit proposed an adaptive testing window for single dwell serial search method. The code acquisition circuit is a clock phase free approach, thus the clock coherency step is cancelled. Moreover, clock phase difference between transmitter and receiver nodes does not mostly affect the acquisition and thus synchronisation time.

  7. Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dus, Monica; Sih-Yu Lai, Jason; Gunapala, Keith M.; Min, Soohong; Tayler, Timothy D.; Hergarden, Anne C.; Geraud, Eliot; Joseph, Christina M.; Suh, Greg S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homologue of the mammalian corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), were specifically activated by nutritive sugars. Flies in which the activity of these neurons or the expression of Dh44 was disrupted failed to select nutritive sugars. Manipulation of the function of Dh44 receptors had a similar effect. Notably, artificial activation of Dh44 receptor-1 neurons resulted in proboscis extensions, and frequent episodes of excretion. Conversely, reduced Dh44 activity led to decreased excretion. Together, these actions facilitate ingestion and digestion of nutritive foods. We propose that the Dh44 system directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugars through a positive feedback loop. PMID:26074004

  8. A novel planar optical sensor for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Sergey M; Seifner, Roman; Klimant, Ingo

    2011-06-01

    The first quadruple luminescent sensor is presented which enables simultaneous detection of three chemical parameters and temperature. A multi-layer material is realized and combines two spectrally independent dually sensing systems. The first layer employs ethylcellulose containing the carbon dioxide sensing chemistry (fluorescent pH indicator 8-hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (HPTS) and a lipophilic tetraalkylammonium base). The cross-linked polymeric beads stained with a phosphorescent iridium(III) complex are also dispersed in ethylcellulose and serve both for oxygen sensing and as a reference for HPTS. The second (pH/temperature) dually sensing system relies on the use of a pH-sensitive lipophilic seminaphthorhodafluor derivative and luminescent chromium(III)-activated yttrium aluminum borate particles (simultaneously acting as a temperature probe and as a reference for the pH indicator) which are embedded in polyurethane hydrogel layer. A silicone layer is used to spatially separate both dually sensing systems and to insure permeation selectivity for the CO(2)/O(2) layer. The CO(2)/O(2) and the pH/temperature layers are excitable with a blue and a red LED, respectively, and the emissions are isolated with help of optical filters. The measurements are performed at two modulation frequencies for each sensing system and the modified Dual Lifetime Referencing method is used to access the analytical information. The feasibility of the simultaneous four-parameter sensing is demonstrated. However, the practical applicability of the material may be compromised by its high complexity and by the performance of individual indicators. PMID:21221543

  9. Underwater imaging using a hybrid Kirchhoff migration: direction of arrival method and a sparse surface sensor array.

    PubMed

    Dord, Jean-Francois; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of imaging a complex object submerged in shallow waters using a sparse surface sensor array and a hybrid signal processing method. This method is constructed by refining the Kirchhoff migration technique to incorporate a zoning of the sensors and an analysis of multiple reflections, and combining it with the direction of arrival estimation method. Its performance is assessed and analyzed with the shape identification of a mockup submarine by numerical simulation. The obtained numerical results highlight the potential of this approach for identifying underwater intruders. PMID:20707441

  10. Multi-sensor for measuring erythemally weighted irradiance in various directions simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Peleg, I.; Peled, A.

    2015-08-01

    Estimating the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) solar irradiance and its angular distribution is a matter of interest to both research and commercial institutes. A static multi-sensor instrument is developed in this paper for a simultaneous measuring of the sky and the reflected erythemally weighted UV-B irradiance on multiple inclined surfaces. The instrument employs a pre-developed simple solar irradiance model and a minimum mean square error method to estimate the various irradiance parameters. The multi-sensor instrument comprises a spherical shaped apparatus with the UV-B sensors mounted as follows: seven sky-facing sensors to measure the hemispherical sky irradiance and six sensors facing downwards to measure the reflection from ground. This work aims to devise and outline an elementary, low-cost multi-sensor instrument. The sensor may usefully serve research, commercial, and medical institutes to sample and measure the UV-B irradiance on horizontal as well as on inclined surfaces. The various UV-B calculations for inclined surfaces are aided by the sensor's integrated software.

  11. 77 FR 42419 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not... International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... augmentation system (WAAS) global navigation satellite sensor units (GNSSU). This AD requires you cease...

  12. Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes, especially oxygen on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on M0002-1 which resides on three faces of LDEF: front face, rear face, and earth face. Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by once-scattered ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. Most of the other patterns are seen in the Thermal Control Paint. Also, severe oxidation of CR-39 polycarbonate occurred on the front face of LDEF, as expected. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained.

  13. Direct measurements of room-temperature oxygen diffusion in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital x}}

    SciTech Connect

    Mogilevsky, R.; Levi-Setti, R.; Pashmakov, B.; Liu, L.; Zhang, K.; Jaeger, H.M.; Buchholz, D.B.; Chang, R.P.H.; Veal, B.W.

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the room-temperature oxygen depletion in the near-surface region of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital x}} samples kept under high vacuum. Results obtained from secondary-ion-mass-spectroscopy and four-probe-conductivity measurements are presented. The depletion process is limited by oxygen out diffusion in the samples with diffusion coefficients of 10{sup {minus}18}--10{sup {minus}19} cm{sup 2}/s. The reverse oxygen in-diffusion process occurs in oxygen atmosphere. The oxygen out-diffusion process can be accelerated by direct ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation of the samples in vacuum. The in-diffusion process is accelerated if UV light is used in oxygen atmosphere to produce ozone and atomic oxygen.

  14. Non-aggregation based label free colorimetric sensor for the detection of Cu2+ based on catalyzing etching of gold nanorods by dissolve oxygen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Jiao, Li; Lin, Li-Ping; Cui, Ma-Lin; Wang, Xin-Xing; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Shu-Lian

    2013-12-15

    A label-free non-aggregation colorimetric sensor has been designed for the detection of Cu(2+), based on Cu(2+) catalyzing etching of gold nanorods (AuNRs) along longitudinal axis induced by dissolve oxygen in the presence of S2O3(2-), which caused the aspect ratio (length/width) of AuNRs to decrease and the color of the solution to distinctly change. The linear range and the detection limit (LD, calculated by 10 Sb/k, n=11) of this sensor were 0.080-4.8 µM Cu(2+) and 0.22 µM Cu(2+), respectively. This sensor has been utilized to detect Cu(2+) in tap water and human serum samples with the results agreeing well with those of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), showing its remarkable practicality. In order to prove the possibility of catalyzing AuNRs non-aggregation colorimetric sensor for the detection of Cu(2+), the morphological structures of AuNRs were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the sensing mechanism of colorimetric sensor for the detection of Cu(2+) was also discussed. PMID:24209363

  15. A PARALIND Decomposition-Based Coherent Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithm for Acoustic Vector-Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Min; Li, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the acoustic vector-sensor array parameter estimation problem with the parallel profiles with linear dependencies (PARALIND) model, which was originally applied to biology and chemistry. Exploiting the PARALIND decomposition approach, we propose a blind coherent two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation algorithm for arbitrarily spaced acoustic vector-sensor arrays subject to unknown locations. The proposed algorithm works well to achieve automatically paired azimuth and elevation angles for coherent and incoherent angle estimation of acoustic vector-sensor arrays, as well as the paired correlated matrix of the sources. Our algorithm, in contrast with conventional coherent angle estimation algorithms such as the forward backward spatial smoothing (FBSS) estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm, not only has much better angle estimation performance, even for closely-spaced sources, but is also available for arbitrary arrays. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of our algorithm. PMID:23604030

  16. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on the heme coordination structure and catalytic activity of the globin-coupled oxygen sensor AfGcHK.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Veronika; Bartosova, Martina; Man, Petr; Stranava, Martin; Shimizu, Toru; Martinkova, Marketa

    2016-08-01

    AfGcHK is a globin-coupled histidine kinase that is one component of a two-component signal transduction system. The catalytic activity of this heme-based oxygen sensor is due to its C-terminal kinase domain and is strongly stimulated by the binding of O2 or CO to the heme Fe(II) complex in the N-terminal oxygen sensing domain. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule and can serve as a heme axial ligand, but its interactions with heme-based oxygen sensors have not been studied as extensively as those of O2, CO, and NO. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the effects of H2S binding on the heme coordination structure and catalytic activity of wild-type AfGcHK and mutants in which residues at the putative O2-binding site (Tyr45) or the heme distal side (Leu68) were substituted. Adding Na2S to the initial OH-bound 6-coordinate Fe(III) low-spin complexes transformed them into SH-bound 6-coordinate Fe(III) low-spin complexes. The Leu68 mutants also formed a small proportion of verdoheme under these conditions. Conversely, when the heme-based oxygen sensor EcDOS was treated with Na2S, the initially formed Fe(III)-SH heme complex was quickly converted into Fe(II) and Fe(II)-O2 complexes. Interestingly, the autophosphorylation activity of the heme Fe(III)-SH complex was not significantly different from the maximal enzyme activity of AfGcHK (containing the heme Fe(III)-OH complex), whereas in the case of EcDOS the changes in coordination caused by Na2S treatment led to remarkable increases in catalytic activity. PMID:27395436

  17. Direct imaging of singlet oxygen luminescence generated in blood vessels during photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lisheng; Lin, Huiyun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Longchao; Wang, Min; Xie, Shusen; Gu, Ying; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Buhong

    2014-05-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is commonly recognized to be a major phototoxic component for inducing the biological damage during photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, a novel configuration of a thermoelectrically-cooled near-infrared sensitive InGaAs camera was developed for imaging of photodynamically-generated 1O2 luminescence. The validation of 1O2 luminescence images for solution samples was performed with the model photosensitizer Rose Bengal (RB). Images of 1O2 luminescence generated in blood vessels in vivo in a well-controlled dorsal skinfold window chamber model were also recorded during PDT. This study demonstrated the capacity of the newly-developed imaging system for imaging of 1O2 luminescence, and the first reported images of 1O2 luminescence in blood vessels in vivo. This system has potential for elucidating the mechanisms of vascular targeted PDT.

  18. Measurements of the Domain Magnetization Direction and its Effects on the Sensitivity of Magneto-optic Field Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Mannix; Garzarella, Anthony; Wu, Dong Ho; Tao, Rongjia

    Bismuth doped, rare earth iron garnet (Bi:RIG) thick films exhibit a large magneto-optic response to external magnetic fields while exhibiting low optical insertion loss, making them ideal candidates for polarimetric magnetic field sensors. It was generally found that the Faraday rotation and overall sensitivity of the sensors depends on the orientation of the local domain magnetization relative to the direction of laser propagation. In arrayed Bi:RIG sensors, it is critical that the optical path of the laser is perpendicular to the easy-axis of each film of the array, in order to avoid magnetically-induced optical incoherence (MIOI). Therefore a precise, localized measurement of the magnetization vector within the films is necessary. Since traditional magnetization measurement techniques do not provide adequate resolution, several new approaches to precisely measure the easy axis were developed and will be described in this presentation. These approaches involve measurements of the directionality of the Faraday response, incoherence in the Malus curves, and damping in the domain wall motion. Such measurements have been instrumental in constructing and optimizing arrayed Bi:RIG sensors, which currently have a sensitivity of 6 pT/Hz1/2.

  19. The RNA sensor RIG-I dually functions as an innate sensor and direct antiviral factor for hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seiichi; Li, Kai; Kameyama, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takaya; Ishida, Yuji; Murakami, Shuko; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Iijima, Sayuki; Sakurai, Yu; Watashi, Koichi; Tsutsumi, Susumu; Sato, Yusuke; Akita, Hidetaka; Wakita, Takaji; Rice, Charles M; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kohara, Michinori; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takaoka, Akinori

    2015-01-20

    Host innate recognition triggers key immune responses for viral elimination. The sensing mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV), a DNA virus, and the subsequent downstream signaling events remain to be fully clarified. Here we found that type III but not type I interferons are predominantly induced in human primary hepatocytes in response to HBV infection, through retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated sensing of the 5'-ε region of HBV pregenomic RNA. In addition, RIG-I could also counteract the interaction of HBV polymerase (P protein) with the 5'-ε region in an RNA-binding dependent manner, which consistently suppressed viral replication. Liposome-mediated delivery and vector-based expression of this ε region-derived RNA in liver abolished the HBV replication in human hepatocyte-chimeric mice. These findings identify an innate-recognition mechanism by which RIG-I dually functions as an HBV sensor activating innate signaling and to counteract viral polymerase in human hepatocytes. PMID:25557055

  20. Using Optical Oxygen Sensors and Injection Experiments to Determine in situ Microbial Rate Constants for Methane Oxidation and Heterotrophic Respiration in a Boreal Bog and Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldo, N.; Moorberg, C.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Neumann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and play a key role in feedback cycles to climate change. In recognition of this, many researchers are developing process-based models of wetland methane emissions at various scales. In these models, the three key biogeochemical reactions are methane production, methane oxidation, and heterotrophic respiration, and they are modeled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The majority of Michaelis-Menten rate constants used in models are based on experiments involving slurries of peat incubated in vials. While these slurries provide a highly controlled setting, they are different from in situ conditions in multiple ways; notably they lack live plants and the centimeter-scale heterogeneities that exist in the field. To determine rate constants in a system more representative of in situ conditions, we extracted peat cores intact from a bog and fen located in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska and part of the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) research program. Into those cores we injected water with varying concentrations of methane and oxygen at multiple depths. We used planar oxygen sensors installed on the peat cores to collect high resolution, two dimensional oxygen concentration data during the injections and used oxygen consumption rates under various conditions to calculate rate constants. Results were compared to a similar but smaller set of injection experiments conducted against planar oxygen sensors installed in the bog. Results will inform parametrization of microbial processes in wetland models, improving estimates of methane emissions both under current climate conditions and in the future.

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour. PMID:26200780

  2. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems’ health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour. PMID:26200780

  3. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel. PMID:26876971

  4. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel.

  5. Directed evolution of bright mutants of an oxygen-independent flavin-binding fluorescent protein from Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluorescent reporter proteins have revolutionized our understanding of cellular bioprocesses by enabling live cell imaging with exquisite spatio-temporal resolution. Existing fluorescent proteins are predominantly based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related analogs. However, GFP-family proteins strictly require molecular oxygen for maturation of fluorescence, which precludes their application for investigating biological processes in low-oxygen environments. A new class of oxygen-independent fluorescent reporter proteins was recently reported based on flavin-binding photosensors from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. However, flavin-binding fluorescent proteins show very limited brightness, which restricts their utility as biological imaging probes. Results In this work, we report the discovery of bright mutants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein from P. putida using directed evolution by site saturation mutagenesis. We discovered two mutations at a chromophore-proximal amino acid (F37S and F37T) that confer a twofold enhancement in brightness relative to the wild type fluorescent protein through improvements in quantum yield and holoprotein fraction. In addition, we observed that substitution with other aromatic amino acids at this residue (F37Y and F37W) severely diminishes fluorescence emission. Therefore, we identify F37 as a key amino acid residue in determining fluorescence. Conclusions To increase the scope and utility of flavin-binding fluorescent proteins as practical fluorescent reporters, there is a strong need for improved variants of the wild type protein. Our work reports on the application of site saturation mutagenesis to isolate brighter variants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein, which is a first-of-its-kind approach. Overall, we anticipate that the improved variants will find pervasive use as fluorescent reporters for biological studies in low-oxygen environments. PMID:23095243

  6. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Direct Evidence of Solution-Mediated Superoxide Transport and Organic Radical Formation in Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chun; Fernandes, Russel; Cho, Franklin H; Sudhakar, Niranjan; Buonacorsi, Brandon; Walker, Sean; Xu, Meng; Baugh, Jonathan; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-09-01

    Advanced large-scale electrochemical energy storage requires cost-effective battery systems with high energy densities. Aprotic sodium-oxygen (Na-O2) batteries offer advantages, being comprised of low-cost elements and possessing much lower charge overpotential and higher reversibility compared to their lithium-oxygen battery cousins. Although such differences have been explained by solution-mediated superoxide transport, the underlying nature of this mechanism is not fully understood. Water has been suggested to solubilize superoxide via formation of hydroperoxyl (HO2), but direct evidence of these HO2 radical species in cells has proven elusive. Here, we use ESR spectroscopy at 210 K to identify and quantify soluble HO2 radicals in the electrolyte-cold-trapped in situ to prolong their lifetime-in a Na-O2 cell. These investigations are coupled to parallel SEM studies that image crystalline sodium superoxide (NaO2) on the carbon cathode. The superoxide radicals were spin-trapped via reaction with 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide at different electrochemical stages, allowing monitoring of their production and consumption during cycling. Our results conclusively demonstrate that transport of superoxide from cathode to electrolyte leads to the nucleation and growth of NaO2, which follows classical mechanisms based on the variation of superoxide content in the electrolyte and its correlation with the crystallization of cubic NaO2. The changes in superoxide content upon charge show that charge proceeds through the reverse solution process. Furthermore, we identify the carbon-centered/oxygen-centered alkyl radicals arising from attack of these solubilized HO2 species on the diglyme solvent. This is the first direct evidence of such species, which are likely responsible for electrolyte degradation. PMID:27498623

  8. Diiridium Bimetallic Complexes Function as a Redox Switch To Directly Split Carbonate into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsun-Ren; Wu, Fang-Siou; Lee, Hsiu-Pen; Chen, Kelvin H-C

    2016-03-23

    A pair of diiridium bimetallic complexes exhibit a special type of oxidation-reduction reaction that could directly split carbonate into carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen via a low-energy pathway needing no sacrificial reagent. One of the bimetallic complexes, Ir(III)(μ-Cl)2Ir(III), can catch carbonato group from carbonate and reduce it to CO. The second complex, the rare bimetallic complex Ir(IV)(μ-oxo)2Ir(IV), can react with chlorine to release O2 by the oxidation of oxygen ions with synergistic oxidative effect of iridium ions and chlorine atoms. The activation energy needed for the key reaction is quite low (∼20 kJ/mol), which is far less than the dissociation energy of the C═O bond in CO2 (∼750 kJ/mol). These diiridium bimetallic complexes could be applied as a redox switch to split carbonate or combined with well-known processes in the chemical industry to build up a catalytic system to directly split CO2 into CO and O2. PMID:26952250

  9. Retrieve Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated low cost gyroscope and direct rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    is deployed, but are not applicable to individual sensors or sensor-very far from each other. For all the above reasons it would be desirable a direct determinations of absolute orientation of horizontal components, not dependent on the nature, quantity and quality of the data acquired. The simplest solution to the problem would be the installation together with the sensors of an electronic compass able to directly measure the real horizontal orientation of the seismometer. However, as well known, all seismic sensors currently used to record earthquakes, produces strong electromagnetic fields which make data recorded by an electronic compass placed in their proximity unusable for the described purpose. For this reason, in this work, we propose a method for the estimation of the absolute orientation of horizontal components of a seismic sensor based on the use of a Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscope. MEMS gyroscope are low-cost electromechanical devices able to measure angular rate. The results of several tests have shown that these devices can allow an accurate determination of sensor orientation, better than that determined by post-procesing techniques. The small size, low power consumption and cost make these devices suitable in down hole or ocean bottom seismology.

  10. Simultaneous Noninvasive Determination of Regional Myocardial Perfusion and Oxygen Content in Rabbits: Toward Direct Measurement of Myocardial Oxygen Consumption at MR Imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Scott B.; Holmes, A. Alexander; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Forder, John R.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether myocardial arterial perfusion and oxygen concentration can be quantified simultaneously from the same images by using spin labeling and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect with fast spin-echo (SE) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS A T2-weighted fast SE pulse sequence was written to image isolated, arrested, blood-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 6) at 4.7 T. Perfusion images with intensity in units of milliliters per minute per gram that covered the entire left ventricle with 0.39 × 0.39 × 3.00-mm resolution were obtained in less than 15 minutes with a 32-fold reduction in imaging time from that of a previous study. Estimates of oxygen concentration were made from the same images acquired for calculation of perfusion images. RESULTS Estimates of regional myocardial oxygen content could be made from the perfusion images; this demonstrated the feasibility of three-dimensional calculation of regional oxygen consumption, which requires concomitant measurement of both oxygen content and flow. Fast SE imaging was shown to bas sensitive to hemoglobin desaturation as standard SE imaging. Perfusion abnormalities and oxygen deficits were easily identified and verified qualitatively with gadopentetate dimeglumine on both perfusion and BOLD images obtained after coronary arterial ligation. CONCLUSION T2-weighted fast SE imaging combined with perfusion-sensitive spin labeling can be used to measure myocardial arterial perfusion and oxygen concentration. This provides the groundwork for calculation of regional myocardial oxygen consumption. PMID:10478241

  11. Direct determination of oxygen abundances in line-emitting star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, José M.; Hoyos, Carlos; Díaz, Ángeles I.; Koo, David C.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 22 blue [(B - V)AB < 0.45], luminous (MB,AB < -18.9), metal-poor galaxies in the 0.69 < z < 0.88 redshift range, selected from the DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey. Their spectra contain the [O III] λ4363 auroral line, the [O II] λλ3726, 3729 doublet and the strong nebular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission lines. The ionized gas-phase oxygen abundances of these galaxies lie between 7.62 < 12 + log O/H < 8.19, i.e., between 1/10 Z⊙ and 1/3 Z⊙. We find that galaxies in our sample have comparable metallicities to other intermediate-redshift samples, but are more metal poor than local systems of similar B-band luminosities and star formation activity. The galaxies here show similar properties to the green peas discovered at z ≃ 0.2-0.3, though our galaxies tend to be slightly less luminous.

  12. Direct Interaction between the Voltage Sensors Produces Cooperative Sustained Deactivation in Voltage-gated H+ Channel Dimers.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hiroko; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Takano, Yu; Okamura, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Yuichiro

    2016-03-11

    The voltage-gated H(+) channel (Hv) is a voltage sensor domain-like protein consisting of four transmembrane segments (S1-S4). The native Hv structure is a homodimer, with the two channel subunits functioning cooperatively. Here we show that the two voltage sensor S4 helices within the dimer directly cooperate via a π-stacking interaction between Trp residues at the middle of each segment. Scanning mutagenesis showed that Trp situated around the original position provides the slow gating kinetics characteristic of the dimer's cooperativity. Analyses of the Trp mutation on the dimeric and monomeric channel backgrounds and analyses with tandem channel constructs suggested that the two Trp residues within the dimer are functionally coupled during Hv deactivation but are less so during activation. Molecular dynamics simulation also showed direct π-stacking of the two Trp residues. These results provide new insight into the cooperative function of voltage-gated channels, where adjacent voltage sensor helices make direct physical contact and work as a single unit according to the gating process. PMID:26755722

  13. Fiber Bragg grating laser sensor with direct radio-frequency readout.

    PubMed

    Malara, P; Campanella, C E; Giorgini, A; Avino, S; Gagliardi, G

    2016-04-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-coupled ring laser sensor is demonstrated. In the proposed configuration the interrogating source, the sensing head and the readout instrument are integrated in a single fiber-optic device. An FBG inserted within a bidirectional fiber ring couples the two counterpropagating modes of the cavity, generating a splitting of the resonant wavelengths proportional to the FBG reflectivity. When the cavity gain is brought beyond threshold, the two peaks of the split resonances simultaneously lase, leading to a beat note in the emission spectrum whose frequency tracks any small shift of the FBG reflectivity spectrum. Such a beat note can be simply monitored by a frequency counter, without the need for an optical spectrometer, allowing to significantly reduce size and costs of the sensor setup. The sensing performance compares well to the state-of-the-art thermo-mechanical fiber sensors. PMID:27192251

  14. Design optimization of the sensor spatial arrangement in a direct magnetic field-based localization system for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Luc; Shaohui Foong; Zhenglong Sun; Wood, Kristin L

    2015-08-01

    Motivated by the need for developing a neuronavigation system to improve efficacy of intracranial surgical procedures, a localization system using passive magnetic fields for real-time monitoring of the insertion process of an external ventricular drain (EVD) catheter is conceived and developed. This system operates on the principle of measuring the static magnetic field of a magnetic marker using an array of magnetic sensors. An artificial neural network (ANN) is directly used for solving the inverse problem of magnetic dipole localization for improved efficiency and precision. As the accuracy of localization system is highly dependent on the sensor spatial location, an optimization framework, based on understanding and classification of experimental sensor characteristics as well as prior knowledge of the general trajectory of the localization pathway, for design of such sensing assemblies is described and investigated in this paper. Both optimized and non-optimized sensor configurations were experimentally evaluated and results show superior performance from the optimized configuration. While the approach presented here utilizes ventriculostomy as an illustrative platform, it can be extended to other medical applications that require localization inside the body. PMID:26736407

  15. Direct synthesis of ultrathin SOI structure by extremely low-energy oxygen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Yasushi; Yachida, Gosuke; Inoue, Kodai; Toyohara, Taiga; Nakata, Jyoji

    2016-06-01

    We performed extremely low-energy 16O+ implantation at 10 keV (Rp ˜ 25 nm) followed by annealing aiming at directly synthesizing an ultrathin Si layer separated by a buried SiO2 layer in Si(001) substrates, and then investigated feasible condition of recrystallization and stabilization of the superficial Si and the buried oxide layer by significantly low temperature annealing. The elemental compositions were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The crystallinity of the superficial Si layer was quantitatively confirmed by ananlyzing RBS-channeling spectra. Cross-sectional morphologies and atomic configurations were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). As a result, we succeeded in directly synthesizing an ultrathin single-crystalline silicon layer with ≤20 nm thick separated by a thin buried stoichiometric SiO2 layer with ≤20 nm thick formed by extremely low-energy 16O+ implantation followed by surprisingly low temperature annealing at 1050∘ C.

  16. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  17. Toward increased reliability in the electric power industry: direct temperature measurement in transformers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Greg

    1998-09-01

    Optimal loading, prevention of catastrophic failures and reduced maintenance costs are some of the benefits of accurate determination of hot spot winding temperatures in medium and high power transformers. Temperature estimates obtained using current theoretical models are not always accurate. Traditional technology (IR, thermocouples...) are unsuitable or inadequate for direct measurement. Nortech fiber-optic temperature sensors offer EMI immunity and chemical resistance and are a proven solution to the problem. The Nortech sensor's measurement principle is based on variations in the spectral absorption of a fiber-mounted semiconductor chip and probes are interchangeable with no need for recalibration. Total length of probe + extension can be up to several hundred meters allowing system electronics to be located in the control room or mounted in the transformer instrumentation cabinet. All of the sensor materials withstand temperatures up to 250 degree(s)C and have demonstrated excellent resistance to the harsh transformer environment (hot oil, kerosene). Thorough study of the problem and industry collaboration in testing and installation allows Nortech to identify and meet the need for durable probes, leak-proof feedthroughs, standard computer interfaces and measurement software. Refined probe technology, the method's simplicity and reliable calibration are all assets that should lead to growing acceptance of this type of direct measuring in the electric power industry.

  18. A microfabricated electron-tunneling accelerometer as a directional underwater acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Rockstad, H.K.; Kenny, T.W.; Kelly, P.J.; Gabrielson, T.B.

    1996-04-01

    Microfabricated accelerometers have been developed for a wide variety of applications; however, the principal commercial focus has been on signal detection in the milli-g to tens or hundreds of g accelerations. The development of a microfabricated device to detect accelerations in the 10 to 100 nano-g range is a substantial technological challenge because of the conflict between the required increase in mass (and reduction in suspension stiffness) and the small volume. In an underwater sensor, designed to be nearly neutrally buoyant, there are additional restrictions on the packaging of the sensor with regard to overall density, resistance to hydrostatic pressure, and flexibility of power and signal leads. The design goal of this project is to demonstrate a two-axis sensor in an 8 cm{sup 3} (and 8 gram) package capable of immersion to 600 meters. The sensor must have a self noise below 100 nano-g per root hertz from 5 to 1000 Hz. Several of these requirements have been demonstrated with an accelerometer structure based on electron tunneling and microfabricated from single-crystal silicon. The electron-tunneling transduction mechanism provides an inherently large transduction constant (although at the expense of requiring closed-loop control) and is readily adapted to batch fabrication in silicon. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Validation of sensor-directed spatial simulated annealing soil sampling strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomical and environmental processes at field- and landscape-scales, including: site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality, to mention a few. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial vari...

  20. Design and field tests of a directly coupled waveguide-on-access-tube soil water sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor systems capable of monitoring soil water content can provide a useful tool for irrigation control. Current systems are limited by installation depth, labor, accuracy, and cost. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an approach for monitoring soil water content that relates the travel time of an ...

  1. Sensor Based Process Control (SBPC) Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the activities and results of an LDRD entitled Sensor Based Process Control. This research examined the needs of the plating industry for monitor and control capabilities with particular emphasis on water effluent from rinse baths. A personal computer-based monitor and control development system was used as a test bed.

  2. Method of simultaneous measurement of two direction force and temperature using FBG sensor head.

    PubMed

    Kisała, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Sławomir

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring two components of bending force and temperature using one sensor head. Indirect inference based on the spectra of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) placed on a cantilever beam is used. The method was developed during work on the inverse problem of determining a nonuniform stress distribution based on FBG spectra. A gradient in the FBG stress profile results in a characteristic shape of its reflective spectrum. The simultaneous measurements of force and temperature were possible through the use of an appropriate layout of the sensor head. The spectral characteristics of the sensor's gratings do not retain full symmetry, which is due to the geometry of the sensor's head and the related difference in the distribution of the axial stress of the gratings. In the proposed approach, the change in width of the sum of the normalized transmission spectra was used to determine the value of the applied force. In the presented method, an increase in the sensitivity of this change to the force is obtained relative to the other known systems. A change in the spectral width was observed for an increase in bending forces from 0 to 150 N. The sensitivity coefficient of the spectral width to force, defined as the ratio of the change of the spectral half-width to the change in force was 2.6e-3  nm/N for the first grating and 1.2e-3  nm/N for the second grating. However, the sensitivity of the whole sensor system was 5.8e-3  nm/N, which is greater than the sum of the sensitivities of the individual gratings. For the purpose of this work, a station with a thermal chamber has been designed with a bracket on which fiber optic transducers have been mounted for use in further measurements. The sensor head in this experiment is considered to be a universal device with potential applications in other types of optical sensors, and it can be treated as a module for development through its multiplication on a single optical fiber. PMID

  3. Supramolecular immobilization of laccase on carbon nanotube electrodes functionalized with (methylpyrenylaminomethyl)anthraquinone for direct electron reduction of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bourourou, Mariem; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Lalaoui, Noémie; Agnès, Charles; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Maaref, Abderrazak; Cosnier, Serge

    2013-07-01

    An efficient way of immobilizing and wiring a large amount of laccase on non-covalently-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes is reported. 1-(2-anthraquinonylaminomethyl)pyrene and 1-[bis(2-anthraquinonyl)aminomethyl]pyrene were synthesized and studied for their capability to non-covalently functionalize MWCNT electrodes and immobilize and orientate laccase on the nanostructured electrodes. This led to high-performance biocathodes for oxygen reduction by direct electron transfer with maximum current densities of (1±0.2) mA cm(-2). The performance of the resulting bioelectrodes could be doubled simply by using the bis-anthraquinone compound. The bioelectrodes show excellent stability over weeks and can thus be envisioned in enzymatic biofuel cells. PMID:23740491

  4. Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Willey, N J; Hancock, J T

    2012-08-23

    It has been hypothesized that radiation-induced oxidative stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl. The present study tests this hypothesis mechanistically, for the first time, by modelling the impacts of radiolysis products within the cell resulting from radiations (low linear energy transfer β and γ), and dose rates appropriate to current contamination types and densities in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and at Fukushima. At 417 µGy h(-1) (illustrative of the most contaminated areas at Chernobyl), generation of radiolysis products did not significantly impact cellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species, or cellular redox potential. This study does not support the hypothesis that direct oxidizing stress is a mechanism for damage to organisms exposed to chronic radiation at dose rates typical of contaminated environments. PMID:22496076

  5. Determination of corrections to flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of corrections for flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor was investigated. Corrections for the angle of attack and sideslip, measured by sensors mounted in front of each wing tip of a general aviation airplane, were determined. These flow corrections were obtained from both wind-tunnel and flight tests over a large angle-of-attack range. Both the angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip flow corrections were found to be substantial. The corrections were a function of the angle of attack and angle of sideslip. The effects of wing configuration changes, small changes in Reynolds number, and spinning rotation on the angle-of-attack flow correction were found to be small. The angle-of-attack flow correction determined from the static wind-tunnel tests agreed reasonably well with the correction determined from flight tests.

  6. Direct oxygen removal technique for recycling titanium using molten MgCl2 salt.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Toru H; Hamanaka, Yuki; Taninouchi, Yu-Ki

    2016-08-15

    Deoxidation of Ti, or direct removal of O dissolved in metallic Ti, is known to be extremely difficult when Mg is used as the deoxidizing agent. This difficulty arises because the chemical potential of O2, pO2, under Mg/MgO equilibrium is high (approximately 10(-41) atm at 1200 K) and is equivalent to that of Ti containing ∼2 mass% O at 1200 K. Therefore, when deoxidizing Ti to the commercial level of high-grade pure Ti (below 0.05 mass% O) using an Mg reductant at 1200 K, the activity of the reaction product MgO (aMgO) must be decreased to below ∼0.025, which is difficult in practice. In this study, the removal of O in Ti in molten MgCl2 salt using an electrochemical technique was examined at ∼1173 K with the objective of obtaining Ti containing less than 0.05 mass% O. Ti samples and graphite electrodes immersed in molten MgCl2 served as the cathode and anode, respectively. A constant voltage was applied between the electrodes using an external DC source. Molten MgCl2 was employed to produce the deoxidizing agent Mg and to facilitate deoxidation of Ti by decreasing the activity of the reaction product MgO. By applying a voltage of approximately 3.1 V between the electrodes, the chemical potential of Mg in the molten MgCl2 was increased at the surface of the Ti cathode, and the Ti samples were deoxidized. The resulting O species, mainly formed O(2-) dissolved in the molten MgCl2, was removed from the molten salt by reacting with the C anode to form CO (or CO2) gas. Ti wires containing 0.12 mass% O were deoxidized to less than 0.02 mass% O. In some cases, the O concentration in the Ti samples was reduced to the level of 0.01 mass%, which cannot be accomplished using the conventional Kroll process. The possible application of this deoxidation technique to practical industrial recycling processes is discussed. PMID:27244243

  7. Direct measurement high resolution wide range extreme temperature optical sensor using an all-silicon carbide probe.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2009-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a temperature sensing method using an all-silicon carbide probe that combines wavelength-tuned signal processing for coarse measurements and classical Fabry-Perot etalon peak shift for fine measurements. This method gives direct unambiguous temperature measurements with a high temperature resolution over a wide temperature range. Specifically, temperature measurements from room temperature to 1000 degrees C are experimentally demonstrated with an estimated resolution varying from 0.66 degrees C at room temperature to 0.12 degrees C at 1000 degrees C. The proposed sensor has applications in next-generation greener gas turbines for power production. PMID:19412286

  8. Transition-Edge Sensor Arrays of Microcalorimeters with ^{163} Ho for Direct Neutrino Mass Measurements with HOLMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, A.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Pizzigoni, G.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.

    2016-01-01

    The HOLMES experiment will provide an important step forward in direct neutrino mass measurements with a calorimetric approach as an alternative to spectrometry. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of ^{163} Ho and will deploy a large array of transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters with implanted ^{163} Ho nuclei. The resulting mass sensitivity could be as low as 0.4 eV, and it will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV and lower.

  9. Transition-Edge Sensor Arrays of Microcalorimeters with ^{163}Ho for Direct Neutrino Mass Measurements with HOLMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, A.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Pizzigoni, G.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.

    2016-08-01

    The HOLMES experiment will provide an important step forward in direct neutrino mass measurements with a calorimetric approach as an alternative to spectrometry. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of ^{163}Ho and will deploy a large array of transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters with implanted ^{163}Ho nuclei. The resulting mass sensitivity could be as low as 0.4 eV, and it will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV and lower.

  10. A dual-plate ITO-ITO generator-collector microtrench sensor: surface activation, spatial separation and suppression of irreversible oxygen and ascorbate interference.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Mohammad A; Gross, Andrew J; Dale, Sara E C; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Generator-collector electrode systems are based on two independent working electrodes with overlapping diffusion fields where chemically reversible redox processes (oxidation and reduction) are coupled to give amplified current signals. A generator-collector trench electrode system prepared from two tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes placed vis-à-vis with a 22 μm inter-electrode gap is employed here as a sensor in aqueous media. The reversible 2-electron anthraquinone-2-sulfonate redox system is demonstrated to give well-defined collector responses even in the presence of oxygen due to the irreversible nature of the oxygen reduction. For the oxidation of dopamine on ITO, novel "Piranha-activation" effects are observed and chemically reversible generator-collector feedback conditions are achieved at pH 7, by selecting a more negative collector potential, again eliminating possible oxygen interference. Finally, dopamine oxidation in the presence of ascorbate is demonstrated with the irreversible oxidation of ascorbate at the "mouth" of the trench electrode and chemically reversible oxidation of dopamine in the trench "interior". This spatial separation of chemically reversible and irreversible processes within and outside the trench is discussed as a potential in situ microscale sensing and separation tool. PMID:24317451

  11. Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating Structural Quartz Substrates for High-Performance Pressure-Sensitive Sensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuefen; Sun, Tai; Yang, Jun; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dacheng; Fang, Liang; Lu, Bin; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-07-01

    Conformal graphene films have directly been synthesized on the surface of grating microstructured quartz substrates by a simple chemical vapor deposition process. The wonderful conformality and relatively high quality of the as-prepared graphene on the three-dimensional substrate have been verified by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra. This conformal graphene film possesses excellent electrical and optical properties with a sheet resistance of <2000 Ω·sq(-1) and a transmittance of >80% (at 550 nm), which can be attached with a flat graphene film on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate, and then could work as a pressure-sensitive sensor. This device possesses a high-pressure sensitivity of -6.524 kPa(-1) in a low-pressure range of 0-200 Pa. Meanwhile, this pressure-sensitive sensor exhibits super-reliability (≥5000 cycles) and an ultrafast response time (≤4 ms). Owing to these features, this pressure-sensitive sensor based on 3D conformal graphene is adequately introduced to test wind pressure, expressing higher accuracy and a lower background noise level than a market anemometer. PMID:27269362

  12. Strong ligand-protein interactions revealed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of CO in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    PubMed

    Nuernberger, Patrick; Lee, Kevin F; Bonvalet, Adeline; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Liebl, Ursula; Joffre, Manuel; Vos, Marten H

    2011-11-01

    In heme-based sensor proteins, ligand binding to heme in a sensor domain induces conformational changes that eventually lead to changes in enzymatic activity of an associated catalytic domain. The bacterial oxygen sensor FixL is the best-studied example of these proteins and displays marked differences in dynamic behavior with respect to model globin proteins. We report a mid-IR study of the configuration and ultrafast dynamics of CO in the distal heme pocket site of the sensor PAS domain FixLH, employing a recently developed method that provides a unique combination of high spectral resolution and range and high sensitivity. Anisotropy measurements indicate that CO rotates toward the heme plane upon dissociation, as is the case in globins. Remarkably, CO bound to the heme iron is tilted by ~30° with respect to the heme normal, which contrasts to the situation in myoglobin and in present FixLH-CO X-ray crystal structure models. This implies protein-environment-induced strain on the ligand, which is possibly at the origin of a very rapid docking-site population in a single conformation. Our observations likely explain the unusually low affinity of FixL for CO that is at the origin of the weak ligand discrimination between CO and O(2). Moreover, we observe orders of magnitude faster vibrational relaxation of dissociated CO in FixL than in globins, implying strong interactions of the ligand with the distal heme pocket environment. Finally, in the R220H FixLH mutant protein, where CO is H-bonded to a distal histidine, we demonstrate that the H-bond is maintained during photolysis. Comparison with extensively studied globin proteins unveils a surprisingly rich variety in both structural and dynamic properties of the interaction of a diatomic ligand with the ubiquitous b-type heme-proximal histidine system in different distal pockets. PMID:21970443

  13. A PAS domain with an oxygen labile [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster in the oxygen sensor kinase NreB of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Müllner, Martin; Hammel, Oliver; Mienert, Bernd; Schlag, Steffen; Bill, Eckhard; Unden, Gottfried

    2008-12-30

    The cytoplasmic histidine sensor kinase NreB of Staphylococcus carnosus responds to O(2) and controls together with the response regulator NreC the expression of genes of nitrate/nitrite respiration. nreBC homologous genes were found in Staphylococcus strains and Bacillus clausii, and a modified form was found in some Lactobacillus strains. NreB contains a sensory domain with similarity to heme B binding PAS domains. Anaerobically prepared NreB of S. carnosus exhibited a (diamagnetic) [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster when assessed by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Upon reaction with air, the cluster was degraded with a half-life of approximately 2.5 min. No significant amounts of Mossbauer or EPR detectable intermediates were found during the decay, but magnetic Mossbauer spectra revealed formation of diamagnetic [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters. After extended exposure to air, NreB was devoid of a FeS cluster. Photoreduction with deazaflavin produced small amounts of [4Fe-4S](+), which were degraded subsequently. The magnetically perturbed Mossbauer spectrum of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster corroborated the S = 0 spin state and revealed uniform electric field gradient tensors of the iron sites, suggesting full delocalization of the valence electrons and binding of each of the Fe ions by four S ligands, including the ligand to the protein. Mutation of each of the four Cys residues inactivated NreB function in vivo in accordance with their role as ligands. [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster-containing NreB had high kinase activity. Exposure to air decreased the kinase activity and content of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster with similar half-lives. We conclude that the sensory domain of NreB represents a new type of PAS domain containing a [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster for sensing and function. PMID:19102705

  14. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B.; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S.; Rowlands, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs). We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se) has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF) and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the HARP has been

  15. Amorphous and polycrystalline photoconductors for direct conversion flat panel x-ray image sensors.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S; Rowlands, John A

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs). We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se) has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF) and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI(2) and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the HARP has been

  16. Humidity sensors applicative characteristics of granularized and porous Bi2O3 thin films prepared by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudorache, Florin; Petrila, Iulian; Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Praisler, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets in a plasma discharge followed by thermal treatment as preparation method for humidity high-sensitive bismuth trioxide thin films deposited onto Si/Pt substrates were analyzed. Several thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures during the pulsed laser deposition namely between 300 °C and 600 °C. Near to the electrical investigation, the structure and the morphology of the films as keys features for water adsorption are thoroughly investigated and correlated with their sensitivity as humidity sensors. Thus, it has been found that strong granularized Bi2O3 thin films obtained through oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition onto Si/Pt substrate at 500 °C provide the most interesting humidity sensing characteristics.

  17. Oxygen reduction reaction in a droplet on graphite: direct evidence that the edge is more active than the basal plane.

    PubMed

    Shen, Anli; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Qiang; Dryfe, Robert A W; Huang, Xiaobing; Dou, Shuo; Dai, Liming; Wang, Shuangyin

    2014-09-26

    Carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium have been extensively investigated with the aim of replacing the commercially available, but precious platinum-based catalysts. For the proper design of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts for the ORR, it would be interesting to identify the active sites of the electrocatalyst. The ORR was now studied with an air-saturated electrolyte solution droplet (diameter ca. 15 μm), which was deposited at a specified position either on the edge or on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Electrochemical measurements suggest that the edge carbon atoms are more active than the basal-plane ones for the ORR. This provides a direct way to identify the active sites of carbon materials for the ORR. Ball-milled graphite and carbon nanotubes with more exposed edges were also prepared and showed significantly enhanced ORR activity. DFT calculations elucidated the mechanism by which the charged edge carbon atoms result in the higher ORR activity. PMID:25124986

  18. Direct hybrid glucose-oxygen enzymatic fuel cell based on tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane charge transfer complex as anodic mediator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Vidaković-Koch, Tanja; Sundmacher, Kai

    TTF-TCNQ has been used for the first time as a mediator in a direct glucose fuel cell operating on gas-phase oxygen. It has been shown that TTF-TCNQ forms highly irregular porous structure, which emphasizes the importance of optimization of mass transport and kinetic resistance in the catalyst layer. Kinetics resistance can be optimized by variation of the mediator and/or enzyme loading, while mass transport resistance mainly by the variation of other structural parameters such as electrode thickness. The optimized anode reached limiting current densities of nearly 400 μA cm -2 in presence of 5 mM glucose under rotation. The enzymatic fuel cell exhibited unexpectedly high OCV values (up to 0.99 V), which were tentatively ascribed to different pH conditions at the anode and the cathode. OCV was influenced by glucose crossover and was decreasing with an increase of glucose concentration or flow rate. Although the performance of the fuel cell is limited by the enzymatic anode, the long-term stability of the fuel cell is mainly influenced by the Pt cathode, while the enzymatic anode has higher stability. The fuel cell delivered power densities up to 120 μW cm -2 in presence of 5 mM glucose, depending on the glucose flow rate.

  19. Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Gabi; Fontanella, Andrew; Palmer, Gregory; Shan, Siqing; Radiloff, Daniel R; Zhao, Yulin; Irwin, David; Hamilton, Karyn; Boico, Alina; Piantadosi, Claude A; Blueschke, Gert; Dewhirst, Mark; McMahon, Timothy; Schroeder, Thies

    2013-01-15

    Intravital microscopy of the pulmonary microcirculation in research animals is of great scientific interest for its utility in identifying regional changes in pulmonary microcirculatory blood flow. Although feasibility studies have been reported, the pulmonary window can be further refined into a practical tool for pharmaceutical research and drug development. We have established a method to visualize and quantify dynamic changes in three key features of lung function: microvascular red blood cell velocity, flow direction, and hemoglobin saturation. These physiological parameters were measured in an acute closed-chest pulmonary window, which allows real-time images to be captured by fluorescence and multispectral absorption microscopy; images were subsequently quantified using computerized analysis. We validated the model by quantifying changes in microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin saturation in two ways: 1) after changes in inspired oxygen content and 2) after pharmacological reduction of pulmonary blood flow via treatment with the β1 adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol. This robust and relatively simple system facilitates pulmonary intravital microscopy in laboratory rats for pharmacological and physiological research. PMID:23161885

  20. Microspheres assembled by KMn8O16 nanorods and their catalytic oxygen reduction activity in direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wang, Li; Liu, Yongning

    2014-12-01

    Microspheres assembled using cryptomelane-type KMn8O16 nanorods are synthesized via a facile template-free, single-step hydrothermal technique. The synthesized KMn8O16 generates nanorods 10-20 nm in diameter and approximately 300-1000 nm long. The rods self-assemble to form microspheres of 2-6 μm in diameters. The electron transfer number for KMn8O16 during the ORR is approximately 3.98 at 0.5 V vs. Hg/HgO, and the H2O2 percentage is 0.66%. Moreover, a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is built using KMn8O16 as cathodic catalyst, PtRu/C alloy as the anodic catalyst and a polymer fiber membrane (PFM) instead of a conventional polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). The peak power densities (43.3 mW cm-2 and 153.9 mW cm-2) have been achieved at 25 °C and 70 °C, respectively. KMn8O16 shows good electrocatalytic activity and stability during oxygen reduction in alkaline solutions and demonstrates tolerance toward methanol poisoning.

  1. Direct Detection of Oxygen Ligation to the Mn4Ca Cluster of Photosystem II by X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkar, Yulia; Long, Xi; Glatzel, Pieter; Brudvig, Gary W.; Dismukes, G. Charles; Collins, Terrence J.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2009-06-16

    Ligands play critical roles during the catalytic reactions in metalloproteins through bond formation/breaking, protonation/deprotonation, and electron/spin delocalization. While there are well-defined element-specific spectroscopic handles, such as X-ray spectroscopy and EPR, to follow the chemistry of metal catalytic sites in a large protein matrix, directly probing particular ligand atoms like C, N, and O is challenging due to their abundance in the protein. FTIR/Raman and ligand-sensitive EPR techniques such as ENDOR and ESEEM have been applied to study metal-ligand interactions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can also indirectly probe the ligand environment; its element-specificity allows us to focus only on the catalytic metal site, and EXAFS and XANES provide metal-ligand distances, coordination numbers, and symmetry of ligand environments. However, the information is limited, since one cannot distinguish among ligand elements with similar atomic number (i.e. C, N. and O). As an alternative and a more direct method to probe the specific metal-ligand chemistry in the protein matrix, we investigated the application of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). Using this technique we have identified the oxo-bridging ligands of the Mn{sub 4}Ca complex of photosystem II (PS II), a multisubunit membrane protein, that catalyzes the water oxidizing reaction. The catalytic mechanism has been studied intensively by Mn XAS. The fundamental question of this reaction, however, is how the water molecules are ligated to the Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster and how the O-O bond formation occurs before the evolution of O{sub 2}. This implies that it is necessary to follow the chemistry of the oxygen ligands in order to understand the mechanism.

  2. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications

  3. Directional frequency and recording (DIFAR) sensors in seafloor recorders to locate calling bowhead whales during their fall migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Charles R.; McLennan, Miles Wm.; Norman, Robert G.; McDonald, Trent L.; Jakubczak, Ray S.; Richardson, W. John

    2004-08-01

    Bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, migrate west during fall ~10-75 km off the north coast of Alaska, passing the petroleum developments around Prudhoe Bay. Oil production operations on an artificial island 5 km offshore create sounds heard by some whales. As part of an effort to assess whether migrating whales deflect farther offshore at times with high industrial noise, an acoustical approach was selected for localizing calling whales. The technique incorporated DIFAR (directional frequency and recording) sonobuoy techniques. An array of 11 DASARs (directional autonomous seafloor acoustic recorders) was built and installed with unit-to-unit separation of 5 km. When two or more DASARs detected the same call, the whale location was determined from the bearing intersections. This article describes the acoustic methods used to determine the locations of the calling bowhead whales and shows the types and precision of the data acquired. Calibration transmissions at GPS-measured times and locations provided measures of the individual DASAR clock drift and directional orientation. The standard error of the bearing measurements at distances of 3-4 km was ~1.35° after corrections for gain imbalance in the two directional sensors. During 23 days in 2002, 10 587 bowhead calls were detected and 8383 were localized.

  4. Directional frequency and recording (DIFAR) sensors in seafloor recorders to locate calling bowhead whales during their fall migration.

    PubMed

    Greene, Charles R; McLennan, Miles Wm; Norman, Robert G; McDonald, Trent L; Jakubczak, Ray S; Richardson, W John

    2004-08-01

    Bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, migrate west during fall approximately 10-75 km off the north coast of Alaska, passing the petroleum developments around Prudhoe Bay. Oil production operations on an artificial island 5 km offshore create sounds heard by some whales. As part of an effort to assess whether migrating whales deflect farther offshore at times with high industrial noise, an acoustical approach was selected for localizing calling whales. The technique incorporated DIFAR (directional frequency and recording) sonobuoy techniques. An array of 11 DASARs (directional autonomous seafloor acoustic recorders) was built and installed with unit-to-unit separation of 5 km. When two or more DASARs detected the same call, the whale location was determined from the bearing intersections. This article describes the acoustic methods used to determine the locations of the calling bowhead whales and shows the types and precision of the data acquired. Calibration transmissions at GPS-measured times and locations provided measures of the individual DASAR clock drift and directional orientation. The standard error of the bearing measurements at distances of 3-4 km was approximately 1.35 degrees after corrections for gain imbalance in the two directional sensors. During 23 days in 2002, 10,587 bowhead calls were detected and 8383 were localized. PMID:15376646

  5. Directional drilling system with eccentric mounted motor and biaxial sensor and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P.N.; Barbera, L.J.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a directional drilling system of the type which includes a drill string having a plurality of drill stems joined together for drilling a bore through the earth in a prescribed direction. It comprises: a drilling platform having two spaced apart end walls carried by the platform; a frame carried by the platform; a carriage carried by the frame; a drill string drive motor carried by the carriage for rotating the drill string; coupling means for coupling one of the drill stems to the drill string drive motor; and carriage advance means for moving the carriage longitudinally along the frame and platform as the drill string drive motor rotates the drill sting. This patent also describes a method of drilling a bore through the earth in a desired direction using a directional drilling device having a drill sting with a drilling head carried at an outer end. It comprises: excavating a pit in the earth at a starting point of the drill sting; placing a form in the earth pit at a prescribed inclination corresponding to a desired reference entry angle of the drilling string and drilling head; pouring concrete in the earth pit between the form and the earth; placing a drilling platform having a shape generally conforming to the shape of the form in the pit opening of the concrete pit; and assembling the drilling head and drill string on the platform so that the drilling head is oriented in the direction of the reference entry angle.

  6. TDLAS-based sensors for in situ measurement of syngas composition in a pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Ritobrata; Sun, Kai; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Pummill, Randy J.; Waind, Travis; Wagner, David R.; Whitty, Kevin J.

    2014-07-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy based in situ sensors for CO (2.33 μm), CO2 (2.02 μm), CH4 (2.29 μm) and H2O (1.35 μm) were deployed in a pilot-scale (1 ton/day), high-pressure (up to 18 atm), entrained flow, oxygen-blown, slagging coal gasifier at the University of Utah. Measurements of species mole fraction with 3-s time resolution were taken at the pre- and post-filtration stages of the gasifier synthesis gas (called here syngas) output flow. Although particulate scattering makes pre-filter measurements more difficult, this location avoids the time delay of flow through the filtration devices. With the measured species and known N2 concentrations, the H2 content was obtained via balance. The lower heating value and the Wobbe index of the gas mixture were estimated using the measured gas composition. The sensors demonstrated here show promise for monitoring and control of the gasification process.

  7. Directional Degradation of Spectralon Diffuser Under Ionizing Radiation for Calibration of Space-Based Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, G. T.; Butler, J. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Ding, L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) irradiation on the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of Spectralon is presented in this paper. The sample was a 99% white Spectralon calibration standard irradiated with VUV source positioned at 60o off the irradiation direction for a total of 20 hours. The BRDF before and after VUV irradiation was measured and compared at number of wavelengths in the UV, VIS and IR. Non-isotropic directional degradation of Spectralon diffuser under ionizing radiation was detected at different BRDF measurement geometries primarily at UV spectral range. The 8o directional/hemispherical reflectance of the same sample was also measured and compared from 200nm to 2500nm. Index Terms BRDF, Reflectance, Multiangular, Spectralon, Remote Sensing

  8. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO{sub 3} nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO{sub 3} sensor exhibited a high performance to NO{sub 2} gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO{sub 2}. In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO{sub 2} concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  9. The development of a sampler-sensor using a vanadium-oxinate-polymer film for the selective and direct determination of atmospheric ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hayes, E T; Galal, A; Mark, H B

    1995-06-01

    The development of a sensor for the direct and selective determination of atmospheric ethanol is in the initial stages. The sensor takes advantage of the selective chemical reaction between ethanol and vanadium oxinate. This reaction occurs in an organic medium where a red colored complex is the product. This reaction is determined spectrophotometrically where the absorbance maxima is 475 nm. The focus of this paper is to discuss the parameters necessary to develop a solid sorbent sampling-sensor which can be used to determine atmospheric ethanol. PMID:18966304

  10. Direct fabrication of Cu/Cu2O composite micro-temperature sensor using femtosecond laser reduction patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Arakane, Shun; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2016-06-01

    Micro-temperature sensors, which composed of a Cu2O-rich sensing part and two Cu-rich electrodes, were directly fabricated by femtosecond laser reduction patterning of CuO nanoparticles. Patterning of the microstructures was performed by laser scanning with pitches of 5, 10, and 15 µm. Cu2O-rich micropatterns were formed at the laser scan speed of 1 mm/s, the pitch of 5 µm, and the pulse energy of 0.54 nJ. Cu-rich micropatterns that had high generation selectivity of Cu against Cu2O were fabricated at the laser scan speed of 15 mm/s, the pitch of 5 µm, and the pulse energy of 0.45 nJ. Electrical resistivities of the Cu2O- and Cu-rich micropatterns were approximately 10 Ω m and 9 µΩ m, respectively. The temperature coefficient of the resistance of the micro-temperature sensor fabricated under these laser irradiation conditions was ‑5.5 × 10‑3/°C. This resistance property with a negative value was consistent with that of semiconductor Cu2O.

  11. Improvement of the radiation hardness of a directly converting high resolution intra-oral X-ray imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spartiotis, Konstantinos; Pyyhtiä, Jouni; Schulman, Tom

    2003-11-01

    The radiation tolerance of a directly converting digital intra-oral X-ray imaging sensor reported in Spartiotis et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 594] has been tested using a typical dental X-ray beam spectrum. Radiation induced degradation in the performance of the sensor which consists of CMOS signal readout circuits bump bonded to a high resistivity silicon pixel detector was observed already before a dose (in air) of 1 krad. Both increase in the leakage current of the pixel detector manufactured by Sintef, Norway and signal leakage to ground from the gate of the pixel input MOSFETs of the readout circuit were observed and measured. The sensitive part of the CMOS circuit was identified as the protection diode of the gate of the input MOSFET. After removing the gate protection diode no signal leakage was observed up to a dose of 5 krad (air) which approximately corresponds to 125.000 typical dental X-ray exposures. The radiation hardness of the silicon pixel detector was improved by using a modified oxidation process supplied by Colibrys, Switzerland. The improved pixel detectors showed no increase in the leakage current at dental doses.

  12. An efficient joint estimation of wideband polynomial-phase signal parameters and direction-of-arrival in sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurović, Igor; Djukanović, Slobodan; Simeunović, Marko; Raković, Predrag; Barkat, Braham

    2012-12-01

    We consider the joint estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and parameters of wideband polynomial-phase signals (PPSs) in sensor array. Unlike concurrent methods that require multidimensional searches, the proposed method requires 1D searches for all the parameters of interest. In this way, we can efficiently estimate the considered parameters in applications where large antenna arrays, containing tens or hundreds of sensors, are used. As special cases, we consider in detail the estimation of the second- and third-order PPSs. The former are estimated using the high-order ambiguity function (HAF), while the latter are estimated using the cubic phase function (CPF), known to outperform the HAF in terms of both accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold. In both cases, the estimation of the highest order parameter reaches the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB), while the DOA estimation is above the CRLB for around 1 dB (second-order PPS) and around 6 dB (third-order PPS).

  13. Quenching of singlet molecular oxygen ( sup 1. Delta. sub g O sub 2 ) in silica gel/cyclohexane heterogeneous systems. A direct time-resolved study

    SciTech Connect

    Iu, Kaikong; Thomas, J.K. )

    1990-04-25

    Direct time-resolved studies of singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}) phosphorescence ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup {minus}}O{sub 2} ({nu} = 0) {l arrow} {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} ({nu} = 0); 1,270 nm) in heterogeneous silica gel/cyclohexane systems are presented. Singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}) is created through a photosensitization process on silica gel surfaces. The experimental results show that the lifetimes of singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}) in both porous and compressed fumed silica/gel cyclohexane systems are significantly less than that in liquid cyclohexane. The shortened singlet molecular oxygen lifetime is due mainly to quenching by adsorbed water and silanol groups on the silica gel surface. In addition, monoamines coadsorbed on the silica gel surface do not quench singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}); however, diamines such as DABCO or piperazine maintain their quenching activity, but the quenching kinetics are not of the Stern-Volmer type. The singlet molecular oxygen lifetime increases on loading the porous silica gel/cyclohexane system with monoamine. Coadsorption of piperazine increases quenching of {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g} O{sub 2} by DABCO.

  14. MicroRNA-135b suppresses extravillous trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion by directly down regulating CXCL12 under low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tochigi, Hideno; Kajihara, Takeshi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Okagaki, Ryugo; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Ishihara, Osamu; Itakura, Atsuo

    2015-05-29

    The expression of numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) in the trophoblasts changes under low oxygen conditions. However, little is known regarding the regulation of the trophoblast invasion by miRNAs under low oxygen conditions. The aim of this study was to identify those miRNAs and their target genes associated with the trophoblast invasion under low oxygen conditions. Culturing the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, at 2% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen suppressed trophoblast invasion that correlated with increased expression of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) and decreased expression of the its predicted target gene CXCL12. Overexpression of miR-135b suppressed CXCL12 mRNA expression and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Adding a neutralizing antibody against CXCL12 to the culture medium suppressed HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion. Reporter assays showed that the 3'UTR sequence of CXCL12 was directly targeted by miR-135b. Our results suggest that miR-135b and CXCL12 play important roles in modulating the EVT invasion under low oxygen conditions. PMID:25896762

  15. Using vanadium in spinel as a sensor of oxygen fugacity in meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and other asteroids.

    SciTech Connect

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Le, L.; Newville, M.

    2009-03-23

    Some meteorites do not contain mineral assemblages required to apply traditional oxy-barometers. Here we introduce a technique using vanadium X-ray absorption features in spinels to characterize the oxygen fugacity of meteoritic dunites, pyroxenites, and chondrites. Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO{sub 2} using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO{sub 2} of many of these samples is not well known, other than being 'reduced' and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO{sub 2}, and this has been calibrated over a large fO{sub 2} range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO{sub 2} constraints.

  16. Validation and calibration of a TDLAS oxygen sensor for in-line measurement on flow-packed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocola, L.; Fedel, M.; Allermann, H.; Landa, S.; Tondello, G.; Bardenstein, A.; Poletto, L.

    2016-05-01

    A device based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has been developed for non-invasive evaluation of gaseous oxygen concentration inside packed food containers. This work has been done in the context of the SAFETYPACK European project in order to enable full, automated product testing on a production line. The chosen samples at the end of the manufacturing process are modified atmosphere bags of processed mozzarella, in which the target oxygen concentration is required to be below 5%. The spectrometer allows in-line measurement of moving samples which are passing on a conveyor belt, with an optical layout optimized for bags made of a flexible scattering material, and works by sensing the gas phase in the headspace at the top of the package. A field applicable method for the calibration of this device has been identified and validated against traditional, industry standard, invasive measurement techniques. This allows some degrees of freedom for the end-user regarding packaging dimensions and shape. After deployment and setup of the instrument at the end-user manufacturing site, performance has been evaluated on a different range of samples in order to validate the choice of electro optical and geometrical parameters regarding sample handling and measurement timing at the actual measurement conditions.

  17. Investigation of source-detector separation optimization for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor for liver blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, J. S.; Akl, T. J.; Coté, G. L.; Wilson, M. A.; Ericson, M. N.

    2011-03-01

    An implanted system is being developed to monitor transplanted liver health during the critical 7-10 day period posttransplantation. The unit will monitor organ perfusion and oxygen consumption using optically-based probes placed on both the inflow and outflow blood vessels, and on the liver parenchymal surface. Sensing probes are based on a 3- wavelength LED source and a photodiode detector. Sample diffuse reflectance is measured at 735, 805, and 940 nm. To ascertain optimal source-to-photodetector spacing for perfusion measurement in blood vessels, an ex vivo study was conducted. In this work, a dye mixture simulating 80% blood oxygen saturation was developed and perfused through excised porcine arteries while collecting data for various preset probe source-to-photodetector spacings. The results from this study demonstrate a decrease in the optical signal with decreasing LED drive current and a reduction in perfusion index signal with increasing probe spacing. They also reveal a 2- to 4-mm optimal range for blood vessel perfusion probe source-to-photodetector spacing that allows for sufficient perfusion signal modulation depth with maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR). These findings are currently being applied to guide electronic configuration and probe placement for in vivo liver perfusion porcine model studies.

  18. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.65[PbTiO3]0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  19. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  20. Ground water and snow sensor based on directional detection of cosmogenic neutrons.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Marleau, Peter; Griffin, Patrick J.

    2011-06-01

    A fast neutron detector is being developed to measure the cosmic ray neutron flux in order to measure soil moisture. Soil that is saturated with water has an enhanced ability to moderate fast neutrons, removing them from the backscatter spectrum. The detector is a two-element, liquid scintillator detector. The choice of liquid scintillator allows rejection of gamma background contamination from the desired neutron signal. This enhances the ability to reconstruct the energy and direction of a coincident neutron event. The ability to image on an event-by-event basis allows the detector to selectively scan the neutron flux as a function of distance from the detector. Calibrations, simulations, and optimization have been completed to understand the detector response to neutron sources at variable distances and directions. This has been applied to laboratory background measurements in preparation for outdoor field tests.

  1. Hydrogen Optical Fiber Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Robert A.; Beshay, Manal; Cordero, Steven R.

    2008-07-28

    Optically-based hydrogen sensors promise to deliver an added level of safety as hydrogen and fuel cell technologies enter the mainstream. More importantly, they offer reduced power consumption and lower cost, which are desirable for mass production applications such as automobiles and consumer appliances. This program addressed two of the major challenges previously identified in porous optrode-based optical hydrogen sensors: sensitivity to moisture (ambient humidity), and interference from the oxygen in air. Polymer coatings to inhibit moisture and oxygen were developed in conjunction with newer and novel hydrogen sensing chemistries. The results showed that it is possible to achieve sensitive hydrogen detection and rapid response with minimal interference from oxygen and humidity. As a result of this work, a new and more exciting avenue of investigation was developed: the elimination of the porous optrode and deposition of the sensor chemistry directly into the polymer film. Initial results have been promising, and open up a wider range of potential applications from extended optical fiber sensing networks, to simple plastic "stickers" for use around the home and office.

  2. Kinetic Investigations of the Role of Factor Inhibiting Hypoxia-inducible Factor (FIH) as an Oxygen Sensor*

    PubMed Central

    Tarhonskaya, Hanna; Hardy, Adam P.; Howe, Emily A.; Loik, Nikita D.; Kramer, Holger B.; McCullagh, James S. O.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Flashman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases regulate hypoxia sensing in animals. In humans, they comprise three prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1–3 or EGLN1–3) and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). FIH is an asparaginyl hydroxylase catalyzing post-translational modification of HIF-α, resulting in reduction of HIF-mediated transcription. Like the PHDs, FIH is proposed to have a hypoxia-sensing role in cells, enabling responses to changes in cellular O2 availability. PHD2, the most important human PHD isoform, is proposed to be biochemically/kinetically suited as a hypoxia sensor due to its relatively high sensitivity to changes in O2 concentration and slow reaction with O2. To ascertain whether these parameters are conserved among the HIF hydroxylases, we compared the reactions of FIH and PHD2 with O2. Consistent with previous reports, we found lower Kmapp(O2) values for FIH than for PHD2 with all HIF-derived substrates. Under pre-steady-state conditions, the O2-initiated FIH reaction is significantly faster than that of PHD2. We then investigated the kinetics with respect to O2 of the FIH reaction with ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) substrates. FIH has lower Kmapp(O2) values for the tested ARDs than HIF-α substrates, and pre-steady-state O2-initiated reactions were faster with ARDs than with HIF-α substrates. The results correlate with cellular studies showing that FIH is active at lower O2 concentrations than the PHDs and suggest that competition between HIF-α and ARDs for FIH is likely to be biologically relevant, particularly in hypoxic conditions. The overall results are consistent with the proposal that the kinetic properties of individual oxygenases reflect their biological capacity to act as hypoxia sensors. PMID:26112411

  3. Neuronal calcium sensor proteins are direct targets of the insulinotropic agent repaglinide.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Miki; Takezawa, Daisuke; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ryoji

    2003-01-01

    The NCS (neuronal calcium sensor) proteins, including neurocalcins, recoverins and visinin-like proteins are members of a family of Ca2+-sensitive regulators, each with three Ca2+-binding EF-hand motifs. In plants, lily CCaMK [chimaeric Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin)-dependent protein kinase] and its PpCaMK ( Physcomitrella patens CCaMK) homologue are characterized by a visinin-like domain with three EF-hands. In the present study, in an effort to discover NCS antagonists, we screened a total of 43 compounds using Ca2+-dependent drug affinity chromatography and found that the insulinotropic agent repaglinide targets the NCS protein family. Repaglinide was found to bind to NCS proteins, but not to CaM or S100 proteins, in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, the drug antagonized the inhibitory action of recoverin in a rhodopsin kinase assay with IC50 values of 400 microM. Moreover, repaglinide tightly bound to the visinin-like domain of CCaMK and PpCaMK in a Ca2+-dependent manner and antagonized the regulatory function of the domain with IC50 values of 55 and 4 microM for CCaMK and PpCaMK respectively. Although both repaglinide and a potent insulin secretagogue, namely glibenclamide, blocked K(ATP) channels with similar potency, glibenclamide had no antagonizing effect on the Ca2+-stimulated CCaMK and PpCaMK autophosphorylation, mediated by their visinin-like domain. In addition, a typical CaM antagonist, trifluoperazine, had no effect on the CCaMK and PpCaMK autophosphorylation. Repaglinide appears to be the first antagonist of NCS proteins and visinin-like domain-bearing enzymes. It may serve as a useful tool for evaluating the physiological functions of the NCS protein family. In addition, since repaglinide selectively targets NCS proteins among the EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins, it is a potential lead compound for the development of more potent NCS antagonists. PMID:12844348

  4. RadSensor: Xray Detection by Direct Modulation of an Optical Probe Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M E; Bennett, C V; Vernon, S P; Bond, T; Welty, R; Behymer, E; Petersen, H; Krey, A; Stewart, R; Kobayashi, N P; Sperry, V; Stephan, P; Reinhardt, C; Simpson, S; Stratton, P; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Ables, E; Ott, L; Bond, S; Ayers, J.; Landen, O L; Bell, P M

    2003-08-01

    We present a new x-ray detection technique based on optical measurement of the effects of x-ray absorption and electron hole pair creation in a direct band-gap semiconductor. The electron-hole pairs create a frequency dependent shift in optical refractive index and absorption. This is sensed by simultaneously directing an optical carrier beam through the same volume of semiconducting medium that has experienced an xray induced modulation in the electron-hole population. If the operating wavelength of the optical carrier beam is chosen to be close to the semiconductor band-edge, the optical carrier will be modulated significantly in phase and amplitude. This approach should be simultaneously capable of very high sensitivity and excellent temporal response, even in the difficult high-energy xray regime. At xray photon energies near 10 keV and higher, we believe that sub-picosecond temporal responses are possible with near single xray photon sensitivity. The approach also allows for the convenient and EMI robust transport of high-bandwidth information via fiber optics. Furthermore, the technology can be scaled to imaging applications. The basic physics of the detector, implementation considerations, and preliminary experimental data are presented and discussed.

  5. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  6. MAP6-F is a temperature sensor that directly binds to and protects microtubules from cold-induced depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Delphin, Christian; Bouvier, Denis; Seggio, Maxime; Couriol, Emilie; Saoudi, Yasmina; Denarier, Eric; Bosc, Christophe; Valiron, Odile; Bisbal, Mariano; Arnal, Isabelle; Andrieux, Annie

    2012-10-12

    Microtubules are dynamic structures that present the peculiar characteristic to be ice-cold labile in vitro. In vivo, microtubules are protected from ice-cold induced depolymerization by the widely expressed MAP6/STOP family of proteins. However, the mechanism by which MAP6 stabilizes microtubules at 4 °C has not been identified. Moreover, the microtubule cold sensitivity and therefore the needs for microtubule stabilization in the wide range of temperatures between 4 and 37 °C are unknown. This is of importance as body temperatures of animals can drop during hibernation or torpor covering a large range of temperatures. Here, we show that in the absence of MAP6, microtubules in cells below 20 °C rapidly depolymerize in a temperature-dependent manner whereas they are stabilized in the presence of MAP6. We further show that in cells, MAP6-F binding to and stabilization of microtubules is temperature- dependent and very dynamic, suggesting a direct effect of the temperature on the formation of microtubule/MAP6 complex. We also demonstrate using purified proteins that MAP6-F binds directly to microtubules through its Mc domain. This binding is temperature-dependent and coincides with progressive conformational changes of the Mc domain as revealed by circular dichroism. Thus, MAP6 might serve as a temperature sensor adapting its conformation according to the temperature to maintain the cellular microtubule network in organisms exposed to temperature decrease. PMID:22904321

  7. Reusable bi-directionalsensor to measure thermal conductivity of 100-μm thick biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Lubner, Sean D; Choi, Jeunghwan; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Waag, Bastian; Mishra, Vivek; Natesan, Harishankar; Bischof, John C; Dames, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the thermal conductivity (k) of biological tissues is important for cryopreservation, thermal ablation, and cryosurgery. Here, we adapt the 3ω method-widely used for rigid, inorganic solids-as a reusable sensor to measure k of soft biological samples two orders of magnitude thinner than conventional tissue characterization methods. Analytical and numerical studies quantify the error of the commonly used "boundary mismatch approximation" of the bi-directional 3ω geometry, confirm that the generalized slope method is exact in the low-frequency limit, and bound its error for finite frequencies. The bi-directional 3ω measurement device is validated using control experiments to within ±2% (liquid water, standard deviation) and ±5% (ice). Measurements of mouse liver cover a temperature ranging from -69 °C to +33 °C. The liver results are independent of sample thicknesses from 3 mm down to 100 μm and agree with available literature for non-mouse liver to within the measurement scatter. PMID:25638111

  8. Reusable bi-directionalsensor to measure thermal conductivity of 100-μm thick biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubner, Sean D.; Choi, Jeunghwan; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Waag, Bastian; Mishra, Vivek; Natesan, Harishankar; Bischof, John C.; Dames, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the thermal conductivity (k) of biological tissues is important for cryopreservation, thermal ablation, and cryosurgery. Here, we adapt the 3ω method—widely used for rigid, inorganic solids—as a reusable sensor to measure k of soft biological samples two orders of magnitude thinner than conventional tissue characterization methods. Analytical and numerical studies quantify the error of the commonly used "boundary mismatch approximation" of the bi-directional 3ω geometry, confirm that the generalized slope method is exact in the low-frequency limit, and bound its error for finite frequencies. The bi-directional 3ω measurement device is validated using control experiments to within ±2% (liquid water, standard deviation) and ±5% (ice). Measurements of mouse liver cover a temperature ranging from -69 °C to +33 °C. The liver results are independent of sample thicknesses from 3 mm down to 100 μm and agree with available literature for non-mouse liver to within the measurement scatter.

  9. Nanoribbon field-effect transistors as direct and label-free sensors of enzyme-substrate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Luye; Droujinine, Ilia; Rajan, Nitin; Sawtelle, Sonya; Reed, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The ability to measure enzyme-substrate interactions is essential in areas such as diagnostics, treatment, and biochemical screens. Many enzymatic reactions alter the pH of its environment, suggesting of a simple and direct method for detection. We show the ability of Al2O3-coated Si nanoribbon field-effect transistor biosensors to sensitively measure various aspects of enzyme-substrate interactions through measuring the pH. Urea in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and penicillinase in PBS and urine were measured to limits of <200 μM and 0.02 units/mL, respectively. We also show the ability to extract accurate kinetics from the interaction of acetylcholine and its esterase. Prior work on FET sensors has been limited by the use of surface functionalization, which not only alters enzyme-substrate affinity, but also makes enzyme activity quantification difficult. Our method involves direct detection of reactions in solution without requiring alteration to the reactants, allowing us to obtain repeatable results and sensitive limits of detection. This method is a simple, inexpensive, and effective platform for detection of enzymatic reactions, and can be readily generalized to many unrelated classes of reactants. This work was supported in part by U.S. Army Research Office and Air Force Research Laboratory.

  10. Using Vanadium in Spinel as a Sensor of Oxygen Fugacity in Meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and Other Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Le, L.; Newville, M.; Pando, K.

    2009-01-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer [1]. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO2 using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO2 of many of these samples is not well known, other than being "reduced" and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO2 (Fig. 1) [2], and this has been calibrated over a large fO 2 range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO2 constraints.

  11. Lateral pulse jet control of a direct fire atmospheric rocket using an inertial measurement unit sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitpraphai, Thanat

    Impact point dispersion of a direct fire rocket can be drastically reduced with a ring of appropriately sized lateral pulse jets coupled to a trajectory tracking flight control system. The system is shown to work well against uncertainty in the form of initial off-axis angular velocity perturbations as well as atmospheric winds. For an example case examined, dispersion was reduced by a factor of one hundred. Dispersion reduction and mean miss distance are strong functions of the number of individual pulse jets, the pulse jet impulse, and the trajectory tracking window size. Proper selection of these parameters for a particular rocket and launcher combination is required to achieve optimum dispersion reduction to the pulse jet control mechanism. For the lateral pulse jet control mechanism that falls into the category of an impulse control mechanism, the trajectory tracking flight control law provides better reduction in dispersion and mean miss distance than the proportional navigation guidance law especially when small number of individual pulse jets is used. Estimation of body frame components of angular velocity and angular acceleration of a rigid body projectile undergoing general three-dimensional motion using linear acceleration measurements is considered. The results are comparable to those obtained from a conventional Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that composes of accelerometers and gyroscopes. From the study of the effect of sensor errors to the measurement and the control performance, the sensitivity of the angular rate estimation to the sensor noise is a strong function of the constellation of these three accelerometers. When more than three point measurements are used, the most effective method to fuse data is with one cluster that contains all sensors. In the conventional IMU, the dispersion and miss distance are less sensitive to the errors from accelerometers than to the gyroscopes. The estimation of angular rates plays essential roles in the

  12. Iron-sulfur clusters as biological sensors: the chemistry of reactions with molecular oxygen and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Crack, Jason C; Green, Jeffrey; Thomson, Andrew J; Le Brun, Nick E

    2014-10-21

    Iron-sulfur cluster proteins exhibit a range of physicochemical properties that underpin their functional diversity in biology, which includes roles in electron transfer, catalysis, and gene regulation. Transcriptional regulators that utilize iron-sulfur clusters are a growing group that exploit the redox and coordination properties of the clusters to act as sensors of environmental conditions including O2, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and metabolic nutritional status. To understand the mechanism by which a cluster detects such analytes and then generates modulation of DNA-binding affinity, we have undertaken a combined strategy of in vivo and in vitro studies of a range of regulators. In vitro studies of iron-sulfur cluster proteins are particularly challenging because of the inherent reactivity and fragility of the cluster, often necessitating strict anaerobic conditions for all manipulations. Nevertheless, and as discussed in this Account, significant progress has been made over the past decade in studies of O2-sensing by the fumarate and nitrate reduction (FNR) regulator and, more recently, nitric oxide (NO)-sensing by WhiB-like (Wbl) and FNR proteins. Escherichia coli FNR binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster under anaerobic conditions leading to a DNA-binding dimeric form. Exposure to O2 converts the cluster to a [2Fe-2S] form, leading to protein monomerization and hence loss of DNA binding ability. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies have shown that the conversion proceeds via at least two steps and involves a [3Fe-4S](1+) intermediate. The second step involves the release of two bridging sulfide ions from the cluster that, unusually, are not released into solution but rather undergo oxidation to sulfane (S(0)) subsequently forming cysteine persulfides that then coordinate the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Studies of other [4Fe-4S] cluster proteins that undergo oxidative cluster conversion indicate that persulfide formation and coordination may be more common than previously

  13. Doping directed at the oxygen sites in Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) - The effect of sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.; Boyne, D.; Farrell, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of three dopants directed at the oxygen sites in Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) have been investigated: sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine. Single-phase material has been obtained up to a (nominal) replacement of about 1 percent of the oxygen. Although the lattice parameters are unchanged, all dopants raise Tc (very slightly), sharpen the resistive transition, reduce the normal state resistivity, and very substantially increase the (magnetically determined) fraction of the material that is superconducting. All of these results differ qualitatively from those obtained with dopants directed at other locations in the 123 structure, and it is suggested that small additions of sulfur, fluorine, or chlorine may help to stabilize the ideal 123 stoichiometry.

  14. Direct measurement of intracellular free Ca2+ in rat peritoneal macrophages: correlation with oxygen-radical production.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M B; Campbell, A K

    1983-01-01

    A novel method has been developed, based on osmotic lysis of intracellular pinocytotic vesicles, to introduce the Ca2+-activated photoprotein obelin into the cytoplasm of rat peritoneal macrophages. The change in osmolarity of the incubating medium necessary to induce lysis of the pinocytotic vesicles did not significantly affect the viability or responsiveness of the cells. The method enabled on average 3 fl of external medium to be introduced into each cell. Macrophages loaded with photoprotein had a resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration of 0.24 +/- 0.02 microM, calculated from the obelin consumption rate. The calcium ionophore, A23187, induced a prolonged rise in intracellular Ca2+ and also stimulated oxygen-radical production, monitored by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, 1 microM, produced a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ which reached a plateau of 1.2 +/- 0.64 microM (n = 7) and declined with a half-time of approximately 40 sec. Unopsonized particles, latex beads (diameter = 1 micron), did not produce any detectable rise in intracellular Ca2+. Incorporation of a calcium chelator EGTA-ethylene-glycol-bis-(aminoethylether) tetra-acetate--into the cytoplasm abolished the transient intracellular Ca2+ rise induced by chemotactic peptide. Oxygen-radical production was also abolished. However, oxygen radical production induced by unopsonized particles was unaffected by intracellular EGTA. It was concluded that oxygen-radical production detected by chemiluminescence can be triggered by a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Chemotactic peptide induces oxygen-radical production by this mechanism. However, unopsonized particles induce oxygen-radical production by a mechanism independent of a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Images Figure 1 PMID:6414943

  15. 75 FR 30292 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinders as Installed on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... in the Federal Register as a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) on March 17, 2010 (75 FR 12713... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... improper heat treatment. We are issuing this AD to prevent an oxygen cylinder from rupturing,...

  16. 75 FR 3141 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinder Assemblies, as Installed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...-16049 (74 FR 63063, December 2, 2009). That AD applies to certain AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace oxygen... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....13 by removing amendment 39-16049 (74 FR 63063, December 2, 2009) and adding the following new...

  17. Flow direction variations of low energy ions as measured by the ion electron sensor (IES) flying on board of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szegö, Karoly; Nemeth, Zoltan; Foldy, Lajos; Burch, James L.; Goldstein, Raymond; Mandt, Kathleen; Mokashi, Prachet; Broiles, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Ion Electron Sensor (IES) simultaneously measures ions and electrons with two separate electrostatic plasma analyzers in the energy range of 4 eV- 22 keV for ions. The field of view is 90ox360o, with angular resolution 5ox45o for ions, with a sector containing the solar wind being further segmented to 5o × 5o. IES has operated continuously since early 2014. In the ion data a low energy (<50-100 eV) component is well separated from the higher energy ions. Here we analyze the arrival direction of this low energy component. The origin of these low energy ions is certainly the ionized component of the neutral gas emitted due to solar activity from comet 67P/Churiumov-Gerasimenko. The low energy component in general shows a 6h periodicity due to cometary rotation. The data show, however, that the arrival direction of the low energy ions is smeared both in azimuth and elevation, due possibly to the diverse mechanisms affecting these ions. One of these effects is the spacecraft potential (~-10V), which accelerates the ions towards the spacecraft omnidirectionally. To characterize the flow direction in azimuth-elevation, we have integrated over the lowest 8 energy channels using weighted energy: sum(counts * energy)/sum(counts); and considered only cases when the counts are above 30. When we apply higher cut for counts, the flow direction became more definite. For this analysis we use data files where the two neighbouring energy values and elevation values are collapsed; and the azimuthal resolution is 45o, that is the solar wind azimuthal segmentation is also collapsed. Here we use day 2014.09.11. as illustration. On that day a solar wind shock reached the spacecraft at about ~10 UT. After the shock transition the energy of the solar wind became higher, and after ~12 UT the flow direction of the solar wind fluctuated, sometimes by 35o. On this day Rosetta flew at about 29.3-29.6 km from the nucleus. In the azimuth-elevation plots summed over "weighted energy" (as

  18. Direct measurement of myocardial oxygen tension and high energy phosphate content under varying ventilatory conditions in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian; Troitzsch, Dirk; Spath, Silvia; Portig, Irene; Moosdorf, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Effective myocardial oxygen supply should not be compromised during cardiac surgery as it is essential to avoid circulatory and cardiac dysfunction. Local measurement of myocardial oxygen partial pressure (pO2) was therefore introduced into the operative monitoring of myocardial ischemia. The aim of the present study was to assess whether myocardial oxygen partial pressure correlates with the content of high energy phosphates (HEPs). Seven male rabbits were examined in parallel with measurement of myocardial pO2 by an implanted Clark electrode and 31phosphorus-NMR spectroscopy. The ventilatory management established hyperoxygenation followed by systemic hypoxia with hypercapnia for 20 min. Additionally, analysis of end-expiratory gas composition in combination with blood gas analysis was performed simultaneously, and hemodynamic parameter was recorded. Under hypoxic conditions the cardiovascular system was severely compromised, whereas the myocardial pO2 was only moderately impaired (pO2M 45.0+/-16.0 mm Hg). Immediately before cardiac arrest, low values of arterial and venous pO2 were found (17.6+/-6.0 and 12.9+/-6.1 mm Hg). In contrast to near normal myocardial pO2, HEP content in the myocardium was considerably reduced and inorganic phosphorus was increased. Artificial ventilation leading to systemic hypoxia and eventually circulatory arrest resulted in almost normal myocardial pO2 but severely compromised HEP content. This somewhat unexpected finding requires further clarification, but is in accordance with findings reported previously where regulatory mechanisms have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of severe hypoxic conditions such as those for cellular oxygen delivery and demand, P/O coupling and finally control of HEP production facilitating the interaction between respiratory chain and myoglobin oxygen transport. PMID:19807283

  19. Direct Evidence that Scorpion α-Toxins (Site-3) Modulate Sodium Channel Inactivation by Hindrance of Voltage-Sensor Movements

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhongming; Kong, Jun; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Kallen, Roland G.

    2013-01-01

    The position of the voltage-sensing transmembrane segment, S4, in voltage-gated ion channels as a function of voltage remains incompletely elucidated. Site-3 toxins bind primarily to the extracellular loops connecting transmembrane helical segments S1-S2 and S3-S4 in Domain 4 (D4) and S5-S6 in Domain 1 (D1) and slow fast-inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. As S4 of the human skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, hNav1.4, moves in response to depolarization from the resting to the inactivated state, two D4S4 reporters (R2C and R3C, Arg1451Cys and Arg1454Cys, respectively) move from internal to external positions as deduced by reactivity to internally or externally applied sulfhydryl group reagents, methane thiosulfonates (MTS). The changes in reporter reactivity, when cycling rapidly between hyperpolarized and depolarized voltages, enabled determination of the positions of the D4 voltage-sensor and of its rate of movement. Scorpion α-toxin binding impedes D4S4 segment movement during inactivation since the modification rates of R3C in hNav1.4 with methanethiosulfonate (CH3SO2SCH2CH2R, where R = -N(CH3)3+ trimethylammonium, MTSET) and benzophenone-4-carboxamidocysteine methanethiosulfonate (BPMTS) were slowed ~10-fold in toxin-modified channels. Based upon the different size, hydrophobicity and charge of the two reagents it is unlikely that the change in reactivity is due to direct or indirect blockage of access of this site to reagent in the presence of toxin (Tx), but rather is the result of inability of this segment to move outward to the normal extent and at the normal rate in the toxin-modified channel. Measurements of availability of R3C to internally applied reagent show decreased access (slower rates of thiol reaction) providing further evidence for encumbered D4S4 movement in the presence of toxins consistent with the assignment of at least part of the toxin binding site to the region of D4S4 region of the voltage-sensor module. PMID

  20. Upgrading oxygenated Fischer-Tropsch derivatives and one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol - examples of the desirability of research on simple chemical compounds transformations.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenates formed as by-products of Fischer-Tropsch syntheses can be transformed into other Fischer-Tropsch derived oxygenates instead of treating them as unwanted chemicals. One-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol is feasible with the use of some heterogeneous catalysts. Despite their apparent simplicity, both transformations are discussed as targeted fields of research. Furthermore, the two concepts are justified due to the environmental protection. Arguments regarding the Fischer-Tropsch process are focused on the opportunities of the utilization of undesirable by-products. The effective striving for their utilization can make the oxygenates the targeted products of this process. Arguments regarding the one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate underline the environmental protection and sustainability as a less waste-generating method but, above all, highlight the possibility of reducing the glycerol overproduction problem. The production of ethyl acetate from bioethanol and then transesterification of fats and oils with the use of ethyl acetate allows managing all the renewable raw materials. Thus, the process enables the biosynthesis of biodiesel without glycerine by-product and potentially would result in the increase in the demand for ethyl acetate. Graphical Abstract. PMID:25648719

  1. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  2. The Binding And Release of Oxygen And Hydrogen Peroxide are Directed 1 By a Hydrophobic Tunnel in Cholesterol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Lyubimov, A.Y.; Brammer, L.; Vrielink, A.; Sampson, N.S.

    2009-05-12

    The usage by enzymes of specific binding pathways for gaseous substrates or products is debated. The crystal structure of the redox enzyme cholesterol oxidase, determined at sub-angstrom resolution, revealed a hydrophobic tunnel that may serve as a binding pathway for oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. This tunnel is formed by a cascade of conformational rearrangements and connects the active site with the exterior surface of the protein. To elucidate the relationship between this tunnel and gas binding and release, three mutant enzymes were constructed to block the tunnel or its putative gate. Mutation of the proposed gating residue Asn485 to Asp or tunnel residue Phe359 or Gly347 to Trp or Asn reduces the catalytic efficiency of oxidation. The K mO 2 increases from 300 +/- 35 microM for the wild-type enzyme to 617 +/- 15 microM for the F359W mutant. The k cat for the F359W mutant-catalyzed reaction decreases 13-fold relative to that of the wild-type-catalyzed reaction. The N485D and G347N mutants could not be saturated with oxygen. Transfer of hydride from the sterol to the flavin prosthetic group is no longer rate-limiting for these tunnel mutants. The steady-state kinetics of both wild-type and tunnel mutant enzymes are consistent with formation of a ternary complex of steroid and oxygen during catalysis. Furthermore, kinetic cooperativity with respect to molecular oxygen is observed with the tunnel mutants, but not with the wild-type enzyme. A rate-limiting conformational change for binding and release of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, is consistent with the cooperative kinetics. In the atomic-resolution structure of F359W, the indole ring of the tryptophan completely fills the tunnel and is observed in only a single conformation. The size of the indole is proposed to limit conformational rearrangement of residue 359 that leads to tunnel opening in the wild-type enzyme. Overall, these results substantiate the functional importance of the tunnel for

  3. Biological application of micro-electro mechanical systems microelectrode array sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in the enhanced biological phosphorous removal process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyoung; Lee, Jin-Hwan; Bishop, Paul L; Papautsky, Ian

    2009-08-01

    The determination of phosphate has been of great importance in the fields of clinical, environmental, and horticultural analysis for over three decades. New cobalt-based micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) microelectrode array (MEA) sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in small environmental samples, such as microbial aggregates, has been introduced and applied here for in situ measurement of phosphate within activated sludge flocs in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The MEMS technologies offer the advantages of accurate fabrication methods, reduced complexity of the fabrication process, mass production, low cost, and increased reliability. Well-defined phosphate profiles across the flocs were observed under anaerobic conditions, during which, phosphate was released from the flocs, using the MEMS MEA sensor. The microprofiles were compared with the microprofiles measured using conventional phosphate microelectrodes. The developed MEMS MEA sensors were useful tools for the in situ measurement of phosphate in small aggregates. PMID:19774851

  4. The MOSDEF Survey: Detection of [O III]λ4363 and the Direct-method Oxygen Abundance of a Star-forming Galaxy at z = 3.08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura

    2016-07-01

    We present measurements of the electron-temperature-based oxygen abundance for a highly star-forming galaxy at z = 3.08, COSMOS-1908. This is the highest redshift at which [O iii]λ4363 has been detected and the first time that this line has been measured at z\\gt 2. We estimate an oxygen abundance of 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})={8.00}-0.14+0.13. This galaxy is a low-mass ({10}9.3 {M}ȯ ), highly star-forming (∼50 {M}ȯ yr‑1) system that hosts a young stellar population (∼160 Myr). We investigate the physical conditions of the ionized gas in COSMOS-1908 and find that this galaxy has a high ionization parameter, little nebular reddening (E{(B-V)}{{gas}}\\lt 0.14), and a high electron density ({n}e∼ 500 cm‑3). We compare the ratios of strong oxygen, neon, and hydrogen lines to the direct-method oxygen abundance for COSMOS-1908 and additional star-forming galaxies at z=0-1.8 with [O iii]λ4363 measurements and show that galaxies at z∼ 1{--}3 follow the same strong-line correlations as galaxies in the local universe. This agreement suggests that the relationship between ionization parameter and O/H is similar for z∼ 0 and high-redshift galaxies. These results imply that metallicity calibrations based on lines of oxygen, neon, and hydrogen do not strongly evolve with redshift and can reliably estimate abundances out to z∼ 3, paving the way for robust measurements of the evolution of the mass–metallicity relation to high redshift. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  5. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    PubMed Central

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Pallejà, Tomàs; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150°) while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°). In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99) with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range. PMID:22247696

  6. Efficient direct oxygen reduction by laccases attached and oriented on pyrene-functionalized polypyrrole/carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lalaoui, Noémie; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2013-10-18

    We report the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes by oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers bearing pyrene and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups. Both polymers were applied to the immobilization and electrical wiring of Trametes versicolor laccase via chemical grafting or non-covalent binding. A "pseudo" host-guest interaction of polymerized pyrene with a hydrophobic cavity of laccase was used for the oriented enzyme immobilization on MWCNT electrodes. The latter leads to higher catalytic current for oxygen reduction (1.85 mA cm(-2)) and higher electroenzymatic stability (50% after one month). PMID:23994955

  7. Wiring laccase on covalently modified graphene: carbon nanotube assemblies for the direct bio-electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Lalaoui, Noémie; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Mermoux, Michel; Cosnier, Serge

    2015-02-16

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was covalently functionalized by the in situ generation and reduction of anthraquinone diazonium salt. Deposition on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes prevents the aggregation of RGO nanosheets and allows the stable deposition of modified graphene, accompanied with excellent electron transfer properties. Laccases were immobilized on the nanostructured electrode by the interaction between the anthraquinone moiety and the laccase hydrophobic pocket located near the T1 copper center. The MWCNT/f-RGO electrode exhibits efficient bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction, with current densities of up to 0.9 mA cm(-2) . PMID:25504469

  8. Direct detection of Pb in urine and Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in natural waters using electrochemical sensors immobilized with DMSA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Choi, Daiwon; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    Urine is universally recognized as one of the best non-invasive matrices for biomonitoring exposure to a broad range of xenobiotics including toxic metals. For direct, simple, and field-deployable monitoring of urinary Pb, electrochemical sensors employing superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a surface functionalization of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been developed. The metal detection involves rapid collection of dispersed metal-bound nanoparticles from a sample solution at a magnetic or electromagnetic electrode, followed by the stripping voltammetry of the metal in acidic medium. The sensors were evaluated as a function of solution pH, the binding affinity of Pb to DMSA-Fe3O4, the ratio of nanoparticles per sample volume, preconcentration time, and Pb concentrations. The effect of binding competitions between the DMSA-Fe3O4 and urine constituents for Pb on the sensor responses was studied. After 90s of preconcentration in samples containing 25 vol.% of rat urine and 0.1 g/L of DMSA-Fe3O4, the sensor could detect background level of Pb (< 1 ppb) and yielded linear responses from 0 to 50 ppb of Pb, excellent reproducibility (%R.S.D of 5.3 for seven measurements of 30 ppb Pb), and Pb concentrations comparable to those measured by ICP-MS. The sensor could also simultaneously detect background levels (< 1 ppb) of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in river and seawater.

  9. Atomic Resolution of Calcium and Oxygen Sublattices of Calcite in Ambient Conditions by Atomic Force Microscopy Using qPlus Sensors with Sapphire Tips.

    PubMed

    Wastl, Daniel S; Judmann, Michael; Weymouth, Alfred J; Giessibl, Franz J

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and imaging at the atomic scale with atomic force microscopy in biocompatible environments is an ongoing challenge. We demonstrate atomically resolved imaging of the calcite (101̅4) surface plane using stiff quartz cantilevers ("qPlus sensors", stiffness k = 1280 N/m) equipped with sapphire tips in ambient conditions without any surface preparation. With 10 atoms in one surface unit cell, calcite has a highly complex surface structure comprising three different chemical elements (Ca, C, and O). We obtain true atomic resolution of calcite in air at relative humidity ranging from 20% to 40%, imaging atomic steps and single atomic defects. We observe a great durability of sapphire tips with their Mohs hardness of 9, only one step below diamond. Depending on the state of the sapphire tip, we resolve either the calcium or the oxygen sublattice. We determine the tip termination by comparing the experimental images with simulations and discuss the possibility of chemical tip identification in air. The main challenges for imaging arise from the presence of water layers, which form on almost all surfaces and have the potential to dissolve the crystal surface. Frequency shift versus distance spectra show the presence of at least three ordered hydration layers. The measured height of the first hydration layer corresponds well to X-ray diffraction data and molecular dynamic simulations, namely, ∼220 pm. For the following hydration layers we measure ∼380 pm for the second and third layer, ending up in a total hydration layer thickness of at least 1 nm. Understanding the influence of water layers and their structure is important for surface segregation, surface reactions including reconstructions, healing of defects, and corrosion. PMID:25816927

  10. Layered oxygen-deficient double perovskite as an efficient and stable anode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Choi, Sihyuk; Jun, Areum; Shin, Tae Ho; Ju, Young-Wan; Jeong, Hu Young; Shin, Jeeyoung; Irvine, John T S; Kim, Guntae

    2015-02-01

    Different layered perovskite-related oxides are known to exhibit important electronic, magnetic and electrochemical properties. Owing to their excellent mixed-ionic and electronic conductivity and fast oxygen kinetics, cation layered double perovskite oxides such as PrBaCo2O5 in particular have exhibited excellent properties as solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes. Here, we show for the first time that related layered materials can be used as high-performance fuel electrodes. Good redox stability with tolerance to coking and sulphur contamination from hydrocarbon fuels is demonstrated for the layered perovskite anode PrBaMn2O5+δ (PBMO). The PBMO anode is fabricated by in situ annealing of Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-δ in fuel conditions and actual fuel cell operation is demonstrated. At 800 °C, layered PBMO shows high electrical conductivity of 8.16 S cm(-1) in 5% H2 and demonstrates peak power densities of 1.7 and 1.3 W cm(-2) at 850 °C using humidified hydrogen and propane fuels, respectively. PMID:25532072

  11. Direct rate constant measurements for the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen with ethylene, 244-1052 K

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.B.; Nesbitt, F.L.; Skolnik, E.G.; Lee, J.H.; Smalley, J.F.

    1987-03-12

    The rate constant for the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen with ethylene was determined by using two techniques: flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF, 244-1052 K) and discharge flow-resonance fluorescence (DF-RF, 298-1017 K). Kinetic complications due to the presence of molecular oxygen in the FP-RF experiments at high temperatures (T > 800 K) were overcome by using NO as the photolytic source of the O atoms. The rate constant, k/sub 1/ (T), derived in this study exhibits extreme non-Arrhenius behavior, but it can be successfully fit to the sum of exponentials expression, 244-1052 K, k/sub 1/(T) = (1.02 +/- 0.06) x 10/sup -11/ exp(-753 +/- 17 K/T) + (2.75 +/- 0.26) x 10/sup -10/ exp(-4220 +/- 550 K/T), in units of cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Additionally, a fit of the results of this work to a simple transition-state theory expression and the comparison of these results with those of other workers are discussed.

  12. Layered oxygen-deficient double perovskite as an efficient and stable anode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Choi, Sihyuk; Jun, Areum; Shin, Tae Ho; Ju, Young-Wan; Jeong, Hu Young; Shin, Jeeyoung; Irvine, John T. S.; Kim, Guntae

    2015-02-01

    Different layered perovskite-related oxides are known to exhibit important electronic, magnetic and electrochemical properties. Owing to their excellent mixed-ionic and electronic conductivity and fast oxygen kinetics, cation layered double perovskite oxides such as PrBaCo2O5 in particular have exhibited excellent properties as solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes. Here, we show for the first time that related layered materials can be used as high-performance fuel electrodes. Good redox stability with tolerance to coking and sulphur contamination from hydrocarbon fuels is demonstrated for the layered perovskite anode PrBaMn2O5+δ (PBMO). The PBMO anode is fabricated by in situ annealing of Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-δ in fuel conditions and actual fuel cell operation is demonstrated. At 800 °C, layered PBMO shows high electrical conductivity of 8.16 S cm-1 in 5% H2 and demonstrates peak power densities of 1.7 and 1.3 W cm-2 at 850 °C using humidified hy