Science.gov

Sample records for direct product experience

  1. Direct Photon and Neutral Pion Production in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions Measured with the ALICE Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peressounko, D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of direct photon and neutral pion production in heavy-ion collisions provide a comprehensive set of observables characterizing properties of the hot QCD medium. Direct photons provide means to test the initial stage of an AA collision and carry information about the temperature and space-time evolution of the hot medium. Neutral pion suppression probes the parton energy loss in the hot medium. Measurements of neutral meson spectra in pp collisions at LHC energies √ {s} = 0.9, ; 2.76, ; 7 ; {textrm{TeV}} serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and also provide valuable input data for parameterization of the QCD parton Fragmentation Functions. In this talk, results from the ALICE experiment on direct photon and neutral pion production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions are summarized.

  2. Search for Direct Stop Production Using the Razor Variables with the CMS Experiment at the CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Lucie

    A search for supersymmetry in the context of direct stop production is presented using the full 19/fb dataset collected in 2012 by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider with a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. This analysis makes use of the razor kinematic variables, aimed at formulating searches for new physics as a resonance search, despite the lack of constraints from missing momentum due to new physics particles escaping the detector unseen. In the absence of a signal, upper limits on allowed cross sections are derived, resulting in excluded masses for stops and neutralinos (assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle).

  3. Solar hydrogen production with semiconductor metal oxides: new directions in experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Álvaro; Brillet, Jeremie; Grätzel, Michael; Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur; Hansen, Heine A; Jónsson, Hannes; Klüpfel, Peter; Kroes, Geert-Jan; Le Formal, Florian; Man, Isabela C; Martins, Rafael S; Nørskov, Jens K; Rossmeisl, Jan; Sivula, Kevin; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Zäch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An overview of a collaborative experimental and theoretical effort toward efficient hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical splitting of water into di-hydrogen and di-oxygen is presented here. We present state-of-the-art experimental studies using hematite and TiO(2) functionalized with gold nanoparticles as photoanode materials, and theoretical studies on electro and photo-catalysis of water on a range of metal oxide semiconductor materials, including recently developed implementation of self-interaction corrected energy functionals. PMID:22083224

  4. Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    With a mass at least six orders of magnitudes smaller than the mass of an electron – but non-zero – neutrinos are a clear misfit in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. On the one hand, its tiny mass makes the neutrino one of the most interesting particles, one that might hold the key to physics beyond the Standard Model. On the other hand this minute mass leads to great challenges in its experimental determination. Three approaches are currently pursued: An indirect neutrino mass determination via cosmological observables, the search for neutrinoless double β-decay, and a direct measurement based on the kinematics of single β-decay. In this paper the latter will be discussed in detail and the status and scientific reach of the current and near-future experiments will be presented.

  5. Direct thermal water splitting by concentrated solar radiation for hydrogen production. Phase O: Proof of concept experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genequand, P.

    1980-01-01

    The direct production of hydrogen from water and solar energy concentrated into a high temperature aperture is described. A solar powered reactor able to dissociate water vapor and to separate the reaction product at high temperature was developed, and direct water splitting has been achieved in a laboratory reactor. Water vapor and radiative heating from a carbon dioxide laser are fed into the reactor, and water vapor enriched in hydrogen and water vapor enriched in oxygen are produced. The enriched water vapors are separated through a separation membrane, a small disc of zirconium dioxide heated to a range of 1800 k to 2800 k. To avoid water vapor condensation within the reactor, the total pressure within the reactor was limited to 0.15 torr. A few modifications would enable the reactor to be operated at an increased pressure of a few torrs. More substantial modifications would allow for a reaction pressure of 0.1 atmosphere.

  6. Learning to dislike safe water products: results from a randomized controlled trial of the effects of direct and peer experience on willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Jill; Mahmud, Minhaj; Albert, Jeff; Luby, Stephen; Najnin, Nusrat; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I

    2012-06-01

    Low-cost point-of-use (POU) safe water products have the potential to reduce waterborne illness, but adoption by the global poor remains low. We performed an eight-month randomized trial of four low-cost household water treatment products in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Intervention households (n = 600) received repeated educational messages about the importance of drinking safe water along with consecutive two-month free trials with each of four POU products in random order. Households randomly assigned to the control group (n = 200) did not receive free products or repeated educational messages. Households' willingness to pay for these products was quite low on average (as measured by bids in an incentive-compatible real-money auction), although a modest share was willing to pay the actual or expected retail price for low-cost chlorine-based products. Furthermore, contrary to our hypotheses that both one's own personal experience and the influence of one's peers would increase consumers' willingness to pay, direct experience significantly decreased mean bids by 18-55% for three of the four products and had no discernible effect on the fourth. Neighbor experience also did not increase bids. Widespread dissemination of safe water products is unlikely until we better understand the preferences and aspirations of these at-risk populations. PMID:22563851

  7. DSRP, Direct Sulfur Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B.; Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization processes for IGCC and other advanced power applications utilize regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from raw coal gas. Regeneration of these sorbents produces an off-gas typically containing I to 3 percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Production of elemental sulfur is a highly desirable option for the ultimate disposal of the SO{sub 2} content of this off-gas. Elemental sulfur, an essential industrial commodity, is easily stored and transported. As shown in Figure 1, the DSRP consists of two catalytic reactors, each followed by a sulfur condenser. Hot regenerator off-gas is mixed with a hot coal-gas slip stream and fed to the first DSRP reactor. Approximately 95 percent of the sulfur gas in the inlet stream of the first reactor is converted to elemental sulfur. The outlet gas of the first DSRP reactor is cooled, condensing out sulfur. The gas could be recycled after the Stage I condenser. Alteratively, by adjusting the proportion of coal gas to regenerator off-gas, the effluent composition of the first reactor can be controlled to produce an H{sub 2}S-to-SO{sub 2} ratio of 2 to 1 at 95 percent sulfur conversion. The cooled gas stream is then passed to the second DSRP reactor where 80 to 90 percent of the remaining sulfur compounds are converted to elemental sulfur via the modified Claus reaction at high pressure. The total efficiency of the two reactors for the conversion of sulfur compounds to elemental sulfur is projected to be about 99.5 percent.

  8. Hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2013-02-01

    The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  9. Introducing DIASCoPE: Directly Integrated Acoustic System Combined with Pressure Experiments — Changing the Paradigm from Product to Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. B.; Tercé, N.; Bejina, F.; Bystricky, M.; Chen, H.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the properties and behaviors of materials and multi-phase aggregates under conditions of high pressure and temperature is vital to unraveling the mysteries that lie beneath the surface of the planet. Advances in in situexperimental techniques using synchrotron radiation at these extreme conditions have helped to provide answers to fundamental questions that were previously unattainable. Synchrotron-based ultrasonic interferometry measurements have proven to be especially important in determining acoustic velocities and thermoelastic properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures. However, due to relatively slow data collection times, it has been difficult to measure the effects of processes as they occur, and instead the measurement is made on the end product of these processes. DIASCoPE is an important step toward addressing this problem.Over the last three years, we have designed and developed an on-board ultrasonic acoustic velocity measurement system that cuts data collection time down by over an order of magnitude. We can now measure P- and S-wave travel times in samples at extreme conditions in less than one second. Moreover, the system has been fully integrated with the multi-anvil apparatus and the EPICS control system at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, allowing for greater ease of control andfull automation of experimental data collection. The DIASCoPE has completed the testing and commissioning phase, and the first data collected using this powerful new system will be presented here.DIASCoPE represents a major step forward in acoustic velocity collection time reduction that will finally allow us to begin to witness what effects various processes in the deep Earth may have on the physical properties of materials at extreme conditions as they occur. These new capabilities will allow us to change the focus of study from the product to the process itself and will lead to a greater understanding of the

  10. Polar-direct-drive simulations and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Skupsky, S.; Bonino, M.J.; Collins, T.J.B.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Sangster, T.C.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.

    2006-05-15

    Polar direct drive (PDD) [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] will allow direct-drive ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] as it is configured for x-ray drive. Optimal drive uniformity is obtained via a combination of beam repointing, pulse shapes, spot shapes, and/or target design. This article describes progress in the development of standard and 'Saturn' [R. S. Craxton and D. W. Jacobs-Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0952002 (2005)] PDD target designs. Initial evaluation of experiments on the OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508 (1995)] and simulations were carried out with the two-dimensional hydrodynamics code SAGE [R. S. Craxton et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056304 (2005)]. This article adds to this body of work by including fusion particle production and transport as well as radiation transport within the two-dimensional DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] hydrodynamics simulations used to model experiments. Forty OMEGA beams arranged in six rings to emulate the NIF x-ray-drive configuration are used to perform direct-drive implosions of CH shells filled with D{sub 2} gas. Target performance was diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting and by the measured fusion yield. Saturn target experiments have resulted in {approx}75% of the yield from energy-equivalent, symmetrically irradiated implosions. The results of the two-dimensional PDD simulations performed with DRACO are in good agreement with experimental x-ray radiographs. DRACO is being used to further optimize standard PDD designs. In addition, DRACO simulations of NIF-scale PDD designs show ignition with a gain of 20 and the development of a 40 {mu}m radius, 10 keV region with a neutron-averaged {rho}r of 1270 mg/cm{sup 2} near stagnation.

  11. Experience and convergence in spiritual direction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The practice of spiritual direction concerns the human experience of God. As praxis, spiritual direction has a long tradition in Western Christianity. It is a process rooted in spirituality with theology as its foundation. This paper explores the convergences between aspects of philosophy (contemplative awareness), psychology (Rogerian client-centered approach) and phenomenology. There are significant points of convergence between phenomenology and spiritual direction: first, in Ignatius of Loyola's phenomenological approach to his religious experience; second, in the appropriation by spiritual directors of concepts of epochē and empathy; third, in the process of "unpacking" religious experience within a spiritual direction interview. PMID:24469918

  12. Configuring NIF for direct drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.; Rothenberg, J.; Key, M.

    1995-07-11

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed 1.8 MJ laser facility for carrying out experiments in inertial confinement fusion, currently designed for indirect drive experiments. The direct drive approach is being pursued at the 30 kJ Omega facility at the University of Rochester. In this paper we discuss the modifications to the NIF laser that would be required for both indirect and direct drive experiments. A primary concern is the additional cost of adding direct drive capability to the facility.

  13. Spectroscopy and Direct Products: Simpler yet Deeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Sidney F. A.

    2010-01-01

    When irreducible representations are given in diagrammatic form, it is possible to show direct products pictorially. By giving a similar description of the electric vector associated with a light wave, group-theoretical selection rules (the requirement of a totally symmetric direct product) can also be shown in pictorial form. The [upsilon](CO)…

  14. Production of radioisotopes by direct electron activation.

    PubMed

    Weeks, K J; O'Shea, P G

    1998-04-01

    High-energy electrons bombarded on materials can induce radioactivity by either directly knocking out neutrons or by first converting a fraction of the electron kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy, with subsequent neutron emission induced by the photons produced. The purpose of this paper was to develop a calculation method for estimating neutron emission and radionuclide production by high-energy (15-25 MeV) electrons directly interacting with a nucleus. The reaction (e,n) is considered using the method of virtual photons. The cross section for electron bombardment of lead, tantalum, rhenium, and tungsten targets is calculated. The electron cross sections are roughly 100 times less than the corresponding photon cross sections. The cross section increases monotonically with incident energy. A traveling wave linear accelerator was used for a qualitative test of the magnitude and energy dependence of the calculated cross sections. Tantalum was bombarded with electrons and the resultant emission of neutrons was inferred from the induced activation of 180Ta. The energy dependence and magnitude of the calculated electron cross sections agree with experiment within experimental uncertainties. It is concluded that accurate estimates of electron activation via the direct process is possible. PMID:9571615

  15. Dark matter direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrodán Undagoitia, Teresa; Rauch, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, several detector technologies have been developed with the quest to directly detect dark matter interactions and to test one of the most important unsolved questions in modern physics. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed due to a constant development of the detectors and analysis methods, proving uniquely suited devices to solve the dark matter puzzle, as all other discovery strategies can only indirectly infer its existence. Despite the overwhelming evidence for dark matter from cosmological indications at small and large scales, clear evidence for a particle explaining these observations remains absent. This review summarises the status of direct dark matter searches, focusing on the detector technologies used to directly detect a dark matter particle producing recoil energies in the keV energy scale. The phenomenological signal expectations, main background sources, statistical treatment of data and calibration strategies are discussed.

  16. Cylindrical Implosion Experiments using Laser Direct Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbs, David

    1998-11-01

    Development of high-gain targets for the National Ignition Facility relies considerably on computational modeling, and it is important that our codes are validated against relevant experimental data in convergent geometry.(W. J. Krauser et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2084 (1996); D. C. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1953 (1998)) In collaboration with the University of Rochester, we have begun a campaign of hydrodynamic instability experiments in cylindrical geometry using direct drive,(D. L. Tubbs et al., submitted to Laser and Particle Beams (1998); C. W. Barnes et al., submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrm. (1998)) building on our success in indirect drive.( W. W. Hsing et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1832 (1997); W. W. Hsing and N. M. Hoffman, Phys. Rev. Lett., 3876 (1997)) Cylindrical targets facilitate direct diagnostic access to the convergent, hydrodynamic flow. The energy advantage of direct drive and its excellent target-illumination symmetry (achieved at OMEGA through use of Distributed Phase Plates and SSD) permit more energetic implosions, larger target scale (hence greater diagnostic resolution), longer acceleration timescales, and higher convergence than were possible using indirect drive. We estimate that specific laser energy delivered to the target for direct drive at OMEGA is roughly 4 times that achieved for indirect drive at Nova. Our first experiments (January 1998) yield excellent data for the first highly symmetrical direct-drive implosions, with which we benchmark zeroth-order hydrodynamic simulations. Two-dimensional (2-D) LASNEX calculations, using as-shot laser power histories and no further physics adjustments, match measured target-implosion data within theoretical and experimental errors. In addition, 2-D LASNEX simulations of single-mode (m=28, azimuthally symmetric) perturbation growth agree well with data obtained during our first week of experiments. For 1.5-micron initial perturbation amplitude, we observe Rayleigh-Taylor growth factors of order 10

  17. EDELWEISS experiment: Direct search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lubashevskiy, A. V. Yakushev, E. A.

    2008-07-15

    The EDELWEISS experiment is aimed at direct searches for nonbaryonic cold dark matter by means of cryogenic germanium detectors. It is deployed at the LSM underground laboratory in the Frejus tunnel, which connects France and Italy. The results of the experimentmade it possible to set a limit on the spin-independent cross section for the scattering of weak-interacting massive particles (WIMP) at a level of 10{sup -6} pb. Data from 21 detectors of total mass about 7 kg are being accumulated at the present time.

  18. Polar-Direct-Drive Experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Bonino, M.J.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk

    2006-06-28

    Polar direct drive (PDD), a promising ignition path for the NIF while the beams are in the indirect-drive configuration, is currently being investigated on the OMEGA laser system by using 40 beams in six rings repointed to more uniformly illuminate the target. The OMEGA experiments are being performed with standard, “warm” targets with and without the use of an equatorial “Saturn-like” toroidally shaped CH ring. Target implosion symmetry is diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting using additional OMEGA beams and by time-integrated x-ray imaging of the stagnating core.

  19. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O(3P) + CH4 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakó, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O(3P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) → OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  20. Strangeness production in PHENIX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, D. O.

    2016-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured production of K±, Ks, K* and ϕmesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV. While p+p collisions provide a baseline and are used for precision tests of pQCD calculations, for heavier colliding systems such as d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au nuclear modification factors are studied at different centralities. These systematic studies enrich current understanding of the strange meson production and its difference from light quark hadrons. The role of radial flow and coalescence in particle production is discussed.

  1. The Earth's velocity for direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The Earth's velocity relative to the Sun in galactic coordinates is required in the rate calculation for direct detection experiments. We provide a rigorous derivation of this quantity to first order in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. We also discuss the effect of the precession of the equinoxes, which has hitherto received little explicit discussion. Comparing with other expressions in the literature, we confirm that the expression of Lee, Lisanti and Safdi is correct, while the expression of Lewin and Smith, the de facto standard expression, contains an error. For calculations of the absolute event rate, the leading order expression is sufficient while for modulation searches, an expression with the eccentricity is required for accurate predictions of the modulation phase.

  2. Complete Photo-production Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O.; Fantini, A.; Schaerf, C.; Vegna, V.; Ardashev, K.; Bade, C.; Hicks, K.; Kizilgul, S.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J.; Bellini, V.; Blecher, M.; Bocquet, J.-P.; Lleres, A.; Rebreyend, D.; Capogni, M.; Caracappa, A.; Kistner, O. C.; Miceli, L.

    2011-10-24

    The extraction of resonance parameters from meson photo-reaction data is a challenging effort, that would greatly benefit from the availability of several polarization observables, measured for each reaction channel on both proton and neutron targets. In the aim of obtaining such complete experiments, polarized photon beams and targets have been developed at facilities, worldwide. We report on the latest results from the LEGS and GRAAL collaborations, providing single and double polarization measurements on pseudo-scalar meson photo-production from the nucleon.

  3. PC25{trademark} product and manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.W.; Riley, W.C.; Sandelli, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Product and manufacturing experience accumulated since the beginning of PC25. A production in 1991 provides a strong base of demonstration and experience for establishing future improvements to the PC25 power plant.

  4. Direct procurement of wound management products.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Trevor

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a collaborative project between Bedfordshire Community Health Services and Primary Care Trusts/Clinical Commissioning Groups to improve provision of dressings to nurses for the patients they treat. Commissioners have facilitated a transformational approach and encouraged development of efficient systems of increased cost-effectiveness rather than a transactional approach based on opportunistic cost improvement plans. Reconfiguration to direct procurement from GP prescribing has reduced wastage, released nurse time from processes to spend on clinical contact time with patients, increased efficiency, and reduced prescription workload for GPs, all without adverse effects on expenditure. Establishing a wound care products formulary placed control under the nurses treating patients and facilitated decision-making based on cost-effectiveness in clinical use. Nurses now manage 60% of expenditure in the local community health economy, and this is increasing. Relationships with the dressings manufacturing industry have also changed in a positive, constructive direction. PMID:24642737

  5. European Directive fragrances in natural products.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Scheman, Nicole; Rakowski, Ella-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Information on the presence of European Directive fragrance (EUF) allergens in plants and foods is important for numerous reasons. If an individual is allergic to an EUF and is avoiding fragrance, it is possible that they may still be exposed to the allergen in a natural product. In addition, because many of these allergens are also found in foods, it is possible that ingestion of a food containing the allergen may induce systemic contact allergy. Finally, individuals with lip dermatitis may react to contact with foods that contain the allergen. In this article, we have used the data available to identify which plants and foods contain EUF. When available, concentrations of EUF in natural products are provided. The goal of this article is to narrow down the list of botanicals to avoid for specific EUF allergies. PMID:24603515

  6. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  7. Review of direct neutrino mass experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoun, O.

    2015-10-28

    Advantages and drawbacks of the kinematic methods of the neutrino mass determination are discussed. The meaning of the effective neutrino mass, resulting from measurements of the endpoint region of β-spectra is clarified. Current experimental constraints on the mass of active as well as sterile neutrinos are presented. Several new experiments are briefly outlined.

  8. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland {number_sign}70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line.

  9. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-01-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  10. EXTRAGALACTIC DARK MATTER AND DIRECT DETECTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Baushev, A. N.

    2013-07-10

    Recent astronomical data strongly suggest that a significant part of the dark matter content of the Local Group and Virgo Supercluster is not incorporated into the galaxy halos and forms diffuse components of these galaxy clusters. A portion of the particles from these components may penetrate the Milky Way and make an extragalactic contribution to the total dark matter containment of our Galaxy. We find that the particles of the diffuse component of the Local Group are apt to contribute {approx}12% to the total dark matter density near Earth. The particles of the extragalactic dark matter stand out because of their high speed ({approx}600 km s{sup -1}), i.e., they are much faster than the galactic dark matter. In addition, their speed distribution is very narrow ({approx}20 km s{sup -1}). The particles have an isotropic velocity distribution (perhaps, in contrast to the galactic dark matter). The extragalactic dark matter should provide a significant contribution to the direct detection signal. If the detector is sensitive only to the fast particles (v > 450 km s{sup -1}), then the signal may even dominate. The density of other possible types of the extragalactic dark matter (for instance, of the diffuse component of the Virgo Supercluster) should be relatively small and comparable with the average dark matter density of the universe. However, these particles can generate anomaly high-energy collisions in direct dark matter detectors.

  11. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  12. Status and Prospects for Hadron Production Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, Raphaeel

    2010-03-30

    The latest results from the HARP, MIPP and NA61 Hadron Production Experiments are reviewed and their implications for neutrinos physics experiments are discussed. We emphasize three neutrino sources: accelerator-based neutrino beams, advanced neutrino sources and atmospheric neutrinos. Finally, prospects from additional forthcoming hadron production measurements are presented.

  13. Future Directions for the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R.; Pegasus Team

    1999-11-01

    The PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment is uniquely poised to explore the tokamak/spheromak transition regime in the near future. To this end, a new low-inductance toroidal field coil set will allow transient exploration of the Ip/ITF > 3 regime and associated plasma relaxation phenomena. The addition of a transformer and inline inductor to the ohmic power supply will increase the pulse length to 0.03-0.05 s and will couple 5-10x the present power to the plasma. The High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) antenna is complete and installation is planned for Fall 1999. The power supplies for the HHFW system have been tested up to 0.7 MW into dummy loads with future upgrades to 2 MW. Poloidal current injection via plasma guns is being tested for generating non-inductive target plasmas, thus reducing startup volt second consumption. If successful, a coaxial array of plasma guns will be used to initiate and drive the startup plasma, achieving non-inductive plasma currents 0.1-0.2 MA. Investigation of the viability of Electron Bernstein Wave heating in overdense ST plasmas is also planned, and may lead to an alternative method of non-inductive current ramp and sustainment.

  14. Superiority of Vicarious over Direct Experience in Interpersonal Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braver, Sanford L.; Rohrer, Van

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory experiment compared the relative effects of observing and participating in a first Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) on subsequent PDG encounters by the original observer and participant. Concludes that vicarious experience is superior to direct experience in producing responses that reduce interpersonal conflict. Available from: Sage…

  15. Remember judgments and the constraint of direct experience.

    PubMed

    Stoettinger, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Wolfgang; Perner, Josef

    2009-09-01

    The most direct assessment of episodic memory is provided by Remember versus Know judgments of recalled or recognised items. We investigate whether Remember judgments reflect episodic memories as a re-experience of formerly experienced events (mental time travel). If they do, they must obey the direct experience constraint: only directly experienced events can be re-experienced but not when the event is known through indirectly conveyed information. In two Experiments participants saw simple events in Power Point, e.g. a car exploding. In the direct experience condition these events were directly perceived. In three further conditions information about the object (particular car), the kind of event (explosion), or both were verbally conveyed. After controlling for a potential encoding specificity effect in Experiment 1, the frequency of Remember judgments was twice as high in the direct experience condition than in the other three conditions. This suggests that Remember judgments are--at least to some degree--subject to the direct experience constraint. PMID:18987880

  16. Data production models for the CDF experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Antos, J.; Babik, M.; Benjamin, D.; Cabrera, S.; Chan, A.W.; Chen, Y.C.; Coca, M.; Cooper, B.; Genser, K.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.L.; Jayatilaka, B.; Kraan, A.C.; Lysak, R.; Mandrichenko, I.V.; Robson, A.; Siket, M.; Stelzer, B.; Syu, J.; Teng, P.K.; /Kosice, IEF /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /University Coll. London /Fermilab /Rockefeller U. /Michigan U. /Pennsylvania U. /Glasgow U. /UCLA /Tsukuba U. /New Mexico U.

    2006-06-01

    The data production for the CDF experiment is conducted on a large Linux PC farm designed to meet the needs of data collection at a maximum rate of 40 MByte/sec. We present two data production models that exploits advances in computing and communication technology. The first production farm is a centralized system that has achieved a stable data processing rate of approximately 2 TByte per day. The recently upgraded farm is migrated to the SAM (Sequential Access to data via Metadata) data handling system. The software and hardware of the CDF production farms has been successful in providing large computing and data throughput capacity to the experiment.

  17. First, Get Your Feet Wet: The Effects of Learning from Direct and Indirect Experience on Team Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gino, Francesca; Argote, Linda; Miron-Spektor, Ella; Todorova, Gergana

    2010-01-01

    How does prior experience influence team creativity? We address this question by examining the effects of task experience acquired directly and task experience acquired vicariously from others on team creativity in a product-development task. Across three laboratory studies, we find that direct task experience leads to higher levels of team…

  18. The Problems of Utilizing "Direct Experience" in Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Many fieldtrips are designed so that students might have direct experience of "the landscape" and/or "the people". But as Scott (1992) warns, experience of "the real world" is never transparent and unmediated. It is with this central idea in mind that the author (re)examines the epistemology of two human geography fieldtrips that concerned recent…

  19. Readability of Directions on Potentially Hazardous Household Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyrczak, Fred

    1976-01-01

    The study focused on an analysis of the readability of directions on harmful household products. High school students' reading ability was tested using eight sets of sample directions. The results of the study indicate a need for improving the students' ability to read directions on such products. (EC)

  20. Direct firing of coal for power production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papay, L. T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of new technology and advanced emission control hardware to reduce emissions from the direct combustion of coal to produce electricity in California is considered. The technical feasibilty of a demonstration project on an existing 81-MW boiler is demonstrated.

  1. Caprolactam production by direct solar flux

    SciTech Connect

    Talukdar, J.; Wong, E.H.S.; Mathur, V.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The use of solar energy for the photonitrozation of cyclohexane for the production of cyclohexanone oxime hydrochloride, an intermediate for the manufacture of caprolactam, is discussed. Experimental results show the technical feasibility of such a reaction in the presence of radiation of wavelength 350-550 nm simulating sunlight.

  2. Directed abstraction: Encouraging broad, personal generalizations following a success experience.

    PubMed

    Zunick, Peter V; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 2010; Salancik, 1974), to create a new technique to encourage people with negative self-views to generalize broadly from a success experience to the self-concept. We call this technique directed abstraction. In Experiment 1, participants with negative self-views who completed a directed abstraction writing task following success feedback regarding a novel laboratory task generalized more from that success, reporting higher ability levels and greater expectations of future success in the relevant domain. In Experiment 2, directed abstraction produced similar results (including more positive self-related affect, e.g., pride) after participants recalled a past public speaking success. In Experiment 3, participants high in fear of public speaking gave two speeches in a context designed to be challenging yet also to elicit successful performances. Directed abstraction helped these participants generalize from their success to beliefs about their abilities, expectations about the future, and confidence as a speaker. In Experiment 4, directed abstraction following success on a verbal task increased persistence in the face of failure on a subsequent verbal task. We discuss implications for understanding how and when people generalize from a success, compare directed abstraction to existing interventions, and suggest practical applications for this influence technique. PMID:25984786

  3. Fixed-target hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2015-08-01

    Results from fixed-target hadroproduction experiments (HARP, MIPP, NA49 and NA61/SHINE) as well as their implications for cosmic ray and neutrino physics are reviewed. HARP measurements have been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve predictions of the muon yields in EAS and of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes as well as to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. Recent measurements released by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment and for interpretation of EAS data. These hadroproduction experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  4. An experiment for determining the Euler load by direct computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.; Stein, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    A direct algorithm is presented for computing the Euler load of a column from experimental data. The method is based on exact inextensional theory for imperfect columns, which predicts two distinct deflected shapes at loads near the Euler load. The bending stiffness of the column appears in the expression for the Euler load along with the column length, therefore the experimental data allows a direct computation of bending stiffness. Experiments on graphite-epoxy columns of rectangular cross-section are reported in the paper. The bending stiffness of each composite column computed from experiment is compared with predictions from laminated plate theory.

  5. Polar-direct-drive experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Hohenberger, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Bates, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Dixit, S. N.; Edgell, D. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Karasik, M.; Knauer, J. P.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Obenschein, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Regan, S. P.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sio, H.; Skupsky, S.; Zylstra, A.

    2016-05-01

    Polar-direct-drive experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are being used to validate direct-drive-implosion models. Energy coupling and fast-electron preheat are the primary issues being studied in planar and imploding geometries on the NIF. Results from backlit images from implosions indicate that the overall drive is well modeled although some differences remain in the thickness of the imploding shell. Implosion experiments to mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and preheat from two-plasmon decay are planned for the next year.

  6. [Recent experience with mites in stored products].

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Ceccarelli, M T; Mellino, M; Marinelli, P

    1989-01-01

    The A.A. refer a recent experience about the isolation and identification of same species of storaged timber mites. They believe that these mites are responsible of dermatitis at the trunk and the arms of timber workers. Mites are the most elderly living species on the earth, they can live and grow in different environments, such as plants, flowers, animals, men, earth, lake and sea waters, organical rubles, houses, mattresses, old books etc. There are free-living, saprophitic, parasitic and predator mites. Generally, primary mites live either freely or as commensals feeding on conserved foodstuff and on what they find available. Secondary mites, i.e. parasites and predators, live off primary mites and insects infesting foodstuff. Direct damage to foodstuff are not to be considered important, whereas indirect damages are more serious, due to the contamination of bodies and stools of mites that are rich in nitrogen. Some secondary mites may attack foodstuff workers causing characteristic dermatitis: they can act either directly, by sting and bites, or indirectly, provoking on allergic hypersensitivity. In this study the A.A. used the floating method to isolate timber mites, and then, these have been photographed at the microscope to obtain an easier and more complete identification. The A.A. describe a heterogeneous fauna consisting of both adult and larval-status insects, some species of free-living mites (Oribatula Tibialis) and, in particular, of two species secondary mites, predator, belonging to the Prostigmata sub-order. The Cheyletus Eruditus (Cheylatidae family) is a whitish mite feeding mostly on insect larva and primary mites living in foodstuff. When no prey is available, the Cheyletus Eruditus eats individuals of its own species. The Pyemotes Herfsi (Pyemotidae family) is a little white mite feeding on insect larva. It lives in conserved foodstuff and may attack man causing characteristic dermatitis such as those described by the A.A. The A.A. conclude

  7. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  8. Counting Subgroups in a Direct Product of Finite Cyclic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrillo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the number of subgroups in a direct product of finite cyclic groups by applying the fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups and a well-known structure theorem due to Goursat. We also suggest ways in which the results can be generalized to a direct product of arbitrary finite groups.

  9. Operation MEDIHC (Military Experience Directed into Health Careers). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Hospital Association, Denver.

    This Region VIII Operation MEDIHC (Military Experience Directed into Health Careers) comprehensive report covers the program's efforts to provide a state focal point of advice and assistance to all health-trained veterans seeking entrance into the civilian health services field during the period of June 1, 1970, through December 31, 1978. The…

  10. Military Experience Directed into Health Careers. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Research and Educational Fund of New Jersey, Princeton, NJ.

    Operation MEDIHC's (Military Experience Directed into Health Careers) program to help veterans trained in health skills while in military service capitalize on those skills when they return to civilian life is examined. The goal of the program was to help find civilian career opportunities and to provide free counseling and vocational guidance to…

  11. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  12. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  13. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  14. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; et al

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discussmore » the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  15. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  16. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  17. WIMP physics with ensembles of direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Annika H. G.; Gluscevic, Vera; Green, Anne M.; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Lee, Samuel K.

    2014-12-01

    The search for weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter is multi-pronged. Ultimately, the WIMP-dark-matter picture will only be confirmed if different classes of experiments see consistent signals and infer the same WIMP properties. In this work, we review the ideas, methods, and status of direct-detection searches. We focus in particular on extracting WIMP physics (WIMP interactions and phase-space distribution) from direct-detection data in the early discovery days when multiple experiments see of order dozens to hundreds of events. To demonstrate the essential complementarity of different direct-detection experiments in this context, we create mock data intended to represent the data from the near-future Generation 2 experiments. We consider both conventional supersymmetry-inspired benchmark points (with spin-independent and -dependent elastic cross sections just below current limits), as well as benchmark points for other classes of models (inelastic and effective-operator paradigms). We also investigate the effect on parameter estimation of loosening or dropping the assumptions about the local WIMP phase-space distribution. We arrive at two main conclusions. Firstly, teasing out WIMP physics with experiments depends critically on having a wide set of detector target materials, spanning a large range of target nuclear masses and spin-dependent sensitivity. It is also highly desirable to obtain data from low-threshold experiments. Secondly, a general reconstruction of the local WIMP velocity distribution, which will only be achieved if there are multiple experiments using different target materials, is critical to obtaining a robust and unbiased estimate of the WIMP mass.

  18. Recent results in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, Christopher Michael

    Three dark matter direct detection experiments (DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II) have each reported signals which resemble that predicted for a dark matter particle with a mass of roughly 10 GeV. We review the theoretical background for direct detection experiments as well as these particular detectors and their reported signals over the last few years. We also compare the signals of these experiments and discuss whether they can be explained by a single species of dark matter particle, without conflicting with the constraints of other experiments. We show that the spectrum of events reported by CoGeNT and CRESST-II are consistent with each other and with the constraints from CDMS-II, although some tension with xenon- based experiments remains. Similarly, the modulation signals reported by DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT appear to be compatible, although the corresponding amplitude of the observed modulations are a factor of at least a few higher than would be naively expected, based on the event spectra reported by CoGeNT and CRESST-II. We also discuss some ways that this apparent discrepancy could potentially be resolved.

  19. Closing supersymmetric resonance regions with direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris

    2014-01-01

    One of the few remaining ways that neutralinos could potentially evade constraints from direct detection experiments is if they annihilate through a resonance, as can occur if 2m{sub χ⁰} falls within about ~10% of either m{sub A/H}, m{sub h}, or m{sub Z}. Assuming a future rate of progress among direct detection experiments that is similar to that obtained over the past decade, we project that within 7 years the light Higgs and Z pole regions will be entirely closed, while the remaining parameter space near the A/H resonance will require that 2m{sub χ₀} be matched to the central value (near m{sub A}) to within less than 4%. At this rate of progress, it will be a little over a decade before multi-ton direct detection experiments will be able to close the remaining, highly-tuned, regions of the A/H resonance parameter space.

  20. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Bates, J. W.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Kalantar, D. H.; Karasik, M.; Kessler, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Kurz, C.; Lafon, M.; LaFortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meeker, J. F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Obenschain, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Wallace, R. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmayer, C.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive-specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D2 gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ˜500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 × 1014 to 1.2 × 1015 W/cm2. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  1. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D{sub 2} gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ∼500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 × 10{sup 14} to 1.2 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2}. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Bates, J. W.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Kalantar, D. H.; Karasik, M.; Kessler, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Kurz, C.; Lafon, M.; LaFortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meeker, J. F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Obenschain, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Wallace, R. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmayer, C.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-05-11

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D₂ gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10¹⁴ to 1.2 10¹⁵W/cm². Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  3. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Bates, J. W.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Kalantar, D. H.; Karasik, M.; Kessler, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Kurz, C.; Lafon, M.; LaFortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meeker, J. F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Obenschain, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Wallace, R. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmayer, C.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D2 gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500-750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 x 1014 to 1.2 x 1015 W/cm2. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  4. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; et al

    2015-05-11

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beammore » geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D₂ gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10¹⁴ to 1.2 10¹⁵W/cm². Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.« less

  5. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of directional wetting: comparing simulations to experiments.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H Patrick; Sotthewes, Kai; van Swigchem, Jeroen; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Kooij, E Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Modeling (LBM) simulations were performed on the dynamic behavior of liquid droplets on chemically striped patterned surfaces, ultimately with the aim to develop a predictive tool enabling reliable design of future experiments. The simulations accurately mimic experimental results, which have shown that water droplets on such surfaces adopt an elongated shape due to anisotropic preferential spreading. Details of the contact line motion such as advancing of the contact line in the direction perpendicular to the stripes exhibit pronounced similarities in experiments and simulations. The opposite of spreading, i.e., evaporation of water droplets, leads to a characteristic receding motion first in the direction parallel to the stripes, while the contact line remains pinned perpendicular to the stripes. Only when the aspect ratio is close to unity, the contact line also starts to recede in the perpendicular direction. Very similar behavior was observed in the LBM simulations. Finally, droplet movement can be induced by a gradient in surface wettability. LBM simulations show good semiquantitative agreement with experimental results of decanol droplets on a well-defined striped gradient, which move from high- to low-contact angle surfaces. Similarities and differences for all systems are described and discussed in terms of the predictive capabilities of LBM simulations to model direction wetting. PMID:23944550

  6. Discretising the velocity distribution for directional dark matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.

    2015-07-01

    Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments which are directionally-sensitive may be the only method of probing the full velocity distribution function (VDF) of the Galactic DM halo. We present an angular basis for the DM VDF which can be used to parametrise the distribution in order to mitigate astrophysical uncertainties in future directional experiments and extract information about the DM halo. This basis consists of discretising the VDF in a series of angular bins, with the VDF being only a function of the DM speed v within each bin. In contrast to other methods, such as spherical harmonic expansions, the use of this basis allows us to guarantee that the resulting VDF is everywhere positive and therefore physical. We present a recipe for calculating the event rates corresponding to the discrete VDF for an arbitrary number of angular bins N and investigate the discretisation error which is introduced in this way. For smooth, Standard Halo Model-like distribution functions, only N=3 angular bins are required to achieve an accuracy of around 01-30% in the number of events in each bin. Shortly after confirmation of the DM origin of the signal with around 50 events, this accuracy should be sufficient to allow the discretised velocity distribution to be employed reliably. For more extreme VDFs (such as streams), the discretisation error is typically much larger, but can be improved with increasing N. This method paves the way towards an astrophysics-independent analysis framework for the directional detection of dark matter.

  7. Discretising the velocity distribution for directional dark matter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.

    2015-07-13

    Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments which are directionally-sensitive may be the only method of probing the full velocity distribution function (VDF) of the Galactic DM halo. We present an angular basis for the DM VDF which can be used to parametrise the distribution in order to mitigate astrophysical uncertainties in future directional experiments and extract information about the DM halo. This basis consists of discretising the VDF in a series of angular bins, with the VDF being only a function of the DM speed v within each bin. In contrast to other methods, such as spherical harmonic expansions, the use of this basis allows us to guarantee that the resulting VDF is everywhere positive and therefore physical. We present a recipe for calculating the event rates corresponding to the discrete VDF for an arbitrary number of angular bins N and investigate the discretisation error which is introduced in this way. For smooth, Standard Halo Model-like distribution functions, only N=3 angular bins are required to achieve an accuracy of around 10–30% in the number of events in each bin. Shortly after confirmation of the DM origin of the signal with around 50 events, this accuracy should be sufficient to allow the discretised velocity distribution to be employed reliably. For more extreme VDFs (such as streams), the discretisation error is typically much larger, but can be improved with increasing N. This method paves the way towards an astrophysics-independent analysis framework for the directional detection of dark matter.

  8. Workplace incivility and productivity losses among direct care staff.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Scott; Gates, Donna

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine incivility experienced by direct health care staff in their workplaces. The sample (N = 184) was 91% female and 77% White, with 71% of the participants having earned an associate degree or above and 81% being registered nurses. The Work Limitations Questionnaire and the Incivility in Healthcare Survey were distributed to all direct care staff at a major metropolitan hospital (22% response rate). Correlations were found between workplace incivility from direct supervisors and productivity (r = 0.284, p = .000) and workplace incivility from patients and productivity (r = 0.204, p = .006). Incivility from physicians, incivility from other direct care staff, and general environmental incivility were not shown to be significantly related to productivity. Demographics were not related to levels of workplace incivility. Workplace incivility from patients and management appears to have a greater impact on employees' productivity than workplace incivility from other sources. PMID:18444405

  9. The effect of direct positron production on relativistic feedback rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lucia, R. J.; Cramer, E. S.; Arabshahi, S.; Rassoul, H.

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic feedback produces a self-sustaining runaway electron discharge via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays. To date, only positrons created from pair-production by gamma-rays interacting with the air have been considered. In contrast, direct pair-production involves the creation of electron-positron pairs directly from the interaction of energetic runaway electrons with nuclei, and so it does not require the generation of bremsstrahlung gamma-rays. For high electric fields, where the runaway electron avalanche length scales are short, pair-production involving bremsstrahlung gamma-rays makes a smaller contribution to the total relativistic feedback rates than at lower fields, since both the bremsstrahlung interaction and the pair-production need to occur over a short length. On the other hand, for high fields, because direct positron production only involves one interaction, it may make a significant contribution to relativistic feedback rates in some cases. In this poster, we shall present the direct positron production cross-sections and calculate the effects on the relativistic feedback rates due to this process.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of /sup 14/C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms.

  11. Composite dark matter and direct-search experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Quentin

    2015-11-01

    The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms”. Two different scenarios are presented: milli-interacting dark matter and dark anti-atoms. In both of them, dark matter interacts sufficiently strongly with terrestrial matter to be stopped in it before reaching underground detectors, which are typically located at a depth of 1 km. As they drift towards the center of the Earth because of gravity, these thermal dark atoms are radiatively captured by the atoms of the active medium of underground detectors, which causes the emission of photons that produce the signals through their interactions with the electrons of the medium. This provides a way of reinterpreting the results in terms of electron recoils instead of nuclear recoils. The two models involve milli-charges and are able to reconcile the most contradictory experiments. We determine, for each model, the regions in the parameter space that reproduce the experiments with positive results in consistency with the constraints of the experiments with negative results.

  12. Results from the DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) experiment. [Pressurized melt ejection and direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.; Ross, J.E.; Oliver, M.S.; Lucero, D.A.; Kerley, T.E.; Arellano, F.E.; Gomez, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    The DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) test was the first experiment performed in the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility. The test involved 20 kg of molten core debris simulant ejected into a 1:10 scale model of the Zion reactor cavity. The melt was produced by a metallothermic reaction of iron oxide and aluminum powders to yield molten iron and alumina. The cavity model was placed so that the emerging debris propagated directly upwards along the vertical centerline of the chamber. Results from the experiment showed that the molten material was ejected from the caviity as a cloud of particles and aerosol. The dispersed debris caused a rapid pressurization of the 103-m/sup 3/ chamber atmosphere. Peak pressure from the six transducers ranged from 0.09 to 0.13 MPa (13.4 to 19.4 psig) above the initial value in the chamber. Posttest debris collection yielded 11.6 kg of material outside the cavity, of which approximately 1.6 kg was attributed to the uptake of oxygen by the iron particles. Mechanical sieving of the recovered debris showed a lognormal size distribution with a mass mean size of 0.55 mm. Aerosol measurements indicated a subsantial portion (2 to 16%) of the ejected mass was in the size range less than 10 m aerodynamic equivalent diameter.

  13. Recent PHENIX results on hard probes and direct photon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, V.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    A hot and dense matter called strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is created in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. Detailed study of the properties of this new state of matter is a driving force of recent research at RHIC. In these proceedings we present most recent PHENIX results for system size and energy dependence of hadron and jet production at high transverse momentum in heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We also report latest results for direct photon production including soft direct photon yields and anisotropic flow.

  14. Configuring the National Ignition Facility for direct-drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1995-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a project whose primary mission is to provide an above-ground experimental capability for maintaining nuclear competence and weapons effects simulation, and to pursue the achievement of fusion ignition utilizing solid state lasers as the energy driver. In this facility a large number of laser beams are focused onto a small target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The laser energy is delivered in a few billionths of a second, raising the temperature and density of the nuclear materials in the target to levels where significant thermonuclear energy is released. The thermonuclear reaction proceeds very rapidly, so that the target materials remain confined by their own inertia during the thermonuclear reaction. This type of approach is called inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The proposed project is described in a conceptual design report (CDR) that was released in May 1994. Early in FY95, a collaboration between the University of Rochester and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established to study reconfiguring the NIF to accommodate direct-drive experiments. The present paper is a report to the scientific community, primarily the scientists and engineers working on the design of the NIF. It represents results from work in progress, specifically work completed by the end of the second quarter FY95. This report has two main sections. The first describes the target requirements on the laser drive, and the second part describes how the NIF laser can be configured to accommodate both indirect and direct drive. The report includes a description of the scientific basis for these conclusions. Though a complete picture does not exist, the present understanding is sufficient to conclude that the primary target requirements and laser functional requirements for indirect and direct drive are quite compatible. It is evidently straightforward to reconfigure the NIF to accommodate direct and indirect drive.

  15. Increasing protein production by directed vector backbone evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was a key enabling technology for the rapid development of industrial and molecular biotechnology. However, despite all progress the improvement of protein production is an ongoing challenge and of high importance for cost-effective enzyme production. With the epMEGAWHOP mutagenesis protocol for vector backbone optimization we report a novel directed evolution based approach to increase protein production levels by randomly introducing mutations in the vector backbone. In the current study we validate the epMEGAWHOP mutagenesis protocol for three different expression systems. The latter demonstrated the general applicability of the epMEGAWHOP method. Cellulase and lipase production was doubled in one round of directed evolution by random mutagenesis of pET28a(+) and pET22b(+) vector backbones. Protease production using the vector pHY300PLK was increased ~4-times with an average of ~1.25 mutations per kb vector backbone. The epMEGAWHOP does not require any rational understanding of the expression machinery and can generally be applied to enzymes, expression vectors and related hosts. epMEGAWHOP is therefore from our point of view a robust, rapid and straight forward alternative for increasing protein production in general and for biotechnological applications. PMID:23890095

  16. Cascade processes in stratified media: experiment and direct numerical simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibgatullin, Ilias; Brouzet, Christophe; Joubaud, Sylvain; Ermanyuk, Evgeny; Dauxois, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Internal gravity waves may transfer substantial part of energy in oceans and astrophysical objects, influence the background stratification, and angular momentum. Internal waves can be generated by convection in astrophysical objects, by tidal motion and interaction with orography in oceans. Internal and inertial waves obey similar system of equations. Due to very particular type of dispersive relation and the way internal waves are reflected from surfaces, in confined domains the monochromatic internal waves after sequence of reflections may form closed paths, the "wave attractors" [1]. Presently, linear theory of wave attractors is quite elaborated and a principal interest of research is focused on nonlinear regimes and unstable configurations, overturning events and mixing. We have performed direct numerical simulation of wave attractors which closely reproduces experiments [2] being carried out in Ecole Normal Superior de Lyon (ENS de Lyon). Direct numerical simulation is realized with the help of spectral element approach and code nek5000. Triadic resonance is confirmed as the first instability which appears on the most energetic ray of the attractor at sufficiently large forcing. With further increase of the forcing amplitude the daughter waves also become unstable resulting in a sophisticated cascade process which was first observed experimentally. For very high forcing amplitude interaction of focused waves with the walls results in appearance of small-scale folded structures. Their interaction with principal flow is the subject of further research. 1. Maas, L. R. M. & Lam, F.-P. A., Geometric focusing of internal waves. J. Fluid Mech, 1995,. 300, 1-41 2. Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E., Dauxois, T., 2013, Physical Review Letters, 110, 234501

  17. Status of the RBCC Direct-Connect Mixer Combustor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Kamhawi, Hani; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Thomas, Scott R.; Smith, Timothy D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing hydrogen based combined cycle propulsion technology for a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle application under a project called GTX. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems incorporate one or more rocket engines into an airbreathing flow path to increase specific impulse as compared to an all rocket-powered vehicle. In support of this effort, an RBCC direct-connect test capability was established at the Engine Components Research Laboratory to investigate low speed, ejector ramjet, and initial ramjet operations and performance. The facility and test article enables the evaluation of two candidate low speed operating schemes; the simultaneous mixing and combustion (SMC) and independent ramjet stream (IRS). The SMC operating scheme is based on the fuel rich operations of the rocket where performance depends upon mixing between the rocket plume and airstream. In contrast, the IRS scheme fuels the airstream separately and uses the rocket plume to ignite the fuel-air mixture. This paper describes the test hardware and facility upgrades installed to support the RBCC tests. It also defines and discusses low speed technical challenges being addressed by the experiments. Finally, preliminary test results, including rocket risk mitigating tests, unfueled airflow tests, and the integrated system hot fire test will be presented.

  18. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  19. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D.

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  20. Direct Dark Matter Search with the XENON100 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yuan

    Dark matter, a non-luminous, non-baryonic matter, is thought to constitute 23 % of the matter-energy components in the universe today. Except for its gravitational effects, the existence of dark matter has never been confirmed by any other means and its nature remains unknown. If a hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe, it could have a relic abundance close to that of dark matter today, which provides a promising particle candidate of dark matter. Minimal Super-Symmetric extensions to the standard model predicts a stable particle with mass in the range 10 GeV/c2 to 1000 GeV/c2, and spin-independent cross-section with ordinary matter nucleon sigmax < 1 x 10--43 cm2. The XENON100 experiment deploys a Dual Phase Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXeTPC) of 62 kg liquid xenon as its sensitive volume, to detect scintillation (S1) and ionization (S2) signals from WIMP dark matter particles directly scattering off xenon nuclei. The detector is located underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in central Italy. 1.4 km of rock (3.7 km water equivalent) reduces the cosmic muon background by a factor of 106. The event-by-event 3D positioning capability of TPC allows volume fiducialization. With the self-shielding power of liquid xenon, as well as a 99 kg liquid xenon active veto, the electromagnetic radiation background is greatly suppressed. By utilizing the difference of (S2/S1) between electronic recoil and nuclear recoil, the expected WIMP signature, a small nuclear recoil energy deposition, could be discriminated from electronic recoil background with high efficiency. XENON100 achieved the lowest background rate (< 2.2 x 10--2 events/kg/day/keV) in the dark matter search region (< 40 keV) among all direct dark matter detectors. With 11.2 days of data, XENON100 already sets the world's best spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section limit of 2.7 x 10--44 cm2 at WIMP mass 50 GeV/c 2

  1. Smoothing and roughening of slip surfaces in direct shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagy, Amir; Badt, Nir; Hatzor, Yossef H.

    2015-04-01

    Faults in the upper crust contain discrete slip surfaces which have absorbed a significant part of the shear displacement along them. Field measurements demonstrate that these surfaces are rough at all measurable scales and indicate that surfaces of relatively large-slip faults are statistically smoother than those of small-slip faults. However, post faulting and surface erosion process that might affect the geometry of outcrops cannot be discounted in such measurements. Here we present experimental results for the evolution of shear surface topography as function of slip distance and normal stress in direct shear experiments. A single prismatic fine grain limestone block is first fractured in tension mode using the four-point bending test methodology and then the fracture surface topography is scanned using a laser profilometer. We then shear the obtained tensile fracture surfaces in direct shear, ensuring the original fracture surfaces are in a perfectly matching configuration at the beginning of the shear test. First, shearing is conducted to distances varying from 5 to 15 mm under constant normal stress of 2MPa and a constant displacement rate of 0.05 mm/s using two closed-loop servo controlled hydraulic pistons, supplying normal and shear forces (Davidesko et al., 2014). In the tested configuration peak shear stress is typically attained after a shear displacement of about 2-3 mm, beyond which lower shear stress is required to continue shearing at the preset displacement rate of 0.05 mm/s as is typical for initially rough joints. Following some initial compression the interface begins to dilate and continues to do so until the end of the test. The sheared tensile fracture surface is then scanned again and the geometrical evolution, in term of RMS roughness and power spectral density (PSD) is analyzed. We show that shearing smooth the surface along all our measurements scales. The roughness ratio, measured by initial PSD / final PSD for each wavelength

  2. Forming cryogenic targets for direct-drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D.R.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Lund, L.D.; Janezic, R.; Elasky, L.M.; Hinterman, T.H.; Edgell, D.H.; Seka, W.; Wittman, M.D.; Gram, R.Q.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Early, R.; Duffy, T.; Bonino, M.J.

    2006-05-15

    More than 100 spherical deuterium ice layers have been formed to make cryogenic targets for direct-drive ICF implosion experiments on OMEGA. These ice layers have an inner surface roughness that ranges from 1.3 to 6{mu}m root-mean-square (rms), with the best layers having a value less than 2 {mu}m rms. These surface roughness values are averaged two-dimensional roughness measurements that cover the entire surface and includes all of the Fourier cosine modes. The ice thickness variation within the layer is predominately in the low spectral modes (mode 5 and lower) and is caused by the support used to hold the target. Changing the design of this support to minimize the thermal effect is constrained by the necessity of having a dynamically stable target for the implosion. We have demonstrated that it is possible to form crystalline ice layers that are facet-free and transparent by slowing the solidification rate of the liquid. Faster freezing rates form layers comprised of polycrystalline ice with a greater roughness (1 to 2 {mu}m greater). Cooling an ice layer 0.5 K below the triple point temperature does not affect the roughness of the layer. Cooling the layer a further 1 K to achieve the desired internal gas pressure sometimes induces additional ice roughness; this roughness is manifest over low- to mid-spectral modes. Removing the thermal shrouds from around the target causes the ice to melt and the internal gas pressure to increase. Using the behavior of a cryogenic deuterium target as a reference, calculations of the response of the more interesting National Ignition Facility-scale deuterium and tritium targets show that exposing the target for 0.8 s to ambient radiation will cause {approx}10% of the ice to melt and partially slump whereas the gas pressure will increase by 15%.

  3. Beauty and charm production at fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erik E. Gottschalk

    2003-12-10

    Fixed-target experiments continue to provide insights into the physics of particle production in strong interactions. The experiments are performed with different types of beam particles of varying energies, and many different target materials. Studies of beauty and charm production are of particular interest, since experimental results can be compared to perturbative QCD calculations. It is in this context that recent results from fixed-target experiments on beauty and charm production will be reviewed.

  4. ATP drives direct photosynthetic production of 1-butanol in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ethan I.; Liao, James C.

    2012-01-01

    While conservation of ATP is often a desirable trait for microbial production of chemicals, we demonstrate that additional consumption of ATP may be beneficial to drive product formation in a nonnatural pathway. Although production of 1-butanol by the fermentative coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway using the reversal of β-oxidation exists in nature and has been demonstrated in various organisms, the first step of the pathway, condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA, is thermodynamically unfavorable. Here, we show that artificially engineered ATP consumption through a pathway modification can drive this reaction forward and enables for the first time the direct photosynthetic production of 1-butanol from cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We further demonstrated that substitution of bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE2) with separate butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (Bldh) and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (YqhD) increased 1-butanol production by 4-fold. These results demonstrated the importance of ATP and cofactor driving forces as a design principle to alter metabolic flux. PMID:22474341

  5. Production of heavy quarkonia in hadronic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhoded, A. K.; Luchinsky, A. V.; Poslavsky, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenology of the production of P-wave χ c,b mesons and S-wave η c,b mesons in highenergy hadron-hadron collisions was studied on the basis of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD). Available experimental data on χ c -meson production were analyzed, and nonperturbative NRQCDmatrix elements were determined from a fit to these data. It is shown that the observed transversemomentum ( pT) spectrum of χ c mesons is basically formed by color-singlet contributions. At the same time, the ratio σ( χ c2)/ σ( χ c1) depends greatly on color-octet contributions; this ratio therefore becomes a highly sensitive tool for separating different NRQCD contributions. Predictions for χ b -meson production are obtained on the basis of NRQCD scaling rules. For the case of η c -meson production, it is shown that the observed cross sections agree with the color-singlet model featuring phenomenological parameters.

  6. Direct photon production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peitzmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Direct photons have always been considered a promising probe for the very early phases of high-energy nuclear collisions. Prompt photons reveal information about the initial state and its possible modifications in nuclei. In this context they should be one of the best probes for effects of gluon saturation. Thermal photons emitted from the produced matter in nuclear collisions carry information on the temperature of the very early phase. In particular a simultaneous measurement of yield and elliptic flow of thermal photons can put strong constraints on the early time dynamics of the system. I review the status of results on direct photon measurements at RHIC and LHC and their interpretation. Prompt photons at high pT are consistent with expectations from NLO pQCD in pp and show no strong nuclear modifications in A-A collisions. Recent analysis at RHIC has shown very intriguing results for lower pT, with high thermal photon yield and strong elliptic flow of direct photons, which are not fully understood theoretically. Also the ALICE experiment at the LHC has measured a high yield of thermal photons. Furthermore I discuss prospects for future measurements of forward direct photons at the LHC.

  7. Production Experiences with the Cray-Enabled TORQUE Resource Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Maxwell, Don E; Beer, David

    2013-01-01

    High performance computing resources utilize batch systems to manage the user workload. Cray systems are uniquely different from typical clusters due to Cray s Application Level Placement Scheduler (ALPS). ALPS manages binary transfer, job launch and monitoring, and error handling. Batch systems require special support to integrate with ALPS using an XML protocol called BASIL. Previous versions of Adaptive Computing s TORQUE and Moab batch suite integrated with ALPS from within Moab, using PERL scripts to interface with BASIL. This would occasionally lead to problems when all the components would become unsynchronized. Version 4.1 of the TORQUE Resource Manager introduced new features that allow it to directly integrate with ALPS using BASIL. This paper describes production experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the new TORQUE software versions, as well as ongoing and future work to improve TORQUE.

  8. Experimental study of hydrogen production by direct decomposition of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgen, E.; Galindo, J.; Baykara, S. Z.

    The hydrogen production by direct decomposition of water in a solar furnace is studied. The set-up is a horizontal axis system consisting of two 1.0 kW parabolic concentrators, both powered by a single heliostat. A temperature of 3000 K is possible. The water is fed to the reactor installed at the focal space of the concentrator, and the steam is decomposed at about 2500 K. The reactor consisted of a cylindrical cavity type refractory receiver covered with a silica cupola. The steam was introduced at a known rate into the cavity and the product gases were quenched. After the condensation of steam, hydrogen and oxygen were collected in a reservoir. Results indicate that with an optimized system, it is possible to produce hydrogen at about 70 percent rate of the theoretical value at the temperature level studied.

  9. A consortium for purchase of blood products directed by physicians.

    PubMed

    Aledort, L M; Lipton, R A; Hilgartner, M

    1988-05-01

    Clotting-factor therapy is a costly part of comprehensive hemophilia treatment. Physicians treating patients with hemophilia in New York formed a consortium for the purchasing and regional distribution of clotting-factor concentrates. Concentrates are centrally purchased based on a bidding formula aimed at obtaining the lowest price for quality product while guaranteeing all suppliers continued involvement in a large market area. The consortium has successfully maintained, and, in instances, lowered prices each year. Estimated regional savings this year are more than $750,000 for an anticipated purchase of approximately 60,00,000 units of clotting-factors VIII and IX. Central distribution has additionally lowered costs to participating hospitals. The consortium is able to provide patients and third-party payers with some of the lowest prices for clotting-factor concentrates in the United States. A physician-directed regional approach to purchasing costly medical products might be applied to other areas of clinical medicine. PMID:3358574

  10. Petrobras experience on early production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aramando, S.

    1983-05-01

    Beginning in 1974, PETROBRAS oil production was declining in spite of the significant growth of reserves due to the discovery of oil offshore in the Campos Basin. A project using platforms will require from four to eight years and require a large capital investment. The Early Production Systems were utilized to reduce the time for initial production from the Basin, better define the conditions of the reservoir, improve the cash flow, and acquire a more complete knowledge of maritime operations. The first system was installed in 1977 and today there are ten operating, two others are being installed and eight more are in the planning stage. This paper includes PETROBRAS' accomplishments and presents its plans for the future.

  11. Results and outline of multi-direction lidar system experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muranaka, W.; Kawahara, T.; Nozawa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Shinshu University, Nagoya University and RIKEN developed an all solid-state, high-power Na lidar for the temperature/wind measurements in the MLT region over the EISCAT radar site in Tromso (69 N), Norway. The lidar was launched at the radar site on October 2010, and the observation has been successfully done for successive four winter seasons. Current observation is five-direction mode, which observes a vertical direction, as well as directions of 30-degree tilted to the north, south, east and west. Now we try to upgrade the system to observe any direction in the sky using a new laser transmission system and a PC-controllable telescope. The transmission system is composed of two electric rotary stages and two mirrors with the vertical and horizontal axes to emit the laser. The pointing repeatability to the same direction was measured to be within 0.1 mrad. The azimuth and elevation of the telescope was adjusted using the position of some bright stars. The pointing repeatability of the telescope was confirmed to be about 0.3.mrad. Using a CCD camera, laser trajectory can be monitored with the telescope image so that we can tweak the direction. Current subject we are focusing on is to make automatic and successive observations to a set of directions in the sky. In this talk, we introduce our new lidar and will discuss the results of test observation mentioned above.

  12. Experiences in Nature: Resolute Second-Plane Directions toward Erdkinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Gerard; Allen, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Gerard Leonard and Kathleen Allen describe a variety of nature experiences as a part of the Montessori elementary tradition, beginning with a warning about the way contemporary life constrains children's experience of nature. Through a lyrical rendering of the nature-based expressions of children, Leonard and Allen look at a variety of approaches…

  13. Production of heavy quarkonia in hadronic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Likhoded, A. K. Luchinsky, A. V. Poslavsky, S. V.

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenology of the production of P-wave χ{sub c,b} mesons and S-wave η{sub c,b} mesons in highenergy hadron–hadron collisions was studied on the basis of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD). Available experimental data on χ{sub c}-meson production were analyzed, and nonperturbative NRQCDmatrix elements were determined from a fit to these data. It is shown that the observed transversemomentum (pT) spectrum of χ{sub c} mesons is basically formed by color-singlet contributions. At the same time, the ratio σ(χ{sub c2})/σ(χ{sub c1}) depends greatly on color-octet contributions; this ratio therefore becomes a highly sensitive tool for separating different NRQCD contributions. Predictions for χ{sub b}-meson production are obtained on the basis of NRQCD scaling rules. For the case of η{sub c}-meson production, it is shown that the observed cross sections agree with the color-singlet model featuring phenomenological parameters.

  14. Directional dark matter detection with the DMTPC m3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyton, Michael; DMTPC Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Directional reconstruction provides a unique way to positively identify signal interactions induced by dark matter particles, owing to the motion of the Earth through the galactic dark matter halo. Directional information can additionally serve as a powerful discriminant against neutron (and neutrino-induced) backgrounds that have the same final-state signature as a signal interaction. The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration uses gas-based TPC technology, with both optical and charge readout, to measure the directional anisotropy of nuclear recoils induced by particles traversing the detector volume. Here, we present preliminary results from recent calibration runs of the DMTPC m3 detector in a surface laboratory, as well as a study of its projected directional sensitivity.

  15. Direct Photon Production and Gluon Polarization Measurements in Proton-Proton Collisions at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feege, Nils; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Direct photons probe the hard scattering process in proton-proton collisions. The channel that dominates their production in these collisions is ``the inverse QCD Compton effect,'' g + q --> γ + q . Calculating this process requires no photon fragmentation function, which facilitates comparisons between theories and experiments. In polarized p+p collisions, direct photons help determine the proton spin structure. At leading order, the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry ALL is directly proportional to the product of quark and gluon polarizations. The polarized quark distributions are known from polarized lepton-proton scattering experiments. Using them together with ALL measurements allows to access both the magnitude and sign of the polarized gluon distribution. The PHENIX experiment has collected data from polarized p+p collisions at RHIC at center of mass energies of 200 GeV and 500 GeV. This talk presents the status of direct photon cross section measurements and ALL measurements at midrapidity (| η | < 0 . 35) using these data.

  16. "Employee--Develop Yourself!" Experiences of Self-Directed Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Lynda Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Participants in management development (n=714) identified the most and least useful aspects of the program. Many felt that self-directed learning was demanding but led to deeper learning. At the same time, they showed discomfort with the tutor's role as facilitator and the lack of structure. Time pressures were major barriers. (SK)

  17. A simple charged particle spectrometer for a pion production experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, Konstantin; Brockwell, Michael; Chung, Kiwhan; Green, Andrew; Hogan, Gary; Jason, Andy; Mariam, Fesseha; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui

    2010-02-01

    Measurement of a charged particle energy is not a new task, but inexpensive ways of such measurement are of interest, in particular as they open new opportunities for advanced charged particle radiography. We describe a magnetic spectrometer we have recently built for pion production measurement experiments at LANSCE (Los Alamos). The spectrometer consists of four modules of drift tubes and a bending magnet. A maximum magnetic field in the bending magnet was about 7500 Gauss. Drift tubes of 2 inches in diameter were made of thin carbon fiber to minimize multiple scattering in their walls. The spectrometer was used in the scattering experiment with primary beam of 800 MeV protons and C or Al target. We present measurements of secondary protons, pions and muons scattered in the reverse direction. Energy deposited in 1 cm thick plastic scintillator and 4" CsI was compared to the energy measured from the particle bending in the magnetic field. Experimental data are compared to GEANT4 modeling. We discuss, how this technology may be applied to the particle identification and to the energy loss measurements. )

  18. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    PubMed

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield. PMID:24556371

  19. 14 CFR 39.15 - Does an airworthiness directive apply if the product has been changed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the product has been changed? 39.15 Section 39.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... directive apply if the product has been changed? Yes, an airworthiness directive applies to each product identified in the airworthiness directive, even if an individual product has been changed by...

  20. Direct drive foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.F.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Hockaday, M.Y.P.; Hockaday, R.G.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-05-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos Above Ground Experiments (AGEX) program. The goal of the program is to produce an intense (>100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the KE of a 1 to 10 MJ collapsing plasma source. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several tens of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. This paper addresses z-pinch experiments done on a capacitor bank where the radiating plasma source is formed by an imploding annular aluminum foil driven by the J {times} B forces generated by the current flowing through the foil.

  1. Direct neutrino mass experiments and exotic charged current interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludl, Patrick Otto; Rodejohann, Werner

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of exotic charged current interactions on the electron energy spectrum in tritium decay, focussing on the KATRIN experiment and a possible modified setup that has access to the full spectrum. Both sub-eV and keV neutrino masses are considered. We perform a fully relativistic calculation and take all possible new interactions into account, demonstrating the possible sizable distortions in the energy spectrum.

  2. Ames Coronagraph Experiment: Enabling Missions to Directly Image Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Technology to find biomarkers and life on other worlds is rapidly maturing. If there is a habitable planet around the nearest star, we may be able to detect it this decade with a small satellite mission. In the 2030 decade, we will likely know if there is life in our Galactic neighborhood (1000 nearest stars). The Ames Coronagraph Experiment is developing coronagraphic technologies to enable such missions.

  3. Shell trajectory measurements from direct-drive implosion experiments.

    PubMed

    Michel, D T; Sorce, C; Epstein, R; Whiting, N; Igumenshchev, I V; Jungquist, R; Froula, D H

    2012-10-01

    A technique to measure the shell trajectory in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions is presented. The x-ray self emission of the target is measured with an x-ray framing camera. Optimized filtering limits the x-ray emission from the corona plasma, isolating a sharp intensity gradient very near the ablation surface. This enables one to measure the radius of the imploding shell with an accuracy better than 1 μm and to determine a 200-ps average velocity to better than 2%. PMID:23127037

  4. Meson production in photon and neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Shimony, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The reaction {gamma}p {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{sub fast}p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} has been studied with the linearly polarized 20 GeV monochromatic photon beam at the SLAC Hybrid Facility, to test the prediction of s channel helicity conservation in inelastic diffraction for t{prime} < 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2}. In a sample of 1934 events from this reaction, the {rho}{sup 0} decay angular distributions and spin density matrix elements are consistent with s channel helicity conservation. The {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} mass shape displays the same skewing as seen in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}, and the p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} mass distribution compares well and scale according to the vector dominance model with that produced in {pi}{sup {plus minus}}p {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}. Coherent production of the a{sub 1} meson has been observed through the reaction {nu}Fr {yields} {mu}{sup {minus}}a{sub 1}{sup +}Fr in the Tohoku 1m freon bubble chamber hybrid system. The bubble chamber was exposed to the Fermilab wideband neutrino beam, generated by 800 GeV protons at the Tevatron. The observed rate from the final charged current sample of 1792 events was 1.1 {plus minus} 0.47%, and the a{sub 1} - W coupling is calculated to be f{sup 2}{sub a}/f{sup 2}{sub {rho}} = 5.2 {plus minus} 2.2. A comparison of the cross section and the kinematical parameters with the theoretical predictions of the vector dominance model, gives reasonable agreement with the data. A Monte-Carlo study was performed to check the possibility of detecting the radiative decay of the D*{sub s} in our bubble chamber. Using the most favorable predicted rate through the {phi} branching ratio, it was determined that three times our data sample would be needed for a one {sigma} effect above background.

  5. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry using prototypic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments have been completed which utilize prototypic core materials. The experiments reported on here are a continuation of the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The experiments incorporated a 1/40 scale model of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant containment structures. The model included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt stimulant in the earlier IET experiments. These earlier IET experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena; however, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. Three tests have been completed, DCH-U1A, U1B and U2. DCH-U1A and U1B employed an inerted containment atmosphere and are counterpart to the IET-1RR test with iron/alumina thermite. DCH-U2 employed nominally the same atmosphere composition of its counterpart iron/alumina test, IET-6. All tests, with prototypic material, have produced lower peak containment pressure rises; 45, 111 and 185 kPa in U1A, U1B and U2, compared to 150 and 250 kPa IET-1RR and 6. Hydrogen production, due to metal-steam reactions, was 33% larger in U1B and U2 compared to IET-1RR and IET-6. The pressurization efficiency was consistently lower for the corium tests compared to the IET tests.

  6. Status of the DAMIC Direct Dark Matter Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; et al.

    2015-09-30

    The DAMIC experiment uses fully depleted, high resistivity CCDs to search for dark matter particles. With an energy threshold $\\sim$50 eV$_{ee}$, and excellent energy and spatial resolutions, the DAMIC CCDs are well-suited to identify and suppress radioactive backgrounds, having an unrivaled sensitivity to WIMPs with masses $<$6 GeV/$c^2$. Early results motivated the construction of a 100 g detector, DAMIC100, currently being installed at SNOLAB. This contribution discusses the installation progress, new calibration efforts near the threshold, a preliminary result with 2014 data, and the prospects for physics results after one year of data taking.

  7. Direct photon production at 0.5 TeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Zutshi, V.

    1995-04-01

    The authors present data from Fermilab experiment E706 on high P{sub T} direct photon production in hadronic collisions. The experimental apparatus of E706 was optimized for a precision study of large P{sub T} direct photon and associated jet production. It consists of a large liquid argon calorimeter with a finely segmented electromagnetic section, a charge particle spectrometer using silicon vertex detectors in the target region and proportional wire chambers and drift tubes downstream of the analysis magnet. Results are presented for 0.5 TeV/c positive and negative beams incident on Be, Cu and Hydrogen targets. Comparisons of these data to NLL QCD theory will be presented.

  8. Investigation of photochemical reaction products of glucose formed during direct UV detection in CE.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Thomas; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2016-04-01

    In CE, saccharides are accessible to direct UV detection due to a photochemical reaction in the detection window of the separation capillary resulting in the formation of UV absorbing substances. Employing a CE method that allows long in-capillary irradiation with subsequent UV and MS detection, the present study could identify several reaction products of glucose. Among these were UV absorbing substances so far unknown to be formed during direct UV detection with the chemical formulas C4 H6 O2 , C5 H6 O4 , C5 H8 O3, and C6 H8 O5 . Investigations of the impact of the irradiation time revealed differences between these reaction products suggesting differing reaction mechanisms especially for the smallest products. More detailed information could be obtained by experiments with isotope-labeled substrates performed to determine the parts of glucose that are converted to the particular reaction products. In addition, structural formulas for the reaction products were suggested based on HPLC-MS/MS measurements of off-line irradiated glucose solutions which revealed the existence of functional groups such as carboxylic acid or aldehyde groups. PMID:26257208

  9. Measurement of the muon beam direction and muon flux for the T2K neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bay, F.; Bronner, C.; Ereditato, A.; Friend, M.; Hartz, M.; Hiraki, T.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Juget, F.; Kikawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Maruyama, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Otani, M.; Oyama, Y.; Patel, N.; Pistillo, C.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Tada, S.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2015-05-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) neutrino experiment measures neutrino oscillations by using an almost pure muon neutrino beam produced at the J-PARC accelerator facility. The T2K muon monitor was installed to measure the direction and stability of the muon beam which is produced in conjunction with the muon neutrino beam. The systematic error in the muon beam direction measurement was estimated, using data and MC simulation, to be 0.28 mrad. During beam operation, the proton beam has been controlled using measurements from the muon monitor and the direction of the neutrino beam has been tuned to within 0.3 mrad with respect to the designed beam-axis. In order to understand the muon beam properties, measurement of the absolute muon yield at the muon monitor was conducted with an emulsion detector. The number of muon tracks was measured to be (4.06± 0.05± 0.10)× 10^4cm^{-2} normalized with 4× 10^{11} protons on target with 250 kA horn operation. The result is in agreement with the prediction, which is corrected based on hadron production data.

  10. Wiring photosystem I for direct solar hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Lubner, Carolyn E; Grimme, Rebecca; Bryant, Donald A; Golbeck, John H

    2010-01-26

    The generation of H(2) by the use of solar energy is a promising way to supply humankind's energy needs while simultaneously mitigating environmental concerns that arise due to climate change. The challenge is to find a way to connect a photochemical module that harnesses the sun's energy to a catalytic module that generates H(2) with high quantum yields and rates. In this review, we describe a technology that employs a "molecular wire" to connect a terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster of Photosystem I directly to a catalyst, which can be either a Pt nanoparticle or the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster of an [FeFe]- or [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme. The keys to connecting these two moieties are surface-located cysteine residues, which serve as ligands to Fe-S clusters and which can be changed through site-specific mutagenesis to glycine residues, and the use of a molecular wire terminated in sulfhydryl groups to connect the two modules. The sulfhydryl groups at the end of the molecular wire form a direct chemical linkage to a suitable catalyst or can chemically rescue a [4Fe-4S] cluster, thereby generating a strong coordination bond. Specifically, the molecular wire can connect the F(B) iron-sulfur cluster of Photosystem I either to a Pt nanoparticle or, by using the same type of genetic modification, to the differentiated iron atom of the distal [4Fe-4S].(Cys)(3)(Gly) cluster of hydrogenase. When electrons are supplied by a sacrificial donor, this technology forms the cathode of a photochemical half-cell that evolves H(2) when illuminated. If such a device were connected to the anode of a photochemical half-cell that oxidizes water, an in vitro solar energy converter could be realized that generates only O(2) and H(2) in the light. A similar methodology can be used to connect Photosystem I to other redox proteins that have surface-located [4Fe-4S] clusters. The controlled light-driven production of strong reductants by such systems can be used to produce other biofuels or to provide

  11. A silicon sheet casting experiment. [for solar cell water production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sampson, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The casting of silicon blanks for solar cells directly without slicing is an exciting concept. An experiment was performed to investigate the feasibility of developing a machine that casts wafers directly. A Czochralski furnace was modified to accept a graphite ingot-simulating fixture. Silicon was melted in the middle of the ingot simulator in a boron nitride mold. Sample castings showed reasonable crystal size. Solar cells were made from the cast blanks. The performance is reported.

  12. A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

    2004-07-29

    Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the unit has been fully commissioned and is operational. The unit is capable of operating at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. A double-seal technique has been developed and tested successfully to achieve leak-tight seal for the membranes. Initial data for a commercial Palladium-Gold membrane were obtained at temperatures to 450 C and pressures to 13 atm. Tests for the perovskite membranes are being performed and the results will be reported in the next quarter. A membrane gasification reactor model was developed to consider the H{sub 2} permeability of the membrane, the kinetics and the equilibriums of the gas phase reactions in the gasifier, the operating conditions and the configurations of the membrane reactor. The results show that the hydrogen production efficiency using the novel membrane gasification reactor concept can be increased by about 50% versus the conventional gasification process. This confirms the previous evaluation results from the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. A rigorous

  13. Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military.

    PubMed

    Lelkens, C C M; Koning, J G; de Kort, B; Floot, I B G; Noorman, F

    2006-06-01

    For peacekeeping and peace enforcing missions abroad the Netherlands Armed Forces decided to use universal donor frozen blood products in addition to liquid products. This article describes our experiences with the frozen blood inventory, with special attention to quality control. It is shown that all thawed (washed) blood products are in compliance with international regulations and guidelines. By means of the -80 degrees C frozen stock of red cells, plasma and platelets readily available after thaw (and wash), we can now safely reduce shipments and abandon the backup 'walking' blood bank, without compromising the availability of blood products in theatre. PMID:16815757

  14. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Fischer, Larry E.; Felter, Thomas E.

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  15. A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Mike Roberts; Francis Lau

    2004-04-26

    Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit will be constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the mechanical construction of the permeation unit was completed. Commissioning and shake down tests are being conducted. The unit is capable of operation at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. The membranes to be tested will be in disc form with a diameter of about 3 cm. Operation at these high temperatures and high hydrogen partial pressures will demonstrate commercially relevant hydrogen flux, 10{approx}50 cc/min/cm{sup 2}, from the membranes made of the perovskite type of ceramic material. Preliminary modeling was also performed for a tubular membrane reactor within a gasifier to estimate the required membrane area for a given gasification condition. The modeling results will be used to support the conceptual design of the membrane reactor.

  16. A Novel Membrane Reactor for Direct Hydrogen Production From Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atrosphenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

    2006-01-20

    Gas Technology Institute has developed a novel concept of a membrane reactor closely coupled with a coal gasifier for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes were selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimate. The overall economics of hydrogen production from this new process was assessed and compared with conventional hydrogen production technologies from coal. Several proton-conducting perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), SCE (Eu-doped SrCeO{sub 3}) and SCTm (SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}) were successfully tested in a new permeation unit at temperatures between 800 and 1040 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bars. The experimental data confirm that the hydrogen flux increases with increasing hydrogen partial pressure at the feed side. The highest hydrogen flux measured was 1.0 cc/min/cm{sup 2} (STP) for the SCTm membrane at 3 bars and 1040 C. The chemical stability of the perovskite membranes with respect to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S can be improved by doping with Zr, as demonstrated from the TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis) tests in this project. A conceptual design, using the measured hydrogen flux data and a modeling approach, for a 1000 tons-per-day (TPD) coal gasifier shows that a membrane module can be configured within a fluidized bed gasifier without a substantial increase of the gasifier dimensions. Flowsheet simulations show that the coal to hydrogen process employing the proposed membrane reactor concept can increase the hydrogen production efficiency by more than 50% compared to the conventional process. Preliminary economic analysis also shows a 30% cost reduction for the proposed membrane

  17. User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roto, Virpi; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Law, Effie; Vermeeren, Arnold

    High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without

  18. Particle production and targeting experience at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Experience in production of secondary pions (neutrinos), kaons and antiprotons by 28.5 GeV/c protons incident on various target materials is given. The problems associated with various target materials with respect to target heating, physical degradation and in some cases, disintegration, are discussed. The effect of target length and production angle on secondary beam flux and optical quality will be illustrated by some incomplete but nonetheless informative data.

  19. Proton radiography experiments on shocked high explosive products.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferm, Eric N.; Dennsion, Steve; Lopez, Robert; Prestridge, Kathy; Quintana, John P.; Espinoza, Camilo; King, Gary Hogan Nick; Merrill, Frank; Kevin Morley,; Morris, Christopher L.; Pazuchanic, Peter

    2003-07-22

    We studied the propagation of detonation waves and reflections of normal incident detonation waves in explosive products using the 800 MeV proton radiography facility at LANSCE. Using this system, we obtain seven to twenty-one radiographic images of each experiment. We have examined the experimental wave velocity and density of the materials ahead and behind of the shocks as inferred from radiographs and compare them to standard explosive equations of state. Finally we compare the experiments with calculations of the experiments using the MESA hydrodynamics code.

  20. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  1. Consistent simulation of direct-photon production in hadron collisions including associated two-jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    We have developed an event generator for direct-photon production in hadron collisions, including associated 2-jet production in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The event generator consistently combines γ + 2-jet production processes with the lowest-order γ + jet and photon-radiation (fragmentation) processes from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 2-jet production using a subtraction method. The generated events can be fed to general-purpose event generators to facilitate the addition of hadronization and decay simulations. Using the obtained event information, we can simulate photon isolation and hadron-jet reconstruction at the particle (hadron) level. The simulation reasonably reproduces measurement data obtained at the large hadron collider (LHC) concerning not only the inclusive photon spectrum, but also the correlation between the photon and jet. The simulation implies that the contribution of the γ + 2-jet is very large, especially in low photon-pT ( ≲ 50 GeV) regions. Discrepancies observed at low pT, although marginal, may indicate the necessity for the consideration of further higher-order processes. Unambiguous particle-level definition of the photon-isolation condition for the signal events is desired to be given explicitly in future measurements.

  2. High Transverse Momentum Direct Photon Production at Fermilab Fixed-Target Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Apanasevich, Leonard

    2005-05-01

    This thesis describes a study of the production of high transverse momentum direct photons and {pi}{sup 0} mesons by proton beams at 530 and 800 GeV/c and {pi}{sup -} beams at 515 GeV/c incident on beryllium, copper, and liquid hydrogen targets. The data were collected by Fermilab experiment E706 during the 1990 and 1991-92 fixed target runs. The apparatus included a large, finely segmented lead and liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and a charged particle spectrometer featuring silicon strip detectors in the target region and proportional wire chambers and drift tubes downstream of a large aperture analysis magnet. The inclusive cross sections are presented as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and to results from previous experiments.

  3. Poker face of inelastic dark matter: Prospects at upcoming direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2010-08-01

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the standard model, and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100.

  4. Direct electron-pair production by high energy heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Dong, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Direct electron pain production via virtual photons by moving charged particles is a unique electro-magnetic process having a substantial dependence on energy. Most electro-magnetic processes, including transition radiation, cease to be sensitive to the incident energy above 10 TeV/AMU. Thus, it is expected, that upon establishment of cross section and detection efficiency of this process, it may provide a new energy measuring technique above 10 TeV/AMU. Three accelerator exposures of emulsion chambers designed for measurements of direct electron-pains were performed. The objectives of the investigation were to provide the fundamental cross-section data in emulsion stacks to find the best-fit theoretical model, and to provide a calibration of measurements of direct electron-pairs in emulsion chamber configurations. This paper reports the design of the emulsion chambers, accelerator experiments, microscope measurements, and related considerations for future improvements of the measurements, and for possible applications to high energy cosmic ray experiments. Also discussed are the results from scanning 56m of emulsion tracks at 1200x magnification so that scanning efficiency is optimized. Measurements of the delta-ray range spectrum were also performed for much shorter track lengths, but with sufficiently large statistics in the number of measured delta-rays.

  5. Heavy flavor production in fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1990-09-01

    This presentation is a review of recent measurements on charm production at fixed-target experiments. The measurements are relevant to a number of basic physics issues: tests of perturbative QCD, fragmentation, and basic hadronic structure. We now have high quality, high statistics data from several fixed-target experiments. These include a total of about 30,000 fully reconstructed open charm decays and even more copious J/{Psi}, {Psi}, and {Upsilon} decays. Reconstruction of the full data is now reaching completion and we await final results for systematic physics interpretations. This review of the current situation will be followed by a brief look beyond, toward beauty production at fixed-target experiments.

  6. 78 FR 41084 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Video Production: Direct Supervision Jails

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Video Production: Direct... production of a 20- to 25-minute, high-end broadcast-quality DVD that introduces podular direct-supervision... applicant's role in each production must be submitted before the application due date. To ensure...

  7. High School Teachers with Significant Teaching Experience Support the Effectiveness of Direct Instructional Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaros, John

    2014-01-01

    This research study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of direct instructional strategies regarding the achievement of students with ED. High school teachers with significant years of teaching experience in an urban setting support the effectiveness of direct instructional strategies. Teachers with 11-20 and 21-30 years of teaching…

  8. Direct production of naphthenes and paraffins from lignin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jiechen; He, Mingyuan; Lercher, Johannes A; Zhao, Chen

    2015-12-25

    The utilization of lignin as a fuel precursor has attracted attention, and a novel and facile process has been developed for one-pot conversion of lignin into cycloalkanes and alkanes with Ni catalysts under moderate conditions. This cascade hydrodeoxygenation approach may open the route to a new promising technique for direct liquefaction of lignin to hydrocarbons. PMID:26478925

  9. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döbrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-02-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in `dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  10. Asymmetric directly driven capsule implosions: Modeling and experiments--A requirement for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Krashenninikova, N. S.; Obrey, K. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Magelssen, G. R.; Wysocki, F. J.; Batha, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    Direct-drive experiments at the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 35 (1999)] have been performed to prototype eventual campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses and C. R. Wuest, Fusion Sci. Technol. 43, 420 (2003)] to investigate the mixing of target materials. Spherical-implosion targets with equatorial defects have been irradiated with polar direct drive, a requirement for direct-drive experiments at NIF. The physics question addressed by these results is whether simulations can match data on 0th-order hydrodynamics and implosion symmetry, the most basic implosion features, with and without the defect. The successful testing of hydrodynamic simulations leads to better designs for experiments and guides accurate planning for polar-direct-drive-ignition studies on the NIF platform.

  11. Shifting from Production to Service to Experience-Based Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Jannis; de Lima, Edson Pinheiro

    This chapter covers the shift in focus of value added business operations from ­production to services, and in turn, to experience-based operations where customer involvement itself becomes part of the offering. The shift has significant implications for how businesses are managed. The greater service focus affects the firm's unique value proposition, which necessitates considerations on strategy, supplier relations, post-sale offerings and so on. Meanwhile, the inclusion of customer ­experiences affect the way operations are designed and employed so that these are structurally systematically captured and capitalised.

  12. Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-. gamma. and direct-. gamma. + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

    1992-08-14

    Studies of inclusive direct-{gamma} production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between {radical}s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-{gamma} + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made.

  13. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children’s Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals’ emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children’s affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children’s willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences. PMID:27231925

  14. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children's Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals' emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children's affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children's willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences. PMID:27231925

  15. Betrayal trauma theory of dissociative experiences: stroop and directed forgetting findings.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    According to betrayal trauma theory, many survivors of childhood sexual abuse learn to compartmentalize (i.e., dissociate) their traumatic experiences from conscious awareness by dividing attention. This theory predicts that those who dissociate extensively should be at an advantage during dual tasks. Using a modified Stroop task in Experiment 1 and a direct forgetting task in Experiment 2, we tried to replicate Freyd and colleagues' finding that high-dissociative people perform better under dual task conditions. However, in Experiment 1 we found that, relative to low-dissociative people, high-dissociative people exhibit a slowing of their Stroop reaction times that is independent of valence and attentional context. In Experiment 2, performance on a directed forgetting task was found to be unrelated to dissociation. Our 2 studies provide no evidence for the betrayal trauma theory, nor do they support other theories assuming that dissociation is the manifestation of an automatic defense mechanism. PMID:19827703

  16. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Khaselev, O.; Bansal, A.; Kocha, S.; Turner, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    With an eye towards developing a photoelectrochemical system for hydrogen production using sunlight as the only energy input, two types of systems were studied, both involving multijunction devices. One set of cells consisted of a-Si triple junctions and the other a GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs tandem cell combination. Additional investigations were carried out on semiconductor surface modifications to move semiconductor band edges to more favorable energetic positions.

  17. MODIS Directional Surface Reflectance Product: Method, Error Estimates and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermote, Eric; Kotchenova, Svetlana

    The surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) is the ratio between reflected radiance measured in specific observation geometry (zenith and azimuth) within an infinitely small solid angle and irradiance incident on the surface from a direct source of illumination (zenith and azimuth). The BRF is determined from satellite observations through an atmospheric correction (AC) process. When properly retrieved, the surface BRF is fully decoupled from an atmospheric signal, and thus represents the value as measured by an ideal sensor held at the same view geometry and located just above the Earth's surface assuming an absence of atmosphere.

  18. A Fresnel collector process heat experiment at Capitol Concrete Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is planned, conducted and evaluated to determine the feasibility of using a Power Kinetics' Fresnel concentrator to provide process heat in an industrial environment. The plant provides process steam at 50 to 60 psig to two autoclaves for curing masonry blocks. When steam is not required, the plant preheats hot water for later use. A second system is installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory parabolic dish test site for hardware validation and experiment control. Experiment design allows for the extrapolation of results to varying demands for steam and hot water, and includes a consideration of some socio-technical factors such as the impact on production scheduling of diurnal variations in energy availability.

  19. Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Sonam; /Panjab U. /Fermilab

    2010-12-09

    The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

  20. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification...

  1. A direct search for neutralino production at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W. J.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D. J. P.; El Mamouni, H.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harrus, I.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Humbert, R.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ihssen, H.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kokott, T. P.; Köpke, L.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; Kroll, J.; Kuwano, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lee, A. M.; Lehto, M. H.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Ma, J.; Macbeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McNutt, J. R.; McPherson, A. C.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B. P.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pansart, J. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Pfister, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Pouladdej, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Robins, S. A.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossberg, S.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Singh, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Stier, H. E.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk-Niemeyer, G.; Van den plas, D.; Van Dalen, G. J.; Vasseur, G.; Virtue, C. J.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Krogh, J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Waterhouse, J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Toshida, T.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; OPAL Collaboration

    1990-09-01

    A search has been performed for the production of neutralinos ( χ, χ‧) in e +e - annihilation at energies near the Z 0 pole. No evidence for these particles was found either in searches for events with two acoplanar jets, low visible energy, and missing pt (sensitive to Z0→χχ‧→χχ foverlinef) or in searches for single-photon events (sensitive to Z 0→ χχ‧→ χχγ). Model independent upper limits (at the 95% CL) on the branching ratio for the decay mode Z 0 → χχ‧ of a few 10 -4 are obtained for most of the range of neutralino masses that is kinematically accessible at LEP energies. Upper limits on the mixing factor of neutralinos are also placed as a function of the neutralino masses.

  2. Premium distillate products from direct liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.Z.; Winschel, R.A.; Klunder, E.B. |

    1994-08-01

    The net liquid products from modern coal liquefaction processes are lower boiling and have much lower end points (mostly under 400{degree}C) than crude petroleum. Coal liquids have very low concentrations of heteroatoms, particularly S, and metals, and are free of resids and asphaltenes. High yields of low-S (0.01--0.03 wt %) naphtha, kerosene, and diesel fuel fractions can be obtained simply by atmospheric distillation, with a total yield of light fuel fractions ranging from 68 to 82 LV% (W260D exclusive). The coal naphtha has a low aromatics content (5--13 LV%), readily meeting projected year-2000 requirements. Its low Reid vapor pressure allows light components from other sources to be blended. The coal light distillate of in appropriate boiling range will be a good low-S blending stock for the light diesel fuel pool. The heavy distillate can be refined into a low-S No. 4 diesel fuel/fuel oil. This fraction, along with the >343{degree}C atmospheric bottoms, can be catalytically cracked or hydrocracked to make light liquid fuels. Thus, modern coal liquids should no longer be envisioned as thick liquids (or even solids) with high concentrations of aromatics and asphaltenes. Products obtained from advanced coal liquefaction technologies are more like light naphthene-base petroleum, but with lower heteroatoms and metals contents, and they are free of resids. Coal liquids are likely to be co-refined in existing petroleum refineries; and hydroprocessing of various severities would be needed for different fractions to produce quality blending stocks for refinery fuel pools.

  3. Bi-Directional Fluorescence Distribution and its Correction for Estimates of Gross Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetic Light-Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie

    2015-04-01

    Passive measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) presents a new way for directly estimating the photosynthetic activities. In this study, one diurnal multi-angular spectral experiment and three independent diurnal flux experiments were carried out on winter wheat and maize to assess directional emission of SIF for estimating photosynthesis activities. Firstly, the Bi-Directional Fluorescence Distribution Function (BFDF) of SIF was investigated. A BFDF shape similar to the red Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) was observed for the directional SIF emissions at 688 nm. Secondly, the relationship between the directional emission of canopy SIF and BRDF reflectance was examined, finding a strict linear correlation between SIF and reflectance at 688 nm, with an R2> 0.80 for all seven BRDF observations on winter wheat. Then, a BFDF correction model for the canopy SIF at 688 nm was presented by dividing by the canopy reflectance, and about 65.3% of the directional variation was successfully removed. Finally, the BFDF-corrected SIF signals were linked to photosynthetic activities, including gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), and the determination coefficients between photosynthetic activities and the BFDF-corrected SIF increased for most cases. For GEP, the determination coefficients were slightly improved from 0.563, 0.382, and 0.613 (for raw SIF signals) to 0.592, 0.473, and 0.640 for all three diurnal experiments. For LUE, the determination coefficients increased from 0.393, and 0.358 to 0.517, and 0.528 for two experiments, while deceased slightly from 0.695 to 0.607 for one experiment. Therefore, according to the above preliminary results, the canopy SIF cannot be regarded as isotropic, and the directional emission SIF may be an important uncertainty in estimates of GEP and LUE.

  4. Progress in Hydrodynamics Theory adn Experiments for Direct-Drive and Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Anderson, K.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Keck, R.L.; Kelly, J.H.; Knauer, J.P.; Loucks, S.J.; Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; Maximov, A.V.; Maywar, D.N.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Myatt, J,; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Ren, C.; Sangster, T.C.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A.A.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeck, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Zhou, C.; Zuegel, J.D.; Frenje, J.A.; Li, C.K.; Petrasso, R.D.; Seguin, F.H.

    2006-11-20

    Recent advances in hydrodynamics theory and experiments at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics are described. Particular emphasis is laid on improvements in the implosion stability achieved by shaping the ablator adiabat and on the newly developed designs for fast ignition fuel assembly. The results of two-dimensional simulations and a recent set of implosion experiments on OMEGA are presented to verify the role of adiabat shaping on the hydrodynamic stability of direct-drive implosions.

  5. Two-Plasmon Decay Mitigation in Direct-Drive Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Experiments Using Multilayer Targets.

    PubMed

    Follett, R K; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Goncharov, V N; Henchen, R J; Katz, J; Michel, D T; Myatt, J F; Shaw, J; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B; Froula, D H

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor-of-5 reduction in hot-electron generation (>50  keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD-driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (lpse) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show good agreement with the measurements. The simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron production observed in the multilayer targets is primarily caused by increased electron-ion collisional damping. PMID:27127973

  6. Two-Plasmon Decay Mitigation in Direct-Drive Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Experiments Using Multilayer Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-04-01

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor-of-5 reduction in hot-electron generation (>50 keV ) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD-driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (lpse) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show good agreement with the measurements. The simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron production observed in the multilayer targets is primarily caused by increased electron-ion collisional damping.

  7. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the

  8. Physical basis of coastal productivity: The SEEP and MASAR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csanady, G. T.

    Two major cooperative experiments, code-named Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) I and II, were carried out on the northeast U.S. continental shelf and slope by an interdisciplinary group of scientists in the past decade. The work, supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research, had the broad aim of determining whether or to what extent energy-related human activities interfere with the high biological productivity of coastal waters. Much of SEEP I work was reported in a dedicated issue of Continental Shelf Research, including a summary article on the experiment as a whole [Walsh et al., 1988[. A parallel experiment, supported by the Minerals Management Service and code-named Mid Atlantic Slope and Rise (MASAR), had the objective of exploring physical processes over the continental slope and rise, including especially currents in the upper part of the water column. A good deal of MASAR work was also reported in the SEEP issue just mentioned, mainly in an article by Csanady and Hamilton (1988). There have been other papers and publications on these experiments, and more are forthcoming. While many questions remain, our horizons have broadened considerably after a decade of work on this problem, as if our aeroplane had just emerged from clouds to expose an interesting landscape. In this article I shall try to describe the physical (-oceanographic) features of that landscape, not in the chronological order in which we have espied them, but as the logic of the subject dictates.

  9. Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?

    PubMed

    Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

    2013-05-01

    As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802

  10. A Thematic Analysis of the Self-Directed Learning Experiences of 13 Breast Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rager, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Although self-directed learning is a common response for many of the 183000 American women who are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, very little is known about the nature of the experience for them. Four themes emerged from interviews with 13 breast cancer patients describing their self-education efforts in regard to their disease. A…

  11. Instructors' Experiences of Web Based Synchronous Communication using Two Way Audio and Direct Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Ciszewska-Carr, Justyna

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study designed to gain insight into instructors' experiences with web based synchronous communication using two way audio and direct messaging. We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight instructors who used "Elluminate Live" in their web based, asynchronous courses in Education, Nursing, and…

  12. Learning Oceanography from a Computer Simulation Compared with Direct Experience at Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Stahr, Frederick; Sarason, Christian; Fruland, Ruth; Oppenheimer, Peter; Lee, Yen-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from "traditional" classes. Little research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from direct experience in the real environment on which the simulations are based. This study compared two…

  13. Status and Prospects of the EDELWEISS-III Direct WIMP Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillard, A.

    2016-08-01

    EDELWEISS-III is a direct dark matter search experiment, running 800 g heat-and-ionization cryogenic germanium detectors equipped with Full InterDigitized electrodes (FID) for the rejection of near-surface events. We report a preliminary analysis for a subset of the data (35 kg\\cdot days) as well as future prospects for low-mass WIMPs seach.

  14. The Self-Directed Learning Experience of Mothers Whose Child Has Had a Paediatric Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kenda S.

    2014-01-01

    This study employed qualitative research methodology to explore the experiences of mothers who self-directed their learning following their child's stroke diagnosis. Paediatric stroke, although rare, is among the top 10 causes of death in children in the USA, but information about the cause, treatment and long-term impact are difficult to…

  15. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  16. Self-Directed Learning and Prostate Cancer: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Twelve Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rager, Kathleen B.

    2006-01-01

    Although self-directed learning is a common response for many of the 232,090 US men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year, very little is known about the nature of the experience for them. Four themes emerged from interviews with 12 prostate cancer patients describing their self-education efforts in regard to their disease. A…

  17. Disconfirming User Expectations of the Online Service Experience: Inferred versus Direct Disconfirmation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Palmer, Adrian; Wright, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Disconfirmation models of online service measurement seek to define service quality as the difference between user expectations of the service to be received and perceptions of the service actually received. Two such models-inferred and direct disconfirmation-for measuring quality of the online experience are compared (WebQUAL, SERVQUAL). Findings…

  18. Stages of Learning during a Self-Directed Stress Management Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Karl L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to document the stages of learning reflected through student journaling during a self-directed experience in stress management, and the relationship of those stages to a historical model. Methods: College students participating in a full-semester course in stress management theory were required to select a…

  19. Forecast constraints on inflation from combined CMB and gravitational wave direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2010-04-15

    We study how direct detection of the inflationary gravitational wave background constrains inflationary parameters and complements CMB polarization measurements. The error ellipsoids calculated using the Fisher information matrix approach with Planck and the direct detection experiment, Big Bang Observer (BBO), show different directions of parameter degeneracy, and the degeneracy is broken when they are combined. For a slow-roll parametrization, we show that BBO could significantly improve the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared with Planck alone. We also look at a quadratic and a natural inflation model. In both cases, if the temperature of reheating is also treated as a free parameter, then the addition of BBO can significantly improve the error bars. In the case of natural inflation, we find that the addition of BBO could even partially improve the error bars of a cosmic variance-limited CMB experiment.

  20. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establish an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.

  1. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establishmore » an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.« less

  2. Effects of furrow irrigation on the growth, production, and water use efficiency of direct sowing rice.

    PubMed

    He, Chunlin

    2010-01-01

    Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI) system to improve water use efficiency (WUE) and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI) system (continuous flooding irrigation), for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1) a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2) a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+), and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3) increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages. PMID:20694444

  3. An experiment on particle and jet production at midrapidity

    SciTech Connect

    Kadija, K.; Paic, G.; Vranic, D. ); Brady, F.P.; Draper, J.E.; Romero, J.L. ); Carroll, J.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gulmez, E.; Igo, G.J.; Trentalange, S.; Whitten, C. Jr. ); Cherney, M. ); Heck, W.; Renfordt, R.E.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this experiment is to search for signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. Since there is no single accepted signature for the QGP, it is essential to use a flexible detection system at RHIC that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The experiment will utilize two aspects of hadron production that are fundamentally new at RHIC: correlations between global observables on an event-by-event basis and the use of hard scattering of partons as a probe of the properties of high density nuclear matter. The event-by-event measurement of global observables--such as temperature, flavor composition, collision geometry, reaction dynamics, and energy or entropy density fluctuations--is possible because of the very high charged particle densities. Event-by-event fluctuations are expected in the vicinity of a phase change, so experiments must be sensitive to threshold-like features in experimental observables as a function of energy density. Full azimuthal coverage with good particle identification and continuous tracking is required to perform these measurements at momenta where the particle yields are maximal. Measurable jet yields at RHIC will allow investigations of hard QCD processes via both highly segmented calorimetry and high p{sub t} single particle measurements in a tracking system. A systematic study of particle and jet production will be carried out over a range of colliding nuclei from p + p through Au + Au, over a range of impact parameters from peripheral to central, and over the range of energies available at RHIC. Correlations between observables will be made on an event-by-event basis to isolate potentially interesting event types. In particular, correlations of jet properties with full event reconstruction may lead to some surprising new physics.

  4. On Ba(+) production in the CRIT 2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K.; Torbert, R. B.

    1995-04-01

    Analysis of partical data from the CRIT 2 experiment, studying Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect, shows that the density of newly created ions (presumably Ba(+) from the shaped-charge beam) is consistent with the increase in total plasma density measured by the independent RF plasma probe on board (Swenson et al., 1990) at the most active time period. We model this ion production using the measured electron flux data and the neutral barium model of Stenbaek-Nielsen et al. (1990a). To identify the main source mechanisms which may contribute most to the barium ionization, a simple model for the barium ion density at the payload location is developed based on Liouvilles theorem. We estimate that the electron impact ionization is responsible for 90% of the barium ion production observed by CRIT 2 in the first release and up to 45% in the second release. By employing a two-state approximation calculation (Rapp and Francis, 1962), the Ba-O(+) charge exchange cross section is found to range from about 2.0 X 10(exp -17) sq cm at a velocity of 4 km/s to 2.0 X 10(exp -15) sq cm at a velocity of 20 km/s. This result suggests that the Ba-O(+) charge exchange is probably dominant among all the non-CIV ionization processes. By considering the charge exchange process in our density model, the barrium ion densities are calculated for the two releases on CRIT II. The comparison between the model results and the observed data is found to be resonably consistent if the cross sections, as calculated above, are multiplied by 0.3 for the first release and 1.0 for the second release. Our result suggests that the charge exchange process could be the most important non-CIV ionization mechanism in the CRIT II experiment and it should be considered carefully case by case in CIV experiments.

  5. Dark matter production from Goldstone boson interactions and implications for direct searches and dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Ibarra, Alejandro; Molinaro, Emiliano E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de

    2013-11-01

    The stability of the dark matter particle could be attributed to the remnant Z{sub 2} symmetry that arises from the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry. This plausible scenario contains a Goldstone boson which, as recently shown by Weinberg, is a strong candidate for dark radiation. We show in this paper that this Goldstone boson, together with the CP-even scalar associated to the spontaneous breaking of the global U(1) symmetry, plays a central role in the dark matter production. Besides, the mixing of the CP-even scalar with the Standard Model Higgs boson leads to novel Higgs decay channels and to interactions with nucleons, thus opening the possibility of probing this scenario at the LHC and in direct dark matter search experiments. We carefully analyze the latter possibility and we show that there are good prospects to observe a signal at the future experiments LUX and XENON1T provided the dark matter particle was produced thermally and has a mass larger than ∼ 25 GeV.

  6. Exercise Experiences and Changes in Affective Attitude: Direct and Indirect Effects of In Situ Measurements of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sudeck, Gorden; Schmid, Julia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise experiences (perceptions of competence, perceived exertion, acute affective responses to exercise) and affective attitudes toward exercise. This relationship was analyzed in a non-laboratory setting during a 13-weeks exercise program. Materials and Methods: 56 women and 49 men (aged 35–65 years; Mage = 50.0 years; SD = 8.2 years) took part in the longitudinal study. Affective responses to exercise (affective valence, positive activation, calmness) as well as perceptions of competence and perceived exertion were measured at the beginning, during, and end of three exercise sessions within the 13-weeks exercise program. Affective attitude toward exercise were measured before and at the end of the exercise program. A two-level path analysis was conducted. The direct and indirect effects of exercise experiences on changes in affective attitude were analyzed on the between-person level: firstly, it was tested whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion directly relate to changes in affective attitude. Secondly, it was assessed whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion indirectly relate to changes in affective attitudes—imparted via the affective response during exercise. Results and Conclusion: At the between-person level, a direct effect on changes in affective attitude was found for perceptions of competence (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). The model revealed one significant indirect pathway between perceived exertion and changes in affective attitude via positive activation: on average, the less strenuous people perceive physical exercise to be, the more awake they will feel during exercise (β = -0.57, p < 0.05). Those people with higher average levels of positive activation during exercise exhibit more improvements in affective attitudes toward exercise from the beginning to the end of the 13-weeks exercise program (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). Main study results

  7. Direct (13)C-detected NMR experiments for mapping and characterization of hydrogen bonds in RNA.

    PubMed

    Fürtig, Boris; Schnieders, Robbin; Richter, Christian; Zetzsche, Heidi; Keyhani, Sara; Helmling, Christina; Kovacs, Helena; Schwalbe, Harald

    2016-03-01

    In RNA secondary structure determination, it is essential to determine whether a nucleotide is base-paired and not. Base-pairing of nucleotides is mediated by hydrogen bonds. The NMR characterization of hydrogen bonds relies on experiments correlating the NMR resonances of exchangeable protons and can be best performed for structured parts of the RNA, where labile hydrogen atoms are protected from solvent exchange. Functionally important regions in RNA, however, frequently reveal increased dynamic disorder which often leads to NMR signals of exchangeable protons that are broadened beyond (1)H detection. Here, we develop (13)C direct detected experiments to observe all nucleotides in RNA irrespective of whether they are involved in hydrogen bonds or not. Exploiting the self-decoupling of scalar couplings due to the exchange process, the hydrogen bonding behavior of the hydrogen bond donor of each individual nucleotide can be determined. Furthermore, the adaption of HNN-COSY experiments for (13)C direct detection allows correlations of donor-acceptor pairs and the localization of hydrogen-bond acceptor nucleotides. The proposed (13)C direct detected experiments therefore provide information about molecular sites not amenable by conventional proton-detected methods. Such information makes the RNA secondary structure determination by NMR more accurate and helps to validate secondary structure predictions based on bioinformatics. PMID:26852414

  8. Overcoming velocity suppression in dark-matter direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks; Yaylali, David

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoscalar couplings between Standard-Model quarks and dark matter are normally not considered relevant for dark-matter direct-detection experiments because they lead to velocity-suppressed scattering cross sections in the nonrelativistic limit. However, at the nucleon level, such couplings are effectively enhanced by factors of order O(mN/mq)˜103, where mN and mq are appropriate nucleon and quark masses, respectively. This enhancement can thus be sufficient to overcome the corresponding velocity suppression, implying—contrary to common lore—that direct-detection experiments can indeed be sensitive to pseudoscalar couplings. In this work, we explain how this enhancement arises, and present a model-independent analysis of pseudoscalar interactions at direct-detection experiments. We also identify those portions of the corresponding dark-matter parameter space which can be probed at current and future experiments of this type, and discuss the role of isospin violation in enhancing the corresponding experimental reach.

  9. Understanding Direct Emission Measurement Approaches for Upstream Oil and Gas Production Operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extended Abstract for Air & Waste Management Association 105th Annual Conference & Exhibition, June 19-22, 2012, San Antonio, TX. This extended abstract describes a direct measurement study of production pad emissions near Greeley, CO, conducted by ARCADIS in coordination...

  10. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  11. Two-plasmon decay mitigation in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments using multilayer targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Solodov, A. A.; et al

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon-decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor of five reduction in hot-electron generation (> 50 keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (LPSE) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show excellent agreement with the measurements. As a result, the simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron productionmore » observed in the multilayer targets is primarily due to increased electron-ion collisional damping.« less

  12. 14 CFR 39.15 - Does an airworthiness directive apply if the product has been changed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Does an airworthiness directive apply if the product has been changed? 39.15 Section 39.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES § 39.15 Does an...

  13. Production of mineral aggregates in quartz tumbling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai; Pall Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Knak Jensen, Svend; Merrison, Jonathan Peter

    2013-04-01

    Introduction Tumbling experiments with quartz sand with the purpose of tracing the effect of broken bonds in mineral surfaces resulted in an unexpected production of aggregates. These aggregates are a few microns in diameter, spherical and resembling tiny white "snowballs." Particle comminution by aeolian and other natural weathering processes are known in soil science and is often seen as an increase of fine particles towards the top of soil profiles (Nørnberg, P. 1987, 1988, 2002, J.S. Wright 2007). When mineral grains collide in aeolian processes they break up along weakness zones in the crystal lattice. This mechanism causes broken bonds between atoms in the crystal lattice and results in reactive groups in the mineral surface. This mechanism provides the background for experiments to investigate the oxidation processes of magnetite on the planet Mars. The primary magnetic iron oxide phase on Mars is to day known to be magnetite and the colour of the dust on Mars is most likely due to hematite. To investigate if the oxidation process could take place without going over dissolution and precipitation in water, experiments with tumbling of quartz grains in sealed glass containers along with magnetite were started. The idea was that activated bonds at the surface of quartz could oxidize magnetite and convert it to hematite over time. This proved to be the case (Merrison, J.P. et al. 2010). However, in these experiments we observed the formation of the white aggregates which has been the subject of the study that we present here. Results of tumbling experiments Commercially available quarts (Merck) was sieved to obtain the fraction between 125 and 1000 µm. This fraction was tumbled in glass containers for months and resulted in production of a significant amount of fine grained material (Merrison, J.P et al. 2010). A part of this fine fraction consists of the "snowball"-like aggregates which is a fragile element with relatively high specific surface. The physical

  14. Poker Face of Inelastic Dark Matter: Prospects at Upcoming Direct Detection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the Standard Model and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100. The process of testing the DAMA anomaly highlights many of the challenges inherent to direct detection experiments. In addition to determining the properties of the unknown dark matter particle, direct detection experiments must also consider the unknown flux of the incident dark matter, as well as uncertainties in converting a signal from one target nucleus to another. The predictions for both the CRESST 2009 run and XENON100 2010 run show an order of magnitude uncertainty. The nuclear form factor for {sup 184}W, when combined with additional theoretical and experimental uncertainties, will likely prevent CRESST from refuting the iDM hypothesis with an exposure of {Omicron}(100 kg-d) in a model-independent manner. XENON100, on the other hand, will be able to make a definitive statement about a spin-independent, inelastically scattering dark matter candidate. Still, the CRESST 2009 data can potentially confirm iDM for a large range of parameter space. In case of a positive signal, the combined data from CRESST and XENON100 will start probing the properties of the Milky Way DM profile and the interaction of the SM with the dark matter.

  15. Directed Design of Experiments (DOE) for Determining Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the issues that people who specialize in Non destructive evaluation (NDE) have with determining the statistics of the probability of detection. There is discussion of the use of the binominal distribution, and the probability of hit. The presentation then reviews the concepts of Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection of Inspection Systems (DOEPOD). Several cases are reviewed, and discussed. The concept of false calls is also reviewed.

  16. Measuring of fissile isotope partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sinev, V. V.

    2009-11-15

    The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta-decay reaction positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-proliferation purposes.

  17. The Impact of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences on Students' Readiness for Self-directed Learning

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Stuart T.; Plaza, Cecilia M.; Sturpe, Deborah A.; Williams, Greg; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly A.; Roffman, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' readiness for self-directed learning. Methods The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was administered to students prior to and after completing their APPEs. SDLRS is a validated instrument that determines the relative degree to which students have the attitudes and motivation to engage in self-directed learning. Results Seventy-seven (64%) students completed the SDLRS prior to starting their APPEs and 80 (67%) students completed the instrument after completing their APPEs. Forty-six (38%) students completed both. Prior to starting their APPEs, 74% of students scored greater than 150 on the SDLRS, indicating a high level of readiness for self-directed learning. No significant difference was found between the mean scores of students who took the SDLRS both prior to (159 ± 20) and after completing their APPEs (159 ± 24; p > 0.05). Conclusion Students at our institution appear to be ready for self-directed learning but APPEs had a minimal impact on their readiness for self-directed learning. PMID:19657498

  18. Production of hollow microspheres for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.

    1994-12-01

    The targets used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are plastic capsules roughly 0.5 mm in diameter. The capsules, which typically have wall thicknesses from 20 to 60 {mu}m, must possess extraordinary symmetry and concentricity and must have surface finishes of less than 1000 {Angstrom} peak-to-valley variation over surface contours of from 10 to 100`s of {mu}m. This paper reviews the fabrication of these capsules, focusing on the production of the thin-walled polystyrene microshell mandrel around which the capsule is built. The relationship between the capsule characteristics, especially surface finish, and capsule performance is discussed, as are the methods of surface characterization and modification necessary for experiments designed to study the effects of surface roughness on implosion dynamics. Targets for the next generation of ICF facilities using more powerful laser drivers will have to be larger while meeting the same or even more stringent symmetry and surface finish requirements. Some of the technologies for meeting these needs are discussed briefly.

  19. Light flavour hadron production in the ALICE experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalà, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Unique among the LHC experiments, ALICE has excellent particle identification capabilities for the measurement of light-flavour hadrons. A large number of hadron species from pions to multi-strange baryons and light nuclei have been measured over a large transverse momentum region. The measurement of the production of these particles is a valuable tool to study the properties of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In particular they give information on the collective phenomena of the fireball, on the parton energy loss in the hot QCD medium and on the hadronization mechanisms such as recombination and statistical hadronization. The measurements in pp and in p-nucleus collisions provide the necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to investigate the effects of the ordinary nuclear matter. In this paper some of the main ALICE results on identified light-flavour hadron production in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV will be presented.

  20. Directional resolution of dish antenna experiments to search for WISPy dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Knirck, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter consisting of very light and very weakly interacting particles such as axions, axion-like particles and hidden photons could be detected using reflective surfaces. On such reflectors some of the dark matter particles are converted into photons and, given a suitable geometry, concentrated on the detector. This technique offers sensitivity to the direction of the velocity of the dark matter particles. In this note we investigate how far spherical mirrors can concentrate the generated photons and what this implies for the resolution in directional detection as well as the sensitivity of discovery experiments not aiming for directional resolution. Finally we discuss an improved setup using a combination of a reflecting plane with focussing optics.

  1. Writing Seveso II safety reports: new EU guidance reflecting 5 years' experience with the Directive.

    PubMed

    Wood, Maureen Heraty; Fabbri, Luciano; Struckl, Michael

    2008-09-15

    Since the coming into force of the Seveso II Directive, considerable experience has been acquired in regard to preparation of safety reports for establishments that fall under the requirements of this Directive. In light of this experience, the Amendment of the Seveso II Directive adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 16 December 2003, gave the European Commission the mandate "to review by 31 December 2006 in close cooperation with the Member States, the existing Guidance on the Preparation of a safety report (EUR 17690)". As a result, a technical working group of Member States representing the Seveso competent authorities and the European Commission's Major Accident Hazards Bureau was established to review and re-examine the guidance. The new guidance maintains the high-level and overarching character of the older version, but improves the document through better definition of conceptual elements of the safety report and greater alignment with Annex II of the Directive, which describes the essential elements of the safety report. This paper describes the new guidance in terms of its contribution to developing a harmonized conceptual framework for preparing and reviewing safety reports within the context of Seveso II implementation. Overall, the aim of the guidance is to provide concrete advice to operators and competent authorities on the logic and expectations underlying the safety report, so as to make both preparation and review of the report a more efficient and useful exercise for all parties involved. PMID:18276071

  2. Review of tokamak experiments on direct electron heating and current drive with fast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R.I.

    1993-12-01

    Results from tokamak experiments on direct electron interaction with the compressional Alfven wave ({open_quote}fast wave{close_quote}) are reviewed. Experiments aimed at electron heating as well as those in which fast wave electron current drive was investigated are discussed. A distinction is drawn between experiments employing the lower hybrid range of frequencies, where both the lower hybrid wave ({open_quote}slow wave{close_quote}) and the fast wave can propagate in much of the plasma, and those experiments using the fast wave in the range of moderate to high ion cyclotron harmonics, where only the fast wave can penetrate to the plasma core. Most of the early tokamak experiments were in the lower hybrid frequency regime, and the observed electron interaction appeared to be very similar to that obtained with the slow wave at the same frequency. In particular, electron interaction with the fast wave was observed only below a density limit nearly the same as the well known slow wave density limit. In the more recent lower frequency fast wave experiments, electron interaction (heating and current drive) is observed at the center of the discharge, where slow waves are not present.

  3. Quantifying (dis)agreement between direct detection experiments in a halo-independent way

    SciTech Connect

    Feldstein, Brian; Kahlhoefer, Felix E-mail: felix.kahlhoefer@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    We propose an improved method to study recent and near-future dark matter direct detection experiments with small numbers of observed events. Our method determines in a quantitative and halo-independent way whether the experiments point towards a consistent dark matter signal and identifies the best-fit dark matter parameters. To achieve true halo independence, we apply a recently developed method based on finding the velocity distribution that best describes a given set of data. For a quantitative global analysis we construct a likelihood function suitable for small numbers of events, which allows us to determine the best-fit particle physics properties of dark matter considering all experiments simultaneously. Based on this likelihood function we propose a new test statistic that quantifies how well the proposed model fits the data and how large the tension between different direct detection experiments is. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in order to determine the probability distribution function of this test statistic and to calculate the p-value for both the dark matter hypothesis and the background-only hypothesis.

  4. Accelerator experiments on the contribution of secondary particles to the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragovitsch, P.; Englert, P.

    1985-01-01

    Through the interaction of galactic cosmic particle radiation (GCR) a wide variety of cosmogenic nuclides is produced in meteorites. They provide historical information about the cosmic radiation and the bombarded meteorites. An important way to understand the production mechanisms of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites is to gather information about the depth and size dependence of the build-up of Galactic Rays Cosmic-secondary particles within meteorites of different sizes and chemical compositions. Simulation experiments with meteorite models offer an alternative to direct observation providing a data basis to describe the development and action of the secondary cascade induced by the GCR in meteorites.

  5. Muon Production Height investigated by the Air-Shower Experiment KASCADE-Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, P.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.; KASCADE-Grande Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    A large area (128 m2) Muon Tracking Detector (MTD), located within the KASCADE experiment, has been built with the aim to identify muons ( E>0.8 GeV) and their directions in extensive air showers by track measurements under more than 18 r.l. shielding. The orientation of the muon track with respect to the shower axis is expressed in terms of the radial- and tangential angles. By means of triangulation the muon production height H is determined. By means of H, a transition from light to heavy cosmic ray primary particles with increasing shower energy E from 1-10 PeV is observed.

  6. [The new directive on tobacco products: "(a Battle) ended, (Battle) is just beginning"!].

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Magdalena; Postolache, Paraschiva

    2014-01-01

    As tobacco products are sold in all the 28 member states of the European Union, they are subject of regulation of the internal common market. Thus, the Directive 2001/37/EC lays down rules at Union level concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco products. In order to reflect scientific, market and international developments, substantial changes have to be made and the Directive was replaced by a new Directive. The process has begun in 2009 and was finished in December 2013, with a political agreement regarding the new provisions. The final vote in the European Parliament (expected for February 2014) will mark the end of a long and difficult legislative process. The article presents the main changes of the regulation of tobacco products from the point of view of health professionals, closer to their expectations and understandings. The complete text in Romanian and English language of the new directive will be available on: www.stopfumat.eu. PMID:24800598

  7. Signatures of Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering in Direct-Drive National Ignition Facility Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seka, W.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hohenberger, M.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Solodov, A. A.; Short, R. W.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering (SRS and SBS, respectively) have been identified in polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The SBS spectra primarily represent cross-beam energy transfer with low SBS gain and good agreement between experiments and simulations have been obtained. The SRS spectra are also multibeam interactions and reflect the evolution of density scale length in the corona. Two-dimensional DRACO simulations of these experiments have been used to generate simulated SBS spectra and SRS gains. A quantitative comparison of the simulations with the experimental results will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  8. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceived Ability to Direct Patient Care: Impact of Gender and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Christie; Goetz, Sarah; Ward, Earlise

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Physicians are expected to effect patient care by giving orders to members of a healthcare team. Because women are socialized to be less directive than men, the assertive behavior required of new physicians may be experienced differently by male and female residents. We sought to explore the effects of gender and year of training on residents' experiences and perceived ability to direct patient care. Methods This was a mixed-methods, cross-sectional, descriptive study employing a quantitative written survey and qualitative interviews among internal medicine residents at an academic health center. Measurements included questionnaires and interviews about stress, assertiveness, and personal factors that influence their effectiveness in directing patient care. Analyses examined differences by gender and year of training. Results One hundred residents were invited to participate; 65 returned questionnaires, and 16 of these residents were interviewed. Compared with male residents, female residents selected less assertive behaviors for clinical scenarios (p = 0.047) and were more likely to perceive gender as inhibiting their ability to influence patient care (p < 0.01). Stress associated with being assertive varied more with experience than gender. Interviews corroborated these findings and supported the complexity of gender norms for behavior for female residents in a directive leadership position. Conclusions When compared with male peers, female residents reported more gender issues in residency and chose less assertive behaviors in clinical scenarios. Experience mitigated some gender differences. Our findings suggest that discussion of the existing research on prescriptive gender norms for behavior and leadership may be warranted in resident orientation. PMID:19049356

  9. What is the probability that direct detection experiments have observed dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas E-mail: schwetz@fysik.su.se

    2014-12-01

    In Dark Matter direct detection we are facing the situation of some experiments reporting positive signals which are in conflict with limits from other experiments. Such conclusions are subject to large uncertainties introduced by the poorly known local Dark Matter distribution. We present a method to calculate an upper bound on the joint probability of obtaining the outcome of two potentially conflicting experiments under the assumption that the Dark Matter hypothesis is correct, but completely independent of assumptions about the Dark Matter distribution. In this way we can quantify the compatibility of two experiments in an astrophysics independent way. We illustrate our method by testing the compatibility of the hints reported by DAMA and CDMS-Si with the limits from the LUX and SuperCDMS experiments. The method does not require Monte Carlo simulations but is mostly based on using Poisson statistics. In order to deal with signals of few events we introduce the so-called ''signal length'' to take into account energy information. The signal length method provides a simple way to calculate the probability to obtain a given experimental outcome under a specified Dark Matter and background hypothesis.

  10. D0 results on diphoton direct production and double parton interactions in photon + 3 jet events

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of differential diphoton direct production cross sections and a study of photon + 3-jet events with double parton (DP) interactions, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. We measure single differential cross sections as a function of the diphoton mass, the transverse momentum of the diphoton system, the azimuthal angle between the photons, and the polar scattering angle of the photons. In addition, we measure double differential cross sections considering the last three kinematic variables in three diphoton mass bins. The results are compared with different perturbative QCD predictions and event generators. We have used a sample of photon + 3-jet events collected by the D0 experiment with an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb{sup -1} to determine the fraction of events with double parton scattering (f{sub DP}) in a single p{bar p} collision at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The DP fraction and effective cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}), a process-independent scale parameter related to the parton density inside the nucleon, are measured in three intervals of the second (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup jet2} within the range 15 < p{sub T}{sup jet} < 30 GeV. In this range, f{sub DP} varies between 0.23 < f{sub DP} < 0.47, while {sigma}{sub eff} has the average value {sigma}{sub eff}{sup ave} = 16.4 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 2.3(syst) mb.

  11. The repertoire of resistance: Non-compliance with directives in Milgram's 'obedience' experiments.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Matthew M

    2015-09-01

    This paper is the first extensive conversation-analytic study of resistance to directives in one of the most controversial series of experiments in social psychology, Stanley Milgram's 1961-1962 study of 'obedience to authority'. As such, it builds bridges between interactionist and experimental areas of social psychology that do not often communicate with one another. Using as data detailed transcripts of 117 of the original sessions representing five experimental conditions, I show how research participants' resistance to experimental progressivity takes shape against a background of directive/response and complaint/remedy conversational sequences--sequence types that project opposing and competing courses of action. In local contexts of competing sequential relevancies, participants mobilize six forms of resistance to the confederate experimenter's directives to continue. These range along a continuum of explicitness, from relatively subtle resistance that momentarily postpones continuation to techniques for explicitly trying to stop the experiment. Although both 'obedient'- and 'defiant'-outcome participants use all six of the forms, evidence is provided suggesting precisely how members of the two groups differ in manner and frequency of resistance. PMID:25571762

  12. Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Robert D; May, Jeremy L; Kremers, Kelseyann S; Tweedie, Craig E; Oberbauer, Steven F; Liebig, Jennifer A; Botting, Timothy F; Barrett, Robert T; Gregory, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have clearly linked long-term monitoring with in situ experiments to clarify potential drivers of observed change at a given site. This is especially necessary when findings from a site are applied to a much broader geographic area. Here, we document vegetation change at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, occurring naturally and due to experimental warming over nearly two decades. An examination of plant cover, canopy height, and community indices showed more significant differences between years than due to experimental warming. However, changes with warming were more consistent than changes between years and were cumulative in many cases. Most cases of directional change observed in the control plots over time corresponded with a directional change in response to experimental warming. These included increases in canopy height and decreases in lichen cover. Experimental warming resulted in additional increases in evergreen shrub cover and decreases in diversity and bryophyte cover. This study suggests that the directional changes occurring at the sites are primarily due to warming and indicates that further changes are likely in the next two decades if the regional warming trend continues. These findings provide an example of the utility of coupling in situ experiments with long-term monitoring to accurately document vegetation change in response to global change and to identify the underlying mechanisms driving observed changes. PMID:26140204

  13. Direct Fluorescence Detection of Allele-Specific PCR Products Using Novel Energy-Transfer Labeled Primers.

    PubMed

    Winn-Deen

    1998-12-01

    Background: Currently analysis of point mutations can be done by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by gel analysis or by gene-specific PCR followed by hybridization with an allele-specific probe. Both of these mutation detection methods require post-PCR laboratory time and run the risk of contaminating subsequent experiments with the PCR product liberated during the detection step. The author has combined the PCR amplification and detection steps into a single procedure suitable for closed-tube analysis. Methods and Results: Allele-specific PCR primers were designed as Sunrise energy-transfer primers and contained a 3' terminal mismatch to distinguish between normal and mutant DNA. Cloned normal (W64) and mutant (R64) templates of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene were tested to verify amplification specificity and yield. A no-target negative control was also run with each reaction. After PCR, each reaction was tested for fluorescence yield by measuring fluorescence on a spectrofluorimeter or fluorescent microtitreplate reader. The cloned controls and 24 patient samples were tested for the W64R mutation by two methods. The direct fluorescence results with the Sunrise allele-specific PCR method gave comparable genotypes to those obtained with the PCR/ restriction digest/gel electrophoresis control method. No PCR artifacts were observed in the negative controls or in the PCR reactions run with the mismatched target. Conclusions: The results of this pilot study indicate good PCR product and fluorescence yield from allele-specific energy-transfer labeled primers, and the capability of distinguishing between normal and mutant alleles based on fluorescence alone, without the need for restriction digestion, gel electrophoresis, or hybridization with an allele-specific probe. PMID:10089280

  14. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... package form for direct human consumption unless the product has been pasteurized or is made from...

  15. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... package form for direct human consumption unless the product has been pasteurized or is made from...

  16. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... package form for direct human consumption unless the product has been pasteurized or is made from...

  17. Experience of on table modified standard catheters for directed arterial and venous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Ram, Bhavin; Baliga, Kapil; Rajesh, S; George, Robbie K

    2016-07-01

    To describe an on-table modification of standard angiography catheters for use in directed arterial and venous thrombolysis. An angiogram is performed and the length of thrombosed vessel (artery or vein) is measured. A 5 or 6 Fr catheter (preferably straight/multi- purpose/vertebral catheter) is modified on table for use by making multiple holes with 23 G needle. After testing ex vivo with saline injection, the on table modified catheter is placed over a wire into the thrombosed segment of the vessel and thrombolytic agent infusion is commenced utilizing a syringe driver after giving a bolus dose of thrombolytic agent. Median duration of thrombolysis was 24 h in our study. We have utilized this method in twenty thrombosed vessels, without any catheter related complications. In our experience, this modification of a standard catheter as a multi-hole catheter is a readily available, simple, cheap, versatile and effective device for directed thrombolysis. PMID:26719163

  18. Development of a super-resolution optical microscope for directional dark matter search experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Consiglio, L.; D`Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Furuya, S.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Machii, S.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Sirignano, C.; Tawara, Y.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a perfect choice for a detector for directional DM search because of its high density and excellent position accuracy. The minimal detectable track length of a recoil nucleus in emulsion is required to be at least 100 nm, making the resolution of conventional optical microscopes insufficient to resolve them. Here we report about the R&D on a super-resolution optical microscope to be used in future directional DM search experiments with nuclear emulsion as a detector media. The microscope will be fully automatic, will use novel image acquisition and analysis techniques, will achieve the spatial resolution of the order of few tens of nm and will be capable of reconstructing recoil tracks with the length of at least 100 nm with high angular resolution.

  19. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Directed design of experiments for probability of detection (DOEPOD) has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit- Miss or signal amplitude testing. Specifically, DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. Directed DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required.

  20. Three-dimensional Dendritic Needle Network model with application to Al-Cu directional solidification experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tourret, D.; Karma, A.; Clarke, A. J.; Gibbs, P. J.; Imhoff, S. D.

    2015-06-11

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) extension of a previously proposed multi-scale Dendritic Needle Network (DNN) approach for the growth of complex dendritic microstructures. Using a new formulation of the DNN dynamics equations for dendritic paraboloid-branches of a given thickness, one can directly extend the DNN approach to 3D modeling. We validate this new formulation against known scaling laws and analytical solutions that describe the early transient and steady-state growth regimes, respectively. Finally, we compare the predictions of the model to in situ X-ray imaging of Al-Cu alloy solidification experiments. The comparison shows a very good quantitative agreement between 3D simulations and thin sample experiments. It also highlights the importance of full 3D modeling to accurately predict the primary dendrite arm spacing that is significantly over-estimated by 2D simulations.

  1. Three-dimensional Dendritic Needle Network model with application to Al-Cu directional solidification experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tourret, D.; Karma, A.; Clarke, A. J.; Gibbs, P. J.; Imhoff, S. D.

    2015-06-11

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) extension of a previously proposed multi-scale Dendritic Needle Network (DNN) approach for the growth of complex dendritic microstructures. Using a new formulation of the DNN dynamics equations for dendritic paraboloid-branches of a given thickness, one can directly extend the DNN approach to 3D modeling. We validate this new formulation against known scaling laws and analytical solutions that describe the early transient and steady-state growth regimes, respectively. Finally, we compare the predictions of the model to in situ X-ray imaging of Al-Cu alloy solidification experiments. The comparison shows a very good quantitative agreement between 3D simulationsmore » and thin sample experiments. It also highlights the importance of full 3D modeling to accurately predict the primary dendrite arm spacing that is significantly over-estimated by 2D simulations.« less

  2. Final Progress Report: Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2.

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Barry; Peter G. Brewer

    2004-05-25

    OAK-B135 This report summarizes activities and results of investigations of the potential environmental consequences of direct injection of carbon dioxide into the deep-sea as a carbon sequestration method. Results of field experiments using small scale in situ releases of liquid CO2 are described in detail. The major conclusions of these experiments are that mortality rates of deep sea biota will vary depending on the concentrations of CO2 in deep ocean waters that result from a carbon sequestration project. Large changes in seawater acidity and carbon dioxide content near CO2 release sites will likely cause significant harm to deep-sea marine life. Smaller changes in seawater chemistry at greater distances from release sites will be less harmful, but may result in significant ecosystem changes.

  3. Acceleration of heavy and light particles in turbulence: Comparison between experiments and direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, R.; Calzavarini, E.; Verhille, G.; Lohse, D.; Mordant, N.; Pinton, J.-F.; Toschi, F.

    2008-08-01

    We compare experimental data and numerical simulations for the dynamics of inertial particles with finite density in turbulence. In the experiment, bubbles and solid particles are optically tracked in a turbulent flow of water using an Extended Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique. The probability density functions (PDF) of particle accelerations and their auto-correlation in time are computed. Numerical results are obtained from a direct numerical simulation in which a suspension of passive pointwise particles is tracked, with the same finite density and the same response time as in the experiment. We observe a good agreement for both the variance of acceleration and the autocorrelation time scale of the dynamics; small discrepancies on the shape of the acceleration PDF are observed. We discuss the effects induced by the finite size of the particles, not taken into account in the present numerical simulations.

  4. Measurement of direct CP-violation with the experiments NA31 and NA48 at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, B. ); CERN, Edinburgh, Mainz, Orsay, Pisa and Siegen Collaboration

    1992-02-01

    The NA31 experiment has measured the CP violation parameter [var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon]. The result of data collected in 1988 is Re([var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon])=(1.7[plus minus]1.0)[times]10[sup [minus]3]. A preliminary result of data collected in 1989 is Re([var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon])=(2.1[plus minus]0.9)[times]10[sup [minus]3]. Combining these two results with the original result from the 1986 data set we obtain Re([var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon])=(2.3[plus minus]0.7)[times]10[sup [minus]3], which is a more than three standard deviation evidence for direct CP violation. A new experiment NA48 is under construction which aims for a significant reduction of the statistical and the systematical errors in order to reach a combined error not exceeding 2[times]10[sup [minus]4].

  5. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for direct current discharge fireball experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, K. H.; Navia, C. E.; Robba, M. B.; Carneiro, L. T.; Emelin, S. E.

    2006-11-15

    Ball lightning models and corresponding laboratory efforts in generating fireballs are briefly summarized to give an overview of the current status. In particular, emphasis is given to direct current discharge experiments at atmospheric pressure such as capillary discharge with a plasma plume in front of the anode opening [Emelin et al., Tech. Phys. Letters 23, 758 (1997)] and water resistor discharge with fluttering fireball overhead [Egorov and Stepanov, Tech. Phys. 47, 1584 (2002)]. These fireballs are interpreted as laboratory demonstrations of the self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of ball lightning [Tsui, Phys. Plasmas 13, 072102 (2006)].

  6. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for direct current discharge fireball experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.; Navia, C. E.; Robba, M. B.; Carneiro, L. T.; Emelin, S. E.

    2006-11-01

    Ball lightning models and corresponding laboratory efforts in generating fireballs are briefly summarized to give an overview of the current status. In particular, emphasis is given to direct current discharge experiments at atmospheric pressure such as capillary discharge with a plasma plume in front of the anode opening [Emelin et al., Tech. Phys. Letters 23, 758 (1997)] and water resistor discharge with fluttering fireball overhead [Egorov and Stepanov, Tech. Phys. 47, 1584 (2002)]. These fireballs are interpreted as laboratory demonstrations of the self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of ball lightning [Tsui, Phys. Plasmas 13, 072102 (2006)].

  7. Polar-direct-drive experiments with contoured-shell targets on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Radha, P. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Stoeckl, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Polar-driven direct-drive experiments recently performed on the OMEGA Laser System have demonstrated the efficacy of using a target with a contoured shell with varying thickness to improve the symmetry and fusion performance of the implosion. The polar-driven contoured-shell implosions have substantially reduced low mode perturbations compared to polar-driven spherical-shell implosions as diagnosed by x-ray radiographs up to shell stagnation. Fusion yields were increased by more than a factor of ˜2 without increasing the energy of the laser by the use of contoured shells.

  8. Polar-direct-drive experiments with contoured-shell targets on OMEGA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marshall, F. J.; Radha, P. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Stoeckl, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Johnson, M. Gatu; et al

    2016-01-28

    Polar-driven direct-drive experiments recently performed on the OMEGA Laser System have demonstrated the efficacy of using a target with a contoured shell with varying thickness to improve the symmetry and fusion performance of the implosion. The polar-driven contoured-shell implosions have substantially reduced low mode perturbations compared to polar-driven spherical-shell implosions as diagnosed by x-ray radiographs up to shell stagnation. As a result, fusion yields were increased by more than a factor of ~2 without increasing the energy of the laser by the use of contoured shells.

  9. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  10. Recording of direct health traits in Austria--experience report with emphasis on aspects of availability for breeding purposes.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Obritzhauser, W; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Grassauer, B; Mayerhofer, M; Koeck, A

    2012-05-01

    A project to establish an Austria-wide health-monitoring system for cattle was launched in 2006. Veterinary diagnostic data subject to documentation by law [Law on the Control of Veterinary Medicinal Products (Tierarzneimittelkontrollgesetz)] are standardized, validated, and recorded in a central database. This Austria-wide project is a collaboration among agricultural and veterinary organizations as well as universities, and is also supported by the Austrian government. In addition to providing information for herd management and preventive measures, further objectives of the project include estimating breeding values for health traits and monitoring the overall health status of Austria's cattle. To ensure a high level of participation from farmers and veterinarians, data security issues are extremely important. Valid data are the prerequisite for the efficient use of health records. The challenge hereby is to distinguish between farms with low frequencies of diseases and incomplete documentation and recording. Measures were undertaken to establish a routine monitoring system for direct health traits. A routine genetic evaluation for direct health traits as part of the joint breeding value estimation program between Germany and Austria was introduced for Fleckvieh in December 2010, based on diagnostic data from 5,428 farms with 147,764 Fleckvieh cows. In 2010 to 2011, the reporting of direct health traits as a compulsory part of performance recording and the breeding program was introduced as well. The overall challenge is the availability of sufficient valid direct health data for reliable breeding values. Practical experience gained in Austria in setting up a health registration system, focusing mainly on the availability of direct health data for breeding purposes with its successes and difficulties, is described. PMID:22541507

  11. Experiments on water/melt explosions, nature of products, and models of dispersal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Wohletz, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a steel pressure device using controlled amounts of water and thermite melt to examine the mechanical energy released on explosive mixing following the initial contact of the two materials. An experimental design was used to allow the direct calculation of the mechanical energy by the dynamic lift of the device as recorded both optically and physically. A large number of experiments were run to accurately determine the optimum mixture of water and melt for the conversion of thermal to mechanical energy. The maximum efficiency observed was about 12% at a water/thermite mass ratio of 0.50. These experiments are the basis for the development of models of hydroexplosions and melt fragmentation. Particles collected from the experimental products are similar in size and shape to pyroclasts produced by much larger hydrovolcanic explosions. Melt rupture at optimum ratios produces very fine particles whereas rupture at high or low water/melt ratios produces large melt fragments. Grain surface textures in the experimental products are also related to the water/melt ratio and the mechanism of explosive mixing. It is thus possible to have qualitative information about the nature of the explosion from the sizes and shapes of the fragments produced.

  12. Japanese regulation of biosimilar products: past experience and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Arato, Teruyo

    2016-07-01

    Seven biosimilar products have been approved in Japan since the March 2009 publication of the 'Guideline for quality, safety and efficacy assurance of biosimilar products' by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). Four years previously, the 'Guideline on similar biological medicinal products' was issued in the European Union (EU), and 13 products as of February 2016 have been approved as biosimilar. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first biosimilar product in the US in March 2015 and final Guidance was issued at the end of April 2015. Over the past decade, the challenges regarding the development of biosimilar products have been discussed extensively. In this article, the data packages of biosimilar products in Japan are compared with those overseas in order to clarify the concepts used by the Japanese regulatory authority, i.e., the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The challenges in the development of biosimilar products in Japan are also addressed. PMID:26987746

  13. Inverse Method for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Milling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, A.; Michel, G.; Thibaud, S.; Fontaine, M.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of High Speed Machining processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measures, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse method of identification is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  14. Inverse Method for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Milling Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, A.; Michel, G.; Thibaud, S.; Fontaine, M.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of High Speed Machining processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measures, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse method of identification is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  15. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  16. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  17. Progress in indirect and direct-drive planar experiments on hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front

    SciTech Connect

    Casner, A. Masse, L.; Huser, G.; Galmiche, D.; Liberatore, S.; Riazuelo, G.; Delorme, B.; Martinez, D.; Remington, B.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Igumenshchev, I.; Michel, D. T.; Froula, D.; Seka, W.; Goncharov, V. N.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Fujioka, S.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and the fuel mix are the key elements for achieving ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Cryogenic indirect-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility have evidenced that the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is a driver of the hot spot mix. This motivates the switch to a more flexible higher adiabat implosion design [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056313 (2014)]. The shell instability is also the main candidate for performance degradation in low-adiabat direct drive cryogenic implosions [Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014)]. This paper reviews recent results acquired in planar experiments performed on the OMEGA laser facility and devoted to the modeling and mitigation of hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front. In application to the indirect-drive scheme, we describe results obtained with a specific ablator composition such as the laminated ablator or a graded-dopant emulator. In application to the direct drive scheme, we discuss experiments devoted to the study of laser imprinted perturbations with special phase plates. The simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase reversal during the shock transit phase are challenging, and of crucial interest because this phase sets the seed of the RTI growth. Recent works were dedicated to increasing the accuracy of measurements of the phase inversion. We conclude by presenting a novel imprint mitigation mechanism based on the use of underdense foams. The foams induce laser smoothing by parametric instabilities thus reducing the laser imprint on the CH foil.

  18. Tomographic imaging of a target directly irradiated in experiments on the Iskra-5 iodine laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, R V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Oreshkov, O V; Potapov, S V; Suslov, N A; Frolova, N V

    2010-12-29

    We set forth the data of experiments involving direct microtarget irradiation by the 12 second-harmonic beams ({lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) of iodine laser radiation carried out on the Iskra-5 facility. For microtargets we employed glass shells {approx}500 {mu}m in diameter with {approx}1-{mu}m thick walls, which were filled with a DT mixture at a pressure p{sub DT} {approx} 3-4 atm. In one of these experiments, a tomographic image of the microtarget was recorded from the images obtained using pinhole cameras, which were arranged along seven different directions. The pinhole images were acquired in the X-ray radiation with photon energies above 1.5 keV. The procedure used for reconstructing the volume luminosity of the microtarget is described. An analysis of the tomographic image suggests that the compressed microtarget domain possesses a complex asymmetric shape; 20-30 {mu}m sized structural elements being clearly visible. The resultant data set allowed us to estimate the initial nonuniformity of microtarget surface irradiation by the laser radiation. The rms nonuniformity of microtarget irradiance was estimated at {approx}60 %. (interaction of laser radiation with targets)

  19. ISAAC: A REXUS Student Experiment to Demonstrate an Ejection System with Predefined Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, G.; Berquand, A.; Company-Vallet, E.; Granberg, V.; Grigore, V.; Ivchenko, N.; Kevorkov, R.; Lundkvist, E.; Olentsenko, G.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Tibert, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-09-01

    ISAAC Infrared Spectroscopy to Analyse the middle Atmosphere Composition — was a student experiment launched from SSC's Esrange Space Centre, Sweden, on 29th May 2014, on board the sounding rocket REXUS 15 in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. The main focus of the experiment was to implement an ejection system for two large Free Falling Units (FFUs) (240 mm x 80 mm) to be ejected from a spinning rocket into a predefined direction. The system design relied on a spring-based ejection system. Sun and angular rate sensors were used to control and time the ejection. The flight data includes telemetry from the Rocket Mounted Unit (RMU), received and saved during flight, as well as video footage from the GoPro camera mounted inside the RMU and recovered after the flight. The FFUs' direction, speed and spin frequency as well as the rocket spin frequency were determined by analyzing the video footage. The FFU-Rocket-Sun angles were 64.3° and 104.3°, within the required margins of 90°+45°. The FFU speeds were 3.98 mIs and 3.74 mIs, lower than the expected 5± 1 mIs. The FFUs' spin frequencies were 1 .38 Hz and 1 .60 Hz, approximately half the rocket's spin frequency. The rocket spin rate slightly changed from 3. 163 Hz before the ejection to 3.1 17 Hz after the ejection of the two FFUs. The angular rate, sun sensor data and temperature on the inside of the rocket module skin were also recorded. The experiment design and results of the data analysis are presented in this paper.

  20. 15 CFR Appendix to Part 1180 - Sample Funding Agreement Clause for Direct Submission of Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sample Funding Agreement Clause for Direct Submission of Products Appendix to Part 1180 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Direct cellobiose production from cellulose using sextuple beta-glucosidase gene deletion Neurospora crassa mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct cellobiose production from cellulose by a genetically modified fungus—Neurospora crassa, was explored in this study. A library of N. crassa sextuple beta-glucosidase (bgl) gene deletion strains was constructed. Various concentrations of cellobiose were detected in the culture broth of the N. ...

  2. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Behaviour and Electrophysiology of Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced effects of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the left…

  3. Direct Forming of All-Polypropylene Composites Products from Fabrics made of Co-Extruded Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, B.; Cabrera, N. O.; Barkoula, N. M.; Peijs, T.

    2009-04-01

    Many technologies presented in literature for the forming of self-reinforced or all-polymer composites are based on manufacturing processes involving thermoforming of pre-consolidated sheets. This paper describes novel direct forming routes to manufacture simple geometries of self-reinforced, all-polypropylene (all-PP) composites, by moulding fabrics of woven co-extruded polypropylene tapes directly into composite products, without the need for pre-consolidated sheet. High strength co-extruded PP tapes have potential processing advantages over mono-extruded fibres or tapes as they allow for a larger temperature processing window for consolidation. This enlarged temperature processing window makes direct forming routes feasible, without the need for an intermediate pre-consolidated sheet product. Thermoforming studies show that direct forming is an interesting alternative to stamping of pre-consolidated sheets, as it eliminates an expensive belt-pressing step which is normally needed for the manufacturing of semi-finished sheets products. Moreover, results from forming studies shows that only half the energy was required to directly form a simple dome geometry from a stack of fabrics compared to stamping the same shape from a pre-consolidated sheet.

  4. Direct drive implosion experiments on SGIII prototype laser facility: Assessing energy coupling efficiency and implosion symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pu Yudong; Huang Tianxuan; Li Huang; Zhan Xiayu; Peng Xiaoshi; Tang Qi; Song Zifeng; Chen Jiabin; Song Tianming; Chen Ming; Yu Ruizhen; He Xiaoan; Li Chaoguang; Zhang Lu; Zheng Jiahua; Jing Longfei; Chen Bolun; Su Ming; Jiang Wei; Yu Bo; and others

    2012-07-15

    Direct drive implosion experiments were conducted on SGIII prototype laser facility. From the time resolved x-ray images, the bright ring and the central bright spot are observed. The radial velocity of the convergent bright ring indicates the shell velocity, and the times when the central bright spot is first seen and becomes most intensive indicate the times of shock convergence and later stagnation, respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were carried out by changing laser energy deposition factors. When the simulated results are brought close to the measured ones, it is found that the energy coupling efficiency is around 70%. The implosion symmetry is indicated by the core x-ray emission pattern which is pancake when viewing from the equator, and splits into several bright spots when viewing close to the pole. A simple model is developed to understand this asymmetry. It is speculated that the observed implosion asymmetry can be attributed to the laser arrangement which is originally designed for indirect drive experiments. Further improvements of energy coupling efficiency and implosion symmetry in future experiments can be achieved by optimizing target design and laser arrangement.

  5. The Qweak Experiment: First Direct Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowd, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    The recently completed Qweak experiment at Jefferson Laboratory made the first direct determination of the proton's weak charge, QpW, via a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low four-momentum transfer. The Standard Model (SM) makes a precise prediction of QpW (SM) = 0.0710 ± 0.0007. A deviation from this prediction could be an indicator of new physics. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered off a liquid hydrogen target and detected in eight azimuthally symmetric fused silica detectors. The small asymmetry, Aep = -279 ± 35 (stat) ±31 (syst) ppb, was measured by observing the difference in rates seen in the detectors when the helicity of the electron beam was rapidly reversed. The measured asymmetry is the most precise and smallest asymmetry ever measured in an e⃗p scattering experiment. Combining this asymmetry with previous parity- violating electron scattering (PVES) data, we obtained a value of QpW(PVES) = 0.064 ± 0.012, which agrees well with the SM value. The results of the experiment's commissioning run, which constitutes about 4% of the total data set, are reported here. Analysis of the remainder of the data set is ongoing and will significantly reduce the statistical and systematic uncertainties; several aspects of this analysis will be highlighted.

  6. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, T.K.; Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    The Containment Technology Test Facility (CTTF) and the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories are used to perform scaled experiments that simulate High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) phenomena on the containment load. High-temperature, chemically reactive melt (thermite) is ejected by high-pressure steam into a scale model of a reactor cavity. Debris is entrained by the steam blowdown into a containment model where specific phenomena, such as the effect of subcompartment structures, prototypic air/steam/hydrogen atmospheres, and hydrogen generation and combustion, can be studied. Four Integral Effects Tests (IETs) have been performed with scale models of the Surry NPP to investigate DCH phenomena. The 1/61{sup th} scale Integral Effects Tests (IET-9, IET-10, and IET-11) were conducted in CTRF, which is a 1/6{sup th} scale model of the Surry reactor containment building (RCB). The 1/10{sup th} scale IET test (IET-12) was performed in the Surtsey vessel, which had been configured as a 1/10{sup th} scale Surry RCB. Scale models were constructed in each of the facilities of the Surry structures, including the reactor pressure vessel, reactor support skirt, control rod drive missile shield, biological shield wall, cavity, instrument tunnel, residual heat removal platform and heat exchangers, seal table room and seal table, operating deck, and crane wall. This report describes these experiments and gives the results.

  7. [Direct support of the STOW effort and SAFAGANZA experiments]. Final report, February--14 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmorgen, L.S.

    1994-03-24

    The Synthetic Theater of War program, under the leadership of the Advanced Distributed Simulation Office, was redesignated a probationary Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration by the Office of the Secretary of Defense. This new designation makes the STOW program, and the enabling technology developments, one of only six major technology thrusts being supported by the Defense Research and Development organization. Support to this technology area, has been, and will continue to be a major thrust for this contract and the follow-on contract. Over the extended period of this contract we have supported a major experimental series, the Counter Target Acquistion System (CTAS), and initiated support and development effort for STOW-97 and participated in ongoing series of experiments known as the SAFAGANZA. These efforts have seen the development of significant experiment support and analysis tools, i.e. the integration of headeye tracking to manned tactical simulation and the Simulyzer analysis system. Recently, we have initiated the development of a customized data base analysis tool to enable analysis supporting selection of communications bandwidth reduction designs and concepts. This is in direct support of the STOW effort and intrinsic to the SAFAGANZA experiments.

  8. Experiences with High-Level Programming Directives for Porting Applications to GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Oscar R; Ding, Wei; Chapman, Barbara; Kartsaklis, Christos; Sankaran, Ramanan; Graham, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    HPC systems now exploit GPUs within their compute nodes to accelerate program performance. As a result, high-end application development has become extremely complex at the node level. In addition to restructuring the node code to exploit the cores and specialized devices, the programmer may need to choose a programming model such as OpenMP or CPU threads in conjunction with an accelerator programming model to share and manage the difference node resources. This comes at a time when programmer productivity and the ability to produce portable code has been recognized as a major concern. In order to offset the high development cost of creating CUDA or OpenCL kernels, directives have been proposed for programming accelerator devices, but their implications are not well known. In this paper, we evaluate the state of the art accelerator directives to program several applications kernels, explore transformations to achieve good performance, and examine the expressiveness and performance penalty of using high-level directives versus CUDA. We also compare our results to OpenMP implementations to understand the benefits of running the kernels in the accelerator versus CPU cores.

  9. $H \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ search and direct photon pair production differential cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Xuebing

    2010-06-01

    context of the particular fermiophobic Higgs model. The corresponding results have reached the same sensitivity as a single LEP experiement, setting a lower limit on the fermiophobic Higgs of Mhf > 102.5 GeV (Mhf > 107.5 GeV expected). We are slightly below the combined LEP limit (Mhf > 109.7 GeV). We also provide access to the Mhf > 125 GeV region which was inaccessible at LEP. During the study, we found the major and irreducible background direct γγ (DPP) production is not well modelled by the current theoretical predictions: RESBOS, DIPHOX or PYTHIA. There is ~20% theoretical uncertainty for the predicted values. Thus, for our Higgs search, we use the side-band fitting method to estimate DPP contribution directly from the data events. Furthermore, DPP production is also a significant background in searches for new phenomena, such as new heavy resonances, extra spatial dimensions, or cascade decays of heavy new particles. Thus, precise measurements of the DPP cross sections for various kinematic variables and their theoretical understanding are extremely important for future Higgs and new phenomena searches. In this thesis, we also present a precise measurement of the DPP single differential cross sections as a function of the diphoton mass, the transverse momentum of the diphoton system, the azimuthal angle between the photons, and the polar scattering angle of the photons, as well as the double differential cross sections considering the last three kinematic variables in three diphoton mass bins, using 4.2 fb-1 data. These results are the first of their kind at D0 Run II, and in fact the double differential measurements are the first of their kind at Tevatron. The results are compared with different perturbative QCD predictions and event generators.

  10. Experiences of a grid connected solar array energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagymássy, Zoltán; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy possibilities of Hungary are higher than in Central Europe generally. The Institute for Land Utilisation, Technology and Regional Development of the University of Debrecen installed a photovoltaic (PV) system. The PV system is structured into 3 subsystems (fields). The first subsystem has 24 pieces of Kyocera KC 120 W type modules, the second subsystem has 72 pieces of Siemens ST 40W, and the remaining has 72 pieces of Dunasolar DS 40W In order to be operable independently of each other three inverter modules (SB 2500) had been installed. The recorder can be connected directly to a desktop PC. Operating and meteorological dates are recorded by MS Excel every 15 minutes. The power plant is connected to a weather station, which contents a PT 100 type temperature and humidity combined measuring instrument, a CM 11 pyranometer, and a wind speed measuring instrument. The produced DC, and AC power, together with the produced energy are as well, and the efficiency can be determined for each used PV technology. The measured operating and meteorological dates are collected by Sunny Boy Control, produced by the SMA. The energy productions of the subsystems are measured continually and the subsystems are measured separately. As an expected, the produced energy of polycrystalline -Si PV module and monocrystalline -Si PV was higher than amorphous-Si PV module. It is well known that energy analysis is more suitable for energy balance when we design a system. The air temperature and the temperature of the panels and the global irradiation conditions were measured. In summertime the panel temperature reaches 60-80 degrees in a sunny day. The panel temperatures are in a spring sunny day approximately 30-40 degrees. It can be concluded that the global irradiation is a major impact feature to influence the amount of energy produced. The efficiency depends on several parameters (spectral distribution of the incoming light, temperature values, etc.). The energy efficiency

  11. Direct ethanol production from starch using a natural isolate, Scheffersomyces shehatae: Toward consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Ayumi; Kikukawa, Minako; Yamaguchi, Shino; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which integrates enzyme production, saccharification and fermentation into a one-step process, is a promising strategy for cost-effective ethanol production from starchy biomass. To gain insights into starch-based ethanol production using CBP, an extensive screening was undertaken to identify naturally occurring yeasts that produce ethanol without the addition of any amylases. Three yeast strains were capable of producing a significant amount of ethanol. Quantitative assays revealed that Scheffersomyces shehatae JCM 18690 was the strain showing the highest ethanol production ability. This strain was able to utilize starch directly, and the ethanol concentration reached 9.21 g/L. We attribute the ethanol-producing ability of this strain to the high levels of glucoamylase activity, fermentation potential and ethanol stress tolerance. This study strongly suggests the possibility of starch-based ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing using natural yeasts such as S. shehatae JCM 18690. PMID:25901788

  12. Product recall: a Croatian experience (2000–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Vuk, Tomislav; Barišić, Marijan; Ljubičić, Julijana; Hećimović, Ana; Juraković-Lončar, Nina; Šarlija, Dorotea; Jukić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Background Timely and efficient recall of products known or suspected to be non-conforming is an important measure in the prevention of adverse events and in patients' safety. Product recall in the transfusion service is regulated by professional standards and legal acts, but publications presenting results related to the implementation of these procedures are quite rare. Materials and methods Data from the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM) on the procedures of product recall during an 11-year period (2000–2010) were retrospectively analyzed. Reasons for product recall, their frequency, level of severity and efficiency of the procedures are presented and discussed. Results During the study period, there were 245 procedures of product recall, for an average of 22 (18–29) procedures/year, all of low extent (1–25 products). Recall was required for 1/3,571 blood products issued, while the frequency of laboratory test report recalls was 1/5,447 patients. The leading reasons for product recall were suspected bacterial contamination of blood products (30.2%) and suspected or demonstrated non-conformity of laboratory test reports (28.6%). In total, 99 (40.4%) product recalls were categorized as class I, 30 (12.2%) as class II and 116 (47.3%) as class III. Discussion According to the available literature data, the product recall procedures were performed quite infrequently by the CITM and were of low extent. There was a remarkable decreasing trend in the rate of product recall due to non-conformities or errors made at the CITM, along with a constant or increasing rate of recalls because of biological variability of blood products. PMID:23114522

  13. Tests of WIMP Dark Matter Candidates with Direct Dark Matter Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Andreea Irina

    We reexamine the current direct dark matter (DM) detection data for several types of DM candidates, both assuming the Standard Halo Model (SHM) and in a halo-independent manner. We consider the potential signals for light WIMPs that have appeared in three direct detection searches: DAMA, CDMS-II-Si, and CoGeNT, and we analyze their compatibility with the null results of other direct detection experiments. We first consider light WIMPs with exothermic scattering with nuclei (exoDM). Exothermic interactions favor light targets, thus reducing the importance of upper limits derived from Xe targets, the most restrictive of which is at present the LUX limit. In our SHM analysis the CDMS-II-Si and CoGeNT regions become allowed by these bounds, however the SuperCDMS limit rejects both regions for exoDM with isospin-conserving couplings. An isospin-violating coupling of the exoDM, in particular one with a neutron to proton coupling ratio of -0.8 (which we call "Ge-phobic"), maximally reduces the DM coupling to Ge and allows the CDMS-II-Si region to become compatible with all upper bounds. This is also clearly shown in our halo-independent analysis. Next, we extend and correct a recently proposed maximum-likelihood halo-independent method to analyze unbinned direct DM detection data. Instead of the recoil energy as an independent variable, we use the minimum speed a DM particle must have to impart a given recoil energy to a nucleus. This has the advantage of allowing us to apply the method to any type of target composition and interaction, e.g. with general momentum and velocity dependence, and with elastic or inelastic scattering. We prove the method and provide a rigorous statistical interpretation of the results. As first applications, we find that for dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent interactions and neutron to proton coupling ratio ƒn/ƒp = --0.7 ("Xe-phobic", which reduces maximally the coupling to Xe), the WIMP interpretation of the signal observed

  14. Effects of Direct Social Experience on Trust Decisions and Neural Reward Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Chang, Luke J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2012-01-01

    The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms. PMID:23087604

  15. A Procedure for Directing a Sign-Language Theatre Production for a Child Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Darlene Kaye

    This paper sets forth step-by-step procedures which novice sign-language theatre directors can use as a guide for their first sign-language theatre experiences. Since the procedures were developed during the production of a play for a mixed adult and child audience, it is assumed that the general guidelines set forth are applicable to a production…

  16. Learning by Experience, Work and Productivity: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and significance of learning by experience during work, both paid and unpaid. Data about the relationship between costs, especially labour costs, and output have come to be interpreted as evidence of learning by experience, but these grouped data are unable to explain the nature and process of individual experience…

  17. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-08-01

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators (ANAIS) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) scintillators produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from ^{210}Pb, ^{40}K, ^{22}Na and 3H are the most relevant. Those from ^{40}K and ^{22}Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a liquid scintillator veto (LSV), while that from ^{210}Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and 3H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during production. Assuming the activities of the last characterized detector, for nine crystals with a total mass of 112.5 kg the expected background rate is 2.5 counts/(keV kg day) in the region from 1 to 4 keV, which could be reduced at 1.4 counts/(keV kg day) by using a LSV.

  18. Production of a Biopolymer at Reactor Scale: A Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Rukan; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students of biotechnology became familiar with several aspects of bioreactor operation via the production of xanthan gum, an industrially relevant biopolymer, by "Xanthomonas campestris" bacteria. The xanthan gum was extracted from the fermentation broth and the yield coefficient and productivity were calculated. (Contains 2 figures.)

  19. Coherent structures in a turbulent mixing layer - A comparison between direct numerical simulations and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, R. W.; Menon, S.; Hussain, A. K. M. F.

    1985-01-01

    An eduction scheme has been developed in an attempt to determine the characteristics of large-scale vortical structures in a turbulent mixing layer. This analysis scheme has been applied to a set of experimental data taken in a new, larger mixing layer facility designed to minimize boundary and resonance effects. A similar scheme has been developed to apply to the results of a direct numerical simulation of a temporally growing mixing layer. A comparison of the two approaches shows important similarities in the coherent structures. The numerical simulations indicate that low levels of coherent forcing can dramatically change the evolution of the mixing layer. In the absence of such forcing, the numerical simulations and experiments show a lack of regularity in the transverse position, spacing, amplitude, shape and spanwise coherence of the large-scale vortical structures.

  20. Two-dimensional diffusion time correlation experiment using a single direction gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L.; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-07-01

    The time dependence of the diffusion coefficient is a well known property of porous media and commonly obtained by pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR. In practical materials, its analysis can be complicated by the presence of a broad pore size distribution and multiple fluid phases with different diffusion coefficients. We propose a two-dimensional Diffusion Time Correlation experiment (DTC), which utilizes the double-PFG with a single-direction gradient to yield a two-dimensional correlation function of the diffusion coefficient for two different diffusion times. This correlation map separates out restricted diffusion from the bulk diffusion process and we demonstrate this on a plant and bulk water sample. In its development, we show that the d-PFG should then be thought of as correlating two apparent diffusion coefficients measured by two overlapping gradient waveforms.

  1. Characterization of the general purpose research furnace for low-G directional solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Clark, I. O.; Zweiner, J. W.; Carlson, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary tests have shown that it is possible to control the temperature settings in NASA's General Purpose Research Furnace in such a manner as to obtain a constant rate of movement of a high temperature isotherm down the length of the furnace. These tests also showed that a temperature gradient on the order of 40 deg cm could be obtained in the furnace while moving the particular isotherm of interest, i.e., 900 C. This provides the possibility of performing directional solidification experiments in the furnace on a MEA flight in the low gravity environment provided by the Shuttle. A functional dependency of growth rate on perturbations during the the growth has been derived and shows the importance of avoiding non-steady growth rates and changing temperature gradients.

  2. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  3. Experience as Knowledge in a New Product Development Team: Implications for Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand how New Product Development (NPD) team members apply their experiences to meet the task needs of their project. Although "experience" is highly valued in team members, little research has looked specifically at experiences as a type of knowledge, and how this knowledge is used in work settings. This research evaluated nearly 200 instances where team members referenced past experiences during team meetings. During these experience exchanges, team members structured the sharing of their experiences to include three common elements: the source of the experience, the nature of the experience, and the degree of relevance to the current work of the team. The experiences fell into four categories: people (relationships), process, product, and politics. This paper describes how team members structured, applied, and integrated their individual experiences and presents the resulting implications for knowledge management systems that wish to exploit experience knowledge.

  4. Aspergillus oryzae-based cell factory for direct kojic acid production from cellulose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kojic acid (5-Hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone) is one of the major secondary metabolites in Aspergillus oryzae. It is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The production cost, however, is too high for its use in many applications. Thus, an efficient and cost-effective kojic acid production process would be valuable. However, little is known about the complete set of genes for kojic acid production. Currently, kojic acid is produced from glucose. The efficient production of kojic acid using cellulose as an inexpensive substrate would help establish cost-effective kojic acid production. Results A kojic acid transcription factor gene over-expressing the A. oryzae strain was constructed. Three genes related to kojic acid production in this strain were transcribed in higher amounts than those found in the wild-type strain. This strain produced 26.4 g/L kojic acid from 80 g/L glucose. Furthermore, this strain was transformed with plasmid harboring 3 cellulase genes. The resultant A. oryzae strain successfully produced 0.18 g/L of kojic acid in 6 days of fermentation from the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. Conclusions Kojic acid was produced directly from cellulose material using genetically engineered A. oryzae. Because A. oryzae has efficient protein secretion ability and secondary metabolite productivity, an A. oryzae-based cell factory could be a platform for the production of various kinds of bio-based chemicals. PMID:24885968

  5. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production. PMID:24195081

  6. Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E.; Michalsky, J.J.; Anderson, G.P.; Ferrare, R.A.; Ten Brink, H.M.

    1997-03-01

    Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun`s direction on a unit area at the earth`s surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction--whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ({approximately} 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

  7. Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, R. N.; Schwartz, S. E.; Michalsky, J. J.; Anderson, G. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Ten Brink, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun's direction on a unit area at the earth's surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction-whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ((approximately) 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

  8. Preliminary results from direct-drive cryogenic target implosion experiments on SGIII prototype laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-dong, Pu; Tian-Xuan, Huang; Ping, Li; Hai-le, Lei; Jun, Li; Shao-En, Jiang; Huang, Li; Zhi-Wen, Yang; Jian, Teng; Bo, Wu; Kai, Wang; Wei, Lin; Ming, Su; Xia-Yu, Zhan; Li, Chen; Xiao-Shi, Peng; Tang-Qi,; Zi-Feng, Song; Jia-Bin, Chen; Ming, Chen; and others

    2014-01-15

    Since ignition target design with layered deuterium and triterium ice had been proposed several decades ago, much effort was devoted to fabricate and implode cryogenic targets. Until recently, direct-drive cryogenic target implosion experiment was carried out on SGIII prototype laser facility. The target consisted of a plastic capsule supported by fill tube. Cryogenic helium gas was used to cool the capsule to a few degrees below the deuterium triple point. The resulting deuterium ice layer was characterized by optical shadowgraph and smoothed by applied temperature gradient. Eight laser beams with total energy of 7 kJ were used to directly drive the implosion. On the path of laser light to the capsule, there were 500 nm sealing film and helium gas of mm length. X-ray pinhole images were analyzed to confirm that the sealing film, and helium gas had little effect on aiming accuracy but caused some loss of laser energy especially when condensation on the sealing film was observed.

  9. Two-wave photon Doppler velocimetry measurements in direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Lewis J.; Jardine, Andrew P.

    2015-09-01

    Direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar systems offer many potential advantages over split Hopkinson pressure bars, including access to higher strain rates, higher strains for equivalent striker velocity and system length, lower dispersion and faster achievement of force equilibrium. Currently advantages are gained at a significant cost: the fact that input bar data is unavailable removes all information about the striker impacted specimen face, preventing the determination of force equilibrium, and requiring approximations to be made on the sample deformation history. Recently photon Doppler velocimetry methods have been developed, which can replace strain gauges on Hopkinson bars. In this paper we discuss an experimental method and complementary data analysis for using Doppler velocimetry to measure surface velocities of the striker and output bars in a direct impact bar experiment, allowing similar data to be recorded as in a split bar system, with the same level of convenience. We discuss extracting velocity and force measurements, and improving the accuracy and convenience of Doppler velocimetry on Hopkinson bars. Results obtained using the technique are compared to equivalent split bar tests, showing improved stress measurements for the lowest and highest strains.

  10. Effective field theory treatment of the neutrino background in direct dark matter detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, James B.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Newstead, Jayden L.; Strigari, Louis E.

    2016-04-01

    Distinguishing a dark matter interaction from an astrophysical neutrino-induced interaction will be major challenge for future direct dark matter searches. In this paper, we consider this issue within nonrelativistic effective field theory (EFT), which provides a well-motivated theoretical framework for determining nuclear responses to dark matter scattering events. We analyze the nuclear energy recoil spectra from the different dark matter-nucleon EFT operators, and compare them to the nuclear recoil energy spectra that are predicted to be induced by astrophysical neutrino sources. We determine that for 11 of the 14 possible operators, the dark matter-induced recoil spectra can be cleanly distinguished from the corresponding neutrino-induced recoil spectra with moderate-size detector technologies that are now being pursued, e.g., these operators would require 0.5 tonne years to be distinguished from the neutrino background for low mass dark matter. Our results imply that in most models detectors with good energy resolution will be able to distinguish a dark matter signal from a neutrino signal, without the need for much larger detectors that must rely on additional information from timing or direction. In addition we calculate up-to-date exclusion limits in the EFT model space using data from the LUX experiment.